In 2015, 75-year old Gerry Suttle was sitting on her porch
2015年 75岁的Gerry Suttle正坐在家的门廊里
watching the leaves rustle in the trees
观察树上的树叶沙沙作响
when a cop rolled up and handed her an arrest warrant.
这时一个警察出现了 并向她出示了拘捕令
The reason for her arrest?
她为什么被逮捕呢?
She had failed to mow her lawn.
因为她没有修剪草坪
That’s right.
是的
The cops and Suttle’s neighbors deemed it necessary
警察和Suttle的邻居一致认为
to hold the threat of arrest over this septuagenarian
有必要逮捕这位七旬老人
because the turf grass occupying the space in front of her house
因为她门前的草坪
was left unchecked.
没有修剪
How did we in the United States come to this?
在美国为什么会这样呢?
Why is the lawn such a sacred space in white suburban America?
为什么美国白人郊区的草坪是如此神圣的空间?
This is the story of the American lawn.
这是美国草坪的故事
How it came to be,
美国草坪是如何形成的
the complex underpinnings of its green blades,
绿地后复杂的背景是怎样的
and how we might work to rid ourselves from its cultural grasp.
以及我们如何努力摆脱它的文化束缚
This video is sponsored by CuriosityStream,
这则视频由CutiosityStream赞助
which now comes with Nebula for free
如果你点击详情页的链接注册
when you sign up using the link in the description.
CuriosityStream和Nebula都可以免费使用
第一章 草坪简史
In the 17th and 18th century, landholding
在17 18世纪时
European aristocrats were getting jealous.
持有土地的欧洲贵族变得嫉妒
They saw beautiful fields of grass
他们看到自己最喜欢的画家的绘画中
and perfectly trimmed patches of green in the paintings
漂亮的草地和修建完美的小块草坪
of their favorite artists and wanted all of it for themselves.
他们想自己也拥有这样的草坪
So, they began to terraform their world.
所以他们开始修整自己的世界
With the enclosure of common land,
伴随着公用土地被征用
aristocrats gained prime property for lawns
贵族们获得了占有草坪的优先特权
and forced lower class peasants into wage labor jobs
他们强迫下层阶级的农民做一些管家和园丁之类
like groundskeepers and gardeners.
付薪劳动工作
From France, to Italy, to England
从法国 到意大利 再到英格兰
the wealthy ruling class embraced the luxuries of turf grass
富裕的统治阶级坐拥广阔的草坪
and used it as a foundational element
并将之作为一项基础元素
in landscaping design for their manors.
用于庄园的景观设计中
And what could be more a display of capitalist power, of leisure, and of wealth
还有什么比这更能展现资本家的权力 闲情和财富呢?
than a field of green that had to be closely watched and tended by former peasants
这些因为圈地被迫成为劳工的农民
forced into wage labour through land enclosures.
悉心照料着的草地
Along was a way for these English elites to show off that they were so wealthy
正是这些英国贵族炫耀财富的方式
that they didn’t need their land to grow food.
他们根本不需要用他们的土地种食物
That’s author of Lawn People, Paul Robbins, on the podcast 99% Invisible.
这是Lawn People的作者Paul Robbins在播客 99%Invisible的发言
He goes on to add that the English ruling class used lawns to show
他继续讲到 英国统治阶级利用草坪彰显
that “they could afford to let their fields go fallow,
他们可以负担得起土地休耕
and could afford to keep grazing animals and
负担得起放牧
and syc the wielding peasants to keep it short
负担得起让农民割草
So the lawn began as a display of wealth for the white European aristocracy
所以草坪开始成为欧洲白人贵族阶级财富的象征
but then was quickly exported to the colonial project that is the United States.
但这种风气很快扩散到了当时是殖民地的美国
Thomas Jefferson and George Washington enjoyed
托马斯杰弗森和乔治华盛顿都喜欢
wide manicured lawns kept perfectly trimmed
修整完美的广阔草坪
by the forced labor of enslaved people.
