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  • 2021-10-30霍夫曼过程:7 天改变生活sprouts SCHOOLS 通俗易懂的心理学 Our parents form a big part of our personality在独立生活之前 during the time when we completely depend on their care.父母对我们个性的形成有很大影响 This happens because as young children we perceive them这是因为年幼时 我们认为他们 as almighty, endlessly wise, and flawless.全能 拥有无限智慧且完美无瑕 We also believe that whatever they do, literally – whatever – they – do,我们也相信 无论他们做什么 毫不夸张——无论他们做什么 they do out of unconditional love.都是出于无条件的爱 And because we think they are infallible and full of love,而且因为我们认为他们是绝对正确且充满爱 we consequently think that we are at fault whenever a conflict arises.所以每当发生冲突时 我们都认为自己错了 In order to reduce any kind of conflict,为了减少任何形式的冲突 we develop patterns of behavior, feelings,and thinking我们形成了故意取悦父母 designed to please our parents and minimise any friction.并减少任何摩擦的行为 情感和思维模式 Unfortunately, these patterns can lead to a personality不幸的是 这些模式可能会使我们形成 that is misaligned with its true spiritual self.与真正精神自我不一致的个性 And so, we grow into adults that behave in ways that make us sad.因此 我们长大后成了自己不喜欢的人 The Hoffman Process was designed to help us recognize negative behavior of patterns,霍夫曼过程旨在帮助我们认知消极的行为模式 break them and to become the person we really are.打破它们并成为真正的自我 To condense a lifetime of analysis into seven days,为了将分析周期压缩为7天 the process is highly structured, very intense,该过程高度结构化 非常紧凑 and applies a multitude of techniques.并应用了多种技术 Afterward, participants often understand why they are the way they are,之后 参与者往往明白为什么他们会变成现在的样子 and learn to let go of the negative sides of their personality.并学会放弃他们性格中的消极面 To understand how the process works,为了弄清这个过程是如何运作的 let us look at three types of people who on the outside, look just fine,我们来看这三种类型的人 他们表面上看起来还不错 but on the inside, deeply struggle.但内心深处 深深地挣扎着 Eva is 27, a university graduate,Eva27岁 大学毕业生 and she has just started her first job.她刚刚开始自己的第一份工作 She’s unable to trust men她无法信任男人 and is at a loss when it comes to forming healthyrelationships.并在建立健康的人际关系方面不知所措 Jay is 51, an overachiever, and a respected CEO.Jay现年51岁 是一位卓越的成功人士 也是一位受人尊敬的CEO However, his marriage is broken and his two adult children hardly ever call.然而 他离了婚 和他两个成年的孩子几乎不联系 He asks himself if that’s really all that life has to offer?他问自己生活是否真的只能这样了 Tom is 45, married with one child, but he’s got no friends.汤姆45岁 已婚并有一个孩子 但他没有朋友 He lives with his family far outside town他和家人住在离城镇很远的地方 and signs up for the process when he realizes当他意识到女儿在交友方面也有问题时 that his daughter also has problems making friends.他就报名参加了这个过程 Through the process Eva will realise that,通过这个过程 Eva会意识到 when her dad left when she was 4,在她4岁时 父亲离开后 and her mother then struggled as a single mom and a lonely woman,她母亲作为单身母亲和孤独的女人苦苦挣扎着 it had a big impact on her.这对她产生了很大的影响 Over the years, her own relationship with her father became broken多年来 她与父亲的关系破裂 and she learned that men couldn’t be trusted.这使她认为男人是不可信的 Jay will learn that his life was going greatJay会知道他的生活一直很美好 up until his little brother was born — a funny,extraverted and bright boy.直到他的弟弟出生——一个有趣 外向 聪明的男孩 Afterwards, Jay was hardly noticed.之后 Jay几乎不被关注 Jay soon realises that his parents would only pay attention to himJay很快意识到 只有在学业或体育方面表现出色 if he excelled in school or sports,父母才会关注他 causing him to grow into an adult who tries to be the best in everything,这使他成了一个在任何事情上都努力做到最好的人 in order to get the love he seeks.只为了获得他所寻求的爱 Tom will realize that he was an accident,Tom会意识到 他是一个意外 born to a young couple who had just begun dating.由一对刚开始约会的年轻情侣所生 As a young boy he was often neglected, because their life was difficult.作为一个小男孩 他经常被忽视 因为他们的生活很艰难 His parents who were overwhelmed by the situation他的父母被这种情况弄得不知所措 would often snap at him over the smallest thing.他们经常会因为小事而对他大发雷霆 Little Tom began to think that he was the cause of all misery,小Tom开始认为 他是所有苦难的根源 he should never have been born.他本不该出生 The process begins with a phone call from a designated therapist.这个过程从指定治疗师的电话开始 This is followed by a 50-page questionnaire that helps their client to reflect on their lives.接着是一项50页的 可以帮他们的客户反思自己生活的问卷 Going through the questions, the participants identify particular patterns in behavior通过这些问题 参与者识别特定的行为模式 and link them to their parents.并将它们与自己的父母相联系 Once returned, the therapist uses the questionnaire to understand the underlying issues.交回后 治疗师会通过问卷来了解他们潜在的问题 On day 1, all three arrive at the retreat,第一天 三人都来到了度假村 a place isolated from the outside world.一个与外界隔绝的地方 They hand over their phones and any books to ensure there are no distractions.他们上交了手机和书籍 以免分心 Tom then meets his therapist for an in-depth conversation.Tom随后会见了他的治疗师并与之深入交谈 Afterwards, he gets to know the other 17 participants之后 他认识了其他17名参与者 and learns that everyone carries within them an inner child并认识到每个人内心深处都有一个 that manages their expectations, thoughts, and feelings.管理他们期望 想法和感受的“孩子” On day 2 ,Jay and the others learn more about their parents第2天 Jay和其他人更多地了解了他们的父母 and how their behavioral patterns have formed out of love for their father and mother.以及对父母的爱是如何塑造了他们的行为模式 Jay, who only got real attention when he impressed his parents,只有给父母留下深刻印象时 Jay才得到真正的关注 could never be good enough to get all the love he needed.他永远无法获得他需要的所有爱 Such conditional love is negative这种有条件的爱是消极的 because subconsciously Jay takes on the blame for this disjunction因为潜意识里 Jay 承担了这种脱节的责任 and develops a ‘core shame belief’并形成了“核心羞耻信念” he begins to think something is inherently wrong with himself.他开始认为自己生来就有什么问题 And so, even after 50 years of trying so hard to be the best,因此 即使经过50年的努力 获得巨大的成功 his inner child is still looking for the unconditional love he got so little of.内心的自我仍然在寻找他很少获得的无条件的爱 On day 3, Eva realizes how the patterns she established as a young girl第3天 Eva认识到她小时候潜意识中建立起的模式 subconsciously project into her adult relationships是如何投射到自己的成人关系中 anyone who reminds Eva of her father, can’t be trusted.任何让Eva想起她父亲的人都是不可信任的 Through a group game later that day, she experiences that there are men she can rely on.通过当天晚些时候的小组游戏 她体会到 有些男人是可以依赖的 Eva then accuses her parents of making her the victim of their broken relationshipEva后来指责她的父母使她成为他们破裂关系的受害者 this is important这很重要 because this way she can retrace her negative pattern back to her parents.因为这样她就可以将她的消极模式追溯到她的父母 Afterwards, she learns to understand their story,之后 她学会了理解他们的故事 because they too were once children, with parents who had their own issues.因为他们也曾是孩子 他们的父母也有自己的问题 This is important because then she can understand their situation这很重要 因为这样她才能理解他们的处境 and realizes that the way she was brought up was all her parents were able to provide.并意识到她的成长方式都是父母能够提供的 Now she can make peace with her past, and her mistrust of men begins to wither.现在她可以与过去和解 对男人的不信任也开始消退 On day 4, participants say goodbye to their parents and their childhood第4天 参与者告别“父母”和“童年” and ask themselves:Where am I from?并问自己:我从哪里来? What injuries do I bring along from my mother and father?父母对我造成了哪些伤害? How have these injuries impacted my life?这些伤害如何影响我的生活? What strategies have I developed to compensate for these injuries so far?到目前为止 我制定了哪些策略来弥补这些伤害? Jay, who didn’t want to be reminded of the painful thoughtJay不想想起 that he’s not worthy of his parents unconditional love,自己不值得父母无条件的爱 compensated by only contacting them when he had outstanding news,such as another promotion.他有好消息时才联系父母 比如获得晋升 Knowing that they would then surely listen and act predictably,知道他们肯定会倾听并按预期行事 he reduces the risk of feeling hurt.他降低了自己受伤的风险 After this realization,有了这个认识之后 Jay creates a development plan to follow his vision for life after the process.Jay制定了一个发展计划 以在此过程之后遵循他对生活的愿景 Day 5 is about our vindictiveness.第5天是关于“我们的报复” Tom, who didn’t want to be reminded that he is the root of all problems,Tom不想被提醒 自己是所有问题的根源 compensated for the pain he experienced by hiding himself.他通过隐藏自己来补偿所经历的痛苦 At a young age,children keep their honor by thinking of how to,小时候 孩子们通过思考如何 one day, pay their parents back for the misery they caused them.在将来某天报复 给他们带来痛苦的父母来保持荣誉 As we mature, such vindictive thoughts move into the subconscious随着我们的成熟 这种报复性的想法会进入潜意识 and by the time he is a teenager, Tom begins to pay back.到了青少年的时候 Tom就开始报复了 First by breaking the law,then by breaking all contacts with his friends and family.首先是触犯法律 然后断绝与朋友和家人的所有联系 On this day, Tom stops feeling vindictiveand makes peace with his parents.在这一天 Tom不再怀“恨”在心并与父母和解 His inner child regains his honor and grows in strength.他内心的自我 重获荣誉并成长壮大 Grown-up Tom can now leave his hiding place and finally enjoy meeting other people.长大的Tom现在可以离开他的藏身之处 终于可以享受与他人见面的乐趣了 On day 6 the participants get to know the saboteur,第6天 参与者开始认识“破坏者” the inner voice that warns us of any change这个警告我们远离任何改变的内心声音 in order to keep us in the safe old world we know so well.为了让我们留在熟悉而安全的旧世界 Eva hears the voice,whenever she opens up to the opposite sex每当Eva向异性敞开心扉 就听到这个声音 it whispers “remember, you can’t trust men”.它会低声说“记住 你不能信任男人” Tom hears it when he enters a group of people — “you are not welcome here”.Tom走进人群 听到这个声音——“这里不欢迎你” Whenever Jay tries to relax and be himself,每当Jay试图放松并做自己 the saboteur says “Don’t just do nothing! You are better than this!”破坏者说:“不要什么都不做!你能比现在更好!” After getting to know this evil agent,在了解这个邪恶的代理人后 they learn how to deal with this enemy of our progress.他们学会了对付我们前进中的这个敌人 Then the group recaps the entire process然后小组回顾了整个过程 and celebrates their new found selves.并庆祝他们发现了新的自我 On day 7, they learn practical tools第7天 他们学习了使用实用工具 on how to cope with the change they will face when they go back into their lives.处理他们回到生活中将面临的改变 Finally, they go home to their parents,最后 他们回家见了父母 to complete what they have started, end their old lives and begin afresh.完成他们已经开始的事情 结束他们的旧生活并重新开始 The Hoffman Process was developed in 1967 by Bob Hoffman.霍夫曼过程由鲍勃·霍夫曼于1967年提出 Today the process is being offered in over 16 countries如今 该流程已在超过16个国家使用 and over 100.000 people have gone through this intense journey of self-discovery超过100000人参加了这段激烈的自我发现之旅 including Justin Bieber and Katy Perry.包括贾斯汀·比伯和凯蒂·佩里 To learn more about the Hoffman process,要了解有关霍夫曼过程的更多信息 or to read the research on it by the Harvard Center for Public Leadership,或阅读哈佛公共领导中心对它的研究 check out the descriptions below.看看下面的描述 Prior to creating this channel,our founder went through the Hoffman Process在创建此频道之前 我们的创始人参加了霍夫曼过程 and it had a profound effect on his life.这对他的生活产生了深远的影响
  • 2021-10-30如何通过做简单的事情就能获得成功这个视频是和Beautiful Science合作的This video is a collaboration with Beautiful Science. 一定要在视频结束后去了解这个不可思议的频道哦Be sure to check out their incredible channel after the video. 如果你像绝大多数人一样So if you’re like most people, you’ve had a vision of 对于未来的自己有个更为成功的期望your potential future self, the more successful, 成为一个有着更好的打扮 更富有 更快乐的自己better groomed, richer, happier version of yourself. 但你可能也想知道But you’ve probably also wondered 你能否成为这个人 或者if you can actually become this person or if this person 这个人只是你凭空虚构出来的is just a figment of your reckless imagination. 因为有些时候 你是谁Because sometimes the contrast between who you are 和你想成为谁之间的对比似乎非常明显and who you want to be seems so stark. 你想知道你的潜能是可以实现的You wonder if this idea of your potential is even 还是只是一个虚无缥缈的愿望attainable or is it just an instrument of false hope, 就像给骡子吃胡萝卜一样like a carrot to a mule. 毕竟 只有少数人真正的实现了他们的梦想After all, while some few people really do achieve their 并且改变了世界dreams and change the world, 其他的绝大多数人则做不到the vast majority of others don’t. 他们甚至接近不了他们的梦想They don’t even come close. 那么这两类人的差距在哪儿呢?So what’s the difference between these two types of people 我们怎么才能让我们梦想不只是梦想and how can we not let our dreams be dreams 而是真正成为我们理想中的自己and actually become the person we think about, 让潜能这个词可以扔一边去呢?when the word potential is thrown around? 作家Jeff Olsen认为有一种可靠的方法Author Jeff Olsen suggests that there is a reliable tactic 你可以借此方法获得成功you can use for achieving success. 不管那对你意味着什么whatever that may mean to you. 一定有个会使你在生活中的任何想法里There is a surefire way to make massive progress 取得巨大进步的方法in any area of your life and 它并不像你想象中的那么难it’s not as hard as you might think. 这个方法在这 每一个曾经成功过的人So here it goes. Everyone who has ever been successful 都明白这个叫做轻微优势的东西understood this thing called the Slight Edge. 他们也许不将其称为轻微优势They may not have called it the slight edge, 但轻微优势的存在是毋庸置疑的but the slight edge was without contention. 这是他们获得成功的主要因素The main factor in them achieving success. 那么它是如何工作的呢?So how does it work? 好的 假设你有个非常富有的叔叔Okay. So say you had a ridiculously rich uncle 而且他觉得自己很慷慨 有一天who was feeling really generous one day and 他对你说 Kevin 我的孩子 我将给你两个选择he said to you “Kevin, my boy. I’ll give you two options. 要么我现在给你100万美元的现金Either I give you 1 million dollars cash right now and 你走出门就会变成百万富翁you can walk out the door a millionaire or 或者我现在给你一分钱I give you a single penny, 接下来一个月内 这一美分将每天翻倍one cent and I will double it every day for a month.” 这种选择到处都是That accent was all over the place. 你将会选择哪一个呢?Which option would you choose? 直觉告诉你选第一种Gut instinct tells you Option 1. 但如果你做些简单的计算But if we do some simple math, 第一种选择只会给你100万美元这是很简单的数学题Option 1 gives you 1 million dollars. It’s pretty simple math. 但是如果你有耐心和毅力But if you had the patience and perseverance to 坚持这么做30天stick it out for 30 days, 那么第二种选择会带给你5,368,709美元和12美分Option 2 gives you 5,368,709 dollars and 12 cents, 其价值是选项1的五倍之多over five times the value of Option 1, 因为选择选项2是奇怪的which is weird because with Option 2, 对于绝大多数人而言for the vast majority of those days, 这种使钱翻倍的方式看上去是浪费时间的this money doubling seems like a waste of time. 经过20天的翻倍以后After 20 days of doubling, you would have only had 你可能只有5000多的美元a little over 5,000 dollars. 在那个时候 如果你是KevinAt that point, if you were Kevin, 你肯定会认为你已经搞砸了一切you definitely would have thought you’d screwed up big time. 但只要你坚持下去 就会发生巨大的变化But by sticking with it, dramatic change happens. 这是另一个例子So here’s another example. 当然有一天你可以非常努力地去健身房Sure, you can hit the gym really hard one day, 就像是你人生中最重要的工作一样去做like the best heaviest work out of your life, 你非常的努力 之后的每件事你也完成的很好just straight barbaric and afterwards you do everything right. 你吃了一顿富含蛋白质的大餐You have a giant protein rich meal and 并美美的睡了一觉a long restful night’s sleep. 但是不幸的But unfortunately, 即便在这一切之后 你也不会看到任何的结果even after all that, you won’t see any results. 从外表上看 你会和你离开之前一样胖Visually, you’ll be just as big as you were before you went. 事实上 如果你那天完全不去健身房In fact, if you were to skip the gym that day altogether 在你的瘦身计划里in the grand scheme of things, 它也不会有任何影响it wouldn’t really make a difference. 如果你问你的朋友If you asked a friend how you look 在你锻炼完的前后你看上去有什么不同before and after your workout, 假如没有肌肉肿胀的话assuming there is no such thing as being swole, 他们会说你看上去一模一样they’d say you look the exact same. 那是因为 你不可能因为有一次That’s because you don’t get to have huge muscles 你非常有动力去健身房锻炼了by going to the gym harder than everyone else that 而且比其他人更努力地锻炼 就能得到肌肉one time you’re motivated enough to go to the gym. 只有你每天都去健身房锻炼并一直坚持You get to have huge muscles by just showing up to 才能得到强壮的肌肉the gym every single day for a long period of time. 因此这就是所谓的轻微优势So the slight edge can all be boiled down to this. 成功不是因为你做了多么困难非凡的事情Success is not the result of doing difficult extraordinary things, 而是每天都做平凡的but rather the result of doing unremarkable 相对容易的事情 并持续了很久relatively easy to do things every single day 才得到的结果over a long period of time. 也许你想要写本书Maybe you want to write a book. 如果是这样的话 那么你就不该If that’s the case, then you shouldn’t think about it 从创造200页优秀的文学作品的角度in terms of somehow possessing the massive inspiration 来思考这个问题to crank out 200 brilliant pages of literature. 因为你知道那是不可能发生的Because you already know that’s never gonna happen. 如果你想写本书If you want to write a book, 只写半页就可以当作完成一天的工作了write half a page and then be done for the day. 当你第二天早上醒来以后Then when you wake up the next morning, 继续写完那页并休息一下finish that page and take a break. 把写半页变成一个简单的日常习惯Make writing half a page into a simple daily habit and 那么它最终会变成一个良性的循环it’ll eventually turn into a well-oiled machine that 让你很容易就达成你的目标will easily take you to your goal. 通过每个早上随便的记录By casually showing up, every single morning 写下相对简单 能够完成的文字数量to write a relatively easy amount of words. 一年过去 你将会拥有182.5页的作品After a year’s time, you’ll have written 182.5 pages. 那这本书你几乎就不费任何吹灰之力的完成了That’s a book and you did it with hardly any strain and 那是因为写半页书对你而言是容易的that’s because writing half a page is easy. 这是你真正喜欢做的事情Something you’re actually likely to do. 随着时间流逝 半页变成了一本书But when leveraged by time, half a page turns into a book. 在健身房45分钟的锻炼时间变成了热辣的身材45 minutes at the gym turns into a beachbody. 30分钟的吉他练习变成别人的赞美30 minutes of practicing guitar turns into “天哪 Fred 我不知道你是一个这么优秀的音乐家”“Holy Fred. I didn’t know you’re such a good musician.” 因此如果你想在生活中的某个特定领域So if you want to achieve massive progress in your life 取得巨大的进步in any particular area, 把它分解成为一个小的动作 变成一些简单的事情break it down into a tiny little action, something easy, 简单到你很有可能去做so easy that you’re actually likely to do it. 但是要确保每天都去做它But make sure to do it every single day. 因为做它容易Because as easy as it is to do, it’s just as easy not to do 不做它也很容易and doing it or not doing it is the difference 做或是不做就是成功的人生between a life of success and one of mediocrity 与平庸的人生之间的差别later down the road. 所以我现在在Saskatchewan北部的So I’m in a really small town in northern Saskatchewan 一个名叫水牛城的小镇上called Buffalo Narrows. 我不知道你们是否听说过I don’t know if you guys have heard of it. 但是不管怎样 我想说的是But anyways, I just wanted to say that 如果你喜欢这个视频 请继续关注Chrisif you enjoyed this video, go on over to Chris, Chris的频道 就是Beautiful ScienceChris’s channel. It’s Beautiful Science. 链接在视频简介里 并点击订阅他的频道The link is in the description of the video and go subscribe 因为我认为他被严重的低估了to his channel because I think he’s super underrated. 他在这个视频的动画制作上做的非常好He did a great job animating this video. 非常感谢ChrisSo thank you very much, Chris. 如果你喜欢这样的视频 不妨点个订阅If you like videos, like these, hit that Subscribe button, 通过订阅来提高视频的排名hit that Like button in order to improve the rankings and 这样视频就会被推荐然后帮助一些需要帮助的人so that this video shows up and helps some people out. 当然啦 希望你喜欢这个与平时But yeah. Hope you enjoy the video 略有所不同的风格的视频a little bit of a different style this time. 但我将永远在这个频道上更新But I’m gonna continue to experiment on this channel forever. 因此如果你想方便继续观看的话So if you want to hop along for the ride, 点击订阅按钮hit that Subscribe button, 以便观看下个视频 我们在Facebook的群组里见哦catch you the next video and see you in the Facebook group guys 祝你今天愉快!Have a great day!
  • 2021-10-30但丁《神曲天堂篇》讲解欢迎来到《我是你的目标人群》Welcome to I Am Your Target Demographic and 欢迎收看但丁《神曲》三集短片的最后一集welcome to our last of three videos focused on the Divine Comedy by Dante. 这些视频只涵盖基本内容These videos will cover the bare basics, 所以别期望会是一个完整的框架so don’t expect a thorough outline. 这是一份简洁明了的概述This is meant to be a concise and brief summary. 为了让你跟上脚步…To catch you up… 但丁和向导维吉尔深入地狱 并出现在炼狱的底部 和那些想要忏悔的人们一起Dante and his guide Virgil went through the depth of Hell and emerged at the base of purgatory, climbing terrace by terrace 一阶一阶向上爬 现在他们已经到达炼狱之巅with those that are trying to repent and now that they’ve reached the peak of purgatory 我们的天堂故事由此开始our story Paradiso begins. 但丁见到碧翠丝并且他们将会冲出天堂的大气层Dante meets Beatrice and they are going to ascend through the spheres of heaven, 向着天堂越飘越高floating higher and higher towards paradise. 维吉尔——他的向导 直到现在还没有跟上Vigil,his guide until now, does not follow. 第一层大气是月球大气The first sphere is the Sphere of the Moon, 是给那些无法守约的灵魂的which is for souls that have been unable to keep their vow, (通常在需要向上帝起誓时) usually when it comes to a vow to God, 所以我们看到很多so we see a lot of 权威和宗教人物被革职authority figures and religious figures that were kicked out of their positions, 并不是因为他们自己的过错not of their own fault. 水星大气The Sphere of Mercury is 是为那些正直但被抱负所驱使的人准备的for those that were right and just but were driven by ambition, 所以他们并非完全无私的so not entirely selfless. 有时名利驱使他们 而且他们希望优秀的业绩被认可Sometimes fame drove them and they wanted recognition for their good works. 第三层是金星大气The third sphere, the Sphere of Venus, 是为所谓的情人们准备的is for quote unquote lovers, (热爱上帝且非常仁慈的人们)people that loved God and humanity so passionately, 只有那样 他们才能在天堂谋的一席之地that alone earned them a place in heaven. 第四层是太阳大气The fourth sphere, Sphere of the Sun, 是为那些聪明智慧 追寻教育并改变心灵和头脑的人准备的is for the wise and intellectual, who sought to educate and change hearts and minds, 所以但丁和一些睿智的领袖进行了讨论so Dante has discussions with a few of these wise leaders. 第五层是火星大气 是战士The fifth sphere is the Sphere of Mars, the warriors. 他们的灵魂举着类似十字架的东西 他们战斗并且给予自己信念Their souls are holding up a shape of a cross and these souls have fought and given their lives for the faith, 其中有很多十字军中的英雄们including many heroes from the crusades. 第六层 是木星大气In sphere six, the Sphere of Jupiter, 公正的统治者的灵魂组成了鹰的样子the souls of just rulers make up the shape of an eagle 告诉但丁完全公正的重要性telling Dante about the importanceof divine justice. 第七层是土星大气The seventh is the Sphere of Saturn, 这些人在祈祷和沉思中度过一生those who lived their lives in prayer and contemplation. 这些灵魂其实很愤怒These souls are actually angry, 对现在教会以及内部腐败感到生气angry at the current state of the church and corruption inside it. 但丁在这章节表达了对当时教会的不满Dante used this section to express his discontent with the church of the time. 第八层是恒星大气The eighth sphere is called the Fixed Stars, 它处在双子星座中which exists in the constellation of Gemini, 如同这就是他的终点as this is almost his final destination, 这样他就可以回头看到远处的地球so he’s able to look back and see Earth in the distance. 但丁碰见了很多在这里生活的伟大的圣人Dante meets the greatest saints to exist here, 包括圣母玛利亚和使徒们including the Virgin Mary and the apostles. 最后一层是宗动天The last sphere is called Primum Mobile and 这是他冒险的最后一站it’s the last physical stop on his adventure. 我们可以看到上帝身边的九位大天使We see nine order of angels surrounding God, 全身散发光芒和能量all appearing as bright lights and energy. 碧翠丝在这讲述创世纪:上帝是如何创造万物的Beatrice recounts the story of creation here, how God put everything into existence. 我们进入最后一个境界 超越物理存在 叫作最高天We enter the last realm, beyond physical existence,called the Empyrean. 但丁看到一朵玫瑰的形状 但它代表的是所有神圣的爱Dante sees the shape of a rose, but it represents all divine love, 而且他刚感受过的天堂出现在这朵花里and heaven as he just experienced exists inside this flower. 但丁还看到了上帝并用最美妙的言语描述他Dante also sees God and describes it as best as he could 三个交错的圈代表三位一体as three overlapping circles to represent the holy trinity. 诗歌到此结束因为但丁放弃了对它的描述The poem comes to an end as Dante gives up on trying to describe it 没有语言或想法来解解他在那儿看到的一切not having the words or the thoughts to understand what he saw there. 他说“那不是我的翅膀可以承受的飞行”He says “That was not a flight for my wings.” 诗歌到此结束The poem ends. 好了 你做到了 你看完了天堂篇 多好的旅程啊That’s it, you made it! You finished Paradiso. What a journey. 感谢观看这些视频Thank you for watching all these videos. 如果你想学习其他有趣的东西If you want to learn other interesting stuff, 如果你还不是粉丝 你可以点击这里订阅if you’re not a subscriber already, you can click here to subscribe, 查看这里会让你学到各种其他有趣的课题and check out this to learn about all sorts of other interesting topics. 每周三 我们会做一个类似这样的视频 谢谢!So every Wednesday, we do a video just like this. Thanks!
