《核心医媒》
避孕药
A series of events called the menstrual cycle
月经周期是连续性事件
happens about once every month
大概每月发生一次
to prepare a woman’s body for pregnancy.
是为女性身体怀孕做准备的
Changing levels of natural chemicals in the bloodstream
血液中被称为激素的天然物质变化的水平
called hormones control these events.
控制着月经周期
The reproductive organs affected by these hormones include:
受这些激素影响的生殖器官包括
the vagina,
阴道
cervix,
子宫颈
uterus,
子宫
fallopian tubes,
输卵管
and ovaries.
和卵巢
The ovaries produce two main hormones
卵巢主要产生两种激素
called estrogen
分别是雌激素
and progesterone.
和孕激素
As the level of estrogen begins to rise,
随着雌激素水平的升高
it causes the normally thick mucus inside the cervix to thin out.
宫颈内通常厚厚的粘液会变薄
Estrogen also triggers other hormones
雌性激素还会触发其它激素
to cause one of the ovaries to release an egg.
促使一侧卵巢释放一个卵子
This process is called ovulation.
这个过程叫做排卵
If a woman has sex during this time,
如果女性在这段时间发生性行为
a man’s reproductive cells, called sperm,
男性的生殖细胞 即精子
can pass through the thinner mucus to fertilize an egg.
可以通过变薄的粘液使卵子受精
In the uterus,
在子宫内
estrogen causes the lining to thicken,
雌性激素使子宫内膜增厚
which prepares it to receive a fertilized egg.
为接受受精卵做好准备
Rising progesterone levels cause glands in the lining
孕激素水平升高刺激内膜腺体
to release fluid that feeds the fertilized egg.
分泌液体以滋养受精卵
Progesterone also causes the thinned out mucus in the cervix to become thick again,
孕激素还会使宫颈内变薄的粘液再次变厚
which prevents sperm from passing through.
从而阻止精子通过
If an egg hasn’t been fertilized,
如果卵子没有受精
the levels of both estrogen and progesterone begin to fall
雌激素和孕激素的水平都会开始下降
This drop in hormone levels causes menstruation,
激素水平的下降会导致月经
a process where the uterus sheds its inner tissue lining and blood through the vagina.
即子宫经阴道排出脱落的内膜组织和血液的过程
Birth control pills are medications that a woman takes every day to prevent pregnancy.
避孕药是女性每日服用以避免怀孕的药物
The most common and effective type of birth control pill is a combination pill.
最常见且最有效的避孕药是复方避孕药
It contains both estrogen and progestin,
该药含雌激素和孕激素
which is a man-made hormone similar to progesterone.
这是一种类似于孕激素的人造激素
The estrogen and progestin from the pill
该药中的雌激素和孕激素
mantain constant levels of these hormones in the body.
使体内的相应激素维持在稳定水平
These levels prevent the body from releasing similar hormones that cause ovulation.
这些激素可阻止体内释放致排卵的类似激素
Without ovulation, there is no egg available for fertilization,
不排卵就没有卵子可以受精
so a woman can’t get pregnant.
因此女性就不会怀孕
Progestin also prevents pregnancy by keeping the mucus in the cervix thick enough,
孕激素还可使宫颈粘液保持足够厚度
so sperm can’t get through it.
让精子无法通过而避孕
A third effect of progestin on pregnancy
孕激素对怀孕的第三个影响
involves its influence on the lining of the uterus.
是它对子宫内膜的影响
In contrast to natural progesterone,
与天然孕激素相比
progestin is slightly different chemically.
合成孕激素的化学性质略有不同
Over time, it makes the uterine lining thinner instead of thicker.
随时间推移 它会使子宫内膜变薄而非变厚
As a result, if fertilization of an egg does take place,
因此如果卵子受精了
the lining may be too thin for it to stay in the uterus,
内膜可能过薄而使受精卵无法留在子宫内
so it passes out of the body with the next menstrual period.
所以受精卵会在下一个月经期间排出
Combination pills usually come in 28-day packs.
复方避孕药通常是28天药量包装
Depending on the brand of pill,
根据避孕药的品牌
the first 21 to 24 pills are active pills
前21到24粒是活性药
because they contain hormones.
因为它们含有激素
The last four to seven pills are inactive or ‘reminder’ pills
最后4到7粒是非活性药 或称“提醒药”
that don’t contain any hormones.
它们不含任何激素
Inactive pills allow the hormone levels in the body to drop
非活性药使体内的激素水平下降
so that bleeding during the menstrual cycle can occur.
从而出现流血形成月经周期
Even though the inactive pills don’t contain any hormones,
尽管非活性药不含任何激素
the woman remains protected against pregnancy during this time.
女性服用期间仍可避免怀孕
Inactive pills are also called ‘reminder’ pills
非活性药也叫做“提醒药”
because they keep a woman in the habit of taking a birth control pill every day.
因为这样女性能养成每天服避孕药的习惯
Progestin-only pills or ‘mini pills’ only contain progestin.
孕激素药或“迷你药”只含有孕激素
Like the combination pill,
就像复方避孕药一样
the progestin in the progestin-only pills
纯孕激素药物中的孕激素
prevents pregnancy by preventing ovulation,
能够通过阻止排卵
thickening cervical mucus,
增厚宫颈粘液
and thinning out the lining of the uterus.
和使子宫内膜变薄来防止怀孕
Women may choose progestin-only pills
出于副作用或其他医学原因
if they can’t tolerate the estrogen in combination pills
如果女性不能耐受复方避孕药里的雌激素
due to side effects or other medical reasons.
她们可能会选择服用只含孕激素的药物
All progestin-only pills are active.
所有纯孕激素的药物都是有活性的
Menstrual bleeding with progestin-only pills may occur once every month,
服用孕激素药 月经血可能会每月有一次
on and off throughout the month,
整个月断断续续
or there may be no bleeding at all.
或可能根本不会出血
For the highest protection against pregnancy,
为了达到最好的避孕效果
it is important to take progestin-only pills at the same time every day.
每天在同一时间服用纯孕激素药很重要
Both combination and progestin-only birth control pills
复方避孕药和纯孕激素避孕药的
are about 99% effective at preventing pregnancy
避孕有效率约为99%
if used correctly.
前提是正确服用
This means about one out of 100 women will become pregnant each year
这意味着如果每天正确服用
if they use them correctly every day.
每年100名女性中只有1名会怀孕
However, they are only about 92% effective with typical use,
但一般情况下 仅有约92%的有效率
which means about eight out of 100women will become pregnant each year
这意味着 如果她们不记着每天服用的话
if they don’t always remember to take them every day.
每年100名女性中约有8名会怀孕

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