尽管这是强迫奴隶的结果
But it wasn’t until the 1870s,
但是直到十九世纪七十年代
when the push lawn mower, the sprinkler, and the suburbs
随着手推除草机 洒水器和郊区的发展
all sprouted into the American lifestyle that the lawn became a reality
草坪才迅速在统治阶级以外的人群中成为现实
among those outside the ruling class.
并成为全美国的生活方式
Having already been established as a symbol of luxury and leisure,
自从草坪已经成为财富和休闲的象征
the lawn was adopted in the outskirts of cities
草坪也被城市边缘地区的人接受
and soon turned into a symbol of conformity.
并迅速成为共识的象征
Through advertisement after advertisement,
随着源源不断的广告
and eventually neighborhood codes and laws,
以及社区公约的最终达成
a patch of grass in front your house
房前一片草坪
became a staple in the image of the American dream.
成为美国梦的实体意象
But in the 100 years following the Civil War
但是在内战后的一百年里
the lawn was only slowly taking up space.
草坪的地位只是缓慢提高
After World War II, however,
然而 二战后
the adoption of the American lawn exploded.
人们对草坪的接受度飙升
Soldiers came home from war,
二战军人返乡
suburban sprawl accelerated at an astronomical pace
郊区以极快的速度蔓延
and the chemicals used in the trenches
战争里使用的化学剂
now found their way onto plants and insects.
在除草杀虫上发挥了新的作用
With the suburban boom came the boom in lawn culture.
伴随着郊区潮 草坪文化的浪潮也接踵而至
We even see this in the deluge of lawn ads in magazines around that time period.
当时杂志上泛滥的草坪广告足以说明
With thousands of Americans now proud owners of lawns,
随着成千上万的美国人成为自豪的草坪主
chemicals of war rebranded themselves
战争时期的化学剂
into pesticides and herbicides to keep the grass green.
也重新应用在使草坪常绿的杀虫剂和除草剂中
And by the 1960s, this chemical warfare got so bad
到了20世纪60年代 化学剂的泛滥
that Rachel Carson noticed the death of birds all around her,
使蕾切尔·卡逊注意到周围鸟类的死亡
prompting her to write Silent Spring.
这促使她写出了《寂静的春天》一书
But those that predominantly benefited
但战后政府计划
from the generous post-WWII government programs
诸如《退伍军人法》
like the GI Bill and guaranteed home loans
和引发草坪热的担保家庭贷款
that fueled the adoption of the lawn were white.
最主要的受益者是白人
In short, the suburban lawn was very much a white American reality.
简单来说 郊区草坪基本上就是属于美国白人
In fact, throughout its transformation and expansion
实际上 随着草坪的转变和发展
the monoculture suburban lawn worked
这种单一文化的郊区草坪
in tandem with its owners to crowd out any plant, animal, or human
和它们的主人一起排斥着
that didn’t fit within their definition of beauty, conformity, or civilization.
那些不符合他们对美 和谐 或文明的定义的动植物或人类
第二章 草坪曾是(也仍然是)殖民主义的工具
The lawn quite literally allowed rich white American colonists
草坪很大程度上使得美国富裕的白人殖民者
and then middle class suburban whites
还有郊区中产阶级白人
to physically enact colonization of the land
在事实上施行土地殖民
While indigenous genocide raged
当对土著的屠杀肆虐时
cows brought from Europe ravenously ate the native varieties of grasses
从欧洲带来的牛在美国本土大肆吃掉了各样的草
but colonists quickly realized
但殖民者很快意识到
their cattle were unsuitable for the American terrain
他们的牛并不适合美国的地理环境
The European cows just couldn’t get enough nutrients from native grasses.
欧洲牛无法从美国当地的草里得到足够营养
So, the colonists brought Europe to the Americas
所以 殖民者把欧洲的习惯带给了美洲人
and planted the seeds of European grasses
种下了欧洲的草种
which sprouted out of the ground
这些种子生根发芽
and pushed out native prairie, plants and animals.
占领了本土的草地 挤走了植物和动物
In short, the origins of American turf grass are rooted in
总的来说 美国草坪的起源植根于
the colonial terraforming of indigenous land,
本土土地的殖民改造
an act which, in a small way, legitimized the wholesale theft of land
这种行为使得大规模土地窃取在欧洲白人心中悄然变得合法化
in the minds of white Europeans because it now looked much more like
因为现在的美国草坪
the European countryside they were used to.