  • 2021-10-30极简主义风格PBS数字工作室 So you see a few cubes sitting in an art gallery,当你在美术馆里看到几个整齐的立方体时 and you think to yourself,你可能暗自想: “This is the greatest hoax that anyone has ever pulled off.”“这是个骗局吧 谁都能摆出这种东西啊” You immediately walk away, discouraged by the wide gulf你感到沮丧然后离开了 因为 between what you hope for when you walk into a museum这和你进来时想象中美术馆的样子 and what they’ve presented to you.相差太大了! How did we get here?为什么会变成这样? How could these cubes that the artist didn’t even make为什么这些甚至都没有由艺术家经手 with their own hands be important?的立方体这么重要呢? This is the case for minimalism.这就是一个极简主义的案例 First off, we’re not talking about minimalism首先 我们所讲述的极简主义 as a general sensibility不是一种整体带来的感受 or the life-changing magic of tidying up.也不是一种改变生活的收缀魔法 We’re talking about the art of a particular moment in time. 我们讲的是一种产生于特定历史时期的艺术 Namely, the 1960s, when all of a sudden,换句话说 也就是在上世纪60年代 there was a lot of geometric, abstract art.突然间产生的几何抽象艺术 Some of it was painting by artists like Frank Stella其中有绘画 代表画家有弗兰克•斯特拉 and Ellsworth Kelly,和埃尔斯沃思•凯利 but most of it was sculpture by artists但大多数是雕塑作品 代表人物有 like Donald Judd, Carl Andre, Dan Flavin,唐纳德·贾德 卡尔•安德烈 丹•弗莱文 Anne Truitt, Robert Morris,安娜·特鲁伊特 罗伯特·莫里斯 Tony Smith, Ronald Bladen, and Sol LeWitt.托尼·史密斯 罗纳德·布莱登和索尔·莱维特 Art critics called it ABC art, object art,艺术评论家们称之为ABC艺术或者物体艺术 primary structures, and cool art, 原始结构或者冷艺术 but the term minimalism prevailed.但极简主义这个术语最终盛行 These artists never called their art minimalism,他们从不用极简主义来形容自己的作品 by the way,nor did they like the term,而且他们也不喜欢这个术语 or the implication that the work was so reductive that it was minimally art.因为这暗示着作品太过简单才会被称为极简艺术 But minimalism was a rejection of what came before. 但是极简主义是对之前艺术风格的摒弃 Specifically, abstract expressionism,尤其是对抽象表现主义—— which dominated the art market in the 1950s.一种主宰了20世纪50年代艺术市场的风格 These new artists wanted to remove expression completely,这些新兴艺术家们想完全脱离艺术的表现形式 remove emotion, empty the work of idiosyncratic gesture,摒弃情感 清除作品中的古怪形式 make it resistant to biographical reading.从而使作品能够避免传记式解读 Their hard-edged, basic shapes and forms这些硬边画和基础图形 avoided allusion, metaphor, and overt symbolism.避免了暗示 隐喻和显性的象征主义 The forms were often repeated, one thing after another它们的形式经常重复或接续出现 in regular, non-hierarchical arrangements,以规则 无分层的处理 rejecting compositional balancing.打破了组合的平衡 No artist hemming and hawing over the canvas here.作这样的画 没有艺术家会在画布上犹犹豫豫 The objects were impersonal, many of them machine-made,这些物品是客观的 多为机械制品 fabricated from new and industrial materials.以新材料和工业材料制成 Sometimes this entailed ready-made units,有时则需要现成的部件 like Andre’s bricks, or Flavin’s fluorescent tubes.如安德烈的砖块 或弗莱文的荧光管 They didn’t want you to ooh and ah,艺术家们不想令你对作品表示惊叹 or admire the handling of paint.或只欣赏颜料的处理手段 As LeWitt once said,”It is best that正如勒维特曾言: the basic unit be deliberately uninteresting.”“最好的艺术就是在每一个基本零件上故作无趣” Robert Morris wrote that he could 罗伯特·莫里斯曾写道 当时 hear resounding no at the time.他能听到响亮的反对之声 “No to transcendence and spiritual values,“不去追求超越和精神价值 heroic scale, anguished decisions,史诗级规模和苦恼的决定 historicizing narrative, valuable artifact,历史化的叙事 有价值的作品 intelligent structure, interesting visual experience.”充满智慧的构造和有趣的视觉体验” But what they were saying yes to was a new and startling realness.但他们认同的是新的令人震撼的真实 Abandoning the pedestal to dismantle the separation between you and the art.弃用底座 来消除我们和艺术之间的隔阂 Judd claimed these works are neither painting nor sculpture,贾德称这些作品既非绘画亦非雕塑 but instead specific objects occupying real space.而是三维的物体占据了真实的空间 These objects aren’t pointing to anything or referencing anything.这些物体没有表明什么或参考什么 Andre called his work a kind of plastic poetry,安德烈称自己的作品为一种塑料诗歌 in which elements are combined to produce space.在他的诗里 各种要素联合起来制造出空间 So there is no illusion of space, it just is space.所以它不是空间幻觉 它就是空间 Minimalism had its haters from the start.极简主义从一开始就拥有反对者 In 1967, art critic Michael Fried1967年 艺术评论家迈克尔·弗雷德 attacked the work for being theatrical.就批评这些作品正在变得戏剧性 For him it was an object in a room that had presence before a viewer,对他来说 这仅仅是一个放在房间里的实物 but it did not have what good art has,但它不具备好的艺术品应有的东西 which is presentness,它只是当下存在而已 or,”an instant of aesthetic experience换句话说 它是“发生在非真实时空的 which occurs in no real space or time at all.”瞬间审美体验” But Fried really just ended up affirming exactly但弗雷德最终确切地肯定了 what the artists were trying to do:这些艺术家们正在努力做的事: proving how radical it really was.证明极简主义真的十分前卫 Despite its detractors, minimalism became all the rage.尽管有诋毁者 极简主义仍风靡起来 This geometric, unadorned style flowed throughout the worlds这种几何的 朴素的风格席卷了 of fashion, theater, and design.时尚 戏剧和设计等领域 In short, it was cool.简而言之 它很酷 And then because these artists were never然后 因为这些艺术家 trying to be minimalist to begin with,一开始也不是有意要往极简艺术发展 they moved on to other things于是转向了其他艺术形式 and other kinds of art had its day.因此 其他种类的艺术也随之兴起 But minimalism changed things.但是极简主义改变了某些东西 For centuries, art had been trying to trick you,几个世纪以来 艺术一直在试图欺骗你 convince you that the hunk of rock was something other than a hunk of rock.让你相信那是一大块石头不只是石头 而是别的东西 But not this.而不是像这样简单的石头 You feel like there’s gotta be some secret to it, but there isn’t.你感觉其中应该有什么奥秘 然而并没有 There’s nothing to interpret.没有深意 无需解读 This is what it is.它就是它 It wasn’t supposed to look like art of the past,它看起来不像过去的艺术 and it wasn’t supposed to function like it either.它也不该具备那样的功能 With minimalism, meaning doesn’t rest inside the object,极简主义中 waiting to be unlocked.物体本身没有意义 The meaning is in the context, and exists in your interaction with it.意义存在于不同的环境和你与物体的交流之中 But minimalism is a resistant lover.但极简主义是个顽固的爱人 It’s just not that into you.它不会让你对它很感兴趣 It encourages observation, but doesn’t draw you in,它鼓励你观察 却不让你着迷 and it was never trying to. 它也从不试图这么做 Remember these objects were supposed to be emptied of pretension of mastery,这些作品不需要考虑一些虚饰来 of the usual seduction between art and viewer,平衡艺术性与观众感受 and of the grand, glorious traditions that preceded them.也不应该为了领先而去遵循伟大而光荣的传统 But the fetishization and commodification of minimalist art但对极简主义艺术的盲目迷恋和商品化 has complicated and polluted these ideas.已经使这些观念变得复杂 污浊 What’s less real than million-dollar plywood boxes?什么东西能比价值百万美元的胶合板箱还不真实? And yet, for me at least,至少于我而言 minimalist art can still impart a strong feeling,极简主义艺术仍旧可以传递强烈的情感 a feeling for space, light, for presence and absence.一种关于空间感 光线 存在或者不存在的感觉 You’re aware of your own body in the gallery你能感觉到到自己身处美术馆 as you’ve never been before.就你能感觉到自己以前从没来过一样 You notice that your position in the room你感受到自己在房间中的位置 shapes your perception of the thing.形成了你对事物的感知 You appreciate the architecture and the spareness,你能感受到建筑和空间 and in a world filled with complexity and information 当身处于充斥着繁杂事物和信息 and lots and lots of stuff,以及很多很多事情的世界里 this is a balm.这是带有治愈效果的慰藉 This is a world more simplified than the actual world is,这是一个比真实世界更简单的 and that I can appreciate.我可以欣赏的世界
  • 2021-10-30阿米莉亚·埃尔哈特:神秘失踪著名女飞行员哦!我的小心脏 我是说阿米莉亚•埃尔哈特 1897年7月24生于堪萨斯州艾金森市 阿米莉亚•埃尔哈特是当时最优秀的女飞行员 成长过程中 阿米莉亚并不女孩子气 她更喜欢爬树 钻废弃车厢 用22mm口径的步枪打老鼠 天呐 你那时候啥都能干 高中毕业后 她去了女子精修学校 但没能毕业 而是在一战期间成了加拿大军事医院的助理护士 她与妹妹在马塞诸塞州学习班卓琴和机械 1920年12月28日 在一次航空展上 飞行员弗兰克·考克斯带领她第一次感受了天空 飞行结束后她写道:我需要飞行 6天后她开始学习飞行课程 从此沉迷其中 她用了6个月攒够钱 买了一架浅黄色双翼飞机 取名叫“金丝雀” 首飞后不到一年 她就取得了飞行执照 两天后 她又参加了航空展飞行表演 飞行这个爱好很费钱 阿米莉亚得倍加努力才能负担爱好和生活 她在哥伦比亚呆了一段时间 做过社工 销售代表和英语老师 但在1928年 一切都有了转变 她有机会成为首次飞越大西洋的女性 他们的意思其实是让她当乘客 然后由别人驾驶飞机 飞机于1928年6月17日离开纽芬兰 21小时后降落在威尔士 飞行员报酬2万美元 技师5000美元 而阿米莉亚的报酬只有经验和机会 但这是值得的 回到纽约后 来自美国大型出版公司的一位男子找到她 想写一本她的人物传 他叫乔治•普特曼 1931年 他成了她的支持者兼筹款人兼丈夫 她的下一目标是成为独自飞越大西洋的第二人和第一位女性 恶劣的天气让她迫降在了爱尔兰的奶牛牧场 但关键在于过程而不是终点 不是吗? 重点是她做到了 而这一切让人们为之疯狂 胡佛总统为她颁奖 国会授予她十字飞行荣誉勋章 这是大事件 接着她又创造了飞行海拔记录 她是首位独自从檀香山飞往加利福尼亚的人 首位独自从墨西哥城飞往纽约的人 她创造了好多第一次 呵 你永远不会忘了自己的第一次的 但实际上 飞行在当时是全新体验 所以才有这么多第一次 但阿米莉亚真正的心之所系 是成为首次环球飞行的女性 她有了新飞机Lockheed Electra和领航员佛莱得•努南 并计划了飞行路线 但是第一次行动就失败了 飞机还没起飞就严重损坏了 但阿米莉亚没有放弃 她筹钱修飞机 重新计划飞行路线 于是在1937年6月1日正式起飞了 航程基本没出意外 除了某人的地图不准确 就是佛莱得 这意味着航程不可能完成了 然而 她当然不可能停下来去询问航向 目标是从新几内亚飞往霍德兰 这是位于太平洋中心仅1平方英里的小岛 这简直是大海捞针 没有地图 她只好尝试天文导航 但阴天又让一切成空 近海有一艘海岸警卫队的船 是可以跟埃尔哈特通信的 但通信质量不佳 上午7点42 船上收到了这样的讯息 我们在盯着你 但是看不到你 燃油快耗尽 无线电联系不到你 我们的飞行高度为1000英尺 7月3日上午8点43分 美国海岸警卫队埃塔斯卡号收到了最后一次她的讯息 随即启动了耗资400万美元 覆盖半径25万英里海域的搜索 但再也没找到飞机 阿米莉亚没有成为环球飞行的首位女性 但她证明了飞行员不一定就是这样的男性 虽然她的故事以悲剧收尾 但她的人生是独一无二的 阿米莉亚告诉我们 有志向和激情的女性 如果不满现状 天空会任你驰骋
  • 2021-10-30怎样学得快、记得牢、用得准?试试费恩曼学习技术Feynman learning technique is effective full learning something new费恩曼学习技巧对学习完整的新知识非常有效 deepen your understanding of what you already know能够加深你对已学知识的理解 or helping you study for an exam或帮助你参加考试 the first step is to pick a topic you want to understand and start studying it.第一步是挑选一个 你想要理解的课题并开始学习 once you know what it is about take a piece of paper and write about it一旦你选好了 就在一页纸上写下来 as if you’re teaching the idea to someone else就像你要教别人的那样 ideally write and speak at the same time just as a teacher does it at the blackboard写下来的同时要开口说 就像老师在黑板写时一样 this makes you realize which part you understand and where you still have gaps这会提醒你你掌握了哪部分 哪部分又是你的知识缺口 whenever you get stuck go back to study and repeat that process until you have当你卡住了 回去学习并重复刚才的步骤 explained the whole topic from start to end直到你能从头到尾解释整个课题 when you’re done repeat the process from the beginning but this time simplify your language or当你完成了这步 又从头开始重复过程 use a graphic analogy to make a point但是这一次简化你的语言 或者使用图形类比来说明知识点 if your explanation ends up wordy or confusing如果你的解释冗长又令人费解 you probably have not understood it well enough so you should start again说明你还没有充分理解 所以你应该重新开始 thinking about an idea by explaining it makes this learning method very effective通过解释来思考一个想法 这个学习方法非常有效 once you can explain an idea in simple language you have deeply understood it一旦你能够用简洁的语言来解释想法 说明你已经对知识已经有了深刻理解 and will remember it for a long time并且会长时间记住 Richard Feynman was a leading theoretical physicist who received a理查德·费曼是杰出的理论物理学家 Nobel Prize for his work in quantum electrodynamics因在量子电动力学方面做出的贡献 获得诺贝尔物理学奖 he was notorious for asking his fellow mathematicians to explain concepts in simple language他出了名地喜欢请数学家同事 用简洁的语言来解释概念 to test their understanding以此来测试他们的理解 thanks for watching谢谢观看 also check out others Sprouts learning techniques也欢迎收看Sprouts其他学习技巧视频 as they can complement the methods explained in this video他们可以补充本视频解释过的学习方法 please use the comments below to give us feedback or tell us which of the techniques is your favorite请在下面评论给我们反馈 或者让我们知道你最喜欢哪个技巧
  • 2021-10-30如何在图像和视频中使用预设功能Photoshop 使用指南如何使用预设(在图像或视频中)Photoshop PlaybookHow to Use Presets(in Images & Video) 预设存在于整个Photoshop中Presets exist throughout Photoshop, 这些预设是用来打破常规的好工具and they are a really great way to break out of a creative rut. 你可以使用预设功能来极大地改变你的图片You can apply a preset and dramatically change the look of your image. 预设在下面这种情况下会更加有用Where they’re even more useful though 就是保存预设然后应用到你接下来的图片中is saving presets to use on your own followup images. 它们能帮你省很多时间They can be huge time savers. 那么 让我们来看几个在工作流程中运用预设的方法吧So let’s look at a few different ways to employ presets into your workflow. 我们现在在Bridge这里So here we are in Bridge, 第一个我想要谈论预设的地方是在Camera Raw里and the first place I want to talk about presets is in Camera Raw. 我没有Raw文件 我有一个Tiff文件I don’t have a Raw file, I have a Tiff. 让我们看一下如何用Camera Raw插件打开一个tiff文件So let’s look at how we are going to open that tiff in Camera Raw. 然后我来到这 点开我的“Camera Raw首选项”And I come over here to my Camera Raw Preferences, 选择自动打开所有支持的JPEG和TIFF图片and I am just gonna tell it to automatically open all supported JPEGs and TIFFs. 这样 无需使用本地Raw文件That way I can enjoy the benefits of Camera Raw 我就可以享用Camera Raw的好处了without having to use a native Raw file. 现在 在Camera Raw里面我们已经有了各种滑动条Now, within Camera Raw we’ve got all sorts of sliders, 这意味着我们可以做出各种对应的调整which means there is all sorts of adjustments we can make. 但如果我们想要复制一种特定的图形式样要记住的还有很多But it’s a lot to remember if we wanna replicate a particular look. 所以如果我把这张图片调到我想要的样子时So if I get this image looking the way I like it. 我所要做的 就是来到这边What I want to do is come over here, 然后保存一个预设and save a preset. 这样的话 在将来That way in the future, 就只要按下Option 或者 Alt键来重置just hit Option or Alt to reset this, 如果我点进来 想要运用那个式样If I come in and I want to apply that look, 我就可以直接点击我的“预设”I can just click on my preset. 你能看到我已经有了各种不同的预设了And you can see I’ve got all sorts of different presets 这些都是将变动可视化的好方法that are really great ways to visualize changes. 现在我自己已经建立了这些预设Now I’ve created all these myself 那真的不会花费多少时间really doesn’t take long to do this. 下次只要你来到Camera RawJust the next time you come through Camera Raw, 抽点时间保存你的预设take the time to save out your presets. 再一次地 我要通过按Option 或者 Alt键来重置Again I’m gonna reset this by hitting the Option or Alt key. 然后我们就要直接在Photoshop里打开这个的原文件And we are gonna open this image directly into Photoshop unchanged. 那么来谈一下Photoshop里的预设吧它们无处不在So let’s talk about presets in Photoshop. They’re all over the place. 我想要给你们展示几个使用它们的不同方法I just wanna show you a few different ways to use them. 在Photoshop中 有大量的预设内容可供使用There is a ton of preset content available wtihin Photoshop. 在不同的调整类型中都有它We will find it throughout our different adjustment types. 我们要确保我们正在用调整层We wanna make sure that we’re using adjustment layers though. 这样我们就可以使用或撤销掉效果So that we can turn things off or on, 然后弄一下混合模式and play around with our blend modes. 如果我们来到“曲线”So if we come here to Curves, 我能看到我已经有了所有常规调整项目 比如对比度I can see that I’ve got all of my common adjustments, like Contrast. 而且我还有一些特殊的效果 比如交叉冲印But I’ve even got special affects like Cross Process. 现在我来选择 我可以选择应用或取消效果Now I choose. I can turn this off or on. 那么 另外有一些我很喜欢的效果So, a couple more that I really like, 其中一个是照片滤镜one of them is photo filter. Photoshop没有暖色调或者冷色调工具Photoshop doesn’t know what warming or cooling, 也无法调整色温doesn’t know anything about temperature really. 但我可以用这些滤镜来假装有But I can fake it here with these filters. 我这有一大堆不同的照片滤镜I’ve got a whole bunch of different photo filters. 如果我想要让图片变成冷色调或变成暖色调If I wanna cool this or warm it, 我就能快速得到一个不错的效果I can get a really nice result quickly. 如果我用我的混合模式Where this gets even more powerful, 那么预设功能用在这里会更加强大is if I use my blend modes. 所以如果我来到这里 然后用正片叠底模式So if I come in and I multiply that 把不透明度拉低and then pull the opacity down. 如果我们切换到预览效果If we toggle that preview, 我们就看得出我们已经显著地改变了图片we can see that we’ve dramatically changed our image, 只是通过使用预设和一点点调整just by using a preset and a little bit of the control. 以上是静止的图片And that’s a still image. 再说一下 Photoshop中有很多供静止图片使用的预设Again there’s lots of content throughout Photoshop for still images. 让我们来看看怎么用在视频上吧Let’s look at using it for video, 因为工作流程基本上一样because the workflow is almost exactly the same. 那么在Bridge这里 我这有一个视频片段So here in Bridge I see that I’ve got a video clip, 我要把它拖过来and I’m just gonna grab that, 在Photoshop里打开and open it in Photoshop. 得到这个表示这是视频的时间轴I’ll get this time line that shows me that there’s video here 我按下空格键 画面确实动了I press the space bar, indeed there’s motion. 现在我可以做任何在静止图片上做的事Now I can do any of the things that I did with the still image. 我要先转换成智能滤镜I just want to convert this to a smart filter first. 使它始终应用于我的图片And that’s gonna put a wrapper around my image. 这样的话 我对视频中的一张静止图 一个画面所做的事情So that anything that is done to one image, one frame in my video 都会应用到整个视频中is applied to the entire thing. 那么比如说我们想要它变成黑白So let’s say we wanna make this black and white. 我们要用“自动”And we want to use Auto, 或许我还要用上抓手工具and maybe I wanna use my on-image control 来让这一部分稍微亮点to make this part a little bit lighter, 这一部分稍微暗点and this part a little bit darker. 同样再加上一层色彩and let’s just add a tint as well, 然后我们再改变那层色彩的颜色and then let’s change the color of that tint. 以一个预设为起点 对视频做了一堆处理Done a whole bunch of things to our video, starting with a preset. 现在我对这个效果满意了Now I really like the effect I have, 所以我要确保我保存好了so I wanna make sure that I save that. 来到这上面I come up here, 通过保存黑白效果预设I can save myself a ton of time 就能省了我很多时间by saving that black and white preset. 我也可以同样的方式来用其他预设And I can do that with most of those other presets as well. 所以无论你是在用预设来打破常规So whether you are using presets to get out of creative rut 还是用来节省时间or to save yourself a whole bunch of time. 它们都是你工作流程中非常重要的一部分They are really an important part of your workflow, 再说一次 我只展示了一小部分预设存在于整个应用中and again I’ve just shown you a few, they exist throughout the application.
  • 2021-10-30总统卸任以后的生活是怎样的“生活中没有什么比做前总统更可悲了”“There is nothing more pathetic in life than a former president.” 这句话及其变体These words, and variations of them, 是由前总统约翰·昆西·亚当斯所写authored by former President John Quincy Adams 出现在几乎每一篇有关这一主题的文章中show up in just about every major article on the subject. 但是如果你关注新闻But if you pay any attention to the news, 你就会发现事实并非如此you’ll see that’s probably not the case. 今天 我们来探索一下前总统的真实生活Today,we’re exploring what life is really like for an ex-president. 开始之前 Before we get started, 我们需要你订阅这个频道we have an executive order for you to subscribe to the channel 并且告诉我们你最喜欢的总统and let us know who your favorite president is. 先生们 女士们 Ladies and gentlemen, 美国前总统的真实生活the ex-Presidents of the United States. 政府将终生给你养老(不管你辞职与否) 即使在担任总统之前 你很年轻精力充沛Even if you were young and vigorous before your presidency, 但现在 你觉得自己正处于崩溃的危险中by now, you feel like you’re in danger of collapsing into a pile of dust. 巨大的工作压力往往会改变总统的身心The stress that transforms a president is a force of nature. 幸运的是Lucky for you, 你不需要思考生计方面的问题there’s really no need to recover from it to survive. 由于1958年的《前总统法案》Thanks to the 1958 Former Presidents Act, 美国将向前总统支付终生养老金the US pays ex-presidents a lifetime pension. 1958年 这个数字是每年2.5万美元In 1958, it was $25,000 a year, 相当于2019年的每年21.8万美元which works out to about $218,000 a year in 2019 money. 今天 他们实际上到手的钱没有这么多Today, they actually get a little less. 一位正常卸任总统的养老金The pension of an ex-president with a clean discharge from office 是根据在职政府成员的工资计算的is based on the salary of an active cabinet member– . 2019年21.07万美元$210,700 不错的数字A healthy sum, 尤其是与前总统遗孀的养老金对比especially compared with what the widow of an ex-president gets– 他们才区区两万美元a paltry $20,000. 看看这个Now, check this out. 那些不那么光彩退位的人Those who make, let’s say, a less glorious exit from office ——比如狡猾的迪克·尼克松——— tricky Dick Nixon, for example– 仍有机会获得丰厚的养老金still have a shot at that fat pension, 但前提是他们在被指控犯罪之前辞职but only if they quit before they could be impeached for the crimes. 倘若他们能及时辞职Provided they do resign in time, 他们在死前每年仍能得到21.07万美元they’ll still get $ 210,700 every year until they die, 这将是一段不短的时间 which won’t be for some time 如果他们能善用免费医疗和工费旅游if they put their free health care and paid travel to good use. 不管他们做了什么或没做什么 丢失工作都无所谓It doesn’t matter what they did or didn’t do to lose their job, 因为他们的新工作是保全面子because their new job is to save face, 而山姆大叔很乐意让纳税人来埋单and Uncle Sam is happy to let taxpayers foot the bill. 上帝保佑Bless his tiny little beard. 特工处无处不在 美总统行宫并不全是无尽的钱和彩虹高尔夫It’s not all endless money and rainbow golf at Camp David. 当上总统意味着Being president means 你将永远 永远不会再有私人空间you never ever,ever get to be alone 永远 永远ever, ever again, 即便你不再是总统not even when you’re done being president. 2012年通过一项法律2012 saw the passage of a law 撤消了1994年规定特工处对前总统保护10年的限制reversing 1994’s 10-year limit on Secret Service protection for former presidents. 截至2013年As of 2013, 特工处的任务是监视每一位前总统the Secret Service is tasked with watching over every ex-president 直到他们去世 until death do them part. 和养老金一样As with the pension, 这种保护并不适用于家庭this protection does not extend to the family. 孩子们在16岁以后就独自上路Children are inexplicably left on their own after they hit 16 你知道 这是他们有生以来and,you know,begin driving places on their own 第一次在公共场合for the first time in their lives, 无人护送 自己开车out in public, unescorted, 即使他们父亲在90岁时仍然配有武装警卫bearing the surname of someone who still merits an armed guard at 90. 如果第一夫人离婚和再婚First ladies are punished with the removal of all rights to protection 不管公众是否讨厌她们should they divorce and remarriage, 也不管她们的总统伴侣如何对待她们regardless of how much the general public hates them 她们都会受到惩罚 取消所有受保护的权利or how their presidential partner treated them. 这就是第22条的定义This is the very definition of a catch-22. 让我们统计一下总统离婚的人数? 没有Shall we count the number of presidential divorcees? No 不幸的梅拉尼亚 你被他捆住了Bad luck, Melania. You’re stuck with him. 尽管还有2万美元养老金值得期待Although there is that $20,000 to look forward to. 你将有你自己的图书馆(感谢罗斯福) 养老金 精英安保人员What with the pension, the elite security detail, 还有更多不公平的事情and more things that seem just a little unfair 在当前的经济形势下in this economy,or any other, 你自己的图书馆a library of your own 是这个国家负担不起的奢侈品 对吧?is a luxury this country can ill-afford, right? 实际上 这个比其他的更合理Actually, this one makes more sense than the rest, 但它需要一些背景知识but it requires a bit of background. 罗斯福 闻名于将字母汤应用于FDR,known for applying a veritable alphabet soup 美国法律改革to reforms to American law books, 安排了一个图书馆/博物馆来存档arranged for a library-slash-museum to archive 里面有许许多多的记录has many, many, many records. 《我们奇怪的历史》从这一传统中受益匪浅We at Weird History have benefited quite a lot from that tradition. 谢谢你 弗兰克Thanks, Frank. 政府官员过去常常把旧信件和垃圾丢进箱子Public officials used to dump their old correspondences and junk into boxes 然后塞进阁楼里 就像善良 理智的人一样and shove them into attics, like good, sane people. 政客们这种反常的行为This deviation in the normalcy on the part of politicians 实在令历史学家心碎is a real heartbreaker for historians. 乔治华盛顿的侄子报告说George Washington’s nephew reported that 他叔叔的文件被老鼠咬坏了his uncle’s papers were very extensively mutilated by rats 或者因为潮湿受损and otherwise injured by damp. 世界可能永远不知道有什么奇怪的历史被遗失了The world may never know what weird history was lost. 杜鲁门总统在离任后President Truman spent a great deal of time maintaining his library 花了很多时间维护他的图书馆after departing the Oval Office, 这是一件非常不错的事情which was a very decent thing to do 考虑到这些地方需要很多时间和精力 considering how much time and effort those places demand. 这里有一个非常好的动机There was a very good incentive 让总统保持他的笔记井然有序on the part of the president to keep his notes in good order, 我们接下来会看到 as we’ll see next. 他们可以通过卖书赚大钱 面对现实吧Let’s face it. 那是一个非常特别的人It takes a very special kind of person 不仅要期望自己成为to not only envision him or herself 一个拥有3亿多人口的国家的首领as commander-in-chief of a nation over 300 million strong, 还要下定决心完成这个任务decide to go through with it, 竞选总统并当选campaign for office,win that office, 在这个职位上呆4到8年and stay in that office for four to eight years 而且期间不发生严重的问题without getting into serious trouble. 我们大多数不是那个人Most of us are not that person. 我们很多人都想知道怎么样能成为这样的人A lot of us would like to know what it’s like to be that person. 乔治·W·布什的《抉择时刻》Decision Points,George W. Bush’s book, 卖出150万册 为他赚了700万美元sold 1.5 million copies and earned him $7 million. 比尔·克林顿获得了1500万美元预付款Bill Clinton got a $15 million dollar advance 这本书叫《我的生活》for his book, My Life, 它一共卖出了225万册which sold over 2 and 1/4 million copies 并以有声书的形式获得了格莱美奖and won a Grammy in its audio book form, 由克林顿本人亲自讲述narrated by Clinton himself. 到2017年By 2017, 奥巴马夫妇已经收到了书籍6500万美元的预付款the Obamas had already received $65 million in advances for their books. 吉米卡特 以真正的吉米卡特的方式Jimmy Carter, in true Jimmy Carter fashion, 写的不是一两本而是14本wrote not one or two but 14 books. 据历史学家詹姆斯·瑟伯说He was flat broke when he got out of office, 他卸任时身无分文according to historian James Thurber. 他们不准开车 如果你一直都对前总统和他们的农场评头论足If you’ve been all judgey about ex-presidents and their ranches, 请稍等一会儿hold your horses for a minute. 如果政府拿走了你的车钥匙You’d probably run off to live like a cowboy, too, 你可能也会像个牛仔一样生活if the government took your car keys. 当你任期结束时 你开车的日子就结束了When your term is up, your driving days are done, 除非你在乡下有个大农场unless you have, say, a big ranch out in the country 你可以在后院调制鸡尾酒 炸甜甜圈where you can make some rooster tails and donuts in the backyard 直到你去世until your heart gives out. 如果你想知道前总统是如何离开私人领地的If you’re wondering how ex-presys get around off private property, 那就看看那些穿着快活的黑色西装的家伙吧look no further than the guys in the happy, snappy black suits. 这就对了That’s right. 特工处也不只是四处逛等待坏家伙上门The Secret Service doesn’t just hang around waiting for bad guys. 他们也是你的私人武装司机They also become your private, armed chauffeurs 陪伴你度过余生for the rest of your life. 可惜没人告诉可怜的老拜登Too bad no one told poor old Joe Biden.that “竞选总统有很多理由”” There are a lot of reasons to run for president,” 他以拜登特有的方式说he said,in typical Biden fashion, “但有一个压倒性的理由不竞选总统“but there’s one overwhelming reason not to run for president. 我喜欢在3.4秒内把克尔维特Z06从0加速到60码”I like to get that Corvette Z06 from zero to 60 in 3.4 seconds.” 噢 乔Oh, Joe. 应该有人告诉他的Someone has to tell him. 不管怎样 我们对这个规则非常满意 Anyway, we’re really very OK with this rule. 让那些总统 副总统或其他什么人 离我们的街道远点Keep those presidents, vice or otherwise, off our streets. 77岁的他已经太老以至于开不动现在的车了At 77, the current model is already too doddy to drive as it is. 特工处监视他们所有的信件 这都不用想This one’s a no-brainer. 显然 一个在过去十年大部分时间里Obviously,a guy who’s spent the better part of the last decade 都收到死亡威胁的人是不会看自己信件的getting death threats is not going to check his own mail, 尤其是当他不再坐在白宫里时especially when he’s no longer sitting on four floors of the White House, 这让我们想到了黑衣人which brings us back to the men in black. 他们开车 他们收发邮件They drive. They sort mail. 他们做的任何事都是为了普通人乔They do everything that for an average Joe, 而不是乔·拜登 这是例行公事as opposed to Biden,Joe, is routine. 但千万不要把例行公事和无聊混为一谈But never confuse routine for boring in this field. 特工处截获的管道炸弹The Secret Service’s intercepted pipe bombs 原本是为克林顿夫妇 奥巴马夫妇meant for the Clintons, the Obamas, 和近年来其他大人物准备的and other big figures in recent years 这些炸弹被放置在分类前总统邮件的非现场设施中at the off-site facilities used to sort the ex-presidential mail. 2018年10月24日 特工处发布了一份关于邮件的声明A statement from the Secret Service made October 24, 2018 concerning the mail — 这些包裹将在常规筛选中被立即识别The packages were immediately identified during routine mail screening procedures 确定为潜在的炸弹装置as potential explosive devices 并得到妥善处理and were appropriately handled as such. 这两个包裹在被送到预定地点之前都被拦截了Both packages were intercepted prior to being delivered to their intended location. 一些前总统在找工作 在1958年以前的旧时代In the olden days before 1958, 当人们的工作还可以日结的时候when a man could do a day’s work for a day’s pay, 总统带着他们搬进白宫的东西离开白宫presidents left the White House with whatever they had when they moved in. 没有丰厚的养老金 没有保险No fat pension, no guaranteed book advance deals, 只有一套西装和美国能提供的最好的简历just a suit and the best resume America can give. 一些前总统用到了它And some of them used it. 我们之前提到过 哈里·杜鲁门花了大量的时间We mentioned before that Harry Truman put in a lot of hours 在他自己的密苏里州独立图书馆上at his own library in Independence, Missouri. 我们没有告诉你的是 他在那里有一个办公室What we didn’t tell you was that he had an office there 他在那里工作了19年where he worked for 19 years. 他的一生有过足够的热情He’d had enough excitement for one lifetime. 他的余生都在图书馆工作 这并不令人吃惊It’s not a shocker that he’d spend the rest of his life working in a library. 格罗弗•克利夫兰在他的非连续总统任期内Grover Cleveland, not having bombed even one country 没有轰炸过任何一个国家during his non-consecutive presidential terms, 他退休后决定炒股decided to play chicken with the stock market. 乔治·华盛顿拒绝了成为独裁者的机会George Washington turned down an opportunity to be dictator for life 他树立了自己的风格and set himself up in style, 在弗农山庄开了一家威士忌酒厂opening a whiskey distillery at Mount Vernon. 也许他的文件就是这样弄湿的Maybe that’s how his papers got all soggy. 前总统们经常成为好朋友 对于前总统来说 生活很奇怪Life is strange for an ex-president. 在最不可思议的权利之旅结束后After the most incredible power trip available is over, 你接下来的生活都必须与世隔绝you have to go and live in a bubble for the rest of your days, 被那些不让你开车 surrounded by people who won’t let you drive, 不让你拆邮件 不许你独自出门open your own mail,go anywhere on your own, 或者在推特上畅所欲言的人包围 or say whatever you want on Twitter. 没有多少人能理解这一点Not a lot of people can relate to that. 真的 只有其他前总统Only other ex-presidents, really. 因此 难怪许多前总统So it comes as no surprise that many former commander-in-chiefs 和他们的前第一家庭彼此友好and their former first families are friendly with one another, 即使他们来自不同的党派even if they come from different parties. 例如 乔治·W·布什George W. Bush, for example, 在2017年称比尔克林顿是他异母兄弟referred to Bill Clinton as his brother from another mother in 2017. 他们有员工 办公室和办公用品 除了养老金 医疗保健 保镖On top of the pension, the health care, bodyguards, 和带薪公务旅行and paid official travel, 政府每年为前总统预留15万美元的预算the government reserves an annual $150,000 budget 用于他们退休后的头30个月for an ex-president to spend on their staff for the first 30 months 也就是两年半的员工支出–that’s 2 and 1/2 years– of their retirement, 之后每年拨款9.6万美元after which they kick in $96,000 a year 因为很显然 前总统需要这笔钱because apparently they need that, too. 如果这还不够的话If that wasn’t excessive enough, 每一个前总统办公室房租也是由我们纳税人提供的every office space is comped courtesy of us, the taxpayers. 从现任总统的喜好来看Judging by the current president’s preferences and predilections, 我们可以合理的预计 他未来办公室的陈设和工作人员we can reasonably expect the furnishings and staff of his future office 将是一座纯金喷泉 里面满是金发女郎to be a solid gold fountain filled with blondes. 他们花多的惊人的时间规划他们的葬礼 前总统可以 而且经常Former presidents can, and often do, 会选择国葬choose to have a state funeral. 一切都很好All well and good. 这是能满足任何人的最好葬礼It’s as nice a funeral as anyone could ask for — 飞机在领空不间断的飞五天 five whole days of aircraft flyovers, 鸣枪敬礼和游行gun fire salutes,and parades, 当然 全国国旗降半旗and of course, flags remain lowered across the country, 即使我们不喜欢你even if we didn’t like you. 要计划的东西很多It’s a lot to plan for, 总统们花了大量时间来做这个计划and the presys spend an extraordinary amount of time doing the planning. 对理查德·尼克松来说 这是一个带着尊严死去的机会For Richard Nixon, it was a chance to die with dignity. 他选择离开 安静的葬在他的图书馆里He chose to opt out and be buried quietly in his library, 这与一位名誉扫地的前总统的身份相符as befits a disgraced ex-president 他去世前一直都在领取由税收资助的薪水who continued to draw a tax-funded paycheck until his death. 挺好 迪克 这不错Not bad, Dick, not bad. 演讲是前总统的生活方式 考虑到他们的工作有多少是在讲话Considering how much of their job is talking, 总统在完成工作后做大量演讲it seems a little incredible that a president can do the bulk of the speechmaking 这看起来有些不可思议after the job is done. 但这是真的 许多演讲都是由But it’s true. Many speeches given by those 担任过高职务的人在非在职期间发表的who have held that high office are given outside that office. 比如比尔·克林顿Take Bill Clinton. 从2001年1月到2013年1月He earned a whopping $104.9 million dollars 他发表了542次演讲from 542 speeches 收入高达1.049亿美元between January 2001 and January 2013. “在我离开白宫之前 我从未有过任何收入”“I’ve never had any money until I got out of the White House,” 他在2010年对沃尔夫·布利策说he told Wolf Blitzer in 2010, “但从那以后 我做的相当不错”“but I’ve done reasonably well since then.” 他们有巨额旅行预算 《前总统法案》又起作用了The Former Presidents Act is at it again. 我们已经谈到了旅游预算We’ve touched on the travel budget, 现在我们来告诉你目前的情况and now we’ll tell you just how things stand. 系好安全带Buckle up. 每位前总统每年都有权获得高达100万美元的费用Each and every ex-president is entitled to up to $1 million dollars 用于每年的安保和差旅费in security and travel expenses each daggone year, 另外还有50万美元给他的配偶with an additional half mil for his spouse. 唯一的限制甚至连限制都算不上The only catch is barely even a catch. 他们必须以美国政府官员的身份旅行They must be traveling as officials of the United States government, 这一规定诞生于《平安险》生效10年后and this stipulation came 10 years after the FPA was put into effect. 他们通过做慈善追求诺贝尔奖 在过去的四到八年里 你一直统治一个着第一世界的国家You’ve ruled a first-world country for the last four to eight years of your life. 现在你要问的是 接下来呢And you come to the question, what next? 你从权力顶点下来后该何去何从Where do you go from the top? 如果你不受爱戴 你还有机会让民众再次喜欢你吗And if you’re unpopular,is there a chance to make people like you again? 做慈善 得诺贝尔奖Philanthropy, the Nobel Prize. 那是通往不朽的金门票That’s the golden ticket to immortality, 是人民永恒的爱戴 是更美好的明天the eternal love of the people, and a better tomorrow. 或者他会适得其反 Or it backfires horribly 变成更多的政治和喜剧and turns into just more politics and a lot of comedy sketches, 就像戈尔告诉你的那样as Al Gore might be able to tell you. 吉米·卡特创立卡特中心Jimmy Carter founded The Carter Center 是为了保护民主国家的选举公正to protect election integrity in democratic nations, 调解外交纠纷 抗击疾病 以及一些其他了不起的事情mediate diplomatic disputes, fight disease, and other awesome things. 因此他当仁不让地获得2002年诺贝尔奖Or this– he justifiably won the 2002 Nobel Prize. 迈克尔·达菲 总统俱乐部的联合创始人Michael Duffy, co-author of The Presidents Club, 说卡特的慈善事业said of Carter’s philanthropic work, 让所有接替他的人都感到困难He’s made it difficult for absolutely everyone who’s come after him 因为谁能赶上他?确实没有 because who can keep up? Who, indeed. 除了米歇尔·奥巴马 谁还在努力?Who’s even trying,except Michelle Obama? 前总统的家从简谱到豪华不等 如果说我们今天学到了一件事If there’s one thing we’ve learned today, 那就是前总统的生活如影随形it’s that an ex-president’s life follows him. 当他辞职以后 这或许就不奇怪看到After the choices he made, it’s perhaps not surprising that 当哈里·杜鲁门离开白宫后 他直接去了岳母家里when Harry Truman left the White House, he went straight to his mother-in-law’s. 亲爱的 小甜心 温柔的吉米·卡特And dear, sweet,gentle Jimmy Carter 在乔治亚州有一套两居室的房子got a sensible two-bedroom house in Georgia. 另一方面 罗纳德·里根Ronald Reagan, on the other hand, 回到了他7000平方英尺的贝尔艾尔豪宅returned to his 7,000-square-foot Bel Air mansion. 奥巴马夫妇和克林顿夫妇也住进了豪宅The Obamas and Clintons settled down in some lavish lodgings, as well. 他们不一定有医保 医疗保健让人有点困惑Health care is a bit more confusing. 吉米·卡特的医保得益于埃默里大学Jimmy Carter gets his health benefits from Emery College, 他曾是那里的一名教师where he was once a teacher, 因为他没有连续五年在政府任职because he wasn’t a government employee for the minimum of five years requisite 那是获得医保必须的to gain health care benefits. 但是联邦计划局上涨的预算使得医保成为可能But the bloated budget of the FPA allows for health care. 什么导致的?What gives? 这是医保 所以它当然是陈旧的It’s health care, so of course it’s got to be archaic. 所有前总统及其配偶 寡妇和18岁以下儿童All former presidents and their spouses, widows,and children under 18 都有权免费在军事医院接受治疗are entitled to treatment in military hospitals free of charge. 他们也可以自费参加私人健康医保They can also enroll in private health insurance plans at their own expense, 如果他们想要的不仅仅是偶尔服用的止痛药 而且他们负担得起的话if they want more than the occasional Motrin and they can afford it. 前总统变得越来越富有Ex-presidents are getting wealthier, 在养老金 演讲 书籍between the pension,the speeches, the books,and the little odds 和我们没有时间处理的零星琐事之间and ends we didn’t have time to deal with. 像普通人一样生活和奋斗的唯一方法就是选择这样做And the only way to live and struggle like regular folk is to choose to do so. 吉米当然做到了 我们希望他得到更多的爱Jimmy certainly did, and we hope he gets a little more love for it 因为这是一个艰难的选择because it was one heck of a choice to make. 那么你认为前总统的退休生活是怎么样的呢?So what do you think of an ex-president’s post-presidential life? 在评论中让我们知道Let us know in our comments below, 当你在看的时候and while you’re at it, 看看我们《奇怪的历史》中的其它视频 check out some of these other videosfrom our Weird History.
