[片头曲♪]
[INTRO ♪]
早餐是一天中最重要的一餐
Breakfast. It’s the most important meal of the day
或者说大家都这样认为
or so we’ve been told.
但科学家就这一说法的真实性做过研究
But science has tackled whether or not this is really true,
结果不一 有好有坏
and the results have been…mixed.
你可能听过这样一种说法
One claim you’ve probably heard is
每天坚持吃早饭有助于减肥
that eating breakfast every day helps you lose weight,
这确实是有根据的
and there’s definitely evidence to support this.
至少在一定程度上是这样
At least, to a degree.
2017年 美国心脏病协会回顾了
In 2017, the American Heart Association reviewed
不同饮食模式的影响的相关研究
the science on the effects of different eating patterns,
在资料库中查阅相关资料
searching databases for relevant studies
寻找其研究结果中的重要模式
and looking for big patterns in their findings.
他们得出结论
And they concluded that
吃早餐的人患临床性肥胖症的几率更小
people who eat breakfast are less likely to be clinically obese.
所以你看 没错吧!
So there you go!
但是… 很多研究仅仅只是在
But a lot of the studies this was based on
询问人们一些与饮食习惯
just asked people to report their breakfast habits
或各种个人信息相关的问题
along with various other information about themselves.
缺少实验数据
Without experimental data,
很多因素可能会影响研究结论
there could be lots of other factors at play,
比如说 不吃早餐的人往往不爱运动
like, maybe people who skip breakfast also tend to be less active,
或者饮食不合理
or to eat poorer diets overall.
当研究人员真正做了实验后
When researchers actually do experiments,
吃早餐的好处就显得没那么明显了
the benefits of breakfast become less clear.
例如 2016年
For example, in 2016,
研究人员给23个体质指数为肥胖的人
researchers randomly assigned 23 people whose body mass indexes
随机分配任务: 连续6周吃或不吃早餐
were in the obese range to either eat breakfast or not for 6 weeks.
他们没有明确规定第一组吃什么
They didn’t standardize exactly what the first group had to eat,
但规定必须在11点前摄入700卡路里
but it had to be at least 700 calories before 11AM.
尽管如此 他们并没有发现
Regardless, the researchers didn’t find any difference
两组人员的体重变化在此期间有任何差异
between the two groups in their weight change during that time.
其他研究结果也各有不同
And other studies have been kind of a mixed bag.
所以 即便很多减肥网站都说
So it’s hard to tell if breakfast
吃早餐肯定能在某一方面保证减肥效果
has a guaranteed effect on weight one way or another,
但这种说法是否正确还很难说
despite what lots of diet websites like to say.
但是 嘿 也不要不吃早餐
But hey, don’t give up on breakfast just yet.
它的潜在好处不仅仅是减肥而已
Weight loss isn’t the only potential benefit.
美国心脏病协会发布的同一份报告中指出
That same American Heart Association report found
吃早餐的人患胆固醇、
that people who ate breakfast were less likely to have high cholesterol
高血压或血糖类疾病的可能性更小
or high blood pressure or problems with their blood sugar.
2016年的那个实验也发现
Even that 2016 experiment found
6周过后 吃早餐的那组人的胰岛素敏感度
that the group assigned to eat breakfast had increased insulin sensitivity
有所增强
at the end of the six weeks.
他们调节血糖所需的胰岛素减少
They needed less insulin in order to regulate their blood sugar,
这一变化是好的
which is a good thing.
现在 我们还不清楚为何吃早餐会有这样的效果
Right now, why eating breakfast would have these effects isn’t totally clear,
但是不吃早餐的人可能会
but it’s possible that people who skip it end up
在之后吃得更多 而这会影响到他们的健康
indulging more later in the day, which can affect their health.
除了减肥和健康
Outside of weight loss and general health,
学校也极力强调早餐的重要性
one place where breakfast also gets a lot of emphasis is in schools.
学生营养早餐项目之所以大受欢迎
School breakfast programs are popular
是因为我们希望这个项目能让孩子学习更好
because we hope that they’ll help kids do better academically,
但即便是这个项目 其根据也很复杂
but even for this, the evidence is mixed.