和欧洲白人曾经住的农村没什么两样
Much in the same way the United States massacred the buffalo,
无独有偶 美国当时屠杀水牛
a staple food source highly important to indigenous plains nations,
这在当地平原国家是很重要的食物来源
as well as forced the assimilation of thousands of indigenous children
殖民者还强制性同化数千名
at violent boarding schools
野蛮寄宿学校里的儿童
that quite literally tried to beat any cultural or linguistic heritage out of them
极力试图打压任何异于他们的文化或语言的传承
so too did they use European grass varieties like Kentucky Bluegrass,
他们还利用各种各样欧洲草地 如肯塔基蓝草
to transform their landscape into one
把这片土地变成
that fit their white European vision of the world.
符合欧洲白人世界观的样子
But the lawn is not only wielded as a tool of cultural destruction
但草坪不仅仅充当了文化摧残的工具
it is also fueling multiple environmental crises.
还是各种环境危机的加速器
Now, in the midst of droughts and the climate crisis,
如今 在干旱和气候危机之下
turf grass lawns are starting to look a lot less appealing to own
草坪开始失去魅力 人们已不愿拥有
let alone spend time to manicure.
更别说花时间打理
In the United States, the emissions from lawn maintenance equipment like gas-powered mowers
在美国 像燃气割草机这类草坪维护装备的排放量
account for 4% of the country’s total annual carbon emissions.
占全国二氧化碳排放总量的4%
This number is so large
这个数目如此庞大
because turf grass is the largest crop by area in the United States
因为草坪是美国面积最大的作物
Lawns occupy 40 million acres of land in the United States
草坪在美国的面积占到了四千万公顷
which is roughly three times the area of America’s second biggest crop: corn.
约是美国第二大农作物玉米面积的三倍
And all of this grass requires a massive amount of water as well.
而且这些草地还需要大量水
Every single day, U.S. lawn owners
每一天 美国的草坪主人
collectively pour 9 billion gallons of freshwater
总共要浇九十亿加仑的水
onto their lawns to keep them green.
以维持草坪的鲜绿
A lot of this water often hits sidewalks or roads,
很多水浇到了路上
rarely making it into the roots of plants
很少能渗到草的根部去
and often running off into local waterways,
而且经常会流进下水道
carrying all the chemicals that American lawn owners’ use on their grass.
草坪主用来滋养草坪的化学剂也一同流走了
According to the EPA, lawn owners douse their lawns
环境保护局的资料显示 草坪主们每年在草坪上
with 78 million pounds of pesticides
喷洒七千八百万磅杀虫剂
and 90 million pounds of fertilizer every single year.
用掉九千万磅化肥
Traces of these chemicals are not only ending up in waterways and our drinking water,
这些化学剂不仅仅流向下水道和我们的饮用水
but they’re shredding animal and insect populations like the monarch butterfly.
还使像王蝶这样的动物和昆虫的数量减少
And these chemicals are not only harmful to plants and insects,
化学剂不仅对植物和昆虫有害
some lawn care equipment like RoundUp
一些草坪护理用品比如农达除草剂
has been linked to cancer in a number of its human users.
已经被发现和一众人类使用者患癌有关
We are quite literally ravaging the planet and ourselves to maintain
我们为了保护房前那一小片绿色
a little patch of green in front of our houses.
实在是损害了我们的家园和我们自己
And in some cases, like Gerrry Suttle,
有些时候 像Gerry Suttle遇到的这样
it’s forced on us by cops and the state.
会有警察和政府给我们施压
The lawn, with its history of class, race, and colonial oppression
带着有关阶级 种族 殖民压迫的历史
combined with its penchant for ecological destruction, must die.
以及破坏生态的倾向 草坪必然消失
But to do that we have to provide real alternatives
但为了消除草坪 我们必须有真正的方案
that not only replace the grass below our feet
不仅仅是找东西替代脚下的草地
but also repair the harm caused by American capitalist conquest.