  • 2021-10-30我是怎样找到属于自己的艺术风格的Hey guys! So…嘿大家好! I wanted to do a video about my art style and how it’s evolved.我想做个关于我的艺术风格和它如何演化的视频 If you’re not interested in art videos,如果你对艺术类视频不太感兴趣的话 come back next week!那你就下周再来看我的视频吧! Now if you ‘re not familiar with my work,现在你可能对我的工作并不熟悉 I do paintings and things like that on Instagram.我在ins上面画些画啊之类的东西 And then I also do a webcomic我也画网络漫画 that I publish on Tumblr Tapastic and Line Webtoon.发表在Tumblr Tapastic和Line Webtoon上 So my style kinda seems all over the place.所以我的风格好像挺杂的 Actually I feel a bit insecure about my art style,其实我对自己的艺术风格有点捉摸不定 because it’s really really simple因为它真的真的特别简单 It looks something like this.就像这个样子 And… I can’t imagine what people think when I tell them然后……我就无法想象当我告诉大家 I’m a professional artist or我是专业的画家或者 I’m trying to be a professional artist我正在努力成为一个专业的画家 with drawings that look like this.就画这样的画时人们会怎么想了 But trust me, it wasn’t always like this.但是相信我 我的风格不是一直如此的 jaywalker picturesjaywalker作品 How I Found My Art Style我是如何找到自己的艺术风格的 The usual path for artists is they see something really cool成为画家的通常之路都是他们看见了一些非常酷的东西 and want to draw like that and this然后想去像那样画画 was the case for me throughout high school这就是我高中时候的情况 I liked all the typical boy stuff我喜欢所有典型的男子气概的东西 So I drew Dragon Ball Z Robots and characters所以我画了龙珠z 机器人之类的角色 and there wasn’t much else to it并没有多大意义 Just having fun and drawing what makes you happy只是玩一玩 画些东西娱乐自己 Now my goal at the time was to become a video game artist我当时的志向是成为一个电子游戏画师 so I was around 15当时我大概十五岁 and basically I spent my time juggling school work基本上我把时间花在混混学业 and also improving my art和提高绘画技术上 then I went to university后来我上了大学 since we didn’t have any illustration schools in Sydney由于悉尼没有培训学校 I studied a course called Digital Media我就学习了数字媒体这门课程 which was a generic degree that covered everything from web design to 3D animation.也就是一个通用学位 覆盖了所有从网页设计到3D动画的类型 Now luckily for my final year major project幸运的是我的毕业任务 we were free to choose whatever we wanted to do.是让我们自由创作任何我们想做的东西 So I did a video game concept with a friend所以我和一个朋友做了一个概念电子游戏 and we created this entire world我们创造了这整个游戏世界 So it was amazingly fun and I couldn’t believe那特别有趣 而且我简直不敢相信 that what I was doing every single day was leading当时我每天干的事都是在引导我 me towards getting my degree but despite this the pressures获得学位证明 但是尽管这样 of the real world were creeping up on me现实生活中的压力也在悄悄降临在我的身上 and art became less about having fun艺术用来娱乐的目的就渐渐弱化了 more and more about who could create the most detailed更多地关于谁可以画出最细致的 the most realistic and the most professional looking art.最逼真 最专业的画 Graduation came and thankfully I landed a job as a video game artist毕业后谢天谢地我找到了一份电子游戏画师的工作 But that competitive stress never went away.但是那种竞争压力从未褪去 I would compare myself with other artists.我会把自己和其他画家进行比较 I would be obsessed with improving my technical skills我会对提升自己的技巧着魔 for me art was just about who could draw the coolest thing对于我来说艺术就是谁能画出最酷的东西 I would be dismissive of other forms of art我会看不起其它形式的艺术 like modern art or minimal design比如说现代画或者微设计 because they were “easy”因为那些特别“简单” You know that feeling when you go to an art gallery你应该懂那种当你走进画廊 and you think: I could do that that’s easy!然后想着“我也能画成这样啊!多简单!”的感觉 Well yeah, I was that guy嗯是的 我就是那种人 Art was about more realism,我认为艺术应该是更逼真 more detail, more impressive displays of skill更细致 展现更高超的绘画技巧 I compared myself with others in a never ending battle to be better.我把自己与其他人比较 为了变得更强而展开一场永无休止的战争 but there always was someone better但是人外有人 天外有天 and combined with the studio closing down再加上我当时的工作室倒闭了 I started to feel burnt out我开始觉得心力交瘁 and then I stopped drawing之后我就不再画画了 In the months after the studio closed I applied for jobs工作室倒闭后的几个月我应聘了几份工作 and I even got a job somewhere in Melbourne我甚至被一个在墨尔本某处的工作录用了 that I turned down.但是我拒绝了 Because ultimately I felt lost.因为最终我还是感觉很迷茫 Eventually I went back to school.最后我回到了学校 I got a job.找了份工作 I travelled and I didn’t really draw much.我去旅行 并没有画太多画 It was nice那感觉很棒 And even though I wasn’t drawing, unknowingly I was growing.即使我没有画画 我也在不知不觉中成长 Do you remember this scene from Harold and Kumar?你还记得这个在《寻堡奇遇》中的场景吗? I don’t know what it was.我不知道这是什么 maybe it was because John Cho is my hero可能是因为John Cho是我的偶像 maybe it was because Maria is the second most beautiful girl I’ve ever seen.可能是因为Maria是我见到过的第二漂亮的姑娘 Or maybe it was because I was a shy Twenty-something year old asian guy也可能是因为那时我是个亚洲的二十来岁的毛头小子 that didn’t have a girlfriend.并且还是单身狗一枚 Anyway it inspired me to draw this image.不管怎么说它激发了我画出这幅画的兴趣 It was a weird departure from anything I’d drawn before.很奇怪 我会画出这样一幅与我之前的风格大相径庭的画 No more superheroes. No more video game art. This was about people.没有超级英雄 没有电子游戏 这是关于人的 So Maria what’s been going on?Maria 最近过得怎么样? Oh I actually had a very long week at work. How about you?哦其实我这一周一直在工作 你呢? Work was good. I caught up on some sleep工作挺好的 我补了补觉 Plus the guy who works next to me而且坐我旁边的那哥们 decided to bathe for a change. -Really?决定要“洗”心革面了 -真的吗? I posted it on my Tumblr and it went crazy.我把它发布在我的Tumblr上 然后它就火了 300 likes overnight.一夜之间300个赞 Now that’s not a lot but for a guy getting 5-10 likes,虽然并不是很多 但是对于一个平常只有五到十个赞的人来说 this was huge.这已经巨多了 See I would post these detailed drawings of robots or armoured dudes看我之前会发这些特别细致的机器人或者穿着铠甲的人物的画 that I thought was technically superior and just like amazing我觉得这些画技术出众而且简直棒呆了 but I would get zero likes.但是我得不到任何赞 While this simple cute drawing had struck a chord这张简单可爱的画触动了我的心弦 and it was a turning point for me.而且这是我的一个转折点 So what are you up to tonight?那你今天晚上打算干些什么? Actually I’m just going to be sitting on my ass实际上我就打算瘫在家里 probably eat a whole pint of Haagen-Daz while I watch blind date.可能一边吃着一整品脱的哈根达斯一边看《非诚勿扰》 Well, that sounds…that sounds awful!呃……那听起来……听起来糟透了! Well listen. If you want some company maybe you can听着 如果你需要陪伴的话你可以 come over and sit on your ass at my place.过我这儿来然后瘫在我家 That sounds nice.听起来不错 It was the first time I realized that那是我第一次意识到 art is not always about the coolest looking thing or the most realistic.艺术不是总是关于有最酷外表的东西或者是最逼真的 Art can be evaluated in a number of ways.艺术可以从很多方面去评估 sometimes the best art is “simple”有时候最棒的艺术就是“简单” sometimes it redefines a culture有时候它会重新定义一种文化 other times the best art is something that tells a story and moves people还有些时候最棒的艺术就是讲述了一个令人感动的故事 and ironically after years of considering myself an artist讽刺的是在多年自认为是个艺术家的我 this was the first time I was actually making art这才第一次真正的创造出了艺术 Nowadays I draw comics to amuse myself现在我会画一些漫画来娱乐自己 I paint moments in time that are important to me画一些人生中对我来说很重要的时刻 about the themes that are important to me.或者一些对我很重要的场景 daily life日常生活 love爱情 authenticity本真 awkwardness尴尬时刻 and seeing comments and likes is far more satisfying而且看评论和赞比 than drawing another robot character with big guns.画拿着大枪的机器人要满足多了 though that can be fun too虽然那也很好玩 And my advice for those trying to find their art style?我对想要找到他们的艺术风格的人的建议? Focus on fundamentals.关注根本 Live a full life.过充实的人生 Express yourself.表达自己 And any time you feel lost with your art,任何时候你对自己的艺术感到迷茫 Always come back to two questions:一定要回到两个问题: Who am I?我是谁? and who do I aspire to be?我立志成为什么? Or just watch Harold and Kumar go to White Castle.或者就看看《寻堡奇遇》吧 [Music playing][音乐播放中] Hey guys! So I hope you like this video嘿朋友们!希望你们喜欢这个视频 I know it got a little bit arty farty.我知道这个视频有些附庸风雅 but I just really want to make videos that I’m really passionate about但是我真的很想做一些关于我所热爱的视频 and hopefully you’ll enjoy it as well.真心希望你们也能喜欢它 Anyway if you enjoyed the video不管怎么说如果你喜欢这个视频 please leave a like below and comment就在下面点个赞或者留下你的评论吧 And if you’re new here as usual please subscribe.如果你新来的 同往常一样 请关注我 And I’ll see you guys in the next video.下次视频再见了! Bye.拜拜!
  • 2021-10-30绅士们遇到混蛋是如何处理的Welcome back to the Gentleman’s Gazette!欢迎回到《绅士杂志》 Today’s video is all about how to deal with jerks今天的视频是关于如何应对“混蛋” because we will have a jerk or two in our lives因为我们的生活中总会有一两个混蛋 You probably have a boss who is jerk,你的老板可能就是个混蛋 maybe your neighbor a family member a friend或是你的邻居 家庭成员 或者朋友 or someone else或和你亲近的 who’s close to you.其他人 I mean, frankly, we’re all jerks sometimes;我的意思是 坦白说 我们都有混蛋的时候 If we have bad nights of sleep有时是我们晚上没睡好觉 maybe if we were sick,有时是生病了 or if we just have another thing to deal with或是有时只是要去处理其他事情 we can all behave like a jerk.我们都会表现得像一个混蛋 However, we’re talking more about people 然而 我们将更多的谈论那些 who are constantly and unapologetically a jerk.经常做混蛋事并毫无歉意的人 The weird thing is that being a jerk 奇怪的事情是作为一个混蛋 is sometimes correlated to being successful.有时侯会与成功联系在一起 For example, Steve Jobs was a bonafide jerk 例如 史蒂夫·乔布斯就是个不折不扣的混蛋 yet he was very successful.但他非常成功 So just because you’re a jerk doesn’t mean然而这不意味着成为混蛋 you’re automatically successful. 你就能自然而然地成功 Often, it’s the opposite.事实恰恰相反 And in today’s video,在今天的视频中 we show you how you can deal with jerks我们会教你如何在不降低自身水准的情况下 without going down to their level.来应对混蛋 So first of all,首先 what exactly is a jerk究竟什么是混蛋? and how can you earn respect without being one如何优雅的赢得他人的尊重? To answer those questions, please check out this video here.为了回答上述问题 请看这段视频 In a nutshell,简而言之 jerks are stubborn,混蛋们很顽固 they’re just full of themselves, they just care about themselves,他们非常自我 他们只关心自己 they’re not open to criticism or change,他们不接受批评和改变 and they’re just about winning, putting others down,他们只想着赢 打倒别人 and getting ahead in life no matter the cost.不计代价地在生活中领先其他人 Interestingly, when surveyed, 有趣的是 在接受调查时 a lot more people describe being subjected to oppression of jerks更多的人描述自己曾遭受过混蛋的压迫 rather than admitting to being one themselves.而不会承认自己也是混蛋中的一员 That means there are a lot people who are jerks这意味着 很多人实际上也是混蛋 but they don’t think of themselves as being a jerk,但他们并不认为自己是混蛋 this is called the blame bias.这就是所谓的责备偏见 When we see behavior in others,当我们审视他人的行为时 we assume that they’re trying to be a jerk 我们假设他们想成为一个混蛋 and mean about things 但当我们自己 yet when we do the exact same thing,做了同样混蛋的事时 we have different motives 我们就有了不同的动机 and we don’t think of ourselves as being a jerk, 我们不认为自己是一个混蛋 when in fact, other people assume we are.事实上 其他人认定我们就是混蛋 When people behave badly当人们的举止很糟糕时 they often think of it as being justified他们常常认为自己的行为是合理的 but they’re the only one thinking that way但只有他们自己是这样想的 all the others just think you’re a jerk.其他人都会把他们看作混蛋 The bigger problem with this behavior is that it can be contagious 此行为带来的更大问题是 它是会传染的 and other people can act in the same way 其他人会跟着那样做 and then it brings down the entire community.这会让整个社区变得糟糕 The first strategy in dealing with jerks 应对混蛋的第一个策略是 is to make sure you’re not one yourself.就是确保你自己不是其中之一 So once you’ve decided you’re not a jerk,所以一旦你确定自己不是个混蛋 the first step to dealing with jerks is to take action.应对混蛋首先要做的就是采取行动 Simply accepting behavior of jerks 放任混蛋的行为 or just letting it go is not going to make the situation better或是毫不在意并不能让事态好转 or resolve anything. 或解决问题 You’re instead empowering the jerks to continue doing what they do这只会让混蛋们更加得寸进尺 because they see no obstacle in behaving that way.因为这并未妨碍他们的混蛋行为 Jerks are often stubborn and are unlikely to change,混蛋们通常很固执并且难以改变 so you have to change something because that’s something you can control.因此你必须要改变 因为这是你能掌控的 First of all, you have to determine what kind of jerk you’re dealing with,第一步 你要判断清楚你遇到的是哪种混蛋 is it a clueless jerk who doesn’t know he’s a jerk 是那种他们没有意识到自己很混蛋的笨蛋 or is it an unrepentant jerk 还是那种顽固不化的混蛋 who knows what they do is wrong but they just don’t care.他们知道自己做错了 但毫不在意 Dealing with a clueless jerk is easy应对无知的混蛋很容易 because they actually might mean well 因为也许他们实际上是好意 and they simply just don’t know about it. 而且他们只是单纯没意识到 The best way to deal with it最好的处理方式是 is to take that person aside in a private moment 找一个私人时间 把他(她)叫到一边 and address the issue.然后解决这件事情 Don’t address it in front of a group 不要当着一群人的面说这些话 where they can feel attacked 在别人面前 他们会觉得受到了攻击 or where they feel particularly vulnerable,或者感到自己很脆弱 take them aside, so no one else can see it,把他们叫到一边 这样别人就看不见了 have a word with them, and explain what you’ve seen.跟他们交谈 解释你看到的 A clueless jerk will likely apologize,一个无知的混蛋可能会道歉 be sorry about it, and promise to change.对此感到遗憾 并承诺改变 Now in those situations,在这种情况下 it is best not to confront the people head-on面对这样的人 最好讲话不要太直接 but just say”I noticed”,”it seems like”. 而只需说“我注意到…”“它看起来…” Avoid terms like”you behave like an asshole”,避免用“你表现地很混蛋” 这样的措辞 instead say, ” lately I noticed that there were some tensions around you而是说 “最近 我注意到你身边的气氛很紧张” or you behaved in a way that made others uncomfortable” 或是说“你的表现让其他人感到不舒服” that way, you’re not just blaming him outright那样说的话 你并没有直接怪罪他 but you just explain a situation而只是在解释一下情况 and giving them a way to save their face.并给他们台阶下 It’s important to focus on their behavior, not them as a person,注重他们的行为 而不是他们本身 这是很重要的 otherwise, they’re likely to shut down否则 他们可能会让你闭嘴 and not take any of your criticism. 还不接受你的任何指正 Second, it’s great to have a remedy in mind 第二步 提前替他们想一些补救措施 and not just throw something out there 而不是仅仅把问题抛出来 and expect them to come up with a solution. 等着他们自己拿出解决方案 Again, don’t tell people what they should or should not do. 此外 不要告诉他们该怎么做或不该怎么做 Rather, share maybe an experience of a similar situation 而是 分享一个能真正帮助给出解决方案的 which really helped to come to a solution.类似情形的经历 That way, the clueless jerk will think they came up with a solution这样的话 笨蛋们会认为这是他们想出来的方案 and because of that, they’re much more likely to act on it也正因为如此 相比于你告诉他们该怎么做 rather than if you tell them what they should or should not do.或不该怎么做 他们更有可能采取行动 Now, when you’ve dealt with jerks,现在 当你应对混蛋的时候 you probably assume that they’re not a clueless jerk 你或许不会认为他们是无知的混蛋 because to you, it seems obvious they are unrepentant因为对于你来说 很明显 他们是故意的 and they do it because they enjoy it他们这样做 是因为享受 but that is part of the blame bias 但这也是指责偏见的一部分 and it’s best for you to assume 你最好假设 that everyone is a clueless jerk 每个人都是无知的混蛋 and therefore, you should always, as a first step,因此 你应该经常 像第一步说的那样 take them aside privately and approach them in the way just described.私下里把他们带到一边 用刚才描述的方法接近他们 Now if you’ve done that and the behavior doesn’t change,如果你这样做了 他们还没有改变 you deal with an unrepentant jerk.那你面对的就是顽固不化的混蛋 Unfortunately, there’s not a cooking recipe to deal with those kind of jerks,不幸的是 针对这一类混蛋 目前还没有应对方法 however, chances are they’re not likely or easily going to change. 然而 他们不太可能也不容易改变 Also, the power dynamics in a relationship are hugely important.此外 关系中的权力对比非常重要 If the jerk is a parent or a boss and you feel powerless,如果你的父母或者老板是这类混蛋 你感到无力 it’s best to ignore those people, walk away from them,最好的方式就是忽略他们 离他们远远的 and politely decline to even engage in a conversation with them.甚至礼貌地拒绝与他们交谈 Simply ignore them and take out the steam of their behavior that way.简单地忽略他们 让他们自讨没趣 The next step means it’s time to change for you.接下来 你需要做出改变了 You either have to quit, transfer to a different department,你要么辞职 要么转到另外一个部门 or maybe end the relationship或是结束这段关系 because if you address their behavior directly with your superior,因为如果你直接和你的上司谈论他们的行为 chances are they’re gonna retaliate against you 他们很可能会报复你 and make your life even worse. 让你的生活更糟糕 Now,if the power dynamics are equal 如果你们处于同一权力地位 and it’s someone like a friend, a sibling, or a colleague,他们是你的朋友 兄弟姐妹 或者是你的同事 you are at the same level, you have a few different options. 你们处于同一地位 你可以采取不同的方法 The one is to simply shun them, ignore them, exclude them from events,其中一个就是避开他们 避免和他们一起参加活动 and have a certain icy politeness but you’re clear态度冰冷而不失礼貌 但你要明确 that you don’t want to have anything to do with them,你不想再和他们扯上关系 you don’t want to listen to them,你不想听他们胡说八道 and you don’t want to be around them.你不想和他们呆在一起 Another option would be to fight fire with fire. 另一种方法就是以牙还牙 Now, this is very risky这很冒险 because a jerk will drag you down to their level 因为混蛋们会把你拉低到他们的水平 and beat you there with experience. 然后用经验打败你 So if a jerk yells at you, 所以当混蛋朝你大吼时 it’s not wise to yell back but you can speak up,最好不要跟他们大喊大叫 you can confront them, and tell them that it’s not okay.但你能发声 能直面他们 告诉他们这不行 You can even do so in front of others 你甚至可以当着别人的面这样做 and see if that makes a change.看看他们是否会有所改变 If it doesn’t, chances are its best simply to ignore them 如果没有 最好最简单的方式还是忽略他们 and again, quit that relationship or try to move in a place 再说一遍 结束这段关系 或尝试搬到一个 where you don’t have to deal with that kind of behavior.不用再面对这些行为的地方 If quitting is not an option, 如果没办法逃离 fighting fire with fire is your only option 那就只能跟他们硬碰硬 and that unrepentant jerk really understands that language 顽固不化的混蛋很懂这一套 so it may lead you somewhere but be careful.他们知道如何套路你 所以一定要小心 Now what about if you have a jerk 那么现在如果你的下属 who is your employee or your subordinate?或地位比你低的人是混蛋呢? In that case, things are a lot easier. 这样的情况处理起来就容易多了 Basically, you use your power and your force to require change,基本上 运用你的权力 就能改变 you take them aside, you address the issue, 把他们叫到一边 跟他们挑明情况 you tell them what needs to happen, and if it doesn’t happen,你告诉他们要怎么做 如果不那么做的话 you simply fire them and you just have to stick to that.直接炒掉他们 然后坚持下去 Now, one thing that works 现在 有一种方法很有效 no matter what the power dynamics are is to not give a ****, 无论在哪种权力地位情况下都很适用 however, that’s the most difficult one然而 这也是最难的一个 and it often requires a lot of good acting 这不仅需要你很会演 and self-discipline 又要很自律 but ultimately, if you can show people但基本上 如果你能表现出 that you don’t care either about their behavior or about them,你对他们的行为或他们自身毫不在乎 it makes them maybe angry or rethink their behavior 这可能会让他们生气或反思自己的行为 simply because a jerk wants attention 因为混蛋做那些事情就是想吸引注意力 and if you don’t give them attention 如果你不关注他们 and if you don’t give them gratification,如果你不给他们满足感 they may deflate and maybe they’ll move on 他们可能就会泄气 但也可能会继续 and you can stay where you are.而你可以保持立场 In my opinion, it’s one of the hardest approaches 在我看来 这是最难的一种方法 because it requires a lot of willpower on your end.你需要有超强的意志力 So in conclusion, jerks are everywhere.总结起来 混蛋无处不在 You should always assume that if you encounter them 如果你遇到他们 你应该假设他们都是无知的混蛋 that they’re clueless jerks take them aside privately tell them about it把他们带到一边 私下告诉他们 if they still don’t correct their behavior they are unrepentant jerks 如果他们毫无悔改 他们就是顽固的混蛋 and now you have different methods to deal with 这时候你有不同的方法去应对 that you can either shun them ignore them or fight fire with fire你要么避开他们 或忽视他们 要么以牙还牙 In today’s video,在今天的视频中 I am wearing a single breasted navy suit with notched lapels,我穿的是缺角翻领的单排扣海军蓝西装 but I really changed the look of it内衬红色条纹衬衫 by wearing a red striped shirt 搭配天鹅绒般雌鹿皮的 combined with a contrasting off-white double-breasted waistcoat 米白对比色双排扣背心 in velvety doe skin material.很大程度上地改变了这套衣服的观感 I’m combining it with a dark or medium brown grenadine tie 我搭配了一条深棕色或中褐色的薄纱领带 with a boutonniere from Fort Belvedere 加上来自贝尔威得堡的胸花 just like the tie which you can find in our shop 和领带一样 你可以在我们的店里买到它 here and it picks up the white tones of the vest 今天 我选择了白色基调的背心 and a stripe in the shirt 以及条纹衬衫 the pocket square is red and off-white polka dots 口袋方巾上是红色的 上有米白色的圆点 and it picks up the overall color scheme 它的配色与衣服配色相呼应 as you can see如你所见 because of the contrast it looks very different 跟你那套普通的海军服比起来 than your typical run-of-the-mill navy suit 它看上去非常与众不同 this is enhanced by the fact 事实证明 that I’m wearing brown suede leather boots which are softer我穿的棕色绒面革皮靴 than maybe a black oxford that you would usually encounter比你通常穿的黑色牛津款更柔软 yet it works well with my brown tie.现在和我的棕色领带也很搭 My shirt cuffs are French cuffs for double cuffs 我的衬衫袖口是是法式双袖口 and I’m wearing a pair of gold monkey fist knot cuff links并且我戴着一对永恒经典的 which very timeless and classic金猴拳结袖扣 and are inspired by the nautical knot 它们的灵感来自航海绳结 and you can find them in our shop, here您可以在我们的商店中找到它们
  • 2021-10-303种方法教你徒手画出完美的圆大家好 欢迎再次来到周二的指导课堂Hello my friends and welcometo another Tuesday of tutorial! 我是Leonardo Pereznieto 今天I am Leonardo Pereznieto and today 我将向您展示三种画出完美的I will show you tree ways 圆的方法to draw a perfect circle. 其实 其中两种方法有技巧可寻 但是它们非常有效Actually, two of them are hacksbut they are very effective. 第三个方法And the third one it is 是真正有艺术技巧的a true artistic technique to draw 徒手画出一个圆a circle free hand. 这是第一个技巧:如果你想要一个小圆This is the first trick:If you want a small circle, 把中指放在笔尖那里place your middle finger by the lead, and then firmly on the paper. 然后平稳地转动纸张Then smoothly turn the paper around. 它就会以你的手指为轴转动It will be turning around your fingerwhich is the axis. 然后非常平稳地握住你的And hold your hand and the pencil 手和笔尖very still. 我们就得到了一个小圆And we have a small circle. 如果你想要一个大一点的圆 用两个手指 像这样If you want a slighter bigger circle, use too fingers, like this. 很好!Good! 想要再大一点的 用三个手指For a still larger one, use tree fingers, 把小指放下[大笑]and place the pinky down [laughter]. 像这样……很好!Like so… Good! 想要画一个更大的圆 要用到腕部的骨头And for a bigger one, use this bone of the wrist. 把它放在纸上固定住但是不要太用力Put it down firmly,but not with a lot of pressure 否则就很难转动纸张了because otherwise it is hardto turn the paper. 整个手和腕部固定住 不要动The whole hand and the wristare locked, not moving, 用一个恒定的力握住笔And apply a constant pressurewith the pencil. 好了[哈哈]Taraaaan [laughter]. 我们再画一次 这次用一支马克笔Let´s do this again, butthis time using a fine marker. 我们把手放平稳 以腕部为支撑We place the hand very firmly,standing on the bone. 下笔之后我开始转动纸张And I begin moving the paperbefore putting the tip down, 这样画出来的圆线条平滑 没有任何瑕疵so that it smooth and I don´t geta mark. 好啦There you go! 我们用两支铅笔再来画一下这个Let´s do another version of this,with two pencils. 它们大小不同They can be of different sizes. 我们把笔尖放置水平We arrange the tips so they are level, 把一支固定在纸上place one firmly on the paper, 用另一支笔画and draw with the other one. 非常精准!This is very precise! 好了我们可以用这些技巧Ok, these tricks can be very useful, 但是现在去看看真正的艺术画法吧but now let´s go to a real artistic technique. 我们握住铅笔使它与纸面保持垂直We hold the pencil more perpendicular to the paper than usual, 然后流畅地and smoothly 开始画圆start making circles. 整个胳膊跟着转动Move the whole arm fromthe shoulder. 很好!Good! 现在如果你想要一个圆 你可以挑选出一条线And now if you want to, you can go over a single line, 用这种方法in this fashion. 我旋转纸张以保持这个位置 因为I rotate the paperto keep this position, because 这个方向 圆的另一边比较难画the other side of the circleis more complicated. 这边更自然This side is more natural; 如果你用左手 当然你得if you are left-handed, it would be 用与之相反的方向来画the opposite, of course. 非常好!Very good! 好了!Ok! 我们再来画一个Let´s do one more. 握住铅笔使它垂直于纸面Hold the pencil perpendicularto the paper… 在不接触纸张的情况下and I usually make a coupleof circle movements without 我通常会先比划着画一下touching the paper. 然后我开始轻轻地以平缓的速度描出来Then I start lightlyand at even pace. 记住 实际上所有的动作都是由Remember, practically allthe movement will come from 你的肩膀来完成的 整个胳膊 还有肘部只动一点点your shoulder, and whole arm,and the elbow will move just a little bit. 我画了这么多线一定有一条是正确的[哈哈]I made so many lines thatone must be correct! [laughter]. 所以我们反复描一下So we go over it. 你想得到什么样的圆 然后你反复去描就可以了Visualize the circle you wantto make, and go over it. 像这样Like so. 你可以让它成为你需要的You could leave it like thatdepending on what do you 或者你想让它成为的样子need it for, or how you want itto look… 或者你也可以擦掉它or you can clean it up. 在这个图形里擦掉所有不该有的线条In this case erase all the linesthat shouldn´t be there 包括里面和外面多余的线both outside and inside the circle. 好了!All right! 我们得到了一个圆!We have a circle! 这当然需要一些练习This of course requires some practice. 这有一个好的方法 你可以练习着做一下One good exercise that you can do, 就是用一个实物 然后按照它的轨迹描绘一个圆is to trace a circle, using an object, 用一支彩笔 然后用你的铅笔重复地去描那个线with a marker, and then go over the line with your pencil. 一遍一遍地去描绘Over and over and over and over. 我重复描绘的时候通常不会碰到纸I usually go over it without touching the paper, 在描了两三次的时候for two or three circles 一旦我感觉我对这个圆and once I feel I have the hang 有点感觉 我就会开始施加一点点压力of it more or less, then I start pressing lightly. 对于不同大小的圆用这种方法Do this with circles of different sizes 你就会很擅长这件事了and you will become profession at it. 如果你喜欢它 可以收藏或点赞哦If you enjoyed it pleas give it aLIKE! 把它分享给你的朋友们share it to your friends 订阅Fine Art-Tips和Patreonand subscribe to Fine Art-Tipsand to Patreon. 你知道哪里可以找到我 链接在下面You know where to follow me,the links are below. 周二见哦!And I will see youon Tuesday!