2009年一项学生营养早餐项目研究报告指出
A 2009 review of studies of school breakfast programs found
这个项目对提高学生学习成绩有正面作用
that they can have a positive effect on academic performance,
但有一部分的原因可能是
but that this may be partly just because
它提高了学生的课堂出席率
they encourage kids to actually show up.
而且 无需惊讶
And — no surprise here —
这个项目对营养不良的学生来说
the benefits of school breakfasts are greater
会有更多好处
for kids whose overall nutrition is poorer.
另一组研究人员
Another group of researchers took a look
查看了2013年的报告
at the evidence out there in 2013,
他们发现 养成吃早餐的习惯确实
and they concluded that habitually eating breakfast did
有利于学生在学校集中注意力 提高学习成绩
help children stay on task in school and improved academic performance.
但是他们也再次提醒
But again, they cautioned
也可能是混入的其他因素造成的影响
that other factors could be getting mixed up in this,
比如社会经济地位 吃早餐的孩子的家庭
like socio-economic status, kids who eat breakfast may also
可能更有能力为他们提供全面的营养
come from families that are better able to provide for them overall.
同样 问题是
Again, the problem is that
这些研究很多都没有做过实验
a lot of these studies aren’t experimental.
只是把吃早餐
They’re just comparing kids
和不吃早餐的孩子做了比较
who already don’t eat breakfast with those that do.
这就使我们能得出的结论十分有限
This limits how much they can actually tell us.
比如 2015年英国一项研究
For example, a 2015 study in Great Britain
让292名11-13岁的孩子
had 292 kids between the ages of 11 and 13
填一份早餐习惯调查问卷
fill out a questionnaire on their breakfast habits.
他们得出的结论是 孩子是否吃早餐
And they didn’t find any relationship between kids’breakfast consumption
与他们认知推理能力的测试分数无关
and their scores on a test of their cognitive reasoning ability.
实际做实验的话可以澄清这一点
Some actual experiments would help clear this up,
但是 让想吃早餐的孩子不要吃早餐
but it’s also not a great idea
并不是一个好主意
to deprive kids of breakfast if they want to eat it,
所以现在我们只能利用现有资料进行研究
so for now, we’ll have to work with what we have.
如果你想知道早餐对于成年人的影响
Also, if you’re wondering what this all means for adults —
吃早餐能否提高工作效率
whether breakfast improves our performance at work —
很遗憾地告诉你 相关研究不多
well, sadly, this hasn’t been studied very much.
成年人的工作场所和学校不同
Unlike schools, adults’workplaces generally aren’t
不会有早餐提供
in the business of feeding them and
也不会有人给你打出一目了然的分数
don’t usually hand out easy-to-interpret test scores,
所以数据获取可能会更有难度
so data is probably harder to come by.
所以我们今天学到了什么?
So what’s the takeaway here?
如果你有吃早餐的习惯
If you’re the kind of person who eats breakfast,
你可能是个有能力照顾好自己
chances are you’re also already someone who has the resources
且营养全面的人
to take good care of yourself and eats well overall.
所以 如果你没有这个习惯的话
So just starting your day
试着吃一顿丰盛的早餐来开启崭新的一天
with a hearty breakfast, if you don’t already,
虽然这不会奇迹般地帮你解决生活中的所有难题
won’t magically fix everything that’s wrong with your life.
但也肯定不会对你有害
But it definitely won’t hurt you, either.
而且还很可能改善你的健康状况
And it might even improve your health.
感谢收看这集《科学秀》!
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
营养研究是一门复杂的学科
Nutrition research is complicated,
仍有许多东西需要我们研究揣摩
and there’s a lot out there to figure out,
比如糖分和脂肪
like the deal with sugar and fat.
很多人都说它们很恐怖
Lots of people like to say how horrible one or the other is,
但它们到底是如何影响我们的健康的呢?
but how do they actually affect your health?
观看《科学秀》了解更多相关知识
You can learn more in our episode all about it.
[片尾曲♪]
[OUTRO ♪]

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