还需要修复美国资本征服带来的伤害
第四章 没有草坪的未来会怎样
Understanding that lawns are intimately linked with visions of class, settler-colonialism,
要知道草坪和阶级 殖民主义
and capitalist ecological destruction
还有资本对生态的破坏是紧密联系的
is essential for developing effective and lasting alternatives.
理解这一点对提出有效持续的解决方案很重要
If you own a lawn, the simplest thing you could do is to just stop taking care of it.
如果你有一片草坪 最简单的就是别再管它了
But I think that this approach should be seen as a last resort.
但我觉得这应该被当作下下计
In order to repair the harm caused by centuries of lawn colonization
要想修复数百年以来的草坪殖民带来的损害
we need to develop active alternatives.
我们需要找到积极的解决方法
Think about what we could do with that 40 million acres of space
如果我们把自己从草坪中解放出来
if we rid ourselves of turf grass.
想想我们能拿4千万公顷的土地做什么
Front yard gardens with food available to all who want it, native perennials and gardens
前院花园里有可以随意采摘的水果 有多年生植物
that actually synthesize with the landscape, xeriscaping in dry climates
有综合了观赏园艺和节水型园艺的花园
that don’t require any water to maintain.
在气候干旱时 无需任何水的灌溉
These endeavors are already happening,
这些努力已经付诸实践
with thousands of backyard farms replacing lawns across the country,
全国有数千个后院农场取代了草坪
a recent Southern California incentive paying residents to rip up their lawn,
最近南加州发放资金激励市民清楚草坪
or someone like Taylor Keen, one of the Omaha people who’s been developing
Taylor Keen 奥马哈市的一位市民
and growing indigenous seed varieties in his lush backyard gardens.
在自家繁茂的花园里种上当地的种子
These are the actions we need to take.
这才是我们应当采取的做法
Because, to start the process of decolonization
因为 要想开始去殖民化进程
and thriving in a zero carbon world,
在一个零碳世界里蓬勃发展
the lawn must die.
草坪必须消失
If you’re watching this video
如果你在看这个视频时
wondering whether there are more people getting arrested
想着是不是有更多的人
for not mowing their lawns
因为没有除草而被逮捕
or you just want to learn a bit more about the connection
或者你只是想了解一些
between lawns and settler colonialism, you’re in luck.
草坪和殖民主义的联系 那你来对了
I actually did write an extra section about lawn control and settler colonialism,
实际上我确实写了关于草坪管控和殖民主义的其他内容
but it got left on the cutting room floor.
但这部分被忘在剪辑室的地板上了
So I’ve uploaded that section
所以我上传了那部分内容
as an extended edition of this video on the streaming platform
作为这个视频的加长篇
my creator friends and I built called Nebula.
放在我和创作者朋友们开发的这个叫Nebula的流媒体平台
The bonus content replaces this ad
激励内容代替了广告
because there aren’t any ads on Nebula.
因为在Nebula上没有任何广告
And you’ll not only see a lot of extended editions, exclusive content and ad free videos
在Nebula上你不仅可以看到许多番外版视频 独家内容 无广告视频
over on Nebula from me, but also from channels like Second Thought and Polymatter.
还能浏览像Second Thought和Polymatter这样的频道
Nebula allows viewers to support creators directly
Nebula允许观众直接支持创作人
so they don’t have to worry about the pesky YouTube algorithm or financial stability
因此他们就不需要担心YouTube繁琐的算法或固定的交易方式
Nebula is awesome but it’s now made even better with our partnership with CuriosityStream.
Nebula很赞 现在和Curiosity Stream合作就更完美了
CuriosityStream is the go to streaming platform for thousands of top tier documentaries,
Curiosity Stream是集数千部一流纪录片的流媒体平台
like Insect Apocalypse,
像《昆虫启示》
which details the recent decline in insect populations across the world.
讲述了全世界近期昆虫数量的下降
And because CuriosityStream loves supporting educational creators,
由于CuriosityStream热爱支持科普教育类创作者
we worked out a deal where if you sign up with the link below,
我们达成共识 点击下方链接注册
not only do you get access to CuriosityStream,
你不仅能得到CuriosityStream的权限
but you’ll also get Nebula for FREE.