  • 2021-10-30漫谈俄史俄罗斯是地球上最大的国家Russia is the largest country on Earth, 面积广达1700万平方公里spanning an incredible 17 millions square kilometers. 如果你像我一样But if you’re anything like me, 你可能想知道它为何如此广阔you’re probably wondering how it is so big 是如何变成我们现代社会中如此强大的政治社会实体的and how it can become sucha powerful political and social entity in our modern world. 它不仅拥有“欧洲最大且最受欢迎的国家和城市”的头衔It not only takes the title of largest and most popular country and city in Europe, 而且其国土覆盖远不止欧洲but also stretches far beyond Europe, 还横跨乌拉尔山脉直达亚洲across the Ural Mountains range into Asia. 占据了该大陆最大的部分Taking up the largest portion of the continent. 东欧的主要历史始于Principle history of the eastern Europe began with the people 一群被希腊作家称为“斯拉夫”的人the greek writers called “Slavs” 首个俄罗斯国家的成立是在882年的伏尔加河和第聂伯河流域间The first russian state was founded when a Group of eastern Slavs 一群后来被称为“罗斯”的东斯拉夫人late known as”The Rus'” elected a Viking chieftain to be their prince in 882 选举维京酋长作为他们的国王In the area between the Volga and Dnieper river basins 这个国家很快扩展到了那些The state was soon expanded into the lands 曾经被亚洲草原游牧民族所拥有的土地上once held by the nomadic steppe people from Asia 他们攻占的最重要的城市是基辅The most important city they captured was Kiev 这就是历史学家称此段俄罗斯历史为“基辅罗斯”的原因which is why historians refer to this part of Russia’s history as the”Kievan Rus'” 罗斯人讲的“原东斯拉夫语”The Rus’ spoke a Language called”Proto eastern-Slavic” 逐渐演变为俄语和乌克兰语which would slowly evolve into Russian and Ukranian 中世纪罗斯王国在998年接受了基督教The medieval Rus’ state adopted Christianity in 988 当时是弗拉基米尔一世从信奉正统基督教的拜占庭帝国引入了此教when Vladimir I introduced the religion from the orthodox christian Byzantine Empire. 这也是为什么俄罗斯人使用西里尔字母This is also why the Russians use the cyrillic 而不是天主教国家普遍使用的拉丁字母rather than the latin alphabet common in most catholic nations. 由于11世纪 智者雅罗斯拉夫之死的推波助澜The Rus’ state slowly fragmented into competing princedoms, 罗斯王国逐渐分裂成相互竞争的小国largely aided by the Death of Yarolsav the Wise in XI century. 罗斯经常与游牧部落发生战争The Rus’ were often at war with the nomadic tribes 我们将简称其为“草原民族”we will just call for simplicity’s sakes “Steppe Peoples”. 这些草原民族是亚洲史上不可或缺的一部分 These steppe peoples are integral to much of the history of Asia 你会看到在他们身上涌现出各种各样的特质and you’ll see various facts on them popping up on all over the place. 大多数草原民族起源于欧亚大草原Most steppe peoples originated from the Euariasan Steppes. 正因如此Go and figure. 他们非常擅长骑马和射箭And they were very good at horse riding and archery, 比如伏尔加保加利亚人 such as the Volga Bulgars, 可萨人Khazars 和钦察人and Kipchaks 因此我们可以转而来谈论一下So with that out of the way we can talk about the Mongols, 被罗斯称为“鞑靼人”的蒙古人who the Rus’ called Tartars. 在成吉思汗和拔都汗的带领下Under Genghis and Batu Khan, 他们一路入侵到西基辅罗斯they invaded all the way into Western Kievan Rus’ 并建立了拥有罗斯诸国为附庸国的and established a state called”The Golden Horde” 名为“金帐汗国”的蒙古帝国with the Rus’ princedoms as their Vassals 随着波兰 立陶宛和莫斯科大公国等The Mongol Empire quickly fracted into smaller khanates, 更强大的国家的崛起along for the growth of more powerful states 蒙古帝国迅速分裂成较小的汗国such as Poland, Lithuania, and the grand Duchy of Moscow. 到1480年 两个国家吞并了金帐汗国大部分的国土By 1480, both states absorded much of the Golden Horde, 相较于鞑靼国becoming more rivals with each other, 这两国更像是竞争对手 than with the Tartars. 到1547年 随着伊凡雷帝被加冕为第一位沙皇By 1547, Moscow had become a regional power 在俄语中称为“凯撒”with Ivan the Terrible being crowned the first Tsar, 莫斯科成为了当地一霸the russian word for “Caesar”. 毕竟他们自视是罗马的宗教继承者After all they did see themselves as the spiritual successors of the Romans, 并且是正统基督教的最后遗民and the last remnant of the orthodox christianity. 值得商榷的是Debatable. 在罗斯居住过伊凡也将国家改名为“俄罗斯”Ivan also renamed the state “Russia” after the Rus’, who inhabited it. 1580年 俄罗斯攻下了西比尔汗国In 1580, Russia conquered the khanates of Sibir, 标志着俄罗斯首次将乌拉尔山脉东部领土扩张到亚洲marking the first time Russia had expanded east of the Ural Mountains into Asia. 攻下汗国后 The Russians renamed the mysterious lands “Siberia”, 俄罗斯人将这片神秘的土地重新命名为“西伯利亚”after the khanate had conquered. 你觉得他们会就此收手吗?And do you think they stopped there? 剧透一下Well, spoiler alert: 不会NO. 1601年 在俄罗斯空位时期之初In 1601 the Russians faced a succession crisis 俄罗斯人面临着一连串危机as the beginning of the Time of Trobules. 国家处于无政府状态The country was in anarchy. 有着被波兰吞并的危险And in danger of being absorbed by Poland 高达三分之一的人口Up to 1 of 3 of population died, 死于战争瘟疫或饥荒either due to war famine or plague. 到1613年 俄罗斯人选举米哈伊尔·罗曼诺夫作为新沙皇By 1613, the Russiand elected Mikhail Romanov as the new Tsar, 在这个国家接下来的历史上建立了罗曼诺夫王朝establishing the Romanov dynasty for the rest of the country’s history. 米哈伊尔结束了战争Mikhail ended the wars 并开启了重建这个分裂国家的缓慢过程and began a slow process of rebuilding the fragmented country. 从此事起到19世纪 From this point until the XIX century, 俄罗斯的经济得到了农奴制的支撑 Russia’s economy was propped up by serfdom, 通过将所有的农民变成世袭的农奴effectilvely protecting Russia’s rich and powerful 有效地维护了俄罗斯的财富和权力by turning all the peasants into hereditary slaves. 是的 历史有时是很糟糕Yeah, history sucks sometimes. 到1667年 在已被征服的“哥萨克”草原民族的帮助下By 1667, Russia had become powerful enough to win the Russo-Polish war 俄罗斯已经变得强大到足以在俄波战争中取胜with the help of the subjugated steppe peoples called “Cossacks”. 他们将领土扩张到东南部和波兰的一部分They expanded their territory into southeast and part of Poland. 根据一个古老的斯拉夫词语“边疆”The poles in the Russia had informally nicknamed the area “Ukrania”, 俄罗斯的极地地区被非正式地称为“乌克兰”derived from an old slavic word, “Borderland”. 提到它 是因为它地处Get it because it was the border between 俄罗斯 波兰和哥萨克三国的交界Russia, Polands and the Cossacks. 不管怎样 它很有创意 Very creative, anyway. 俄罗斯最著名的沙皇之一是彼得大帝One of Russia’s most famous Tsar was Peter the Great. 彼得大帝是一个改革家Peter was a reformer. 他使军队现代化He modernized the army, 建立了帝国的第一支海军built the Empire’s first navy, 他游历西方并带回了启蒙运动的思想和技术traveled the west and brought back ideas and technology of the enlightenment 还有时尚的法式服装And also fashionable French cloathing. 他还扩大了俄罗斯在黑海和波罗的海的影响力He also expanded Russia’s influence in the Black and Baltic seas. 这家伙根本就爱上了西方The guy was basically in love with the west. 在大北方战争从瑞典帝国夺取了波罗的海港口后After capturing the baltic sea port from the Swedish Empire in the Great Northen War, 彼得大帝建造了一座新城市 Peter built a new city 并将其确立为国家的新首都and founded it as the country’s new capital: 圣彼得堡Saint Petersburg. 俄罗斯还在七年战争中Russia also fought in the Seven Years War 与欧洲邻国争夺政权vying for power with the european neighbours. 另一位令人敬畏的俄罗斯统治者是凯瑟琳大帝Another formidable Russian ruler was Catherine the Great. 她……呃……Who was… Well.. 根本就不是俄罗斯人not really russian at all. 她出生于德国She was born in Germany. 她杀了丈夫并为她自己夺取了王位And she killed her husband and seized the throne for herself. 她的当政是克里米亚汗国改革和统治中的一部分Her reign was one of reform and domination of the Crimean Khanate, 同时她也开放地采纳了启蒙思想as well as openly embracing the enlightment. 在18世纪中期In the mid XVIII century, 波兰政府因议会的软弱而垮台the polish government collapsed due to a parliamentary limber. 周围的奥地利 普鲁士和俄罗斯And the surrounding Austria, Prussia and Russia 在波兰分裂期间将这个国家分成三部分split the country in three during the Polish Partitions, 有效地将该国从下一世纪的地图上抹去了effectively wiping the country off the map for the next century. 彼时正逢拿破仑战争Just in time for the Napoleonic Wars. 俄罗斯Russia, 就像当时其他欧洲君主制国家一样just like the other europeans monarchies of the time, 害怕法国革命的负面影响feared the repercussion of the french revolution. 加入了反对拿破仑的第二 第三和第四联盟And joined the second, third, and fourth coalitions against Napoleon. 但是他们通常惨遭失败But they usually lost pretty badly. 1812年 法国军队占领了被废弃的莫斯科The french army captured the abandoned Moscow in 1812. 然而 俄罗斯人宁愿烧掉那片土地以期法国人离开However, the Russians would not surrender, 也不愿投降preferring to burn the fields that the French hoped to leave off. 等了几个月后After waiting a few months, 还没考虑如何让俄罗斯人投降Napoleon retreated from Russia due to lack of supplies 拿破仑就因为供给不足从俄罗斯撤退了before considering the Russians surrender. 当大雪降临并杀死了大部分法国军队时And when the snow set in and killed most of the french army, 局势就扭转为对俄罗斯有利了the tide was turned in Russia’s favor. 俄罗斯的领土扩张变得十分雄心勃勃Russia’s territorial gains had become so ambitious, 以致引发了与法国和英国的战争that it triggered a war with france and england, 两国还在克里米亚战争中帮助了奥斯曼帝国who helped the ottomans in the Crimean War. 1861年 在名为“解放”的事件中In 1861, Russia abolished serfdom 俄罗斯废除了农奴制in an event now known as The Emancipation. 同时 值得一提的是 在拿破仑与解放之间的时期Also, in the period between Napoleon and the emancipation, 俄罗斯将其领土扩大到it’s worthwhile to know that Russia expanded its territory into 土耳其斯坦Turkestan, 中国China, 南高加索the Southern Caucasus, 芬兰Finland 以及俄属北美洲and Russian America. 若不是因为克里米亚战争And were not for the Crimean war, 他们差点就会赢得整个黑海they almost certainly would have won the entire black sea. 他们真的很喜欢土地They really loved land. 1894年 沙皇尼古拉斯二世In 1894, Tsar Nicholas II and the mystic Rasputin, 和人们认为秘密控制着他的神秘拉斯普京who people thought secretly controlled him, 成为俄罗斯的最后一位皇帝became the last emperor of Russia. 几十年来 政治体制遭到反抗There were revolts against the political system for many decades 君主制正逐渐失去权力and monarchy was slowly losing its power. 作为塞尔维亚的盟友As an ally of Serbia, 俄罗斯力求在一战期间保护波罗的海斯拉夫人免受阿斯特罗-匈牙利的入侵Russia aimed to protect the Baltic Slavs from the Astro-Hungarian invasion during World War I. 战乱和饥荒引发了两次俄罗斯革命The chaos and famine of the war led to the two Russian Revolutions. 第一次是反对沙皇The first opposed the Tsar 并建立了受苏维埃高度影响的省政府and set up the provincial government highly influenced by the Soviets. 苏维埃基本上来说 是受马克思主义启发而形成的工人联盟The Soviets were basically workers unions inspired by Marxisism. 弗拉基米尔·列宁的布尔什维克政党在苏维埃上台执政Vladimir Lenin’s bolshievik party came to power in the soviets 并在十月革命中掌权 and seized power in the october revolution, 建立了俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国creating the R.S.F.S.R. 和红白两方对立的俄罗斯内战and the Russian civil war between the reds and the whites 内战导致 波兰 波罗的海各国和芬兰的分裂The civil war led to the breakaway of Poland and Baltic States and Finland. 1922年 俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国In 1922, the R.S.F.S.R. 改名为更为我们熟知的 苏维埃社会主义共和国联邦was renamed the U.S.S.R., a much catchier name. 列宁死后After the Death of Lenin, 俄罗斯最著名的共产主义时代独裁者上台Russia’s most famous communist era dictator came to power. 约瑟夫斯大林Joseph Stalin 斯大林出生于古老的俄罗斯帝国 就是如今的格鲁吉亚Born in the old Russian Empire now modern-day Georgia, 他是一个野心勃勃的扩张主义者Stalin was an aggressive expansionist, 可以想象go and figure. 他的目标是向全世界传播共产主义He had aims of spreading communism throughout the world. 他还对内战期间俄罗斯的领土损失感到愤愤不平He also resented Russia’s territorial losses during the civil war. 他杀死并流放了数百万他认为是反革命的人He killed and exiled millions of people he deemed anti-revolutionary 由于与西欧国家的失败外交With failed diplomacy with the western european nations, 斯大林与纳粹德国签订了互不侵犯条约Stalin entered into the non-aggression pact with the Nazi-Germany 以希望重获第一次世界大战中hoping to regain much of the land lost 在波兰与波罗的海失去的大部分土地in the first World War in Poland and Baltic Sea 在9月1日到17日On the 1st to 17th of September, 德国和俄罗斯入侵并分裂波兰 Germany and Russia invaded and divided Poland in two, 开始了第二次世界大战beginning the second World War 起初 在与希特勒的不稳定联盟中Originally, in an uneasy alliance with Hitler, 战争的局势随着希特勒入侵苏联而转变the tide of war turned with Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union. 这次入侵杀死的军队比其他战争都多The invasion killed more troops than any other theatre of battle 同时德国的军队距离莫斯科只有24公里and German’s armies came just 24 kilometers from Moscow. 然而 严冬的暴风雪来临了However the winter blizzard set in, 战势转变成更利于苏联的局面turning the battle in the Soviets’ favor. 在纳粹德国战败后After the defeat of nazi germanies, 斯大林保住了苏联攻占的领土Stalin held on to the Soviets occupied territories, 将它们变为苏联的一部分或者创建了共产主义傀儡国家enveloping them into the USSR or creating communist puppet states. 西方盟国对苏联地区存有疑心The western allies treated the Soviet block with suspicion, 在此期间苏联发展核武器in which Soviet developed nuclear weapons 并成为历史上最强大的国家之一and became one of the most powerful nations in history 在苏美太空竞赛期间The USSR was the first nation to put a man in space 苏联是第一个载人航天的国家during the American-Soviet space race. 经过数十年的贫困和政治动荡After decades of poverty and political unrest, 以及在与美国的代理人战争的投入as well as involvement in numerous proxy wars with United States, 苏联最终在一党制共产主义国家的重压下the USSR finally collapsed 解体了under the weight of the one party communist state. 俄罗斯联邦是作为一个近乎民主的共和国形成的The Russian Federation was formed as a nearly democratic republic 之后两个最重要的东部国家The two most important easter block states, 波兰和东德Poland and East Germany, 脱离了俄罗斯的控制broke away from russian control. 俄罗斯东部也随之脱离了And the eastern part of Russia also broke away, 形成了两个新的国家to form two new countries 白罗斯或“白俄罗斯”和乌克兰Belarus, or “White Russia”, and Ukraine 前克格勃官员 弗拉基米尔·普京的崛起The rise of Vladimir Putin, a former KGB officer, 成为俄罗斯的总理以及总统into the prime ministry and presidency of Russia, 给俄罗斯带来了新的外交政策brought with it renewed foreign policy. 普京参与了叙利亚内战Putin became involved in the Syrian Civil War, 乌克兰的东俄分裂主义运动the east Russian separatism movement in Ukraine 以及许多东欧国家的政治运动and the politics of many eastern-europeans countries. 照其领导人的动机来看 如今俄罗斯的未来仍无法确定Modern day Russia’s future is uncertain, as is the motives of its leader. 然而 国家正处于和平状态However,the nation is in a state of peace, 其将于2018年举办足球世界杯will be hosting the football world cup in 2018, 并还将再次成为世界超级大国and is emerging once again as a world superpower. 感谢大家的收看 请点赞并关注我们Thanks for watching everyone, please like and subscribe. 如果你对我的国家历史动画感兴趣的话If you’re interested in my animation of country history, 可以点击这里观看更多剧集you can click here to watch more episodes, 如果你有兴趣帮助像我这样的创业动画师and if you’re interested in helping a startup animator like me, 你也可以在patreon上打赏我一美元you can also pledge me a dollar over at patreon 保持频道的活力To keep the channel going. 记得照顾现在的草原民族Remember to always be on the lookout for steppe peoples on the horizon, 观众们 下次见until next time, guys.
  • 2021-10-30如何用水彩画樱花树大家好 欢迎来到每周二的教程时间Hello my friends and welcometo another Tuesday of tutorial. 我是莱昂纳多I am Leonardo Pereznieto and today, 今天我教大家一个非常流行的东西by popular demand, we are going 画一棵樱花树首先to paint a cherry tree. 我们先调好需要的颜色红色We begin by preparing our tones. 紫色With red, purples, orange and white. 橙色和白色随便找个东西 用画笔轻轻敲击Then with the brush,lightly tap on a solid object 然后水彩就会散布在纸面上to splatter paint. First, 我建议你们先在废报纸或者其他不要的东西上先试试practice on newspaperor other surfaces that you can waste. 到你觉得已经掌握了技巧的时候Until you feel you gotthe hang of it and you 再到画纸上操作can control it. 像这样做出树冠的形状In this way create the shape of the foliage of the tree. 我现在用浅色做一些光影效果Now I´m using a lighter tone to create a light and shadow effect. 别弄的太规则Don´t try to get a uniformsurface, as the flowers usually 因为花都是随机分布的happen in clusters. 现在用更加浅的粉红很好!Now we use an even lighter pink. Good! 哈哈哈This is so fun! 如果你想让画面不要这么混乱If you wish to keepyour piece of paper cleaner 那就像这样 用一张中间剪开的纸than what I am doingright now, you may use 盖在上面masks of different sizesand shapes like this one, 这样你就可以控制在哪喷墨了in this way, you willbe able to control where 我建议你不停的移动这张打孔纸the paint lands… But Irecommend that you continue 这样就不会to move the mask, 弄出不自然的形状so that you don´t get an unreal line 注意水彩没干的时候不要把打孔纸放上去and don´t place the mask on wet paint, wait for it to dry. 我用的是水彩不过你们可以套用这方法I´m using watercolorbut you can employ this 到别的颜料上technique for differenttypes of paints. 然后保护你的画纸And make sure to protectyour working area 不要被不必要的墨迹污染了against unwanted splashes. [laughs] 哈哈哈作画的材料请看视频下方的资料现在The list of materials is inthe information below the video. 再来点更淡的墨滴And now, some lighter drops. 我很喜欢这样做出树的形状好!I love it how you can build the shape, in this way. Good! 该画树干了It is time to paintthe trunk. 利用不同色调的颜料 可以画底部树干With brown of different tones,we can paint the lower part, 和下面的泥土as well as a base. 还有树枝And the branches. 我们在空白处We do these, specially onthe blank spaces, where 以及没有花朵的地方画树枝there are no flowers. 这次我们画的是In this case we are doing the flowers 樱花of a cherry tree, 不过你可以用同样的方法but you may use the sametechnique for the leaves 画其他树的树叶of another tree. 用一支细一些的笔我们画些新树枝快好了With a finer brushwe do the thin branches 我们再稍微着色很好!toward the ends. And givesome shading to the trunk. Good! 树干Now, so that thetrunk and the branches 树枝为了更自然些 我们再弄点儿浅色的墨滴look more natural, we do some light drops, on top of them. 就像这样Like this, not too much. 不要太多这会让它更生动This makes it look more lively and real. 太棒了!Excellent! 如果你喜欢的话请帮我点个赞If you enjoyed it, please give it a LIKE, 欢迎分享这视频给你的朋友并订阅share it to your friendsand subscribe to Fine Art-Tips, 下周二再见:)and I will see you on Tuesday:) 字幕:SHIROSubtitled by Grethel Trejo
  • 2021-10-30关于CRISPR你必须知道的东西有人听说过 CRISPR 吗So, has everybody heard of CRISPR? 大家不可能没听过吧I would be shocked if you hadn’t. 这是一种人为改变染色体的技术This is a technology — it’s for genome editing — 这种技术如此全能却又十分引人争议and it’s so versatile and so controversial 以至于各种有趣的争论应运而生that it’s sparking all sorts of really interesting conversations. 我们应该复活猛犸象吗Should we bring back the woolly mammoth? 我们应该改造人类胚胎吗Should we edit a human embryo? 我最喜欢的一个问题是And my personal favorite: 我们能够接受How can we justify wiping out an entire species 用这种技术that we consider harmful to humans 将一个人类认为有害的物种off the face of the Earth, 从地球上完全消灭吗?using this technology? 这种科技比控制它本身的常规技术This type of science is moving much faster 发展的还要快than the regulatory mechanisms that govern it. 在过去六年里And so, for the past six years, 我致力于I’ve made it my personal mission 让更多人了解这种技术to make sure that as many people as possible understand 以及它的意义何在these types of technologies and their implications. 现在 CRISPR已经成了媒体炒作的焦点Now, CRISPR has been the subject of a huge media hype, 最普遍的用于描述它的词是“容易” 和“廉价”and the words that are used most often are “easy” and “cheap.” 我想将这个话题深入下去So what I want to do is drill down a little bit deeper 并探讨与之有关的谜团以及现实状况and look into some of the myths and the realities around CRISPR. 如果 你想在一条染色体上做CRISPRIf you’re trying to CRISPR a genome, 你得首先破环DNA分子the first thing that you have to do is damage the DNA. 这种破坏需要从双螺旋结构上The damage comes in the form of a double-strand break 斩断双链结构through the double helix. 随后细胞的修复机制开始插手And then the cellular repair processes kick in, 这时我们就可以让这些修复系统and then we convince those repair processes 来改造我们想要的基因了to make the edit that we want, 这不是自然的改造and not a natural edit. 这就是这种技术的原理That’s how it works. 这是一个两步走的技术It’s a two-part system. 首先要有一个Cas9蛋白质 还有一种向导RNAYou’ve got a Cas9 protein and something called a guide RNA. 可以将其比作定向引导导弹I like to think of it as a guided missile. 于是Cas9蛋白质 我喜欢将其拟人化So the Cas9 — I love to anthropomorphize — Cas9 就像是吃豆人中的小圆脸so the Cas9 is kind of this Pac-Man thing 迫不及待地想要吃掉 DNAthat wants to chew DNA, 向导RNA相当于拉住它 使它远离染色体的牵引绳(类似遛狗)and the guide RNA is the leash that’s keeping it out of the genome 直到它找到特定的位点until it finds the exact spot where it matches. 这两种分子的结合体就叫做 CRISPRAnd the combination of those two is called CRISPR. 这是一种我们从It’s a system that we stole 古老的细菌结构中发现的方法from an ancient, ancient bacterial immune system. 最令人惊奇的部分是 RNAThe part that’s amazing about it is that the guide RNA, 虽只有20个有效信息only 20 letters of it, 但却是整个结构的定位部分are what target the system. CRISPR 设计起来非常容易This is really easy to design, 并且价格低廉and it’s really cheap to buy. 这种手法已经被模块化So that’s the part that is modular in the system; 并且一成不变everything else stays the same. 因此这种技术用起来十分便捷 并且有效This makes it a remarkably easy and powerful system to use. 向导 RNA 和 Cas9 蛋白质组成一个整体The guide RNA and the Cas9 protein complex together 在染色体上来回穿梭go bouncing along the genome, 当它们发现一个与向导 RNA 吻合的部位时and when they find a spot where the guide RNA matches, 就会嵌入双螺旋结构then it inserts between the two strands of the double helix, 将其撕裂it rips them apart, 导致 Cas9 蛋白质开始切割工作that triggers the Cas9 protein to cut, 于是突然之间and all of a sudden, 你就让一个细胞处在了极大的恐慌之中you’ve got a cell that’s in total panic 因为它的一条 DNA 被破坏because now it’s got a piece of DNA that’s broken. 这时它该怎么办呢What does it do? 呼叫现场急救员It calls its first responders. 细胞有着两种主要的修复机制There are two major repair pathways. 第一种是直接将断掉的 DNA 接上The first just takes the DNA and shoves the two pieces back together. 这种方法不是最有效的This isn’t a very efficient system, 由于有时会多一个链环because what happens is sometimes a base drops out 有时又会少一个or a base is added. 这种方法只能… 算撞出一个基因来It’s an OK way to maybe, like, knock out a gene, 但不是我们通常想要的基因改造方式but it’s not the way that we really want to do genome editing. 第二种修复机制更为有趣The second repair pathway is a lot more interesting. 在这种机制中In this repair pathway, 细胞会寻找一条相同的 DNAit takes a homologous piece of DNA. 在有着双染色体的生物 比如说人类And now mind you, in a diploid organism like people, 我们得到了我们父母 各自的一组染色体we’ve got one copy of our genome from our mom and one from our dad, 如果一条 DNA 受损so if one gets damaged, 细胞可以用另外一条来修复它it can use the other chromosome to repair it. 这就是这种技术的原理So that’s where this comes from. 修复成功之后The repair is made, 染色体又重获安全and now the genome is safe again. 我们将其调包的方法The way that we can hijack this 是用一条新的DNA替换中间段is we can feed it a false piece of DNA, 两端与原来相同a piece that has homology on both ends 的新DNA来修复它but is different in the middle. 于是你可以随心所欲地将你想要的中间部分安装上去So now, you can put whatever you want in the center 细胞本身却毫无察觉and the cell gets fooled. 你可以改变基因中的一条信息So you can change a letter, 也可以删除它you can take letters out, 但最为重要的是你可以像特洛伊木马一样but most importantly, you can stuff new DNA in, 将一条全新的 DNA 嵌入kind of like a Trojan horse. CRISPR 的作用出人预料CRISPR is going to be amazing, 它能推动许多in terms of the number of different scientific advances 不同领域的科技发展that it’s going to catalyze. 它的特殊之处在于这个攻击系统模块The thing that’s special about it is this modular targeting system. 我们多年来一直尝试着将 DNA 嵌入生物体中I mean, we’ve been shoving DNA into organisms for years, right? 但由于这种模块攻击系统But because of the modular targeting system, 我们能将它放在我们想要的地方we can actually put it exactly where we want it. 问题是现在有很多关于 它的廉价性The thing is that there’s a lot of talk about it being cheap 和便捷性的话题and it being easy. 我有一所社区实验室And I run a community lab. 并且开始收到人们的来信I’m starting to get emails from people that say stuff like, 我能在开放夜来你那吗?“Hey, can I come to your open night 我能用 CRISPR 编辑一下自己的基因吗?and, like, maybe use CRISPR and engineer my genome?” (笑声)(Laugher) 讲真的Like, seriously. 我说 不能I’m, “No, you can’t.” (笑声)(Laughter) 但我听说那很便宜 很简单啊“But I’ve heard it’s cheap. I’ve heard it’s easy.” 我们谈谈这个吧We’re going to explore that a little bit. 究竟有多便宜So, how cheap is it? 相对来说确实便宜Yeah, it is cheap in comparison. 实验所需材料It’s going to take the cost of the average materials for an experiment 花费从几千美元降至几百美元from thousands of dollars to hundreds of dollars, 还能节约时间and it cuts the time a lot, too. 几周的工作几天就能完成It can cut it from weeks to days. 这很好That’s great. 但你仍需要专业的实验室来做You still need a professional lab to do the work in; 没有实验室是不可能完成这项技术的you’re not going to do anything meaningful outside of a professional lab. 别相信那些说I mean, don’t listen to anyone who says 你可以在自家厨房里做实验的人you can do this sort of stuff on your kitchen table. 这项技术真的不简单It’s really not easy to do this kind of work. 更别说有一场如火如荼的专利战打的正酣Not to mention, there’s a patent battle going on, 即使发明者创造出了这样的奇思妙想so even if you do invent something, 布罗德研究所和 UC 伯克利也在为专利权而争斗不休the Broad Institute and UC Berkeley are in this incredible patent battle. 隔岸观火很有趣It’s really fascinating to watch it happen, 因为他们都在不断控诉对方 称其发布诬告性言论because they’re accusing each other of fraudulent claims 他们中的有人常常说and then they’ve got people saying, 我在我的笔记本上到处都记了笔记“Oh, well, I signed my notebook here or there.” 这件事好几年都没完This isn’t going to be settled for years. 即使真的解决了And when it is, 到那时你就得为使用这项技术you can bet you’re going to pay someone a really hefty licensing fee 支付高昂的费用in order to use this stuff. 所以它真的便宜吗So, is it really cheap? 如果你有自己的实验室 并且在做基础学科实验的话 确实很便宜Well, it’s cheap if you’re doing basic research and you’ve got a lab. 容易吗 现在我们来谈谈这个How about easy? Let’s look at that claim. 魔鬼总藏在深处The devil is always in the details. 我们仍然不十分了解细胞We don’t really know that much about cells. 他们就像是一个黑匣子They’re still kind of black boxes. 比如说 我们不知道为什么有一些RNA十分好用For example, we don’t know why some guide RNAs work really well 有一些却不好使and some guide RNAs don’t. 我们也不知道为什么 一些细胞采用一种修复机制We don’t know why some cells want to do one repair pathway 另一些采用另外一种and some cells would rather do the other. 除了这些以外And besides that, 在一开始 将这个系统植入细胞时there’s the whole problem of getting the system into the cell 同样面临着问题in the first place. 在培养皿中 这不是很难In a petri dish, that’s not that hard, 可是如果是整个生物体but if you’re trying to do it on a whole organism, 那就很麻烦了it gets really tricky. 采用血液或是骨髓是可行的It’s OK if you use something like blood or bone marrow — 它们也是现在的研究重点those are the targets of a lot of research now. 有个关于一位女孩的奇迹There was a great story of some little girl 她患了白血病who they saved from leukemia 最后通过将血取出 人为将其改造后放回人体by taking the blood out, editing it, and putting it back 最终痊愈——用的是CRISPR的前期技术with a precursor of CRISPR. 这是一种人们希望从事的研究And this is a line of research that people are going to do. 但是如果你想针对整个人体But right now, if you want to get into the whole body, 可能就要用到病毒了you’re probably going to have to use a virus. 采集病毒以后 将 CRISPR 放进去So you take the virus, you put the CRISPR into it, 你需要让病毒感染细胞you let the virus infect the cell. 但只要你将病毒注入细胞内部But now you’ve got this virus in there, 就可能出现长期的副作用and we don’t know what the long-term effects of that are. 而且 CRISPR 还有一些伤及无辜的攻击行为Plus, CRISPR has some off-target effects, 只占很小一部分—— 但总是存在的a very small percentage, but they’re still there. 一段时间过后又会发生什么呢What’s going to happen over time with that? 这不是小事These are not trivial questions, 有科学家一直想要解决这些问题and there are scientists that are trying to solve them, 而且它们最终会被解决 很有这种可能and they will eventually, hopefully, be solved. 但研究需要时间But it ain’t plug-and-play, not by a long shot. 这种方法真的容易吗So: Is it really easy? 在经过几年的深入研究之后Well, if you spend a few years working it out in your particular system, 它才真正变得容易yes, it is. 还有一个问题是Now the other thing is, 我们不知道怎样通过改变染色体中的某个部位we don’t really know that much about how to make a particular thing happen 来达到我们想要的目的by changing particular spots in the genome. 我们现在还无法获知We’re a long way away from figuring out 怎样使一只猪长出翅膀how to give a pig wings, for example. 或是多长一条腿 就拿这个举例Or even an extra leg — I’d settle for an extra leg. 那会十分有趣 不是吗That would be kind of cool, right? 但现状是But what is happening CRISPR 正被成千上万的科学家is that CRISPR is being used by thousands and thousands of scientists 用来完成十分重要的工作to do really, really important work, 例如 构建更好的动物疾病模型like making better models of diseases in animals, for example, 或是找到可用的化学物质生产方法or for taking pathways that produce valuable chemicals 用它们进行工业生产和发酵and getting them into industrial production in fermentation vats, 甚至是有关基因功能的基本研究or even doing really basic research on what genes do. 这就是 CRISPR 的故事This is the story of CRISPR we should be telling, 我不喜欢它浮华的那一面and I don’t like it that the flashier aspects of it 将它真正的光芒掩盖了are drowning all of this out. 是不计其数的科学家呕心沥血地造就了 CRISPRLots of scientists did a lot of work to make CRISPR happen, 让我感到欣慰的是and what’s interesting to me 这些科学家得到了社会的广泛支持is that these scientists are being supported by our society. 想一想Think about it. 我们有着能够让一小部分人愿意倾其一生We’ve got an infrastructure that allows a certain percentage of people 从事科学研究的机构to spend all their time doing research. 这让我们所有人成为了 CRISPR 的创造者That makes us all the inventors of CRISPR, 让我们成为 CRISPR 的掌控者and I would say that makes us all the shepherds of CRISPR. 我们需要负起责任来We all have a responsibility. 所以我们需要重视这方面的技术So I would urge you to really learn about these types of technologies, 因为 只有这样because, really, only in that way 我们才能掌控这些技术的发展are we going to be able to guide the development of these technologies, 和它们的应用the use of these technologies 然后确保到最后我们能得到正面的结果and make sure that, in the end, it’s a positive outcome — 不管是对这颗星球还是我们自己for both the planet and for us. 谢谢Thanks. (掌声)(Applause)
  • 2021-10-30维京人入侵英格兰878年 阿尔弗雷德大帝与维京人大战并惊奇取胜In our previous video we covered king Alfred’s surprise victory 这一点我们在之前的视频中提到过over the Vikings at Edington in 878 这场胜利使不列颠国土得以为继this victory both ensured the survival of his kingdom 还为西撒克逊人赢得喘息的空间and allowed the West Saxons the breathing room needed 使其能为下一次不可避免的入侵做准备to prepare for the next inevitable invasion. 尽管古斯鲁姆战后退回东安格利亚Though Guthrum retired to East Anglia after the battle 但韦塞克斯仍然面临来自其他地方的潜在攻击Wessex still faced potential attack from elsewhere. 古斯鲁姆在异教徒大军初到后的十余年Just as Guthrum had successfully carved himself out a kingdom 创立了自己的王国well over a decade after the initial arrival of the Great Heathen Army 其他人也很容易到来并做同样的事情another could just as easily come and do the same. 阿尔弗雷德在九世纪八十年代将王国的各种集镇转换成堡垒Alfred spent the 880s converting the various market towns of his kingdom 用作加强版的安全港和当地民兵的集合点into ‘burhs’ which would act as fortified safe-havens and meeting points for local militias. 阿尔弗雷德还和仍在盎格鲁撒克逊控制下的Alfred also forged a lasting alliance 部分麦西亚地区进行持久结盟with the portion of Mercia still under Anglo-Saxon control, 879年左右 西奥武甫国王死后now under the rule of a warlord of unknown origins named Æthelred, 该领土落入不知来历的埃塞尔雷德军阀手中after the death of King Ceolwulf in around 879. 880年代长女阿赛尔弗莱德和埃塞尔雷德的婚姻使结盟一锤定音The alliance was sealed by the marriage of Alfred’s eldest daughter Æthelflæd to Æthelred 而他女儿开始作为韦塞克斯的诸侯行使管辖权in the early 880s, who began to rule as a vassal of Wessex. 此时 阿尔弗雷德还和南威尔士王国缔结了同样的条约Alfred also achieved a similar arrangement with the southern Welsh kingdoms during this time, 而南威尔士王国的领土被持扩张主义的自己人分割了——whose rulers were hemmed in by the expansionist sons 格温内思郡和波厄斯郡的罗德里大帝of Rhodri the Great in Gwynedd and Powys. 北威尔士国王中最有权势的皇帝The most powerful of these northern Welsh kings, 阿纳拉德·阿帕·罗德里或许会在最终接受西撒克逊人的隶属之前Anarawd ap Rhodri may have allied himself with the Vikings 和与韦塞克斯对立的约克郡维京人进行合作of York against Wessex before eventually accepting West Saxon vassalage, 并由此牵制阿尔弗雷德的西部边境thus securing Alfred’s western border. 最终古斯鲁姆到890年死时都和韦塞克斯和平相处Ultimately Guthrum kept the peace with Wessex until his death in 890. 但是 仅两年后However, just 2 years later 堡垒系统将面临首次真正的考验the burh system would face its first real test 因为两支拥有300多艘帆船附载大艇的巨大舰队when two massive fleets of raiders comprising of over 300 longboats 在海洋之王哈施泰因的领导下抵达肯特海岸under a sea-king named Hastein arrived on the Kentish shore. 虽然过去十年风云变幻 韦塞克斯依然屹立不倒Yet times had changed over the last decade, and Wessex held out. 896年哈施泰因的手下只有两个选择By 896 Hastein’s men either left 要么完全离开不列颠 要么被驱逐到东盎格利亚Britain entirely or dispersed into East Anglia. 毕竟不列颠的堡垒系统生效了The burh system had worked. 899年阿尔弗雷德死时Upon his death in 899 Alfred left his kingdom to 把王国留给了大儿子兼继承人爱德华his eldest son and heir Edward. 然而继位之路并非一帆风顺The succession was not smooth, as Alfred’s 因为阿尔弗雷德的侄子阿赛尔伍德有心阻碍nephew Æthelwold also made his claim. 侄子北逃 逃入诺森比亚的丹麦控制地区He fled north to the Northumbrian Danelaw, 然后被被当地统治者热情地接受了where he was enthusiastically accepted by the local rulers, 因为这些统治者很明显非常乐意一劳永逸地who were apparently happy to finally conquer the last 征服盎格鲁撒克逊的最后一个王朝Anglo-Saxon kingdom once and for all. 阿赛尔伍德在诺森比亚聚集了军队Æthelwold gathered an army in Northumbria, 于901-902年往南航行到艾塞克斯and by 901 or 902 sailed south to Essex. 阿赛尔伍德获得了一个有价值的盟军He gained a valuable ally 即东盎格利亚地区的维京国王艾瑞克in the Viking king of East Anglia Eohric. 他们共同指挥了一场深入麦西亚的袭击Together they conducted a raid deep into Mercia. 902年12月 爱德华也组织了一支军队By December 902 Edward had also raised an army, 很可能由西撒克逊人likely comprised of West Saxons, 麦西亚人 肯特人组成Mercians and Kentishmen, 爱德华的武装力量and his forces finally succeeded in catching 在霍姆河附近沼泽低地的一次剧烈战役中终于成功俘获了阿赛尔伍德Æthelwold in a vicious battle in the marshy lowlands near the River Holme. 夕阳西下 丹麦人渐露胜势By day’s end it was the Danes who emerged victorious, 虽然他们为成功付出了沉重的代价yet they paid a heavy toll for their victory: 但东盎格利亚国王艾瑞克和阿赛尔伍德都被杀死East Anglian king Eohric and Æthelwold were both killed. 扫除了阿赛尔伍德 爱德华终于能够With Æthelwold out of the way Edward could now finally focus on consolidating 巩固自己国家的统治了his rule at home. 在麦西亚西部的阿赛尔莱德In the western portion of Mercia meanwhile Æthelred 和埃塞尔弗莱德也是一派繁忙and Æthelflæd had been busy too, 比如阿尔弗雷德加强防御工事following the example set by Alfred in fortifying the 丹麦律法区也尽己所能修建堡垒frontier with the Danelaw by building burhs wherever they could. 作为埃赛雷德和埃塞尔弗雷德婚礼嫁妆的一部分As part of Ethelred’s marriage arrangement with Æthelflæd, 阿尔弗烈德给了麦西亚人伦敦市的控制权Alfred had given the Mercians control of the city of London, 这是一个肥沃的所得物a hefty source of income. 两个统治者看管着这一方之地Together the two rulers oversaw a revival 以待麦西亚权力的复兴of Mercian power in a reduced area, 特别阿赛尔弗莱德在封地居民中变得极为受欢迎and Æthelflæd in particularly became extremely popular amongst her adopted people. 但是不久之后Yet soon enough the Mercians would 麦西亚人再次被迫进行自卫be forced to go on the defensive once again. 902年 爱德华一直与他的堂兄弟斗争Just as Edward had been fighting his cousin in 902, 大批维京人从爱尔兰离去a mass exodus of Vikings 导致殖民被大量流放到麦西亚北部from Ireland had led to the settlement of a large group of exiles in the lands 占据了切斯特城——just to the north of the Mercian held town of Chester, 一座旧罗马时代的堡垒an old Roman fortress. 麦西亚人希望这些爱尔兰维京人The Mercians may have hoped that these Irish Vikings to act as a buffer against 能够作为缓冲对抗丹麦人的威胁the ever-present threat of the Danelaw. 但是907年 维京人和丹麦人结成联盟But by 907 these Vikings had aligned 包围了切斯特themselves with the Danelaw to besiege Chester. 当麦西亚军队由阿赛尔弗莱德带领When the Mercian army went north to deal 开到北部解决这个新威胁时with this new threat, it was Æthelflæd 阿赛尔弗莱德却由于疾病丧失了行动能力leading them, as Æthelred was incapacitated due to illness. 接下来发生了什么并不清楚What happened next is unclear, 但是麦西亚人在切斯特被维京人打败了but the Mercians defeated the Vikings at Chester, and 而阿赛尔弗莱德和埃塞尔雷德受到严密控制now Æthelflæd, Æthelred who was firmly in control. 麦西亚人的攻势在无形酝酿The Mercians were going on the offensive. 那时爱德华的儿子阿赛尔斯坦还在麦西亚At that time Edward’s son Æthelstan was being fostered 由姑姑阿赛尔弗莱德收养by his aunt Æthelflæd in Mercia. 909年 他发起了一次突袭In 909 he led a raid deep 深入维京领土into Viking territory to retrieve the relics 企图恢复著名诺森伯兰郡国王奥斯瓦德的领土of the famed Northumbrian king Oswald. 他的军队还一不做二不休His army also took the opportunity to 趁约克郡的维京人反应不及pillage the lands of Lindsey for five weeks 在林德赛地区抢劫了7天before the Vikings in York could react. 下面的故事中We are going to talk about Æthelstan him 我们要更详细地谈论到阿赛尔斯坦in much more detail in the next episode. 910年 诺森比亚人开始了报复In 910, the Northumbrians retaliated, launching a massive raid deep 他们深入麦西亚 发起巨大袭击into Mercia. They ravaged the 他们毁坏了农村countryside and loaded up on plunder before 在返回北部时装满了战利品beginning the journey back north. 就在那时 在一个叫泰特豪的地方It was then, at a place named Tettenhall, that a 西撒克逊和麦西亚联军出其不意地俘获了维京人combined West Saxon-Mercian army caught the Vikings by surprise. 在接下来的大屠杀中 维京武装力量的领导阶层被全部杀死In the ensuing bloodbath the entire leadership of the Viking force was killed, 受损的约克郡几年才能振作起来crippling York for years to come. 从许多方面来看 泰特豪是一个转折点Tettenhall was a turning point in many ways. 终于埃塞尔雷德辞世了It was around this time that Æthelred finally passed away, 但在这个军国主义男性统治的社会and quite astonishingly, despite being a woman 作为女性 阿赛尔弗莱德身上发生了一件令人惊讶的事in a militaristic male-dominated society, 她被选取作为继承人Æthelflæd was chosen as his successor, 并以“麦西亚女王”的身份统治ruling under the title ‘Lady of the Mercians’. 但是 很快她就被迫将伦敦的控制权让给韦塞克斯However, soon she was also forced to relinquish control of London to Wessex. 虽然并没有继承人 但阿赛尔弗莱德也会长居王位Æthelflæd would continue to rule, though as she had no male heir, 不过自此独立的麦西亚开始走向终结了it was the beginning of the end for independent Mercia. 接下来的8年 阿赛尔弗莱德不遗余力地For the next eight years she tirelessly dedicated her 倾尽身心修建堡垒time to building burhs not only 其修建的堡垒从5个行政区到东部的边界along the frontier with the Five Boroughs to 还和西部的威尔士王国遥遥相对the east, but also against the Welsh kingdoms to the west. 这段时间东麦西亚的5个自治区之间A state of perpetual warfare existed with the Five Boroughs 长期处于战争状态of Eastern Mercia during this time, 历史记录显示莱斯特和贝德福德with occasional raids recorded from the towns 会对西麦西亚发动时不时的袭击of Leicester and Bedford into Western Mercia. 同时爱德华终于做好了准备Edward meanwhile was finally ready to 准备攻打在自己领土边界上的维京人go on the offensive against the Vikings on his own borders. 911和913年间 爱德华经由陆路 海路Between 911 and 913 he moved his forces 把军队开往艾塞克斯by land and by sea into Essex, 在莫尔登镇修建防御工事fortifying the town of Maldon and attempting to bring the area 并试图将这个地区完全纳入西撒克逊人的统治under full West Saxon control. 这是自从北方人的到来后第一次For the first time since the coming of the Northmen, 韦塞克斯获得了新的土地Wessex was gaining new lands 而莫尔登将变成爱德华进攻东盎格利亚的基地and Maldon would become a base from which he could attack East Anglia. 但是914年Yet in 914, 阿赛尔弗雷德和爱德华想要制造潜力攻击的计划any potential attacks Æthelflæd or Edward might have wanted to make 突然中断suddenly came crashing to a standstill. 因为在布列塔尼海峡处Across the channel in Brittany a massive 一只巨大的维京人舰队征服了整个地区Viking fleet had just conquered the entire region, 消灭了该地的统治家族extinguishing its ruling family, 此刻 在两大军阀罗尔德和奥提尔的领导下and now, under the leadership of two warlords named Rold and Otir 该舰队来到了不列颠was coming to Britain. 他们行经布里斯托尔海峡 进入塞文河Sailing up through the Bristol Channel they headed into the 试图出其不意地拿下麦西亚River Severn in an attempt to take the Mercians by surprise. 但是再一次Yet once again, 面对阿赛尔弗雷德的防备Æthelflæd was ready for them, 他们被赶出麦西亚 赶到威尔士pushing them out of Mercia and into Wales, 在战争中罗尔德被杀and killing Rold in the process. 爱德华追击奥提尔及其残余势力Edward pursued Otir and his remaining vessels all 一直追到加的夫附近的弗拉特岛the way to the island of Flatholme near Cardiff. 最终奥提尔放弃了英格兰 跨海退守爱尔兰Finally, Otir gave up on England and went across the sea to Ireland. 这就是战争的最终相持阶段The stage was now set for the final confrontation of the war. 914年 爱德华也入侵了By 914 Edward too was making 5个自治区inroads into the Five Boroughs, 迫使贝德福德和北安普郡的部分维京人投降forcing the submission of some of the Vikings of Bedford and Northampton. 917年 爱德华和阿赛尔莱德都做好了准备By 917, both Edward and Æthelflæd were ready for 要发动对维京人的最终攻击their final assaults upon the Vikings. 来自5个自治区的A large force of Danes from the southern 一大股丹麦势力portion of the Five Boroughs allied themselves 与东盎格鲁人结成联盟with the East Anglians, who finally 最终决定开始行动decided to make a move. 维京人试图搬照撒克逊人的胜利They attempted to mirror the success of the Saxons by 在贝德福德郡建立自己的堡垒building their own burh at Tempsford in Bedfordshire. 但几周后 爱德华的武装力量猛攻堡垒Within weeks however Edward’s forces stormed the burh, 杀了东盎格鲁国王 一路扫荡killed the East Anglian king, and swept onwards 拿下整个东盎格利亚和麦西亚东南部地区to take the whole of East Anglia and South-eastern Mercia. 阿赛尔弗莱德也没闲着Æthelflæd was also on the move. 917年年中 她齐集手下的精英军队In mid-917 she marched her now elite army 横跨边境 直达德比across the border and directly towards the borough 并在此地进行了围城of Derby where they laid siege to the town. 一次猛战后 城池被攻陷After a fierce battle, the town fell, 自此阿赛尔弗莱德收复了麦西亚的大片土地and with it, large swathes of eastern Mercia. 918年 斯坦福德的3个自治区——By 918, Leicester was the next to submit, 斯坦福德 诺丁汉 林肯投降了followed by the other three boroughs of Stamford, 莱斯特接下来也屈服了Nottingham and Lincoln. 在阿赛尔弗莱德的领导下Under Æthelflæd, Mercia had 麦西亚最终完成了它的复国之路finally completed its reconquest and now found itself 并将边境界限恢复到with nearly the same borders 维京人到来之前的状态as it had prior to the coming of the Vikings, 但阿赛尔弗莱德并没有止于此yet she didn’t stop there. 918年夏季In the summer of 918 约克郡的维京人同意向阿尔弗雷德投降the Vikings of York agreed to submit to Alfred. 而最终协议没有变现 因为阿赛尔弗莱德于同年去世了Ultimately, the deal never materialised, as Æthelflæd passed away that same year. 她最终留下的只有一个叫埃尔芙文的独生女She was succeeded by her only child, a daughter named Ælfwynn. 918年 亨伯河南部的英格兰全境都受控于盎格鲁撒克逊人By 918 all of England south of the Humber was under the Anglo-Saxon control. 爱德华挥师北上 到塔姆沃斯去逮捕埃尔芙文Edward marched north to Tamworth to seize Ælfwynn. 埃尔芙文的余生都被迫在修道院里度过She was placed in a monastery for life, and 而麦西亚最终融合进爱德华日益壮大的王国中Mercia was finally incorporate into Edward’s growing kingdom. 然后 就像父亲阿尔弗雷德一样Then, like Alfred before him, 爱德华也获得了5个威尔士王国的忠实投靠Edward achieved the fealty of the five Welsh Kingdoms, 由此在历史上爱德华首次统一了thus uniting most of the lands south of the Humber 亨伯河南部的大部分土地for the first time in history. 而英格兰残余的维京人统治地区就是诺森比亚All that remained in England under the Viking control was the kingdom of Northumbria, 它将变成爱德华的下一个目标and it would have become the next target of Edward. 虽然爱德华吞并麦西亚Though just as Edward was 把它纳入自己日益壮大的盎格鲁撒克逊领土annexing Mercia into his ever-growing Anglo-Saxon realm, the Dublin Norse, 都柏林的挪威人很快震慑于爱尔兰的伊瓦尔王朝members of the soon to be feared Uí Ímair dynasty 以一场闪电攻击吞并了约克郡of Ireland, annexed York in a lightning attack. 这对英格兰的统一造成了新威胁This created a new threat to the bourgeoning united England. 感谢你观看本系列的第三个视频——Thank you for watching the third video in our series 维京入侵英国系列历史on the Viking invasions of Britain. 别忘了订阅我们的频道Don’t forget to subscribe, 如果你不想错过这个系列的新视频if you don’t want to miss the new videos in this series, 你也可以点击铃铛图标you can also click the bell icon 我们将在每周日的早上to get the notification about the videos 为你推送相关视频的新动态as we always have something new for you on Sunday mornings. 在此感谢我们patron账户的赞助者We would like to express our gratitude to our patron supporters 因为你们的赞助才有这些视频who make the creation of our videos possible 现在你也可以直接通过youtube支持我们now you can also support us directly via youtube 只需点击视频下方的支持按钮即可by pressing the sponsorship button below the video or 或者你可以通过简介中的链接购买我们的产品or buy our merchandise via the link in the description. 这是帝王将相史频道This is the Kings and Generals channel 我们下个视频见and we will catch you on the next one.
  • 2021-10-30如何用水彩画海景你好,朋友们,欢迎来到又一个指导周二Hello my friends and welcome to another Tuesday of tutorial! 我是Leonardo Pereznieto,今天我们将要画一个水晶蜗牛I am Leonardo Pereznieto and today we will paint a waterscape 一张水景水彩画in watercolor. 我们用一个直尺首先用铅笔标注一条水平线We begin by marking a horizon line with pencil, using a square. 很好!Very good! 我把它放在第三个左右I placed it on the upper third more or less. 现在我们来到上面的部分Now we get that upper part 等等wet. 我们画得靠近水平线And we paint close to the horizon line 靠近地平线去画with yellow ocher. 就像这样Like so. 然后在它上面 画点微红色然后接下来是一些蓝色Then above it, a reddish color and then a blue. 在上半部分 它将是一种较暗的蓝色 而靠近红色的地方It will be a darker blue on the upper part, and a lighter blue 是一种浅蓝色close to the red. 当颜料和纸张湿润时While the paint and the paper are wet, 我可以用一张薄纸轻轻地涂擦来画些云和太阳I can make some clouds and the Sun by dabbing a tissue paper. 好的!All right! 当它没干的时候 如果我想加 我可以再加些And while it is wet I can add more if I want to. 那么现在 在地平线以下And now, below the horizon line 我涂相似的颜色I apply similar colors 它将在水上反射出来that will be reflecting on the water. 但是这次是在干的画纸上But this time on a dry paper 用刷子蘸少量水并用刷子压着纸面with little water on the brush and using the brush almost flat, 几乎平直平行地去刷画纸almost parallel to the surface. 这样我就会产生这种不会涂得到处都是So that I can produce this effects of not getting the paint everywhere 除了留下些小黑点的影响but leaving blank, little spots. 当然 我想这可以在水面上产生明亮的反光错觉I want this of course, to give the illusion of light reflections on the water. Ok 好的!Ok, good! 我喜欢这个色调I like the tone. 现在 我再次打湿画纸Now, I get the paper wet again 这次全部打湿all of it this time. 顺便说一句 如果我需要让色彩更柔和些And by the way, I can lightly scrub some of the edges 我会让下方的色块少些棱角of the paint if I need to smooth it out a little. 像这儿在我的太阳的边缘 我用了一把更硬些的刷子清理Like here on the edges of my Sun which I clean up with a harder brush. 我想在地平线的上面和下面I want more orangy yellow close to the horizon, both above 再画些橙黄色线条and below it. 我再添几笔 让云看起来柔和些 并在顶上And I also soften the clouds a little and add some darkness 添些阴影on top of it. 而在离那很远处 地平线的水面上 我画了条更黑的线And far over there, on the horizon above the water, I draw a darker line 表示这是山脉……indicating some mountains… ……遥远的山脉…far away mountains. 好的!All right! 好!Good! 再让我们来画些倒影吧And let´s also paint the reflection. 现在 为了让在远处的景看起来更逼真Now in order to have all of this look like, it is at the distance 我感觉我们需要一些近距离的景物来衬托它 所以我们……就画在画的角落吧……I feel we need a close-by-plane so we draw……just the corner…… 我用一种微褐色的深绿色颜料画of a hill, for which I´m using a dark green slightly brownish color. 从中生长出一些植物And growing from it, let´s paint some trees and plants. 这里也用深黑色!This also will be very dark! 我可能不得不要再次润色下它们了I may have to go over them again. 一些树枝……Some branches… 像这样……like so… 一些长在地上的草Some grass from the ground 和更多伸向不同方向的树枝and more branches in different directions. 有些长在这里 甚至向下长Some here, even going down. 我不想让这些树了无生机 所以我们画些树叶I don´t want this trees to be totally dry, and therefore we paint some leaves. 有些在这里 而有些在另一边Some over here, and some to this other side. 好的!Good! 还有另一根树枝And another branch. 而且在这右边 让我们再多画些树枝And here to the right, let´s add some more branches. 最后我们可以再次强化一下阴影 就画我们And lastly we can reinforce and add shading, to the once 之前画过的那种we have. 像这样!Like this! 非常好!Very good! 让我们画些鸟使这幅画更生动吧!Let´s add some birds to give it more life! 最后画龙点睛 搞定!Some final touches and it´s ready! 如果你喜爱它 请点个赞!把它分享If you enjoyed it, please give it a LIKE! share it 给你的朋友并订阅艺术技巧to your friends and subscribe to Fine Art-Tips. 周二再见And I will see you on Tuesday
  • 2021-10-30你好,陌生人[启点字幕组]Light up the world 我们来谈谈信任问题吧Let’s talk about trust. 大家都知道 相互信任是为人处世的基本原则We all know trust is fundamental, 但说到信任他人but when it comes to trusting people, 就大有深意了something profound is happening. 如果你曾是Airbnb民宿网的房东或房客Please raise your hand 请举下手if you have ever been a host or a guest on Airbnb. 哇喔 好多啊Wow. That’s a lot of you. 谁有比特币呢Who owns Bitcoin? 还是有很多人 好的Still a lot of you. OK. 如果你曾经用Tinder 玩过在线交友And please raise your hand if you’ve ever used Tinder 请举下手to help you find a mate. 这次不太好统计啊 因为你们是这样举手的This one’s really hard to count because you’re kind of going like this. 随着科技的进步These are all examples of how technology 一系列新的制约机制is creating new mechanisms 使得我们可以相信陌生人 陌生公司及各种新想法that are enabling us to trust unknown people, companies and ideas. 但与此同时And yet at the same time, 我们对各种机构的信任trust in institutions — 比如说银行 政府 甚至是教会banks, governments and even churches — 却正在瓦解is collapsing. 那么 这到底是怎么回事儿呢So what’s happening here, 到底该相信谁呢?and who do you trust? 让我们从法国的一个平台说起吧—— 我该称它为一家公司Let’s start in France with a platform — with a company, I should say — 一家拥有有趣名字的公司with a rather funny-sounding name, BlaBlaCarBlaBlaCar. 它是为愿意一起进行长途旅行的司机与乘客It’s a platform that matches drivers and passengers 进行搭配的一个平台[提供车子者-联系的平台BlaBlaCar-需要搭车者]who want to share long-distance journeys together.Offers a ride – Connecting platform(Bla Bla Car) – Needs a ride 旅途的平均行程是320公里The average ride taken is 320 kilometers. 所以你最好明智地选择自己的旅伴So it’s a good idea to choose your fellow travelers wisely. 社交网站的个人信息和评论可以助你一臂之力Social profiles and reviews help people make a choice. 你可以了解到对方吸烟与否 喜欢的音乐类型You can see if someone’s a smoker, you can see what kind of music they like, 以及是否会带着宠物狗一同上路you can see if they’re going to bring their dog along for the ride. 但事实上 人们最关注的社交习惯But it turns out that the key social identifier 是旅途中你是否健谈is how much you’re going to talk in the car. bla 代表着话不多Bla, not a lot, bla bla 代表你想要简单的寒暄bla bla, you want a nice bit of chitchat, bla bla bla 则代表着你能滔滔不绝的从伦敦and bla bla bla, you’re not going to stop talking the entire way 侃到巴黎from London to Paris. 真是不可思议 是吧 这个与我们儿时被灌输的It’s remarkable, right, that this idea works at all, 不要与陌生人拼车的思想 相背离的思想cause it’s counter to the lesson most of us were taught as a child: 竟然被接受了never get in a car with a stranger. 而且BlaBlaCar每月输送的乘客And yet, BlaBlaCar transports more than four million people 超过四百万人次every single month. 这是什么概念呢To put that in context, that’s more passengers 就是说 这比欧洲之星或者美国捷蓝航空公司的运营量还大than the Eurostar or JetBlue airlines carry. BlaBlaCar完美展现了 科技是如何帮助人们BlaBlaCar is a beautiful illustration of how technology is enabling 实现在全球范围内的信任关系的飞跃的millions of people across the world to take a trust leap. 当我们甘愿冒险做些新的不同寻常的举动时A trust leap happens when we take the risk to do something new or different 就会产生信任上的飞跃to the way that we’ve always done it. 我们来一起想象一下Let’s try to visualize this together. 好的 请大家闭上眼睛OK. I want you to close your eyes. 那边有一位男士瞪大眼睛盯着我There is a man staring at me with his eyes wide open. 我知道自己正站在这个大的红圈上 我看得见的I’m on this big red circle. I can see. 快把眼睛闭上吧So close your eyes. 我会和大家一起做I’ll do it with you. 请想象一下 你和某个陌生事物之间And I want you to imagine there exists a gap 有一条鸿沟between you and something unknown. 它可以是你刚刚遇到的某个人That unknown can be someone you’ve just met. 或是你从未去过的某个地方It can be a place you’ve never been to. 抑或是你从未尝试过的某件事It can be something you’ve never tried before. 想象到了吗You got it? 好 大家可以睁开眼睛了OK. You can open your eyes now. 你要冒险从一个熟悉的环境For you to leap from a place of certainty, 去接触未知的人或事物to take a chance on that someone or something unknown, 这就需要某种力量来推你一把you need a force to pull you over the gap, 这种非凡的力量就是信任and that remarkable force is trust. 信任不可捉摸Trust is an elusive concept, 然而我们的生命活动却依赖于它and yet we depend on it for our lives to function. 晚上 当我的孩子们说他们会马上熄灯时I trust my children 我相信他们when they say they’re going to turn the lights out at night. 我相信飞行员可以安全地把我带到这儿I trusted the pilot who flew me here to keep me safe. 我们总把这个词儿挂在嘴边It’s a word we use a lot, 却未必会常思考它真正的含义without always thinking about what it really means 以及它在不同生活情景中的作用and how it works in different contexts of our lives. 实际上信任的定义有数百种There are, in fact, hundreds of definitions of trust, 大部分可以概括为对事物正常运转的可能性and most can be reduced to some kind of risk assessment 给予的某种风险评估of how likely it is that things will go right. 但我不喜欢这种定义But I don’t like this definition of trust, 因为这样听起来 信任是理性且可预测的because it makes trust sound rational and predictable, 而且它并未触及到人性层面and it doesn’t really get to the human essence 即引导我们的行为of what it enables us to do 促使我们and how it empowers us 与他人交流to connect with other people. 所以我所定义的信任略有不同So I define trust a little differently. 我把它定义为 对未知事物的自信I define trust as a confident relationship to the unknown. 现在 当你通过这个镜头观察Now, when you view trust through this lens, 它会告诉你 信任为何有这种独特的力量it starts to explain why it has the unique capacity 使我们能够应对不确定性to enable us to cope with uncertainty, 对陌生人予以信任to place our faith in strangers, 并且一路高歌猛进to keep moving forward. 人类跨越信任鸿沟的行为Human beings are remarkable 一向卓越非凡at taking trust leaps. 你还记得第一次在网上Do you remember the first time you put your credit card details 输信用卡信息时的场景吗into a website? 那就是一次信任的飞跃That’s a trust leap. 我清楚地记得我曾告诉父亲I distinctly remember telling my dad 自己想在易贝网买辆深蓝色二手标致汽车that I wanted to buy a navy blue secondhand Peugeot on eBay, 他一本正经地指出and he rightfully pointed out 卖家的名字叫“无形男巫”that the seller’s name was “Invisible Wizard” 那么买这辆车也许并不明智and then this probably was not such a good idea. 我的工作和研究聚焦于科技是如何So my work, my research focuses on how technology 转变社会中的社交紧密度is transforming the social glue of society, 以及人与人之间的信任关系trust between people, 而且这是一个引人入胜的研究领域and it’s a fascinating area to study, 因为它仍存在很多未解之谜because there’s still so much we do not know. 例如 在数字环境中 男性和女性的信任方式有差异吗?For instance, do men and women trust differently in digital environments? 互信方式的建立由线下转为线上了吗Does the way we build trust face-to-face translate online? 信任会转移吗Does trust transfer? 所以如果你相信在Tinder上可以找到人生伴侣So if you trust finding a mate on Tinder, 那么是否更应相信用BlaBlaCar能找到顺风车呢?are you more likely to trust finding a ride on BlaBlaCar? 但是 通过对数百家网站及市场的研究来看But from studying hundreds of networks and marketplaces, 人们遵从一种共有的模式there is a common pattern that people follow, 我称其为 “循序渐进的模式”and I call it “climbing the trust stack.” 就以BlaBlaCar来说吧Let me use BlaBlaCar as an example to bring it to life. 第一层次On the first level, 你要接受这个想法you have to trust the idea. 即 你必须要相信So you have to trust 拼车这个想法是安全且值得一试的the idea of ride-sharing is safe and worth trying. 第二个层次 要对平台有信心The second level is about having confidence in the platform, 要相信BlaBlaCar会帮你解决突发状况that BlaBlaCar will help you if something goes wrong. 第三个层次是 利用少量的信息And the third level is about using little bits of information 来确定旅伴是否可靠to decide whether the other person is trustworthy. 我们第一次攀登信任之峦时Now, the first time we climb the trust stack, 感觉怪异甚至凶险异常it feels weird, even risky, 但在达到某种程度后 就会意识到 这些想法似乎完全正常but we get to a point where these ideas seem totally normal. 我们行为转变的速度Our behaviors transform, 通常相当之快often relatively quickly. 换句话说 信任促进改变与创新In other words, trust enables change and innovation. 有个想法引起了我的兴趣 希望大家也考虑一下So an idea that intrigued me, and I’d like you to consider, 我们能否透过信任的镜头is whether we can better understand 更好地理解major ways of disruption and change in individuals in society 摧毁与改变社会个体的种种方式through the lens of trust. 好吧 结果证明 在人类历史的浩瀚长河中Well, it turns out that trust has only evolved 仅有三次关于信任的重要变革:in three significant chapters throughout the course of human history: 局部改革 制度上的改革local, institutional 以及我们如今正在进入的 分布式改革and what we’re now entering, distributed. 所以在19世纪中期前的So for a long time, 很长时间内until the mid-1800s, 信任仅建立于组织严密的关系中trust was built around tight-knit relationships. 所以 假如我和前五排观众So say I lived in a village 生活在同一个村庄with the first five rows of this audience, 我们彼此知根知底and we all knew one another, 如果我想借钱and say I wanted to borrow money, 那位先前瞪大眼睛的男士可能会借给我The man who had his eyes wide open, he might lend it to me, 如果我不还钱and if I didn’t pay him back, 大家都会知道我是个老赖you’d all know I was dodgy. 我就会声名狼藉I would get a bad reputation, 大家将来也会拒绝与我做生意and you would refuse to do business with me in the future. 信任大多是局部团体内的并且基于人的负责任态度Trust was mostly local and accountability-based. 19世纪中叶In the mid-19th century, 社会经历巨大变迁society went through a tremendous amount of change. 人们迁移至快速发展的城市 如伦敦和旧金山People moved to fast-growing cities such as London and San Francisco, 一位本地银行家被并不了解我们的and a local banker here was replaced by large corporations 大公司所取代that didn’t know us as individuals. 我们开始将信任We started to place our trust 置于合约 保险 规则等的into black box systems of authority, 权力黑箱系统之中things like legal contracts and regulation and insurance, 对他人的直接信任却下降了and less trust directly in other people. 信任开始基于制度及委托关系Trust became institutional and commission-based. 机构及许多公司品牌的可信度持续下降的话题It’s widely talked about how trust in institutions and many corporate brands 已经传的沸沸扬扬has been steadily declining and continues to do so. 我不断地被很多违反信任机制的行为震惊:I am constantly stunned by major breaches of trust: 新闻集团电话窃听the News Corp phone hacking, 大众汽车排放丑闻the Volkswagen emissions scandal, 天主教堂里普遍的虐待行为the widespread abuse in the Catholic Church, 金融大危机后 仅有一个普通银行职员the fact that only one measly banker 入狱的事实went to jail after the great financial crisis, 或是最近巴拿马文件透露的or more recently the Panama Papers 富人如何建立离境避税天堂that revealed how the rich can exploit offshore tax regimes. 而且真正让我诧异的是And the thing that really surprises me 当我们的信任崩塌时is why do leaders find it so hard 为什么领导人会觉得to apologize, I mean sincerely apologize, 真心实意的道歉有这么难when our trust is broken? 不难推断 基于制度上的信任 毫无用处It would be easy to conclude that institutional trust isn’t working 因为我们已经对because we are fed up 虚伪的精英们的厚颜无耻忍无可忍with the sheer audacity of dishonest elites, 但是当下的情形but what’s happening now 比对体系结构和规模的诘责 更甚一步runs deeper than the rampant questioning of the size and structure of institutions. 我们开始意识到We’re starting to realize 基于制度的信任that institutional trust 并不适合数字时代wasn’t designed for the digital age. 对品牌 领袖和整个体系的信任的建立Conventions of how trust is built, 管理 失去和修复——managed, lost and repaired — 其相关的惯例in brands, leaders and entire systems — 已经被完全颠覆is being turned upside down. 现在的情况令人兴奋Now, this is exciting, 但也令人恐惧but it’s frightening, 因为这迫使我们反思because it forces many of us to have to rethink 与顾客 职员甚至爱人间的信任how trust is built and destroyed with our customers, with our employees, 是如何建立和毁掉的even our loved ones. 几天前 我跟一个国际领先的酒店品牌的CEO聊天The other day, I was talking to the CEO of a leading international hotel brand, 如往常一样 我们谈到Airbnb这个话题and as is often the case, we got onto the topic of Airbnb. 他坦言自己对于这家公司的成功感到困惑And he admitted to me that he was perplexed by their success. 他不明白He was perplexed at how a company 基于陌生人相互信任 这样一个愿景的公司that depends on the willingness of strangers to trust one another 是如何做到在191个国家经营得风生水起的could work so well across 191 countries. 所以我对他说 我得跟你说实话So I said to him that I had a confession to make, 然后他有点奇怪地看着我and he looked at me a bit strangely, 我说——and I said — 我确定你们中很多人会和我一样——and I’m sure many of you do this as well — 在离开酒店时I don’t always bother to hang my towels up 不会费心挂起毛巾when I’m finished in the hotel, 但作为Airbnb的房客 绝不会这样做but I would never do this as a guest on Airbnb. 理由就是And the reason why I would never do this as a guest on Airbnb 房客知道 房东会对他们进行评价is because guests know that they’ll be rated by hosts, 而这种评价会影响到and that those ratings are likely to impact their ability 他们未来的投宿to transact in the future. 这只是一个线上信任改变我们It’s a simple illustration of how online trust will change our behaviors 现实生活的简单例子in the real world, 使我们以自己都无法想象的方式make us more accountable 负起责任来in ways we cannot yet even imagine. 我不是说我们不需要酒店I am not saying we do not need hotels 或传统权威机构了or traditional forms of authority. 但我们不得不承认But what we cannot deny 我们社会的信任流通方式已然改变is that the way trust flows through society is changing, 它带来的结果是惊人的 它使得我们从and it’s creating this big shift away from the 20th century 20世纪的制度性信任转换为21世纪的分布式信任that was defined by institutional trust towards the 21st century that will be fueled by distributed trust. 信任不再是自上而下 而是分门别类 自下而上Trust is no longer top-down. It’s being unbundled and inverted. 不再是含混不清或是一目了然It’s no longer opaque and linear. 一种新型的基于责任感的信任正在兴起A new recipe for trust is emerging that once again is distributed amongst people 并且又一次扩散开来and is accountability-based. 这种转换只会随着And this shift is only going to accelerate 区块链的兴起而加速发展with the emergence of the blockchain, 这种创新的分类技术也是比特币的技术基础the innovative ledger technology underpinning Bitcoin. 现在 坦白的说Now let’s be honest, 环顾周围 区块链的运作方式是令人震惊的getting our heads around the way blockchain works is mind-blowing. 其中一个原因就是它需要处理And one of the reasons why is it involves processing 一些有着可怕名称的复杂概念some pretty complicated concepts with terrible names. 比如 密码算法和散列函数I mean, cryptographic algorithms and hash functions, 还有被称为矿工的人们来负责核实交易——and people called miners, who verify transactions — 所有这些都是由中本聪这个或是这群all that was created by this mysterious person 神秘的人创造出来的or persons called Satoshi Nakamoto. 现在 想象中的信任的大跃进发展还没有成真Now, that is a massive trust leap that hasn’t happened yet. 不过我们可以想象一下这个But let’s try to imagine this. 《经济学人》杂志将区块链形象地描述为So “The Economist” eloquently described the blockchain 将事物确切化的伟大链环as the great chain of being sure about things. 说得更简单一点 就是将区块看作The easiest way I can describe it is imagine the blocks as spreadsheets, 填满数据的单元格and they are filled with assets. 所以那可能是一份财产契据So that could be a property title. 一桩股票交易It could be a stock trade. 或是一种创新型资产 比如一支歌曲的版权It could be a creative asset, such as the rights to a song. 每次 物品从寄存器的某处Every time something moves 移至其它地方from one place on the register to somewhere else, 在区块链上都是有时间证明that asset transfer is time-stamped 及正式记录的and publicly recorded on the blockchain. 就这么简单 对吧It’s that simple. Right. 所以区块链真正的意义是So the real implication of the blockchain 除去了对任何第三方信托机构的需求 比如律师is that it removes the need for any kind of third party, such as a lawyer, 信用中介 或是能促进交易的非政府性机构or a trusted intermediary, or maybe not a government intermediary to facilitate the exchange. 所以如果回到之前的信用层次So if we go back to the trust stack, 你还是要信任这个想法you still have to trust the idea, 信任这个平台you have to trust the platform, 但却不需要信任传统观念里的其他人but you don’t have to trust the other person in the traditional sense. 这点很有意义The implications are huge. 互联网以同样的方式打开全民信息共享的大门In the same way the internet blew open the doors to an age of information available to everyone, 区块链将会在全球范围彻底革新信任机制the blockchain will revolutionize trust on a global scale. 我特意等着结束前提一下优步Now, I’ve waited to the end intentionally to mention Uber, 因为我意识到它是一个有争议的because I recognize that it is a contentious 被用滥了的例子and widely overused example, 但在信任发展的新的时代背景下 它却是一个很好的研究案例but in the context of a new era of trust, it’s a great case study. 现在 我们会看到一些滥用分布式信任的案例Now, we will see cases of abuse of distributed trust. 这些我们已经看到了 而且情况还会愈演愈烈We’ve already seen this, and it can go horribly wrong. 看到满世界的出租车组织都在抗议 我一点也不惊奇I am not surprised that we are seeing protests from taxi associations all around the world 他们宣称优步不安全 并希望政府以此将其取缔trying to get governments to ban Uber based on claims that it is unsafe. 举行抗议的那段时间我刚好在伦敦I happened to be in London the day that these protests took place, 并且碰巧注意到一条来自英国贸易部长马特•汉考克的推特and I happened to notice a tweet from Matt Hancock, who is a British minister for business. 他写道 And he wrote, “谁能给我讲讲你们聊的这个优步是怎么回事“Does anyone have details of this #Uber app everyone’s talking about? 我怎么之前从来没听说过它”I’d never heard of it until today.” 现在 出租车组织Now, the taxi associations, 他们默认了信用层次的第一层they legitimized the first layer of the trust stack. 将曾经试图消除的主意合法化了They legitimized the idea that they were trying to eliminate, 优步签约率在24小时内上升了850%and sign-ups increased by 850 percent in 24 hours. 这个例子有力的说明Now, this is a really strong illustration 一旦围绕某个行为或部门的信任发生转变了of how once a trust shift has happened around a behavior or an entire sector, 你将无法“复辟”you cannot reverse the story. 每天都有500万人经历着信任的飞跃Every day, five million people will take a trust leap 并用优步打车and ride with Uber. 在中国的网约车平台滴滴上面In China, on Didi, the ride-sharing platform, 每天有1100万次乘车记录11 million rides taken every day. 也就是每秒127次That’s 127 rides per second, 说明这是一种跨越文化的共性showing that this is a cross-cultural phenomenon. 有趣之处在于 司机和乘客都宣称And the fascinating thing is that both drivers and passengers report 看见姓名that by seeing a name 照片和等级and seeing someone’s photo and their rating 会让他们觉得安心些makes them feel safer, 正如你可能经历过的那样and as you may have experienced, 司乘双方的言谈举止都更加和善even behave a little more nicely in the taxi cab. 优步和滴滴虽然出现得较早 但却有力的说明Uber and Didi are early but powerful examples 技术能够以不同的方式革新人们之间的信任关系of how technology is creating trust between people 这种规模在以前是绝不可能的in ways and on a scale never possible before. 今天 我们很多人觉得搭乘陌生人的车很舒服Today, many of us are comfortable getting into cars driven by strangers. 我们偶遇某人 右划屏幕来与其匹配We meet up with someone we swiped right to be matched with. 与陌生人分享房屋We share our homes with people we do not know. 这仅仅是个开始This is just the beginning, 因为正在崩解的because the real disruption happening 不是技术性的东西isn’t technological. 而是其带来的信任的转变It’s the trust shift it creates, 对我而言 我想帮助人们理解这个信任新纪元and for my part, I want to help people understand this new era of trust 从而使我们能够正确地体会它so that we can get it right 而且我们可以把握机遇去重新设计and we can embrace the opportunities to redesign systems 更透明 更具包容性和更有责任感的系统that are more transparent, inclusive and accountable. 非常感谢Thank you very much. 谢谢Thank you.