你还可以免费使用Nebula
And this is not a trial,
这不是试用
you’ll have Nebula as long as you’re a CuriosityStream member.
你将得到和CuriosityStream会员同时长的Nebula使用权
And just for this weekend, CuriosityStream is offering a special deal to my viewers
这周末CuriosityStream将为我的观众带来特殊优惠
41% off their annual plan
年度会员计划的69折
that’s less than a dollar a month for BOTH CuriosityStream and Nebula.
意味着每月不到一美元就得到双平台会员
So by signing up, you not only directly support Our Changing Climate,
注册后 你不仅直接支持了《气候变化》栏目
but you gain access to thousands of documentaries
还可以浏览数千部纪录片
and exclusive videos from your favorite creators
和你最喜爱的创作者发布的独家视频
So if you want to support both Our Changing Climate
所以如果你想支持本栏目
and hundreds of other educational content creators
和许许多多的教育内容创作者
go to CuriosityStream.com/OCC or click the link in the description
登录CuriosityStream.com/OCC或者点击详情页链接进行注册
and sign up for CuriosityStream and Nebula for just $11.79 per year,
每年只要11.79美元
that’s 41% off.
享受69折优惠价
Thanks so much for watching all the way to the end!
感谢大家看到最后
If you’ve already signed up for CuriosityStream
如果你已经注册了 你也可以通过
you can also support me by becoming an Our Changing Climate Patron.
成为 气候变化的赞助人来支持我们
Just pledging one dollar a month gives me the financial stability I need to keep making
只需要每月赞助一美元 就可以帮助我有稳定的经济基础
more videos like this.
来制作更多这样的视频
Thanks again for watching and I’ll see you in two weeks.
再次感谢观看 两周后再见

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  • 2021-08-24亚裔眼比你想的要更普遍肯托亚洲 典型的亚裔眼The stereotypical Asian eye 小且斜长还经常是单眼皮the ones that are small, slanted and often with a monolid. 通常只在亚洲见到These can only be seen in Asians. (错了)(Wrong!) 好吧 这种说法并不正确OK, not exactly true. 就像..
  • 2021-08-2810分钟了解四十亿年地球史地球自形成以来的四十五亿年间Earth has been through a lot 历经了沧海桑田in the four and a half billion years since it formed. 地球的大部分历史面貌都已被Most of Earth’s history has been shaped 板块运动带来的大陆间相互碰撞所改变by plate tectonics,..
  • 2021-09-03大堡礁是如何形成的?20,000 years ago, this area wasn’t even underwater.两万年前这片区域甚至都没在水下 It was covered with eucalyptus and paper bark forests.而是被桉树和纸树皮林所覆盖 And it was home to animals commonly found on the Australia..
  • 2021-08-24如何为病毒命名(例如COVID-19)Hi, this is Julián from MinuteEarth.嗨 我是《分钟地球》的Julián In 2009, a disease swept across the globe and infected millions,2009年 一种疾病席卷全球并感染了数百万人 and before it was officially named 2009 H1N1 Flu,在被正式命名为20..
  • 2021-08-24河豚里面是什么样子?If there’s one thing you know about puffer fish,提到河豚 你肯定知道的一件事 it’s that they can do this.就是它可以这样 When aggravated by a predator,受到捕食者威胁时 they, you know, puff up.它们会膨胀变大 Some puffers, like..
  • 2021-09-15开普勒的富矿行星大家好!我是Reid Reimers欢迎收看太空科学秀。在 2014年2月26日Greetings! I’m Reid Reimers and welcome to SciShow Space. On February 26th 2014, the 开普勒科学团队宣布发现了715颗太阳系外的新的星球Kepler science team announced the discovery of 71..
  • 2021-08-24为什么自行车能直立不倒?自行车是人类发明的最有效并最万用的人力交通工具之一Bicycles are one of the most efficient and versatile human-powered means of transportation 但是难以置信的是 这种人骑单车we have yet devised. But perhaps even more incredible than humans ri..

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