  • 2021-10-26PS中的色调曲线使用方法PS教程—怎么样运用曲线Photoshop PlaybookHow to use curves PS中的色调曲线是非常有效的工具之一Curves are one of the most powerful ways 用来调整to adjust the tonality and the color of your image in Photoshop. 它们往往也有点吓人They also tend to be kind of intimidating. 用调节一条角线去产生适当的曝光不是很直观Something about wrangling a diagonal line to yield the proper exposure just isn’t very intuitive. 我想向你们展示一些非常好用的I want to show you some really friendly approachable ways 在你的工作流程中使用曲线的方式to use curves in your workflow. 我们先在Camera Raw里看一下曲线The first place we’ll look at curves is in camera raw. 我们可以双击一个原始文件 从而打开Camera RawWe can just double click on one of our raw files and that’ll open Camera Raw. 现在请记住 如果你有一个JPEG或TIFF文件想在Camera RAW里打开Now remember if you have a JPEG or TIFF that you want to open in the camera raw, 只需要进入你的相机首选项 “Camera RAW”just go into your camera preferences, ‘Camera Raw’, 并在Camera Raw里把它选成 “JPEG或TIFFS”and change that to ‘open JPEGs or TIFFs in Camera Raw’. 在CC版的Photoshop里 你可以进到“Camera Raw”-“过滤”In Photoshop CC you can just go into the ‘Camera Raw’ – ‘Filter’. 在Camera RAW里 我有很多不同的选择 而且我还有个曲线区域So here in Camera Raw, I’ve got a lot of different choices, and I have a curves area. 我知道这看起来有点吓人 其实没必要And I know that this looks a little bit intimidating, but it doesn’t need to be. 我只需要抓住滑块I can just grab the sliders, 把高光的部分加亮 阴影的部分变暗brighten the highlights, darken the shadows. 这样做的话 我们就可以创造出人们所说的s形曲线And in doing that, I see that I create what we call a s-shaped curve. 现在 如果我想重置这些值Now if I want to reset these values, 我可以双击滑块或者我可以同时按下option和Alt键I can double click on the slider, or, I could use my Option+Alt key 这将使得取消按钮变为复位按钮which will turn the Cancel button into a Reset button, 并且也会重置整个对话框and it will reset the whole dialog. 现在 我可以做的一个小技巧是我可以在我的方图底部抓住这些小指针Now, one of the tricks that I can do here is I can grab these little pointers at the bottom of my histogram. 我的方图只是高光和阴影的位置的图形化表示My histogram is just the graphical representation of where the highlights and the shadows are. 并且通过指向远边的指针 你将会看到高亮度滑块And by pointers over the far edges, you’ll see the highlights slider, 现在控制高亮度的极限部分now controls the extreme part of the highlights. 它在直方图的很远的边缘 与阴影滑块一样Just that one far edge of the histogram. Same thing with shadows. 它也只可以影响这个直方图里的最暗的部分It’s only going to affect the darkest values in my histogram. 所以现在我可以达到比你们之前想象的更精确一点的程度了So I can get a little bit more precision than you will think there’re. 所以我要再次重新设置So I’m gonna reset this again 并且告诉你们一个我最喜欢在Camera Raw里做出曲线的方法and show you one of my favourite ways to do curves in Camera Raw, 一个只需要使用锁定的调节工具的方法which is using the targeted adjustment tool. 这个方法就是我只是点击我想要调整的图像的区域And the way that this works is I just click on the area of the image that I want to adjust, 然后提起它 这样就可以提起这个区域内的曲线and I lift it. And that lifts the curve in that area. 当我想要使亮的地方更亮的时候 抬起它So if I want to make the bright part brighter, I lift that up. 如果我想要使中间色调变暗 我就把它拉下来If I want to make the mid-tone darker, I pull that down. 当我想使最暗的阴影变亮 我点击它然后提起它If I want to make the darkest shadows brighter, I click on that and pull that up. 真的很直观 也真的很容易掌握Really intuitive. Really easy to use. 这样一来你就可以用photoshop做许多同样的事情了And it turns out that you can do a lot of those same things over Photoshop. 让我们一起来看看Let’s take a look. 现在我将取消所有全部So I’m gonna cancel all of these. 然后我们在photoshop里打开一张图片And we’ve got an image open in Photoshop. 第一件我想提及的工作流程就是一个教你们如何去做色调调整的And the first thing I want cover is a workflow for how you want to do any tonal adjustments. 是的 我们可以在这里进入我们的图片调整菜单然后在里面任选Yes, we can come in here to our Image adjustments menu and choose any of these. 但是你真正要做的是使用调整图层But what you really want to do is use the Adjustment Layer, 你可以看到这是一样的目录 不同点是这个是非破坏性的You’ll see that’s a same list. The difference is they’re non-destructive. 它们是可修改的 图层可以被分享到其他文件 也可以被打开或者关闭They’re editable. They can be shared with other files. They can be turned off or on. 于是我们可以通过列表进入图层And we can get to those through the list there. 但是做到这个最简单的方法就是打开调整盘But the easiest way to do that is just right over here on the Adjustments panel. 所以如果我点击曲线 就会出现一个十分熟悉的界面So if I click on Curves, I’m going to see a very familiar interface here. 所以我将得到一群我可以使用的预先设置And I’ve got a bunch of presets I could use 所有这些各种各样不同的特效 对比一下 你也可以自行学习到许多不同的东西all sort of different special effects, contrast… lots of different things you can save your own there as well. 但是让我们试试刚刚我们在Camera Raw做过的 在图形控制中使用这个But let’s do what we just did in Camera Raw, use this on image control here. 如果我想要黑暗的区域变得明亮 我点击这个这个区域并且提起它If I want the dark area to be brighter. I click on that and lift it. 我想要一个中间色调的变的黑暗 我点击并且下拉I want a mid-tone value to be darker. I click on that, and pull it down. 我可以很轻易地接受这些I can adjust those really easily. 在这里仍然有一个很好的自动功能I also have a nice auto functionality here 帮助分析我的直方图that analyzes my histogram 然后与专业摄影师的直方图相对比and compares that to histograms of professional photographers. 所以我最后得到了自动适应So I truly get an adaptive auto 并且你可以发现and you will notice that it gives me points 这些建议是关于along the curve to play around with. 所以我真的推荐的做法So what I really recommend doing 使用预设 图像控制 自动化use the presets, use the on image control, use auto, 这样你会开始认识到曲线是如何工作的and you’ll start to learn how curves work, 然后你可以从那儿开始调整and then you can adjust from there. 现在 一旦你可以更高效的使用曲线Now once you get more proficient with curves, 你便可以开始下一步 打开混合模式a good place to go is playing around with your blend modes. 这对你的任何调整图层来说This is great with any of your adjustment layers 因为这允许你进入图层和because it allows you to come in and adjust 调整图层和how the adjustment layer interacts with the content beneath it. 有了这些 我们就可以开始玩转ps了So with any of these, we can play around. 然后你也可以对非传导层And then you can play around with the opacity as well. 这是一种很好的微调你的调节的方式This is a great way to fine-tune your adjustment, 所以如果你看到色彩和色调的调整都十分棒的曲线so as you see curves is really powerful for color and tonal adjustments, 不必害怕 这使用起来非常简单and it doesn’t need to be scary, it’s really quite easy to use.
  • 2021-10-26优化Photoshop的性能[前奏][intro music] PS教程:优化PS性能Photoshop Playbook: Optimizing Photoshop Performance 人们经常问我关于优化PS性能的问题People often ask me about optimising Photoshop’s performance. 你是否安装了一个旧版本或者买了一个新版本And whether you’re setting up an older machine, or buying a new one, 这有许多令人困惑的因素there’re a lot of confusing terms. 我想我可以帮助你理解它们到底是什么And I thought I’d help you out in understanding what they are, 它们的作用 以及它们和PS之间的联系what they do, and how it relates to Photoshop. PS是一个可以做很多工作的工具And Photoshop’s a real workhorse. 事实上 如果你看一看一架新机器的基准In fact, if you look at a benchmark of a new machine, 它们通常会用PS来展示它的功能they usually use Photoshop to show what it’s capable of. 这是一个64位的原生应用It’s a 64 bit native application, 意味着它可以利用所有你能使用的记忆体which means it can take advantage of as much RAM as you can throw at it. 充分利用你的处理器Takes full advantage of your processor, 甚至是你的通用处理器and even your GPU. 但是让我们看看这些东西意味着什么But let’s look at what those things mean, 在使用PS的情况下in a context of using Photoshop, 以及如何最大限度地使用它and how to get the most out of it. 现在我们有一个非常大的文件在PS里Here we are in Photoshop with a really large file. 你可以看出这是一个分图层的文件You can that it’s a layered file, 有着智能过滤with smart filters, 但这也是一个32位的文件but it’s also a 32 bit file. 这些是8位文件There are 8 bit files, 来自一般的相机和网络which come off of your normal cameras, and the web; 这些是16位文件there are 16 bit files, 可能来自你单反相机的原转换likely to come from a raw conversion off of your DSLR; 然后这些是32位文件and then there are 32 bit files, 这些是真的高动态范围图像and these are true HDR, high dynamic range images. 它们非常大因为它们由多个图像构成They’re really big because they’re made of multiple images. 这个由6个图像构成This one’s made from 6, 你可以在左下角看到and as you can see looking in the lower left, 它非常大 240兆字节it’s pretty big, it’s 240 megs. 所以让我们来谈谈怎么理解So let’s talk about how to understand, PS对于这个文件所进行的操作what Photoshop is doing with the file, 以及它的有效性and how efficient it is. 我们现在要转换为“效率”视图And to do that, we’re going to switch to our ‘Efficiency’ view, 在这的左下角in the lower left there. 我们现在是100% 也就是很好We’re at 100%, which is good. 我们可以做一些事情来改变这个数据There’re a few things that we can do to change this number. 其中一个是 改变它的大小One of them would be, altering the size. 让这个图像变得更大Making the image larger, 这样会让所有图层都变大which is going to make all of the layers larger. 所以让我们让它的分辨率从300变为600So let’s go from a resolution of 300 to 600, 让这个图像大小变为原来的两倍let’s double the size of this image. 我们可以看到 我们的“效率”界面上的数据已经减小了As we can see, our ‘Efficiency’ has dropped. 现在94%不是一个坏数字Now, 94% is not a terrible number, 但也不是一个理想的数字but it’s not ideal, either. 如果数字在90%以下的话If you’re getting bellow 90%, 你必须要在PS内进行一些操作来进行调整了you definitely want to do something within Photoshop to adjust that. 让我们来看看我们可以改变的一些东西So let’s take a look at some of the things that we can change. 如果我们看到“PS”、“预设”、“性能”If we come up to ‘Photoshop’, ‘Preferences’, ‘Performance’. 我们就可以看到我把我的记忆体设置得非常低We’ll see that I’ve set my memory really low, 根据系统预置值 我的70%的记忆体在PS里都是可以获得的by default, 70% of my memory is available to Photoshop. 剩下的通过操作系统The rest is shared throughout the operating system, 和其他的应用都可以共享and with other applications. 所以其中一件你可以做的事情So one of the things that you could do, 就是关闭一些其他的正在运行的应用is you could quit some other applications that are running. 但是 这样But, in this case, 我要将PS内的数据恢复为默认值I’m going to restore Photoshop to its default. 我把它调成那样是为了给你们示范I just did that for the sake of this demonstration, 因为我的机器里有大量的记忆体because my machine has a lot of memory in it. 所以 如果你的“效率”页面数据很低 你想要提高这个数字So, if your ‘Efficiency’ is low, you want to raise this number. 我不建议停止它I don’t recommend dropping this, 除非你在用许多其他的内存密集型应用unless your using a lot of other memory intensive applications. 现在 当你使用PS的时候 你可能可以看见一个水皮球在旋转Now, you may have seen a beach ball start spinning when you’re in Photoshop, 或者像是在停止运行状态下操作非常缓慢这类的事情or things just sort of, creeped with halt. 这意味着你已经耗尽了记忆体And what that means, is you’ve run out of RAM. PS从页面显示了记忆体的状态Photoshop is paged out of RAM, 并且在磁盘上记录信息and it’s writing information to disk, 并读取信息and reading it. 这是一个缓慢的过程And this is a slower process. 现在 如果你想要提速 你可以做的一件事是Now, one of the things that you could do to speed this up, 使用另外的暂存磁盘is use additional scratch disks, 或者更快的暂存磁盘or faster scratch disks. 在“性能”这个模块And within the ‘Performance’ panel, 就是你可以进行操作的地方this is where you would do that. 这是我的笔记本电脑This is my laptop, 所以就用已经有的预置硬盘so it’s just using my default hard drive that’s built in. 这是一个很快的固化硬盘And it’s a pretty quick SSD drive, 但是没有记忆体那样快but it’s not as fast as RAM. 所以如果我没有更多可用的记忆体So if I didn’t have more RAM available, 我可以外加一个外部的驱动器I could add an external drive, 把它作为一个暂存硬盘and use that as a scratch disk. 它就在手边 因为无论我们的鼠标经过哪This is handy in here, because wherever we mouse over, 你都可以看到在底部有一个描述you’ll see that we get descriptions at the bottom, 关于发生了什么of what’s happening. 这里有许多的信息 一件我将要讲到的事情There’s a lot of information here, the one other thing that I’ll cover, 就是下调你的“历史记录”次数is dropping your ‘History States’, 这是一个好方法来提高一点PS的性能is a great way to pick up a little more performance within Photoshop. 它会记住你之前的20步It’ll remember 20 steps back, 如果你不需要这所有的二十步 或者你需要加速if you don’t need all of that, or if you need it to speed up, 你可以降低这个数字you can drop that number. 只要你修改了这些Once you’ve committed these, 你下次使用PS的时候the next time that you launch Photoshop, 这些功效就会发挥作用these effects will take place. 所以如果我把它降为70%So if I drop it to 70%, 只有当下一次使用的时候我才有70%的历史记录I won’t have 70% until the next time I start. 好了 所以关于PS使用的一些事情Ok, so a couple of things in Photoshop, 这里有更多的资源给你and then some more resources for you. 你要记住它You’ll remember that, 我们有一些“历史记录”we have a few ‘History States’, 在我们的“剪贴板”上可能也有一些信息we might also have some information sitting on our ‘Clipboard’. 一旦你复制了什么Once you’ve copied once, 它的记录就在那里it’s just sitting there. 所以让我们看看这个So let’s take a look at, 清除其中的一些信息purging some of this information. 好了 我们“剪贴板”上没有任何的数据了Ok, we don’t have any ‘Clipboard’ data, 但是我们还有“撤销”but we do have some ‘Undo’, “历史”‘Histories’, 和“视频高速缓存”and ‘Video Cache’. 清除了这些信息就能够提速Purging that information is going to speed things up, 这就可以提高我们的效率and it’s going to raise our ‘Efficiency’. 所以让我们退出PSSo let’s pop out of Photoshop, 然后用谷歌搜索and do a quick Google search, 来得到更多关于PS性能的信息to give you a lot more information about performance in Photoshop. 如果我搜索“PS的性能”If I search for ‘performance photoshop’, 我将得到所有种类的信息I’m going to get all sorts of information. 而这里有两样我想展示给你们看And there’re really 2 things I want to show you here. 一个是我们的知识库文件One, is our own knowledge-based document, 这不仅仅包括所有我提到过的东西and this not only gets into depth with all the things I’ve talked about, 还有许多的关于如何调整PS的性能的信息but it gets into a lot more on how to tweak and tune Photoshop’s performance. 现在 如果这对你来说有点难以消化了Now, if this is a little too much for you to digest, 粉碎机杂志有相关的很好的文章Smashing Magazine has this great article, “10个优化PS性能的简单步骤”’10 Simple Steps to Better Photoshop Performance’. 它更加精确It’s a little more concise, 易于理解and digestible, 你可以看完这篇文章然后在PS内应用这些知识and you can read through this and apply these things within Photoshop. 我要说的最后一件事The last thing I’ll speak to, 是你的通用处理器is your GPU. 这是电脑里的另外一项设定It’s another computer sitting within the computer, 有点像是电子游戏and much like video games, PS可以利用这个设定Photoshop can take advantage of that. 如果你想要确定PS是最新版本You want to make sure it’s up-to-date. 实际上 你想要确定所有的数据等都是最新版本If fact, you want to make sure everything’s up-to-date, 你可以看看性能when it comes to performance. 你想确定PS已经更新了You want to make sure that Photoshop’s up to date, 你的通用处理器就是最开始更新的驱动器that your GPU, is the most up-to-date driver, 然后是你的操作系统更新and that your operating system is up-to-date, 因为它们是一起运行的because they’re all working together, 来给你尽可能最好的性能to give you the best possible performance. PS教程订阅 去看PS教程视频列表Photoshop Playbook,Subscribe, Go to PS Playbook Playlist.
  • 2021-10-26如何背诵元素周期表当记忆大师们在记纸牌或者π小数点后一千位数时When a memory expert memorizes playing cards or the first thousand decimals of pi, they 他们通过联想来记忆use mental imagery techniques. 在本系列的视频中你将通过专家们的方法来记住元素In this series of videos you’re going to memorize the first 20 elements of the periodic 周期表的前20个元素table by doing what the experts do. 我不仅将明确告诉你应该在脑海中联想什么画面I’ll tell you exactly what to picture in your mind, 我还可以帮你画出来and I’ll even draw it for you too.. 集中注意力于脑海中每一幅画面 你会对你能如此轻易Focus on seeing each picture in your head, and you’ll be amazed how easily you can 想起一切而吃惊recall everything. 让我们开始吧Let’s get into it. 我们将从想象出一幅经典的元素周期表开始We’ll begin by picturing a typical poster or chart of the periodic table. 许多小巧 色彩缤纷 内有名称 编号和元素符号的小方格There are many small, colorful squares, each with a name, number and symbol of an element, 共同构成了一个不规则的图形and together they create a large irregular shape. 这个画面将像锚一样将连接所有元素的记忆链牢牢This image will act as an anchor in your memory, holding down the chain of images which link 固定在你的记忆里together all the elements. 现在我们将拿着这彩色的表格来联系第一个元素Now we’ll take that colorful poster and attach it to the first element. 想象元素周期表的样子再想象它被一个救火龙头Picture that poster of the periodic table and imagine it’s wrapped around a water 包围hydrant. 为什么是消防栓Why a water hydrant? 元素周期表的第一个元素是氢The 1st element in the periodic table is Hydrogen. 氢气读起来像消防栓然后这就是你将想起它的方式Hydrogen sounds similar to hydrant and that’s how you’ll be reminded of it. 想象你在人行道上看见一个消防栓Picture a water hydrant you see on the sidewalk. 它又短又秃而且红红的 看起来很牢固It’s short, stubby, red, and looks strong. 消防栓像个子矮小的男人 头上戴着一顶小帽子The hydrant is like a little man with a small hat on top and stubby arms sticking out the 粗壮的手臂向两边伸开来side. 想象着那个消防栓被元素周期表包围着Imagine that hydrant with the chart of the periodic table wrapped around it. 当你想起元素周期表时 你将会想象出它When you think of the chart of the periodic table, you’ll picture it wrapped around 包围着一个消防栓a water hydrant. 因为消防栓听起来像氢 所以你会知道第一个元素Because hydrant sounds similar to hydrogen, you’ll know the 1st element in the table 是氢is Hydrogen. 第二个元素是氦The 2nd element is Helium. 若你像我的话 当你想起氦 你马上就会想起氦气球If you’re like me, when you think of Helium, you automatically think of a helium balloon. 当你放手的时候 它就会消失在天际When you let it go, it’s the type that floats up into the sky. 现在 想象一个巨大的氦气球Now imagine an enormous helium balloon. 想象它有汽车那么大而且被绑在了消防栓上Make it the size of a car and picture it attached to the water hydrant. 因为氦气球这么大而且升力也很大 所以它开始把Because the helium balloon is so big and has so much lifting power, it starts to lift the 消防栓从路边连根拔起water hydrant up off the sidewalk. 它们一起慢悠悠地飞上天 消失在天边Together they slowly float up into the air and away into the sky. 现在 当你想象氢气球向上飞的时候 你将知道第二个Now, when you visualize the helium balloon floating upwards, you’ll know the 2nd element 元素是氦is Helium. 第三个元素是锂The 3rd element is Lithium. 锂听起来有点像 lithpLithium sounds a bit like “lithp”. 那些口齿不清也就是有言语障碍者的人 不能发出People that have a lisp – a type of speech impediment – aren’t able to pronounce lisp的音 只能说lithp“lisp” and say “lithp”. 我们设想这个很大的氦气球有着口齿不清的毛病Let’s pretend the large helium balloon has a lisp. 它还破了一个洞 导致气球慢慢泄气It also has a small hole in it, causing the balloon to slowly deflate. 一个泄气的气球一般会慢慢发出”斯斯”的声音 但Usually a balloon with a hole in it will make a slow “ssss” sound, but because this 它口齿不清 所以它发出的是thhh的声音balloon has a lisp or “lithp”, it makes a “thhh” sound. 设想这个打气球一边漏气一边发出thhh的声音Visualize the large balloon slowly deflating making a “thhh” sound. 当你想起气球口齿不清时 你将想起第三个元素 锂When you think of the balloon’s “lithp”, you’ll be reminded of the 3rd element, Lithium. 第四个元素是铍The 4th element is Beryllium. 当你慢慢说铍的时候 听起来你就好像在说蜜蜂很爱吃If you say Beryllium slowly, it sounds like “bee really yum”. 想象你那个慢慢泄气的气球吧Picture your slowly deflating balloon. 想象巨大的大黄蜂落在气球上Imagine an enormous bumble bee lands on the balloon. 这只蜜蜂跟足球一样大 而且是亮黄和黑色相间的肤色The bee is the size of a football and has bright yellow and black stripes and buzzes 大声地嗡嗡叫loudly. 大黄蜂舔了舔气球说:”真好吃!”The bee licks the balloon to have a taste and says, “that’s really yum!” 它很喜欢气球的味道It really likes the taste of the balloon. 当你在想蜜蜂舔气球的时候你就会想起 蜜蜂真可口When you picture the bee licking the balloon, you’ll think, “bee really yum”, and 然后就会想起第四个元素 铍be reminded of the 4th element, Beryllium. 第五个元素是硼The 5th element is Boron. 我们可以把硼这个单词拆成孔和上面两个字词We can break up the word Boron into “bore” and “on”. 这个字 洞 可以理解为 钻洞The word “bore” can mean to drill a hole. 现在想象这只品尝过气球的蜜蜂Picture now the bee, after tasting the balloon. 它用它的刺把气球刺穿 气球旋转着It uses its stinger, pierces the balloon and starts to spin around in a drilling motion. 这只蜜蜂落在了气球上 舔了舔它 现在 它开始在The bee has landed on the balloon, tasted it, and now it’s started to “bore on” 气球上钻孔了the balloon. 当你想象蜜蜂在气球上钻孔的时候 你就会想起第五个元素When you picture the bee begin to bore on the balloon, you’ll remember the 5th element, 硼Boron. 好吧 这就是前五个元素的记法了Alright, that’s the first 5 elements of the periodic table. 我很确定你很容易就能记住它们 但现在你应该快速在I’m sure you can easily remember them, but quickly revise your memory story now by replaying 脑海中回顾一遍来加深印象it and “watching” it in your mind. 想象一张元素周期表Picture a poster of the periodic table. 元素周期表把消防栓包围 所以你想起了 氢The poster of the periodic table is wrapped around a hydrant, which reminds you of Hydrogen. 之所以消防栓飞到天边 是因为它连在一个氦气球上The hydrant starts to float up into the sky because it’s got a huge helium balloon attached 从而你将回忆起氦to it, reminding you of Helium. 当它飞得很高的时候 气球开始漏气 但它口齿不清When it gets high up in the sky, the balloon starts to slowly deflate and makes a “thhh” 所以发出的是thhh的声音 你又记起了 锂sound, because it has a “lithp”, giving you Lithium. 然后你看见大黄蜂落在气球上了 它舔了舔气球 还说Then you see a huge bumblebee land on the balloon, lick it and declare it’s “really 真美味yum”. 蜜蜂 真好吃 铍Bee, really yum – Beryllium. 蜜蜂用刺在气球上扎了一个洞 让你想起了 硼The bee starts to bore on the balloon with its stinger, making you recall Boron. 这就是周期表的前五个元素了 这真是轻而易举And that’s the first five elements of the periodic table, how simple was that? 我希望这个视频对你有所帮助 并能在半小时内I hope this video has served you well, check out the others in this series and in less 为明天的化学测验记下其他的元素than half an hour you’ll be ready for that chemistry exam tomorrow. 如果你认为这个视频有所帮助的话 请点赞并且转发Please like this video, please share it with your friends, and please leave a comment below 在下方留言if you thought it was helpful. 我会认真阅读所有评论并且亲自回答问题 所以I do read all the comments and reply to any questions personally, so feel free to ask 畅所欲言吧anything you like. 感谢观看 我们下个视频再见Thanks for watching, I’ll see you in the next video.
  • 2021-10-26如何记住对方面孔和名字为什么大多数人更容易记住人脸而不是人名呢?Why are most people better at remembering faces than names? 记忆有两种方法 可以分为识别和回忆Two of the ways you can remember things are by recognition or by recall. 识别很明显更容易 因为你不需要在你的脑海里搜索信息Recognition is typically easier because you don’t have to search for the information in your head. 它就放在你面前 你只需要识别你之前所看过的it’s put in front of you and you just need to recognise that you’ve seen it before. 这就是为什么我们容易记住人脸而不是人名的原因That’s why we’re better at people’s faces than their names. 记住一张脸都是跟识别有关的 但是记住一个名字需要我们Remembering a face is all about recognition – but remembering a name requires us to 在记忆里回想起来recall it from our memory. 在这个视频里我会给你一个简单的记忆挑战来证明识别的能力In this video I’m going to give you a simple memory challenge to demonstrate the power of recongition, 然后在下一个视频里给你一些提高回忆人名的能力的小技巧and then in the next video I’ll give you some tips on how to improve your recall of people’s names. 首先我会让你看30张图片 每张看几秒 然后会让你做一个测试First, I’ll show you 30 pictures for a couple of seconds each, and then I’ll give you a little test. 放松 享受这些图片 你的头脑会完成这些行为 只要你不老想着它Just relax and enjoy the images, your brain will do the work without you even thinking about it. 我们开始吧!Here we go. 好吧 这真的足够简单Ok, simple enough. 现在我要测试你的识别能力了Now I’m going to test your memory for recognition. 这次我会同一时间给你看两张图片 你需要选择出哪一张是你看过的This time I’ll show you two pictures at a time and you need to choose which one you’ve already seen. 你会有几秒的时间做出决定 然后我会揭晓答案You’ll have a couple of seconds to decide and then I’ll show which one is correct. 如果你答错了 用你的手指记一次数When you get one wrong, keep score on your fingers. 我想你会做得很棒 所以不需要用到很多根手指I think you’ll do really well on this, so you won’t need too many fingers. 准备好了吗?Ready? 我们开始吧Here we go. 就是这样!And that’s it! 你们做得怎么样?How did you go? 在下面留下你的评论 告诉我你认出了多少张图片Leave a comment below and tell me how many pictures you recognised correctly. 这就是为什么我们很擅长记忆人脸So that’s why we’re so good at remembering faces, 因为我们只需要识别出我们看到过就可以了because we just need to recognise that we’ve seen them before. 如果我让你回忆所有你记得的图片 然后把它写入名单If I asked you to recall all the pictures you remember and write them down in a list 这就会困难很多– that would be much harder. 实际上 这有点像回忆人名In fact, it’d be a bit like having to recall someone’s name. 下一个视频我会告诉你怎么记忆和回忆别人——你曾经见过的人——的人名In the next video I’ll show you how to remember and recall the name of someone you’ve just met. 人人都喜欢别人能记住他的名字 所以这真的很重要People love it when you remember their name, so this is important to know. 我的名字是凯尔•布坎南 我是白板动画的记忆教练和记忆学院的创始人My name is Kyle Buchanan, I’m the whiteboard animation memory coach and the creator of Memorize Academy. 如果你觉得这个视频很赞 请点个赞 留下评论和订阅我的频道If you thought this video was cool, please give it a like, leave a comment and subscribe to my channel 你会收到我新视频的通知so you’ll get notified about my new mind-blowing videos. 谢谢观看!Thanks for watching. 再见!Bye!
  • 2021-10-26化恐惧为动力-克里斯·哈德菲尔德生活中任何值得做的事情都有风险Anything worth doing in life has risk. 这是我通过观察得出的结论It’s been my observation. 如果你想要学走路If you want to learn to walk 就像我们大多数人小时候那样 也是有风险的like most of us did when we were a little,that had risk. 当我学走路的时候When I was learning to walk, 那时我刚刚一岁多 我摔倒了when I was just a little over a year old, I fell. 我们当时住的公寓是水泥地面We were living in an apartment that hada concrete floor. 我摔倒了 脑袋磕到了地上 头破血流I fell and banged my head on the floor and actually cracked my skull. 但是我需要学会走路But I needed to learn to walk. 即使当时也没有人向我解释原因And even though no one had explained it to me, 即使在那个阶段 生物学 进化论和我周遭的一切even at that stage, biology and evolution and world around me 都迫使我学会走路had put me in a position where learning to walk, 虽然这很危险 但也值得去做which is dangerous, was worth doing. 作为一名宇航员 你的生活差不多就是这样As an astronaut, that sort of becomes your life. 你会说 这是一个危险的工作You say, this is a dangerous job. 驾驶火箭发射船会有生命危险Flying a rocket ship kills people. 驾驶用来训练使用火箭发射船的喷气式飞机Flying the jet aircraft that we use to train to fly rocket ships 会有生命危险that kills people. 在水下训练太空行走时 我们中也有人去世了We’ve had people die underwater training to do spacewalks. 这是一个危险的职业It’s…It’s a dangerous profession 但就像学着走路和骑自行车一样But much like learning to walkor learning to ride a bike. 如果你能学会了这项技能If you can gain this skill, 如果你能做到这件事if you can do this thing, 也许这些风险值得你去冒then maybe those risks are worth taking 而我在很早之前决定And in my case, I decided a long time ago 去探索未知的宇宙that exploring the rest of the universe 是值得冒险尝试的was worth taking a risk for. 对我来说 这是一个值得做的事情To me, that’s a worthy thing. 我愿意改变自己I’m willing to change who I am. 我并不是一个会盲目冒险的人I’m not just a person who is blindly taking a risk. 而是一个懂得理性思考的人But I am, instead, a calculating thinking human 我正尝试着去做一些人类从未做过的事情who is trying to do something that we haven’t done before 同时我要了解如何战胜风险and figure out how I can defeat the risk, 我要如何去战胜危险how I can beat the danger 把我们安置到一个新地方and put us in a new place, 安全的到达这新地方get to that new place safely, 然后安然无恙的走出舱come out the other side without a cracked head. 实际上 我喜欢做这样的事I like what that does, actually 如果你觉得 因为值得 所以冒险in that if you say “I’m gonna take a risk because it’s worth it”, 这会改变你的身份that changes your part. 你并不是一个旁观者You aren’t a spectator. 你也不是一个过客You’re not a passenger. 你正是战胜风险这个过程的重要部分You are now part of the process by which you’re going to defeat that risk. 你不需要害怕You don’t have to feel afraid. 相反 你会感受到些许instead you can sort of feel 解决问题的动力like motivated to solve the problems. 你是试图实现这件事的重要角色You’re part of this thing trying to make this happen. 因此 当我进出火箭船舱时So that when I walk out to a rocket shipand I’m about to get in, 我明白这很危险I know it’s dangerous. 这些年 我一直在思考这件事的危险性I’ve been thinking about the danger of it for years and years. 但我不再感到害怕But I no longer have to feel afraid. 这并不只是因为我做好了防御机制That’s not the only defense mechanism that I have. 我已经在这儿工作了太长时间I’ve been working on this thing so long, 而且我的工作并不是整天坐在这儿and my job has not been to sit there 祈祷好运和希望的and cross my fingers and hope. 我现在的工作是负责驾驶火箭发射船My job is now to pilot this thing, 或者至少是训练机上的机组人员or at least to be part of the flight crew onboard 然后安全战胜风险and safely defeat the risk, 最后成功的到达另一个地方get out the other side of it with success. 对于生活中的所有事情 我都会这样想And I sort of treat everything in my life that way. 我认为值得去做的事是什么?What is it that I think is worth doing? 这些事会有哪些风险?What are the risks involved? 我要如何处理这些实际存在的风险And how can I address the actual risks 才能实现我认为重要的事?so that I can achieve the things that I think are important? 进入太空的宇航员从来不会迷信祈祷No astronaut launches for space with their fingers crossed. 那不是我们处理危险的方式That’s not how we deal with risk. 我们不会把这个问题推诿给其他人We don’t just take it as somebody else’s problem. 我们已经准备好 正视风险 迎难而上We are ready to confront the risk head on 我们知道 危险与害怕是有区别的and recognize that there is a differencebetween danger and fear. 危险并不等同于害怕They’re not synonymous. 很多人都不懂So many people ask 因为在英语中 这两个词经常混用because in English, it’s sort of crept in. 噢 那一定很可怕的事物Oh, that must be a scary thing. 事物并不可怕And things aren’t scary. 是人觉得可怕People are scared. 这是有区别的It’s different. 事物就是事物而已The thing is just the thing. 无论你觉得它可怕与否——有些人害怕蜘蛛Whether you choose to be scared — some people are afraid of spiders. 有些人害怕镜子Some people are afraid of mirrors. 有些人害怕空旷的区域 密闭的空间Some people are afraid ofopen spaces, confined spaces. 但这仅仅是你对存在事物的反应But that’s just your reaction to a thing that exists. 你可以选择害怕与否You can choose to be afraid or not. 如果你害怕某个事物 为什么呢?And if it makes you afraid, why? 为什么这会使我感到恐惧?Why does this make me fearful? 也许有我不该面对的危险Maybe there’s a dangerthere I shouldn’t be confronting. 我永远也不会去做一个走钢丝的人I am never going tobe a tightrope walker. 对我来说 走钢丝太危险了To me, there’s so much dangerin walking down a tightrope 几乎也不能从中得到好处and so little benefit to getting across the tightrope 我不愿意冒其中的风险that it’s not a risk I’m willing to take. 这是一种真实存在的危险It’s a real danger. 我能感受到走钢丝的恐惧I can feel the fear of doing it 这种恐惧感提醒我 这很危险the fear warns me that this is a danger 而我并不想承受这种风险I don’t want to I don’t want to subject myself to. 但是生活中还有许多其他的风险But there’s lots of other risks in life 我认为是值得一试的that I do think are worthwhile. 我认为 生活中真正重要的一步是And the real, I think, important step in life 去辨别哪些风险是值得尝试的is to identify what are the risks worth taking 如果它们使你害怕 又是为什么呢?If they do make you afraid, why? 因为这可能代表着Because that’s probably an indicator 你还没有学会that you haven’t learned how to do 你需要做的事what is you need to do yet. 然后开始改变自己And then start changing who you are. 掌握技能Gain your skill. 战胜恐惧最好的办法就是掌握能力The best antidote for fear is competence. 如果你很有能力If you can make yourself competent, 那么你就不再恐惧害怕then you’re not just relying on fear, 反之 你已经成为能做这种事的人but you’re actually a person who can do this thing. 而且如果你有能力And if you’re competent, 那么你不但能做这类事情then not only can you do this thing, 而且你做这件事的时候 还能抽空休息一下but you can relax while you’re doing it. 你可以环顾四周You can look around. 感受一下 你做的这件事有多酷You can notice how cool this thing is. 现在正在发生的这件危险的事 有我呢This dangerous thing that’s happening, I got this. 我知道如何去做这件事I know how to do this thing. 我不会像一只吉娃娃那样吓得落荒而逃I am not just a chihuahua shaking away, 希望这个问题消失 放我一条生路hoping that this problem will disappear without killing me. 与此不同的是 你是一个有能力有潜力的人Instead, you’re a functioning thriving human. 正在做一件了不起的事in the middle of something amazing, 并且你已经变成了一个真正能让大家欣赏的人and you have turned yourself into somebody who can truly appreciate it. 对我来说 那才是你该处理风险的方式To me, that’s how you should deal with risk. 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  • 2021-10-26预算时告诉自己的5条谎言大家好 这里是《财务瘦身》 我是切尔西Hey guys, it’s Chelsea from The Financial Diet. 本周视频由SkillShare赞助And this week’s video is brought to you by Skill Share. 这周我们来谈谈做预算这件事So this week we’re gonna be talking about making a budget. 更确切地说 是我们在做预算时And more specifically, the lies 对自己撒的那些谎we tell ourselves when we make one. 我们取名为《财务瘦身》A big part of the reason that we called ourselves the 很大程度上是因为the financial diet, is because we believe 我们认为健康理财that getting healthy with money, 跟健康饮食很相似is very similar to the way you get healthy with food, 它们都要求以一种which is to say in a very moderate and 克制又上进的方式progressive way that allows for 忠于自己的生活the way you honestly live your life. 就像一时兴起的节食起不了作用Just like a crash diet for food won’t work, 冲动式的缩减开支住往会使你花得更多a crash diet with money will leave you overspending 而且会一直感到不安and feeling anxious all the time. 一个健康康又可持续的And part of creating that financial diet that 省钱方式必须是忠于自己的is healthy and long-lasting is being super honest with yourself. 这就意味着当你在做预算时That means that when you’re creating a budget, 不管你手头上有多少钱no matter the amount of money you’re dealing with. 你必须要坦诚地面对自己You have to be really really transparent with yourself 你的消费习惯是怎样的about how you actually spend, 哪些是你真的能坚持的and what you’re actually going to be able to stick to. 大多数人第一次做预算时Most of us so when we’re first starting a budget. 都做不到这点Don’t tend to do this, 我们往往会把目标定得太大we tend to be overly ambitious and 隐瞒自己真实的and lie to ourselves in the process 消费习惯about our own habits. 所以我们列举出了五种So we’ve put together five common lies that 在做预算时常对自己说的谎言we tell ourselves when we’re making a budget, 以及如何有效地应对它们and also how do we effectively deal with them. 第一条 没事 我只需要Number one: It’s fine, I can only have 大幅减少每月的insert drastically cut-down number here, 外出开支就行to spend on going out per month. 基本上很多人在准备做预算时So basically a lot of people’s first 第一个大动作就是big moves when they look to start a budget, 查看一下他们外出时的花费is to look at how much they spend on going out, 包括和朋友去酒吧 餐厅and that includes everything from like bars to restaurants to 临时小聚 看看电影之类的事random events and movies with your friends, 然后发现 ” 啊 浪费了好多钱and say “oh, that’s a waste of money, 我要尽量少出去”I should cut as much of that out as possible.” 特别当你是那种Especially when if you’re someone who 出门要喝酒的人has drinks when you go out, 当你喝醉后you can tend to do a lot of this frivolous spending, 更容易做出一些不必要的消费while already a little tipsy. 比如说 当你路过回家途中的杂货店时For example, that stops at the bodega on the way home 你可能会买三包薯片where you get like three bags of chips 和两瓶无糖汽水and two diet sodas. 如果你是清醒的That’s probably not something that 可能就不会有这些开支sober you would have spent on. 别误解我的意思And don’t get me wrong, 想减少你的外出开销是件好事it is good to want to reduce your going out spending, 尤其是对大多数人而言especially because for most of us, 外出开销占到了it represents the biggest part 可自由支配钱数的绝大部分of our discretionary spending money, 甚至超过了购物的开销even more so than shopping. 但是就像节食一样 一时兴起是不行的But just like with food, crash diets won’t work. 所以 不要很武断地骤然减少So instead of giving yourself an arbitrary low number that 你每月在外出开销you think is the right amount 部分的预算to be spending on going out every month, 先核算一下你每一项外出开销究竟是多少look at what you’re actually spending in that category, 像mint这样的应用可以帮你计算出具体数字an app like mint will help you figure that number out. 然后先将外出开销And then start by reducing 20 percent 降低20%from that spending category. 对于每个月的外出开销There’s no one right number 无法做到统一to be spending on going out every month, 因为这主要取决于你住哪里especially because depending on where you live, 就连简单的一杯啤酒或一顿晚餐the cost of something as simple as 价格也可能大大不同a beer or a dinner can cost wildly different amounts. 但大家可以在现在的But everyone can start by trying to reduce 开销基础上进行缩减from the number they’re already at, 而且我们发现先从每一项中and we’ve found that starting at around 减少约20%20% in each category, 是一个非常合理又能让你坚持下去的目标is a reasonable enough goal that you can stick to it without 你也不会感觉自己完全脱离了社交生活feeling like you’ve totally cut out your social life. 当你的大脑接受了这个精减后的预算As your brain adjusts to this reduced budget 并且习惯了这种新常态and gets used to it as the new normal, 你就可以找到更节省的you can start finding even more 晚上出去玩的方式thrifty ways to enjoy your nights out, 进一步减少外出开销and seek to reduce the category even further. 但一定要从削减20%开始But start with just cutting by 20%, 有一件事应该不用我说and maybe it should go without saying 你从外出开销上省出的20%but that 20% you’re taking out of the going-out category 应该用来储蓄和投资should go straight into savings and investments. 第二条 我不会再在这件或那件事上Number two: I’m just not going to spend any more 花更多的钱了money on X or Y category. 我根本不需要它I don’t need it. 你总是这样说You always say this 然后发现自己其实需要它until you do need it. 举个贴切的例子Let me give you a great example, 很多人在准备精减预算many people when they’re looking to really 或者开始制定预算时overhaul their budget or to start one for the first time, 都会从去除某一项开支开始start by cutting out a category of spending. 因为审核预算不仅是Because not only is it a really black-and-white way 白纸黑字的事to rethink your money, 还是个有趣的挑战it’s also kind of a fun challenge, 许多人的做法是and a lot of people do this 决定再也不购物in the form of a shopping ban. 比如在我们的节目上And on TFD for example, 有很多这样的文章we have many articles where people detailed 人们详细写出了30天their shopping bans whether 甚至一整年的购物禁令it was for 30 days or an entire year. 但是我们不仅有立禁令的文章But for every article we have like that, 也有那些打破了购物禁令的人we also have an article for people who 写的文章failed their shopping bans. 事实上 你很难去预测The truth is, it’s extremely difficult to predict 一天 一周或六个月后what you’re going to need, 自己需要什么a day a week or six months from now. 更关键的是 你是人And more importantly, you’re a human being 逃不掉人类的需求who’s subject to human being needs 以及狂妄和愚蠢and whims and stupidity. 比如说 你可能For example, you might say 会在一月初的时候说at the beginning of January “整个2017年都不买衣服”“No buying clothes for the entirety of 2017.” 但在六月份 你上班穿的正装But then in June, your go-to-work blazer 在干洗店被弄坏了gets destroyed at the dry cleaner, 你会怎么办?what are you gonna do? 今年不穿正装上班了么?Just not have a blazer for work all year? 我觉得不可能I think not. 即使不是在这样极端的情况下And even if it’s not such a dire situation, 人类的大脑还是能很高效地the human brain is incredibly effective 确定自己想要的东西at defining things you want 并骗自己说”我真的需要这个”as something you absolutely need. 你会发现你自己总是在You’ll always find yourself 找借口购买那些justifying something along the way, 或许已列入购物禁令的化妆品 酒或衬衫whether you’ve cut out makeup or booze or shirts. 一种更健康的方式是这样告诉自己A much healthier way to approach this, is to say “我总体上已经避免了这个或那个的开支“I’m generally avoiding X or Y category, 但在我每个月的预算中but in my budget every month, 还是有一点过度消费”there is a little splurge category.” 有些人的预算中And some people also budget 这样的过度消费会持续半年their splurge category by the six month, 或者一年or one year mark. 重点是 这部分预算The point is, this is the area of your budget 属于你尽量避免购买的东西that goes to things that you’re generally trying to avoid, 但意外的需求总是时不时出现but might just come up inevitably from time to time. 如果你额外拿出200美元So let’s say you have 200 dollars set aside 用于接下来的半年内for every six month period to go towards 你免不了要购买的东西things you’re generally not buying. 那么当干洗店弄坏了That means that when your dry cleaner might 你的正装mess up that go-to-blazer, 你不得不再买一件时you don’t have to feel like 就不用觉得像是you’re breaking some cardinal rule 打破了什么基本原则by getting yourself another one. 因为我们知道Because lest we forget, 当你觉得你已经违反了你的节食计划时the moment you feel like you’ve broken your diet, 就是你迈向堕落深渊之时is the moment you will go off the rails, 因为节食计划已不再重要了because it doesn’t matter anymore. 第三条 这是我一整年的预算Number three:This is the budget I’m using for the year 一般而言 预算不可能generally speaking, a budget is not meant to be 一整年都不变the same throughout an entire calendar year. 一年当中可能发生很多事情So many things can happen in a year. 你的工资可能会涨You can start earning more money at work, 你可能会找到一份新兼职or get a new side job, 可能会开始存钱或者需要取钱or start in your savings account or move, or find that 可能会发现更加合算的存钱方式you can just be more efficient at saving somewhere. 最好的办法是The point is about three times per year, 每年检查三次自己的预算it’s really healthy to go through your budget, 检查下你的计划look at your statements, 再检查下你的开销分类look at your spending categories, 估算一下自己是不是and really reassess if you’re getting 省下了大部分赚来的钱the most out of the money you’re making. 而且避免生活方式上的通胀It’s also the most efficient way to avoid 也很重要lifestyle inflation, which is 它的意思是 当你赚得更多时basically when you start earning 也会花得更多more money and therefore spending more money, 然后形成新常态and that becomes your new normal. 一个良好的预算要做到A healthy budget means that 即使你突然赚了更多的钱even if you’re earning more money suddenly, 花销也不会增加you’re not spending more, 而是进行更加有效的储蓄和投资you’re just saving and investing more effectively. 这种一年检查多次预算的方式And this multi-annual checkup 对于第一次制定预算的人特别有用is especially true if this is your first real budget. 因为 坦诚地讲Because let’s be honest, 如果你是第一次做预算if this is your first real budget, 你一定要对你的各项开支you’re going to have to be really really generous 都非常慷慨with yourself in all spending categories, 因为你根本不习惯to compensate for the fact that 按照做预算的逻辑来思考you’re really not used to thinking in terms of a budget. 如果你刚开始做预算If you’re starting out on an early budget, 你可能会在这削减个20%chances are you cut maybe 20% here, 在那削减个10%10% there, to end up saving 然后每个月能有点积余a little bit of your monthly take-home pay. 但做预算的本质是让自己But the point of a budget is to train your mind 在资源更少的情况下活得开心to live well on less than you have, 让自己能存储So that you can eventually work up 更多的钱to higher savings goals. 举个例子 如果你每月For example, if you’re earning 税后赚2500美元twenty five hundred a month take-home, 存下400到500美元saving four to five hundred dollars of that 刚开始看起来是挺多的seems enormous at first. 但是如果你不断地修正你的预算But if you are constantly reassessing your budget, 看看哪里可以and seeing where you can add 增加点收入a bit more income, 哪笔消费可以更理性一点and spend a bit more smartly, 这绝对是你能慢慢做到的that’s definitely something you can work up to. 总之 一年都不修正预算Long story short, letting a budget sit unchanged for 基本上意味着an entire year, is almost guaranteeing that 你根本不会遵守它you won’t get the most out of it. 第四条 我已经写好了预算Number four: Now I’ve made my budget, 可以马上执行了I’m ready to go. 这一条对于第一次Now this is specifically for people 做预算的人来说特别普遍who are starting out on their first budget, 我不想打击你们and I hate to be the bearer of bad news. 但事实上But chances are high that 如果这是你第一次做预算if this is your first budget, 结果可能很糟糕it is probably going to be terrible. 第一次做预算There are really two stages 有两个阶段to making a first budget, 你不能就想着and you can’t just think “好的 我已经写下所有的数字“Okay, I’ve written out all the numbers 我已经做好了预算的excel表格 一切搞定”I’ve got my excel sheet whatever, I’m good.” 第一阶段是回顾过去六个月Stage one is taking a look back at about 的开销情况six months of your spending 看看你在没有做预算的时候是怎么生活的to see how you were living without a budget. 而第二阶段是看看But stage two is looking at about 做了预算的三个月是如何生活的about three months with the budget and seeing 看看你在哪一块可以多省一点where you could be saving more, 你对自己的哪些消费习惯估计失误or where you’ve really misunderstood your own habits. 你的第一个真正意义上的预算Your first real budget will come 要到三个月后才能制定after about three months of that initial one 因为你需要时间来学习和调整when you’ve had time to learn and adjust. 例如 你会发现第一次做预算For example, a common problem 都会犯同一个毛病that you’ll notice with the first budget attempt 就是把计划定得太细is that you’ve made it way too detailed. 比如说 在购物这一项上For example, when it comes to shopping, 很多第一次做预算的人a lot of people making their first budget 会把它拆得很细will break it down into like 分成衣服 鞋 化妆品 美容产品clothes, shoes, makeup, beauty products. 然后你会意识到And then you’ll realize “噢 每个月的情况不同“Hey, every month is different 这些应该放在同一类里”those should all go into one category.” 或许你可以将它们归为”让我更美”类Maybe you can call it “How good I look.” 你爱叫啥都行Whatever you want to call it. 重点是 你将会更适应The point is, you will start to get more comfortable 你的消费习惯with your own spending habits, 要知道把预算做得更细and realize that making things more detailed 不代表更容易遵守does not mean they’re easier to keep track of. 事实上 在做预算的时候In fact, when it comes to budgeting, 结果可能适得其反it almost has the opposite effect, 因为它会让你在购买每一件东西时because it makes you way too hyper aware 都很紧张of every single purchase. 你永远不可能You’re never going to be able to plan 把开销具体到某一件东西上your spending down to the individual purchase. 而是要边做预算边不断学习The point is, to learn as you go with your budget 习惯于做大致的计划to get more comfortable by planning in generalities. 第五条 我不是一个Number five: I’m not the kind of person 能严格遵守预算的人who can keep a budget. 这大概是我经常对自己撒的Now this is probably the biggest lie 最大的谎了I always told myself. 因为这是我不想对钱Because it was the perfect excuse not to 精打细算最好的借口have to think or try too hard with my own money. 认为自己Deciding that you’re just going to be 处理不好金钱方面的问题one of those people who’s bad with money, 会让自己is basically the only way to guarantee that 永远是个理财小白you will always be financially illiterate. 把手一甩It’s so easy to throw up your hands 说自己不是那种人 永远不可能做预算and be like “well I’m not that type kind of person, 是很容易的I’ll never make a budget.” 但现在可是2017年But it’s 20 freaking 17, 有一百万种方法让你遵守你的预算there are a million ways to keep track of your budgets 不是你想象的那样坐在那儿that don’t involve like you sitting there, 拿着算盘 笔和纸with like an abacus and a pen and paper 旁边放一盏绿色的会计灯and one of those like green accounting lamps 等等等等from the producers and all that stuff. 如果你是那种If you’re one of these people 一看到账单就紧张who get stressed out just looking at an account 甚至连excel都打不开的人or feel like you can’t even open Excel, 可以找一些能帮你处理这类问题的start looking at different apps 不同的手机应用that will help you do these things. 我和劳伦刚刚做过一个视频Lauren and I made a video a while back 介绍了一些你可能没听过的about different apps you might not have heard of 能帮你理财的手机应用that will help you manage your money, 我们会把链接放到视频简介里and will link that in the description. 我一直觉得For me, I always felt like 我不是那种能精打细算I couldn’t do that needy greedy of adding 严格遵守预算的人and subtracting and keeping track of numbers. 那会让我觉得自己又回到了It made me feel like I was in math class again, 让人沮丧的数学课堂which was really upsetting. 所以大概四年前So about four years ago, 我开始使用一款叫做mint的手机应用I started using an app called Mint that 它帮我解决了很多琐碎的数学问题helps do a lot of those number crunching parts for me, 你只需要打开邮件里的报表and it feels really manageable 操作起来特别简单when I just open up the statement in my email. 现在 我已经习惯了And now that I’ve gotten so used 追踪我的收入流向to looking at my money, 再也不怕做预算了it doesn’t scare me anymore to do the other parts. 不要欺骗自己Don’t kid yourself, saying 说自己不是做预算的人that you’re just not a budget person, 说自己处理不好金钱问题or you can’t deal with money, 或者说自己数学不好or you don’t know how to use math, 这些都是借口is a total cop-out. 即使你觉得你的钱很少Even if you have so little money that you feel 少到每个月都没有余钱可以存like you can’t find a penny to save every month, 尽管把预算写出来just writing it all out and being super aware 认真地盯着你的收入和支出情况of how it’s coming in and how it’s going out, 这是你学会掌握自己收支情况的第一步is the first real step to having control over it. 我不仅靠这个方法恢复了信用卡信誉度It’s how I first rehabbed my credit, 还靠这个方法but it’s also now how I look at every year not just 评估我这一年的结余how I’m gonna get to the end of the year, 以及为下一年做打算but where do I want to be intended. 当你对自己说The day you say to yourself “我无法做预算”的时候“I can totally have a budget.” 就是你开始做预算的最佳时机is the day you’ll start making one. 不承认自己It’s really easy to lie to ourselves 真实的习惯 花销about our habits or our spending or how 或者处理钱财的方式是很容易的we just approach money in general. 还没开始就放弃And it’s really easy to give up 也不难before we’ve even started. 但是不做预算But without a budget, 你一定会总是you’re guaranteed to almost 感觉自己过得胆战心惊always feel like you’re broken, 感觉压力很大and always be stressed out 因为你不知道如何做规划because you don’t know how to plan. 开始坦诚地面对自己Start being honest with yourself, 自然能做出良好的预算and a healthy budget will follow. 你可能不仅在做预算时Chances are you’ve been lying to yourself 对自己撒谎a little bit about your budget, 在学习新东西时你可能也会but you’ve also probably been lying to yourself 对自己撒谎about learning new things. 你总是对自己说You’re always saying “哦 我打算去上这门课”“Oh I’m going to go back and take this class.” 或者是”嗯 我打算学习那门技术”or “Oh I’m going to go back and get that skill.” 但是不知怎的 你就是从来不去做But somehow you just never end up doing it. 这就是为什么你们需要SkillshareBut that’s why you should check out Skillshare, 这是一个网上学习社区it’s an online learning community for creators 拥有16000堂课with more than 16,000 classes in design 包括设计摄影等方面photo and more, and they are currently 现在他们还为前500位点击链接的观众offering a 2 month free trial to the first 提供两个月的免费试听课500 people who go to the link in the description. 劳伦订阅了很多课程Lauren for example has taken everything 包括杰西卡·海希的字体设计课from a lettering class with Jessica Hesh, 食物摄影课 可以去博客晒美图to a food photography class for bloggers, 以及视频后期处理教程 能让她to after-effects video tutorials that help her make 为我们的节目制作更好看的视频even more beautiful videos here on TFD. 而且你可以随时随地学习And plus you can learn from anywhere, 如果你将这款应用下载到安卓机或苹果手机上if you download the mobile app on Android or iPhone, 离线时都可以上课you can tap into classes even when you’re offline. 支持《财务瘦身》So support TFD and finally 学习你一直没学的技能learn that skill you’ve been putting off, 点击视频简介里的链接by going to the link in the description 你将会得到两个月的to claim your two free month trial 超赞的免费试听课of all the amazing classes 还有他们提供的学习教程 开始学习吧and tutorials they have to offer. Start learning. 还是那句话 谢谢你们的观看As always guys, thank you for watching, 不要忘记点击订阅哦and don’t forget to hit the subscribe button, 记得每周二来看最新最好玩的视频 拜拜and to come back every Tuesday for new and awesome videos. Bye~
  • 2021-10-26有些负面情绪不要紧的生活中绝对会遇到些不好的事情There are definitely some things that are bad. 你读过今天发表的那篇文章吗?Did you read that article that came out today 那上面说 你只可以吃6根薯条that said you should only eat six fries? 什么?你脑子出毛病了?What? Are they delusional? 谁能只吃6根薯条啊?Who can only eat six fries? 我不知道 文章上是这么说的I don’t know, that’s what the article said. 一辈子只能吃6根 还是一餐只能吃6根?Like over the course of my life or in one sitting? 如果我每个小时吃6根薯条呢?I mean what if I eat six fries every hour? 我不知道啊I don’t know. 好吧 不过吃这6根薯条难道没有时间限制的吗?Okay, but like what are the time parameters for six fries? 6秒?6个月?6年?I mean six seconds? Months? Years? 我不知道啊 要不你自己去看文章呗?I don’t know, maybe read the article? 但是你读过文章了 然后毁了我的生活Okay, but you read the article and have now ruined my life 所以你得给我更确切的信息so I would like some elaborate answers 而不是什么“不能吃6根以上薯条”beyond:”don’t eat more than six fries.” 你这样才不会有朋友呢This is why you have no friends. 我就一个人I’m alone. 我们一直被灌输一个观点I mean one thing we’ve been sort of trained to believe “负面情绪是不好的”is that negative emotions are bad. 嫉妒心 没有安全感 疑神疑鬼 偏执Jealousy, insecurity, doubt, paranoia. 这样的负面情绪有很多很多I mean the list goes on and on. 那些心灵鸡汤尤其强调这点The positivity movement especially has this “你应该摆脱坏情绪 让内心充满阳光”mentality that you should cast aside these emotions in favor of the happy ones. 有点类似于 你要假装你控制住情绪了Sort of like fake it to make it 但是要把虚假的情绪变成真实but feel it to… make real it. 我不觉得这样做会带来长久的改善Which I don’t think works long term 因为如果你只是不断忽视这些情绪 because then you sort of become detached and disconnected with your emotions 你就会被剥离情感 失去和情感的联系by just constantly dismissing them. 好了 朋友们!经过最近的体内研究All right everyone! After some recent discussions internally 我们决定把你们都解雇!we’ve decided to fire you all! 从现在开始 只剩下愉悦的情感啦!From now on it’s all joy! 嫉妒:你说……什么?愤怒:你什么意思?你想什么呢? 悲伤:我被解雇了…… 你不能就这么把我们解雇 我们住在你身体里呢!You can’t just fire us we live inside of you! 收拾好你们的破烂然后滚蛋吧 拜拜!Pack your shit and leave, Bye! 还有些鸡汤告诉你 你要和情绪相处 对不对?Then there’s also the view that you need to sit with your emotions, right? 理论是:接受那些负面情绪吧The idea of: acceptance of negative feelings 这样它们就会从你的身体里穿行而过in order to let them pass through you. 但是我发现当我这么做的时候But I’ve found that when I do this 我只会沉浸在这些不良情绪中 然后一蹶不振I just get stuck in the bad feeling and just ruminate 因为我让那些坏情绪接管了我的人生because I’m allowing that emotion to take over my life. 今天会很糟糕的呦!It’s gonna be a terrible day. 这顿饭超难吃的呦!It’s gonna be a terrible meal. 总有一天他会死掉 然后你就完蛋了!HE’S GONNA DIE SOMEDAY AND YOU’RE GOING TO BE DEVASTATED! 现在 我找到了一个可以帮到我的好办法And now I have found a brilliant technique that has helped me so much. 先忍耐一会Now bear with me 我知道接下来的话听起来很肉麻because I know it’s gon na sound a little cheesy, 但如果你是个有很多焦虑情绪或缺乏安全感的人but if you’re someone who deals with a lot of anxiety or insecurity 或者情感上正经历痛苦的人or emotional pain of any kind 我诚心希望你可以用开放的态度试一下这个办法I urge you to have an open mind and try it. 那么 当你感受到负面情绪So, when you feel a negative emotion, 比如说 没有安全感let’s say insecurity. 我想让你先想一想I want you to first think 这情绪看起来是怎样的of what that emotion would look like, 给它一个具象化的描述a physical representation of it. 对我来说 我的不安看起来像个锯齿状的水晶So for me, my insecurity would look like a jagged crystal formation. 当你赋予它一个清晰的外表后And once that image is really clear 我需要你在想象中I want you to mentally 把这个具象化的情感从身体里拿出来take that physicalized emotion from your body 把它拿到身前 然后问问它:and hold it in front of you and ask it: 为什么你会在我身体里?Why are you here? 因为事实上 你的每种情感都是来帮助你的Because every feeling you have is actually trying to help you. 它们都是在向你表达一些东西It’s trying to let you know something. 这就是你能感受到它们的原因I mean, that’s why you feel it. 这些真实的信息不应给被忽视或盲目吸收It’s this physical cue that shouldn’t be just ignored or blindly accepted 它们需要被理解but understood. 好吧 到底怎么了?说说你想告诉我什么事?OK. So what’s up? What are you trying to tell me? 我不想你受到伤害I don’t want you to get hurt. 什么?为什么我会受到伤害?What? Why would I get hurt? 你去了个派对 那里的所有人都很拉风Well you were at this party and everyone here is really cool 你很喜欢这些人and you like them a lot, 但是如果他们不像你喜欢他们一样喜欢你怎么办?But what if they don’t like you as much as you like them? 如果他们觉得你很菜怎么办?What if they think you’re lame? 我只是想保护你不被伤害I just want to make sure that you’re safe 让你觉得被关爱着 没人能伤害你and you’re loved and that no one hurts you. 你还在看嘛?Are you still with me? 我的水晶是不是听起来超可爱?And isn’t my crystal voice just like super adorable? 好了 认真点But seriously, 你的每种情感都是在试图对你产生影响literally every emotion you feel is trying to do something for you. 你的愤怒是一种对自己的保护Whether it’s your anger trying to protect you, 你的焦虑是在给自己提供动力your anxiety wanting to motivate you to do better, 那些不被需要的感觉or your feelings of unworthiness wanting 是为了确保你得到应有的爱to make sure that you get the love you deserve. 你要把负面情绪看作是“理解偏差”You need to think of negative emotions as misunderstood, 这样之后 一旦你知道为什么会产生这些负面情绪and then, once you really know why it’s there, 下一步the next step 就是想想你希望感受到什么is to think of what you would rather feel. 对我来说 当我理解我的不安只是在保护我免受伤害时so for me when I understand that my insecurity is trying to keep me safe from getting hurt, 我会想“唔……我还是更愿意觉得自己很脆弱”I would think,”Hmm, well I would rather feel vulnerable. 我更愿意希望自己可以跨出一步 迎接挑战I’d rather feel like I can put myself out there and take a risk 然后知道自己就是这样的人 这就足够了and know that I’m enough just as I am. 当我产生了这样的感受以后 我会把这种情绪也具象化once I have that feeling I make it a physical object as well. 在想象中把它拿到身前 然后把两种情绪融合到一起Pull it out of my body mentally and I merge the two together. 当你把两种情绪融合到一起之后So once you merge these two together, 它们会变成新的东西 继续留在你的脑海中it becomes a new object and then, still in your head here, 你会把新的东西放回身体 然后带着它继续生活you will put the new object back in your body and carry on. 好了 隔着屏幕我也能感受到你的想法Now, I can feel your judgment through the screen. 我感受到了Like I feel it 一些观众像这样翻着白眼and I know some of you are like rolling your eyes and be like, “我的天啦 安娜变成正念冥想师了”“Oh my god, Anna so New Age LA now,” 那么 我就想让你问问自己and I want you to ask yourself, 为什么你这么爱评头论足呢?why do you feel judgmental? 这种情绪对你来说意味着什么?How is it trying to serve you 它看起来是什么样子的?and what does it look like? 我知道这或许不适合所有人And I know this may not be for everyone but 但它确实在我的生活中派上了用场it’s literally come in handy so much of my life 我希望把它分享出来that I did want to share it, 因为现在我明白了 所有负面情绪都是有意义的because now I understand that every negative emotion is trying to do something for me. 与其把它推开 或屈服于它Instead of just pushing it away or succumbing to it, 现在我可以把它转化成有助于我生活的 更容易接受的情绪了I can now transform it into something that helps make my existence more bearable. 我希望这方法多少对你有点帮助If anything, I hope that this helps you in some way because, 因为你懂的 有时生活真的很艰难you know, life can be really hard sometimes 我真的不愿意自己成为那个最糟糕的自己and I’m- I’m really tired of being the person who makes me feel the worst. 所以 我正在努力改变So I’m working on it. 我是安娜·阿卡纳 要做个酷酷的人噢 小坏蛋们!I’m Anna Akana, stay awesome Gotham! 我要感谢Squarespace对本期节目的赞助I want to say thank you to Squarespace for sponsoring today’s episode! Squarespace是个屡获殊荣的一体化知识平台Squarespace has award-winning templates and an all-in-one one platform 没有补丁 不用升级或安装!so there’s no patches, upgrades, or installs ever! 如果你需要域名 Squarespace可以帮到你If you need a domain, Squarespace has got you. 他们的操作流程简单而独特They’ve got a simple and unique set up experience and 还有24小时在线的客户服务24-hour customer service 有任何问题或疑惑 只管联系客服if you have any questions, concerns, or just want to tell them a story. 你可以到squarespace.com/AnnaYou can go to squarespace.com/Anna 即日起开启免费试用to start your free trial today 使用优惠码ANNA可以打九折and use the offer code ANNA for 10 % off at checkout. 一切尽在squarespace.com/anna,At squarespace.com/anna, 使用优惠码ANNA可以打九折噢!and the offer code ANNA for ten percent off.
  • 2021-10-26罗宾·威廉姆斯小传Robin Williams is known for his fast-paced knee-jerk comedy罗宾·威廉姆斯以“快节奏喜剧”而闻名 And those wild, unpredictable performances actually changed the way TV is made.他那狂热的 出乎意料的表演改变了电视节目的制作方式 This is “Biography.”这里是《名人小传》栏目 Robin Williams broke onto the scene in a big way,罗宾·威廉姆斯在热播剧《莫克和明迪》中 playing the zany alien Mork from Planet Ork 扮演了来自兽人星球的外星小丑莫克 on the hit TV series “Mork and Mindy.”彻底改变了片场风格 And when Robin stepped in front of the camera,当罗宾来到摄像机前 nobody had seen anything like him before.没人见过像他那样的人 He would throw himself around the stage,他在舞台上到处走动 grabbing props, speaking in alien tongues,拿着电影道具 说着外星语言 and almost never hitting his mark,几乎从来踩不上自己的位置 a mark being the spot an actor is supposed to stand to deliver their lines.“位置”是拍摄时演员说台词应该站的地方 See, filming TV shows was pretty much看到没 一直到七十年代末 down to a science by the late ’70s.拍电视都如一门科学一样精确 The actors would take the stage,演员们上台 and three cameras placed strategically around set 三台摄像机固定在设计好的位置 would film the action. 进行拍摄 That’s where the term three-camera sitcom comes from.这就是“三镜头法情景剧”一说的来源 And that style of filming meant that这样的拍摄手法意味着 actors had to be really precise in hitting their marks, 演员必须准确的站在规定位置上 standing in the same exact place take after take.每次拍摄都要站在同一位置 But Robin broke all the rules.但是罗宾打破了规则 His frenetic movements and constant improvising他夸张的动作和不停的临场发挥 meant that he was rarely in the same spot twice.意味着他几乎不会在同一位置出现两次 So the show’s director, Gary Marshall, changed the game.因此该剧导演加里·马歇尔改变了游戏规则 He added a fourth camera to catch all of Robin’s wild antics为了捕捉罗宾的所有滑稽动作 他增加了一台摄影机 and it caught on.随后变得流行起来 From then on, four cameras became the sitcom standard,此后 四个摄像机成了情景喜剧的标配 from “Seinfeld” to the ‘Big Bang Theory’从《宋飞正传》到《生活大爆炸》都一样 So remember, 所以要记住 Robin Williams might be known best for his big-screen roles,罗宾•威廉姆斯可能因其荧幕上的角色更为人熟知 but at just 27,但在27岁时 he changed the small screen forever. 他就彻底改变了电视行业
  • 2021-10-26拿破仑战争:1806耶拿会战法国皇帝拿破仑在第三次反法同盟中The French emperor napoleon Bonaparte 赢得了许多决定性战役managed to win a number of decisive battles 并完美展示了其在军事策略上and showed complete tactical and strategic dominance over his opponents 凌驾于对手之上的事实during the War of the Third Coalition, 但终究树大招风but brilliance often begets new challenges, 越来越多的国家为了抗击法国more enemies would join the alliance against the French 而纷纷加入第四次反法同盟大战in the war of the Fourth Coalition. 在一系列战争之中最为主要的是Among the central actions of this conflict were 发生于1806年的双子战耶拿-奥尔施塔特战役the twin battles of a Jena and Auerstedt fought in 1806. 拿破仑在1805年12月初的Napoleon utterly defeated the Allied Austro-Russian army 奥斯特里茨战役中彻底击败了奥俄联军at the battle of Austerlitz in early December of 1805. 因奥军已经没有余力可以继续交战A separate peace at Pressburg was signed by the end of the month, 奥地利于当月末在普雷斯堡与法国签订单独休战协议as Austria had no capacity to continuefighting. 奥地利必须承认巴伐利亚和符腾堡为独立王国Austria had to recognize Bavaria and Württemberg as kingdoms, 并割让德意志境内的众多省给予这两个王国ceding a number of provinces to them in Germany, 同时拿破仑作为意大利皇帝while Napoleon received the provinces 接收威尼西亚和达尔马提亚of Venetia and Dalmatia as the king of Italy. 法国也承诺了40万法郎的战争赔款France was also promised 40 million francs in war indemnities. 趁着法军因为太过疲惫无法继续追击The Russians were given a free pass to retreat through Austrian territory, 俄军顺利从奥地利领地撤退as the French troops were too tired to chase them anyway. 普鲁士在1805年计划加入反法同盟Prussia was planning to join the coalition in 1805, 但却迟迟没有向法国宣战but was delaying declaring war on France. 反法同盟在奥斯特里茨的败仗The Allied defeat at Austerlitz was alarming 对普鲁士国王腓特烈•威廉三世来说是个警钟for the Prussian King Frederick William III, 随后就在1806年初 威廉三世与拿破仑签订协议and in early 1806 he signed a treaty with Napoleon. 普鲁士必须割让几个省份给法国的德意志同盟The Prussians had to cede a few provinces to the German allies of France, 而普鲁士将获得原属于英国while they would receive in return French occupied Hanover, 后被法国所占领的汉诺威作为回报which belonged to Britain. 普鲁士也正式加入法国同盟对抗英国Prussia also formally entered the alliance with France against Britain. 与此同时 将法国指挥官马塞纳Meanwhile the Austrian forces, 困于意大利的奥军已经回到奥地利which were keeping French commander in Italy Massena occupied returned home, 奥军的离开让法军能集中兵力抗击那不勒斯王国and that allowed the French to concentrate their forces against the kingdom of Naples. 1806年2月 马塞纳侵入那不勒斯In February 1806 Massena invaded Naples. 尽管斯图尔特的英国远征军前来支援那不勒斯军Although the British expedition of Stewart supported the Neapolitans, 但他们还是输掉了在坎波泰内塞的决战they lost the decisive battle at Campo Tenese 而后在7月末and by the end of July, 国王斐迪南四世和斯图尔特将军不得不撤到西西里岛king Ferdinand IV and General Stewart had to retreat to Sicily. 意大利大陆的全部领土现在都处在法军掌控下All of mainland Italy was now under French control 而这一处境直到拿破仑战争结束后才会被打破and this situation would remain unchanged until the end of the Napoleonic Wars. 由于英国和俄国都不曾与法国接壤Since Britain and Russia did not share borders with France 也无意发起一次登陆and were not eager to start an amphibious invasion 所以第三次反法同盟实际上已经瓦解了The War of the Third Coalition was effectively over 于是拿破仑决定在德意志建立一个新秩序and Napoleon started forming a new order in Germany. 1806年7月 拿破仑建立了莱茵联邦In July 1806 he established the Confederation of the Rhine, 联邦由16个德意志邦国组成 并由拿破仑摄政consisting of 16 German states with himself as the protector. 这使拿破仑在法国与德国 奥地利与普鲁士之间This gave Napoleon a buffer between France 有了一个缓冲地带and the most influential German states, Austria and Prussia. 8月6日On the 6th of August 拿破仑宣布从公元800年就开始存在的he declared the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, 神圣罗马帝国正式解散which had existed since 800. 这行为对普鲁士来说形同侮辱All this was insulting for Prussia. 并且在拿破仑提议归还汉诺威给英国以求和平时And as Napoleon offered to return Hannover to Britain to procure peace, 战争变得一触即发war became inevitable. 普鲁士皇室分成两派The Prussian court was divided 由国王领导的主和派with the king leading the peace party 和由王后路易斯推动的主战派while his spouse Queen Louise was nudging the country into conflict. 最终主战派占上风Finally the war party won, 于是在8月10日普鲁士开始调动军队and on the 10th of August Prussia started mobilizing its army. 接下来两个月 普鲁士得以加入英俄的反法同盟in the next two months Prussia was able to enter the alliance with Britain and Russia. 拿破仑在九月初收到普鲁士调动军队的消息Napoleon learned about the Prussianmobilization in early September 于是下令5万人应征兵加入军队and ordered 50,000 conscripts to join the army. 法国的军队分散驻扎在整个德意志The French troops were stationed all over Germany, 而此时拿破仑还没有做好应战的准备and Napoleon was not ready to go on an offensive just yet. 普鲁士于是趁此机会进入萨克森并征召了2万当地人参军Prussia used that to enter Saxony and conscript 20,000 locals into its army. 拿破仑要求普鲁士军撤离萨克森Napoleon demanded that the Prussian army leave Saxony, 但在10月1日but on the first of October, 他反而收到让他离开驻地 撤到莱茵河东岸的最后通牒received an ultimatum to leave the lands to the east of the Rhine. 10月6日 第四次反法同盟战争开始On the 6th of October the War of the Fourth Coalition began. 法国和普鲁士都拥有大约20万大军Both France and Prussia had about 200,000 troops 然而普鲁士的军队太过分散however, there was no unity in the Prussian army 并同时有三个领导指挥and it had three formal leaders. 许多将军建议实施防御式阵型A number of generals advised the defensive approach 以缓慢的战术性撤退 希望可以拖延到with a slow strategic retreat in the hopes that Bennigsen would soon join them 指挥着10多万俄军的贝希格森加入他们with more than 100,000 Russians under his command. 然而这个计划被无视 最后采用的是由王子However this plan was ignored and a more ambitious plan created 布伦瑞克·查尔斯·威廉·斐迪南提出的更加宏大的计划by the Prince of Brunswick Charles William Ferdinand was adopted. 普鲁士决定进攻The Prussians were going to go on the offensive, 拿下位于符腾堡的斯图加特take Stuttgart in Württemberg and cut 并切断拿破仑与其部分军队和法国间的联系Napoleon from a portion of his forcesand France. 此时这个法国皇帝早已决定好如何行动Meanwhile the French Emperor had already decided on his moves. 拿破仑准备从西南方向进军He was going to move towards the Prussian capital of Berlin 直指普鲁士的首都柏林from the southwest, 这样他的军队可以在行军中避开大多数的河流which meant that his troops would be able to avoid the majority of the rivers. 宣战后没几日Just a few days after the declaration of war 拿破仑就已动身向柏林进发Napoleon was already on the move. 看起来双方都不确定对方军队所处的位置It seems that neither army was sure about the location of the enemy, 但拿破仑的计划更胜一筹but Napoleon’s plan was better 其计划是 切断普军与俄军和柏林之间的联系as it was cutting the Prussians from the Russians and Berlin, 这就迫使他们参战and therefore forcing them to fight. 根据斥候侦查报告 拿破仑现在很确定Due to scouting reports Napoleon was now sure 普鲁士军会在耶拿附近集结that the Prussians were concentrating near Jenna, 然而 后者才发现however, the latter finally understood that 法军已经不在符腾堡了the French army was no longer in Württemberg 并且法军正在快速行军以阻截去往柏林的路and was moving fast to cut the roads to Berlin. 一些普军开始动身向北方行进And some of the Prussian forces started moving to the north. 实际上 战役打响后仅三天Indeed just three days after the war began 拿破仑的军队就已经在普军的东面和南面完成了集结Napoleon’s troops ended up to the south and east of the Prussian army 并且由于法军的行动迅速and due to their faster movement 他们很快就在施尔茨和萨尔费尔德集结concentrated and defeated the Prussians 并在战役里的第一次战斗中击败普军in the first battles of the campaign at Schleiz and Saalfeld. 法军再一次抢得先机Once again the French were too quick for their opponents 两个军团在骑兵的掩护下and two corps alongside the cavalry reserve 最终到达普军东北部的阵地ended up to the northeast of the Prussian positions. 普军并没有被包围The Prussians were not encircled, 但是通往柏林的道路已经门户大开but as the road to Berlin was open to attack, 普军必须浴血奋战they had to stand and fight. 10月14日 双子战 耶拿-奥尔施塔特战役爆发了The twin battles of Jenna and Auersted took place on the 14th of October. 某种程度上 这其实是两个相距30公里In a way it was two distinct battles as 发生在不同地点的战役the two locations were more than 30 kilometers from each other 并且这两场战役从来没有混为一谈and the two battles never combined into one. 法军在耶拿的战役由拿破仑指挥The French had about 40,000 infantry, 拿破仑可以指挥的兵力有 大约4万的步兵8,000cavalry and 110 guns at Jenna 8000骑兵以及110门大炮under the overall command of Napoleon, 要对抗的则是有34,000名步兵 12,000名骑兵against 34,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry and 15 artillery batteries 和15个炮兵连 由普鲁士王子霍恩洛厄指挥的普军of the Prussian Prince Hohenlohe. 法军的中路由拉内指挥the French Center was commanded by Lannes, 左路指挥为奥什罗 右路则由苏尔特指挥the left flank by Augereau and the right by Soult. 拿破仑下令他的军队拿下Napoleon ordered his troops to take Land graefenberg, 整个战场里的制高点:格莱芬堡the plateau that prevailed over the battlefield. 一夜之间 法军就占领了高原的一部分Part of the plateau was taken by the French during the night, 但是他们需要更多的空间but they needed more space. 于是在早上6点 攻击开始了So at 6 a.m.an attack commenced. 法军中路攻占了克洛斯威思 而左翼则攻占了科斯佩达The French Center took Closwith while the left captured Cospeda. 普鲁士丢掉了山头The Prussians lost the hill. 霍恩洛赫现在才明白 他在与法军主力作战Hohenlohe now understood that he was fighting the main French army 于是向魏玛的预备队求援and asked for help from the reserves at Weimar. 普军努力在维也纳和伊思达塔特之间The Prussians managed to set the second line of defense 设置了第二道防线between the villages of Vierzehnheiligen and Isserstadt. 法军的进攻被挡住了French advance was halted. 然而 到上午11点However, by 11:00 a.m. 内伊的第六军团到达前线Ney’s 6th Corps was on the scene 拿破仑再一次发起进攻and Napoleon launched another attack. 奥杰罗占领了伊思达塔特Augereau captured Isserstadt, 内伊占领了维也纳 苏尔特转向了普军左翼Ney occupied Vierzehnheiligen and Soult turned the Prussian left. 下午一点By 1 p.m. 霍恩洛赫为了保持阵线完整 已经尽了全力Hohenlohe had committed all his reserves in order to keep his line intact. 急需魏玛预备队的帮助Reserved from Weimar were desperately needed. 拿破仑命令全军前进Napoleon ordered his whole line to advance 普军最终崩溃了and the Prussians finally collapsed. 到下午3点 普军已经完全撤退By 3:00 p.m.the Prussians were in full retreat 法军骑兵在持续追击with the French cavalry chasing them. 魏玛预备队最终到达了The reserves from Weimar finally arrived 法军在Kapellendorf Rüchel被挡住了and stopped the French at Kapellendorf Rüchel. 默克尔带领着15,000人的预备队Merkel who was leading the newly arrived 15,000 Prussians 在没有制定计划的情况下就准备展开反击didn’t set a proper line and decided to counter-attack. 尽管法军被暂时阻止了Although the French forces wereinitially halted, 但他们的骑兵很快包抄并击溃了敌人their cavalry soon outflanked and routed the enemy. 下午四点 耶拿的战斗结束了By 4:00 p.m. the Battle of Jena was over. 法军大约损失了6,500人The French had lost about 6500 men 同时普军大约损失了25,000人while the Prussian losses have been estimated at 25,000. 拿破仑确信他们已经击败了普军主力Napoleon was sure that he had defeated the main Prussian army, 他错了He was wrong. 这时 达沃元帅正在与普鲁士王子布伦瑞克作战At this point his marshal Davout was fighting the Prussian prince Brunswick. 在前一天 达沃斯接到命令前往南方On the previous day Davout was ordered to move to the south 拿破仑认为普军主力位于北方and attack what Napoleon considered to be the main Prussian army from the north. 达沃元帅还被告知要与伯纳多特会合He also was told to join forces with Bernadotte. 然而 他拒绝了并坚持继续留在多恩堡However,the latter declined and kept his position at Dornburg, 就像之前接到的命令一样as he was ordered to before. 一大早 达沃的28,000人就离开了他们的位置In the early morning, Davout’s 28,000 left their positions 沿着萨尔河 向奥尔斯塔特方向移动near the river Salle and moved towards Auerstadt. 然而他们被52,000名普军袭击 没有任何得到支援的希望Yere they were attacked by 52,000 Prussians with no hope of support. 战斗开始时 法军占领了HassenhausenEarly in the battle the French took the village of Hassenhausen. 法军将领在附近部署了三个师the French leader deployed his three divisions nearby. 尽管如此 他们依然不断被普军骑兵袭扰Despite repeated charges by thePrussian cavalry. 早上八点半By 8:30 a.m. 达沃的步兵设法击溃了敌人的骑兵Davout’s infantry managed to rout the enemy cavalry. 但普鲁士步兵正赶赴战场But the Prussian infantry was arriving to the battle. 法军防御住了一些普军的袭击The French stopped a number of Prussian attacks, 主要是因为普军以小队进攻mainly because the Prussians attacked in small groups 每个师互相独立前进with each division advancing in isolation. 因为早些时候普军将领遭受重创As their leader was mortally wounded early on, 所以他们缺乏协调的指挥the Prussians lacked any coordinated command. 上午十一点At 11:00 a.m. 普军已经用尽全力when the Prussians had exhausted their efforts, 达沃斯命令法军发动攻击 普军崩溃了Davout ordered a French advance and the Prussians collapsed. 在战役最后By the end of the battle, 达沃斯歼灭10,000人伤亡 俘虏3,000人Davout had inflicted 10,000 casualties and taken 3,000 prisoners, 同时他损失了7,000人while he lost 7,000. 在接下来的几周里 法军不断追击Over the next few weeks a relentless French 追击给普军造成了更多伤亡pursuit caused more casualties to the Prussians 并且在27日 柏林陷落and Berlin was occupied on the 27th. 在战争开始的头一个月内In less than a month since the start of the campaign, 拿破仑的军队歼灭了20,000普军Napoleon’s forces killed 20,000 Prussians 并俘获了140,000名俘虏and took more than 140,000 prisoners. 现在 普鲁士军将领已经朝着俄军方向撤退Still, the Prussian leadership retreated towards the Russian army, 第四次反法同盟战役才刚刚开始so the war of the fourth coalition was just starting. 感谢观看这期《双子战耶拿-奥尔施塔特战役》Thank you for watching our documentary on the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt. 两周后我们会讲述埃劳战役In two weeks we will be back to cover the Battle of Eylau. 诚挚地感谢我们的赞助者We would like to express our gratitude to our patreon supporters, 有你们才能有这个系列的视频who make the creation of these videospossible. 在参与众筹是支持视频的最好方式Patreon is the best way to suggest a new video, 并且能了解我们的更多消息learn about our schedule and so much more. 这里是王侯将相频道This is the Kings and Generals channel 下个视频见and we will catch you on the next one!
  • 2021-10-26为什么理发店外都有这个旋转的柱子This episode is sponsored by Wix本节目由Wix赞助 Go to wix.com/go/simplehistory现在就去wix.com/go/simplehistory下 to create a website now.创建一个网站吧 Why barbers have a pole outside their shop为什么理发店门外会有一根柱子? Barbers poles are a familiar sight today如今理发店的柱子已经十分常见 They can be static or revolving,它们可以是静止的 也可以是一直旋转的 are colored in red and white,它们上面的颜色是红白相间的 or in the United States red, white and blue.或者在美国 它们由红白蓝三种颜色构成 But do you know what the meaning behind the pole is?但是你知道这个柱子背后的故事吗? The barber’s pole goes all the way back to medieval times理发店柱子的历史可追溯到中世纪 when barbers were also surgeons那时理发师也是医师 In Medieval Europe在欧洲中世纪时 hairdressing and haircutting was just one of many jobs that barbers performed理发仅仅是理发师所从事的众多工作之一 barbers could perform surgery including leeching cupping enemas他们从事外科手术包括 水蛭吸血 拔罐 灌肠 amputations and bloodletting截肢和放血 which was the cutting and bleeding of the patients to release划开病人的皮肤并放血 排出那些 What was thought of as humors : blood, phlegm,被认为是体液的东西:血液 粘液 yellow bile and black bile黄胆汁和黑胆汁 Which needed to be in balance这些体液需要保持平衡 It was believed that letting out the bad blood人们认为排出坏血 would encourage healthy new blood to replace it会促进大量的健康的新血代替它 And this became the standard treatments for everything from the plague to a sore throat这成了用来治疗从瘟疫到喉咙痛的一切病症的标准治疗方案 The reason barbers became surgeons was理发师成为医师的原因是 because monks who had up to this point performed surgery and medicine were从事外科手术和药物治疗的僧侣们 Prohibited to do so anymore by Pope Alexander the 3rd in 1163在1163年被教皇亚历山大三世禁止了 He saw the function of letting blood as incompatible with the clergy 他认为放血这个职务和僧侣不搭 and physicians saw this too menial而内科医师觉得放血的工作不太体面 this opened up a market for barbers这就为理发师开辟了一个市场 To advertise their services and to remind people of their routine bloodletting 为了宣传他们的服务并提醒人们他们的放血疗程 barbers left bowls of customer’s blood out their shop windows他们把顾客的血一碗碗的放在店外的窗户下 Barber surgeons also performed dentistry理发师也从事牙医这个工作 and to advertise this they would string teeth in a row outside the shop为了宣传这个 他们会放一串牙齿在店外 In 1307 in London this form of advertising was banned这种宣传方式1307年在伦敦被禁止 with customers blood ordered to be disposed off into the Thames straightaway顾客们的血液也被直接处理到泰晤士河中 This made barber surgeons think of a new way to advertise their services这促使他们想一种新方式去宣传服务 During the bloodletting process the patients would squeeze a pole在放血过程的病人会用力抓住一根柱子 so that their veins would be more exposed这样使病人的血管暴露得更明显 Making it easier for the barbers to cut them以便理发师能更容易的 with a special tool called a fleam将一种叫做放血针的特殊工具扎进血管 This pole sometimes had a brass ball at the top to hold leech柱子顶部有时会有一个黄铜球用来装水蛭 and a basin was held underneath to collect the blood并且有一个盘子在下面收集血液 Bandages would be wrapped around the arm to stem the bleeding绷带被缠绕在手臂上用来止血 and then wrapped around the pole after use使用后就被缠绕在柱子上 After the barber surgeon was finished with the patients理发师给病人做完手术后 this pole along with the washed bandages tied to it这根柱子连同绑在上面洗过的绷带 was hung outside the shop to advertise his business一起被挂在店外以便宣传生意 soon barbers were placing a replica of the pole不久理发师们用一根 Painted in white and red stripes outside their shop instead of the real thing涂着白红条纹的模型柱子代替了原来的柱子 which has evolved into what we see today这个模型逐渐发展成了我们看到的柱子 The red represents the blood bandages红色代表血绷带 while the white represents the clean ones白色代表干净的绑带 the ends of the pole symbolized柱子的两端象征着 the ball that contained the leeches and the basin which collected the blood装有水蛭的球和收集血液的盆 The spiral may represent the way the wind sometimes blew the pole into a spiral pattern螺旋可能代表着柱子被风吹成螺旋状 or the downwards direction Which arteries carry blood或动脉运输血液向下的方向 When the barber-surgeons company was established in 1540当1540年理发医师医院成立时 the trade between barbers and surgeons was more defined理发师与医师的职业范围更加清晰 And barbers were now only allowed to extract teeth现在理发师只允许拔牙 They issued a statute他们颁布了一项法令 that required barbers to use a blue and white pole要求理发师用蓝白相间的柱子 while surgeons had to use a red and white pole而医师必须用红白柱子 By the 18th century medicine was changing到了18世纪医学界发生了变化 and in 1745 in England the trade of barber and surgeon was formally separated在1745年 英国理发师和医师的生意内容正式分开 Barber poles in the United States are red white and blue在美国 理发师的柱子是红白蓝三种颜色 one theory is that the blue represents the veins一种理论认为蓝色代表血管 and another theory is that the blue was added as a sign of patriotism另一种理论认为蓝色是爱国主义的象征 a naught to the nations flag与美国国旗上的蓝色无关 Barber surgeons advertise their services Using a pole with bandages back in medieval times 在中世纪 理发医师用绑着绷带的柱子来宣传他们的服务 and you can advertise your profile or business with wix,如今你可以用wix宣传你的信息或公司 go to wix.com/go/simplehistory赶快去wix.com/go/simplehistory网站下 to create a professional site regardless of your skill level创建一个专业网站 不论你的技能水平如何 Wix has great features to bring your site to lifeWix有强大的功能来把你的网站生活化 such as Wix videos Wix pro-gallery Wix bookings例如Wix视频 Wix Pro图库 Wix预订 and solutions for all kinds of sites以及适用于所有类型网站的解决方案 such as e-commerce, music, hotels, events, restaurants and more例如电子商务 商业 音乐 酒店 活动 餐厅等等 Build your own website and support our channel想建立自己的网站并支持我们的频道 by going to wix.com/go/simplehistory您可以访问wix.com网站 or simply click the link in the description below to get started或者直接点击描述里的链接来开始吧
  • 2021-10-26怀旧玩具展:以前的玩具长什么样?大家好 我是海因茨历史馆馆长安迪·梅森Hi, I’m Andy Masich, president here at theHeinz History Center. 欢迎收看 五十 六十 七十年代的旧玩具展Welcome to Toys of the ’50s, ’60s and ’70s. 这是我们最新的一场展览It’s our latest exhibit. 玩具对早期儿童发育Toys have been important in early 一直很重要 它刺激着想象力和学习能力以及childhood development since the dawn of time, stimulating imagination, learning, 创造力的发展and creativity. 我们请到了艾米莉·卢比Now here’s Emily Ruby, 她是“五六十及七十年代的旧玩具展” 管理人curator of Toys of the’50s,’60s and’70s. 她将带你们游览这个展区She’s here to give you a guided tour. 我们现在在二十世纪五十年代的客厅里Here we are in the 1950s living room. 现在展出的每一间客厅 都是根据Noweach living room in this exhibit is based 那个年代的玩具特征设计的on a toy from that decade, 所以五十年代的客厅是根据马克思玩具公司设计的so the 1950s is based on a Marx Toy Company toy house 当然它是一种西式的主题and of course it’s a Western theme, 这种主题在那个年代是很流行的which was very popular in the 1950s. 五十年代的许多玩具都是明确地Many toys of the 1950s were marketed directly 面向不同性别的孩子 这些玩具培养了to girls or boys so they were training children 孩子们作为父母或成年人的能力how to be future mothers or fathers or adults so 所以那个时候女孩的玩具是一些at that time for girls it was a lot of 家政指向的玩具 而男孩的玩具homemaking toys and for boys it was toys 则用来培养未来的建筑师training them how to be future construction workers 以及如何承担父亲的工作or how to take over dad’s job, 像一套化学设备或者其他类型的玩具like a chemistry set and things like that. 50和60年代是塑料的年代The ’50s and ’60s were the era of plastics. 传统的木质玩具和金属玩具都迅速被Traditional wooden or metal toys were increasingly 塑料玩具所取代 因为后者更为耐用being replaced by plastic toys as plasticsbecame more durable. 而且塑料是更便宜的生产材料 这也造成玩具更多的使用塑料They were also a cheaper material to produce toys with so again an increase in the production of toys. 娃娃一直是女孩们很青睐的玩具Dolls have always been a popular toy for girls. 在20世纪50年代 由于萨拉·李娃娃的生产In the 1950s, we saw a little bit of a different 情况发生了些变化take on dolls because of the Sara Lee doll, 萨拉·李娃娃是第一批以非裔美国女孩为which was the first mass marketed African 销售对象的娃娃 它为非裔美国女孩带来了更积极的形象American doll and provided a more positive image for African American girls. 因为越来越多的人在家中安装了电视Because an increasing number of people had televisions in the home, 50年代的许多玩具many toys of the 都是根据当时流行的电视节目设计的 例如Howdy Doody1950s are based on popular television shows such as Howdy Doody, 和米奇妙妙屋the Mickey Mouse Club, 那个年代最重要受欢迎的玩具and the most important popular toy 是戴维·克罗格特浣熊皮帽子of the era – the Davy Crockett coonskin cap. 我们观看的电视广告也增加了玩具的需求量We also saw television commercials, which were increasing the demand for toys. 第一个在电视广告中出现的玩具The first toy to be advertised on televisionwas the Mr. 是1952年生产的蛋头先生Potato Head in 1952. 我们这里收藏了一套原版蛋头先生Here we have one of the original Mr. 由设计者乔治·莱纳捐献给史密森尼博物馆Potato Head kits,donated to the Smithsonian by its inventor, George Lerner. 这套玩具里包含了可以长成真土豆的部件This kit consisted of pieces that stuck into an actual potato. 因此父母们都为房子周围发现的烂土豆抱怨不已Parents complained of rotting vegetables found aroundthe house. 在1964年 蛋头先生终于In 1964, Mr. Potato Head finally 有了自己的塑料身体 并变成了蛋头先生如今的形象got his plastic body and became the Mr. Potato Head we know today. 这里是六十年代的客厅Here we are in the 1960s living room. 它是根据那个年代最流行的玩具Nowthis is based on one of the most popular toys 芭比的梦幻之家 设计的of the decade – Barbie’s dream house. 事实上芭比是由露丝·汉德勒在1959年发明的Barbie was actually invented in 1959 by Ruth Handler, 她看见自己的女儿为小娃娃设定了角色who saw her daughter assigning adult roles to her baby doll. 于是她就发明了芭比娃娃 并交由美泰公司生产She invented Barbie doll and it was produced by Mattel. 而现在 为了超过美泰公司 孩之宝玩具公司决定Not tobe outdone by Mattel, Hasbro decided to invent 为男孩设计一种玩偶 但不能称之为娃娃a doll for boys, but you couldn’t call ita doll. 在1964年 “特种部队” 以能够活动的士兵形象初次登台In 1964, G.I. Joe debuted as an action soldier, 但是由于越南战争but because of the conflict in Vietnam, 在70年代他改名叫做“实干家”he became a “ man of action ” in the 1970s. 虽然芭比娃娃为女孩提供了Even though the Barbie doll offered 更多未来的工作选项girls more career options for their future, many 许多玩具仍然在强调女孩作为母亲或主妇的角色toys for girls still emphasized their role as a mother and homemaker, 例如简单烘焙烤箱such as the Easy-Bake Oven. 60年代的民权运动The Civil Rights movement 使当时的玩偶市场产生了更多的差异of the 1960s created some increased diversity in the doll market 克里斯汀是第一个非裔美国人芭比娃娃with the premiere of Christie, which was the first African American Barbie doll. 同类型的还有1968年的茱莉亚娃娃had the Julia doll, which premiered in 1968. 它是根据当时流行的电视节目She was based on the popular television show “茱莉亚”设计的 它的女主角是一位单身黑人妈妈“Julia,” which starred an African Americansingle mother. 1961年 肯尼迪总统发誓要把一个人送上月球In 1961, President Kennedy vowed to put a man on the moon. 随后与俄罗斯的太空竞赛The ensuing space race with 使人们的一切都沉浸在太空主题里 包括玩具Russia made people obsessed with all thingsspace-themed, including toys. 比如阿尔法一号导弹There was the Alpha-One Ballastic Missile. 和宇航员特种兵There was the G.I. Joe astronaut. 冷战中也出现了But the Cold War also 许多间谍密探类的玩具created many spy and espionage type toys based 它们以电视剧“秘密特工”及“007”为依据on shows like “ The Man from U.N.C.L.E. ” and 007. “火柴盒”或是“风火轮”?“火柴盒”吸引了忠于传统 低调有真实细节的车的车迷 而“风火轮”的车迷喜欢时髦的车身设计以及华丽的喷漆. 涂鸦磁性画板背后的魔法静电荷将一些铝粉混合物和微小的塑料珠吸附在玩具屏幕背后 打开旋钮 通过摩擦粉末划线. 你现在看到的七十年代的客厅 同样是根据另一个芭比小屋设计的The 1970s living room you see here is also based on another Barbie playhouse. 在70年代In the 1970s, 更多的女性参加了工作 玩具也不那么性别化了more women joined the workforce and toys became a little less gender specific. 我们就有了像麦当劳We had things like the McDonald’s “熟悉的地方”玩具系列以及“强尼”Familiar Places play set and the Johnny Horizon Environmental 环境测试仪 可以售卖给不同性别的孩子们Test Kit that could be marketed to both boysand girls. 七十年代出现了第一个地球日The 1970s also saw the first Earth 那时候人们的环境意识有所上升Day and with an increased awareness of the environment, 孩子们也可以参与环境保护kids were able to participate in this. 在七十年代 人们越来越关注In the 1970s, there was an increased concern 电视上卖给孩子们的商品with what was on television and being marketed 匹兹堡市儿童节目主持人罗杰斯先生to children. Pittsburgh’s own Mister Rogers debuted 在1968年登台 他拒绝在自己的节目中in 1968 and he refused to have commercials 投放商业广告 宣传玩具advertising toys during his show. 在1969年11月 “芝麻街”开播In Novemberof 1969, Sesame Street debuted and it became 它很快成了七十年代儿童最喜爱的节目one of the most popular shows of the 1970sfor children. 因此 许多玩具都根据Because of this, many toys were “芝麻街”中的角色进行生产produced based on the Sesame Street characters. 提到七十年代的玩具 你就不能You can’t mention toys of the 1970s 不提“星球大战” 它不仅是without mentioning “ Star Wars. ” Not only were 儿童喜爱的玩具 还开启玩具收集的市场they popular toys for children, but they also launched the collectible toys market. 计算机时代的开始改变了未来的玩具产业The dawn of the computer age changed the future of the toy industry. 对于七十年代 不得不提的是电脑游戏 比如西蒙游戏The must-have toys of the 1970s were computer-based games such as Simon, 说和写 以及雅达利的乒乓球Speak and Spell, and Atari’s Pong. 宾夕法尼亚的玩具制造商Pennsylvania toy makers, 包括匹兹堡的狼獾玩具公司including the Wolverine Toy Company here in Pittsburgh, reinforced 巩固了社会性别角色society’s gender roles. 有给男孩的“桑迪·安迪建筑装备” 给女孩的“快乐苏西”化妆玩具Sandy Andy constructionequipment for boys and Sunny Suzy play appliances 马克思兄弟制造了for girls. Marx Brothers made Rock ‘ Em, 战斗机器人竞技场 而在霍利迪斯堡Sock ‘ Em Robots while in Hollidaysburg, “机灵鬼”以风暴般的速度风靡全国Slinky took the nation by storm.
  • 2021-10-26飞行BLOB //翻转动画书的5个技巧《安迪动画》 大家好 今天想教大家几个翻动画书的窍门 也会展示这本还没有人见过的书 有些人向我询问翻书窍门 怎样使动画书翻得更顺畅点 所以我会展示一下我用的几个翻书技巧 翻动画书时 我想刚开始凭直觉的话 会大拇指这样转起来翻 到最后 跳页的情况很严重 我的诀窍是 一直用拇指尖翻页 控制得最好 我小时候就自然而然地这样翻书了 效果一直都不错 我只需稍稍转动拇指 需要时慢慢往后移 你练习的时候 即使拇指一边转动 一边往后移 也能保持匀速翻页 只要能把拇指留在书边 这个技巧就能让你更有效的控制纸张 有些人发现 只要让拇指从边上滑过去就能翻得顺畅 有时我做得到 有时不太管用 往往跳页更严重 当我这样移动拇指翻页时 控制得更好 翻书时另一件可能出的事是 起初一切看着蛮顺畅的 到了结尾才开始跳页 对吧? 要想解决这个问题 有几个办法 一是在最后加很多空页 你会发现这个办法很有用 你也可以延长人物最后一个姿势 在结尾几页上重复 这样 翻到结尾时 有几页的人物或者其他的东西保持着一样的姿势 所以到最后 跳过几页也没事 还有件需考虑的事是纸张的厚度 我很喜欢偏厚的纸 我用的 我的动画书工具盒里都是这种厚纸 我喜欢厚纸的另一个原因是 这样纸翻得更快 纸能从这到那儿 呼一下得很快翻过去 也使整个动画书看着更整洁 刚刚几乎看不到纸动 相反 如果用薄纸 比如小薄页笔记本 不能像厚纸那样很容易的弹过来 所以我更喜欢用厚纸 显然 另一个帮助翻页的办法是 在把螺丝放进去 拧紧之前 一定要把纸张弄得非常整齐 纸张放的越整齐 翻动时越不容易跳页 最后一点 这本是很久以前做的 我决定今天画完 就是本很傻的小书 但是…… 再来一次 当初没画完的原因是 在这个地方 就这 我心想 这看着就像坨飞着的大便 就算了 不想画完了 可今天心想 这还是能勉强救一下 我可以画它伸赖翅膀的样子 然后 有点像弹上去的感觉 我看差不多算是补救成功了 虽然现在看起来 更像飞起来的小肉丸 不管了 今天就这样了 就是想给大家些翻书窍门 希望你在做动画书时 这些能派上点用场 我有几个视频在录制中 其中一个是参观我的工作室 很多人注意到 上个视频中我在新工作室里 我很高兴能给大家全面介绍 四处看看 在下方留下你的评论和问题 保持创意 这个视频结束了
  • 2021-10-26人体绘画中必学的解剖学术语单词Word. 菠萝绘画Proko 解剖学用语The Language of Anatomy 摘录an Excerpt 我有些担心你会跳过基础I’m kinda worried that you want to get 直接上肉past these basics and into the meat of it all. 嘿嘿Hehe, “肉”是字面意思哦literally the meat. 但是在你跳到肌肉部分之前But before you jump ahead to muscles, 请稍等片刻just hang on, 请放松你的括约肌relax your basic sphincters, 我们来花些时间学习几个术语and take a little time to learn some terms. 回头你会庆幸自己这个决定的You’ll be glad later. 你的括约肌也没有异议Your sphincters will be fine, 等我们学习肌肉部分时and when we get to muscles, 它们就很容易乐在其中了they’ll be easy and fun. 咱们先从弄清词意开始吧Let’s begin by making sure we understand the words. 否则后面的内容就会像天书似的You’ll get lost if you don’t know them. 首先 你得先记一下At first, you may have to think for a moment “anterior”的意思是“前”to remember which means front “posterior”的意思是“后”and which means back. 当你可以快速分辨这两个词时But when you can do it this fast, 你就将它们铭记于心了you have it forever. 如果你需要快速的提示If you need a quick reminder, 我做了一张解剖学术语的表I’ve created a list of anatomy terms 请登录“proko.com/anatomy-terms”查看at proko.com/anatomy-terms. 如果你学会这些解剖学用语If you know the language of anatomy, 你就能弄清那些长的拉丁文名称是什么意思了you’ll be able to figure out those long latin names. 你就不会一脸懵逼:You won’t have to say, “斯坦到底在说什么鬼啊?”“What the heck is Stan talking about?” 方位术语Terms of Location Anterior(前)Anterior 近身体前面者为前describes something that is toward the front of the body. 相对地Alternatively, “posterior”(后) 近身体背面者为后posterior describes something that is toward the back of the body. “posterior”也指“手背”It also refers to the back of the hand, 还有“脚面”and top of the foot. “Medial”(内侧)Medial is something located 近正中线者为内侧toward the middle of the body 或者说远离外侧的部位or away from the side. 它的反义词是“Lateral”(外侧)The opposite is Lateral. 指身体两侧的部位Something that is toward the side of the body 或者远离正中线的部位or away from the middle. “Superior”(上) 近头/上者为上Superior is toward the top or above. “Inferior”(下) 近足/下者为下And Inferior is toward the bottom, below. “Distal”(远侧) 多用于四肢Distal refers mainly to the limbs 远离躯干者and describes something away 为远侧from the center of the body. 相对地Alternatively, “Proximal”(近侧) 近躯干者为近侧Proximal is something closerto the center of the body. 当我说到“deep”(深)时When I say that something is deep, 我是说从表面看不见这个部位I mean that it is not visible on the surface. 这个部位覆盖着其它“volumes”(容积)It’s covered with other volumes. 但是However, “superficial”(浅) 意思是从表面可见superficial means it is visible on the surface. 同样地“subcutaneous”(皮下)And similarly, subcutaneous 意思是“皮肤之下”means just below the skin. 比如说“bony landmarks”(骨性标志)Like the bony landmarks. 谢谢小骷髅的演示Thanks Skelly! 完整视频请观看“解剖学用语”For the full video on the Language of Anatomy, 访问“proko.com/anatomy”即可head on over to proko.com/anatomy. 这里有更多视频The premium version shows an explanation 向你解释更多术语of more terms 还提供PDF格式的下载and has a downloadable PDF that 这样你就能打印出来啦you can print out. 网址是“proko.com/anatomy”proko.com/anatomy. 如果你喜欢本视频If you like this video, 请把它分享给你的朋友和同学pass it on to your friends and classmates, 别忘了点击“订阅”按钮and click this button here to 订阅proko newsletterto subscribe to the proko newsletter 这样你就不会错过任何新视频啦so you don’t miss any new videos. 拜拜Bye bye.

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