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  • 2021-10-30霍夫曼过程:7 天改变生活sprouts SCHOOLS 通俗易懂的心理学 Our parents form a big part of our personality在独立生活之前 during the time when we completely depend on their care.父母对我们个性的形成有很大影响 This happens because as young children we perceive them这是因为年幼时 我们认为他们 as almighty, endlessly wise, and flawless.全能 拥有无限智慧且完美无瑕 We also believe that whatever they do, literally – whatever – they – do,我们也相信 无论他们做什么 毫不夸张——无论他们做什么 they do out of unconditional love.都是出于无条件的爱 And because we think they are infallible and full of love,而且因为我们认为他们是绝对正确且充满爱 we consequently think that we are at fault whenever a conflict arises.所以每当发生冲突时 我们都认为自己错了 In order to reduce any kind of conflict,为了减少任何形式的冲突 we develop patterns of behavior, feelings,and thinking我们形成了故意取悦父母 designed to please our parents and minimise any friction.并减少任何摩擦的行为 情感和思维模式 Unfortunately, these patterns can lead to a personality不幸的是 这些模式可能会使我们形成 that is misaligned with its true spiritual self.与真正精神自我不一致的个性 And so, we grow into adults that behave in ways that make us sad.因此 我们长大后成了自己不喜欢的人 The Hoffman Process was designed to help us recognize negative behavior of patterns,霍夫曼过程旨在帮助我们认知消极的行为模式 break them and to become the person we really are.打破它们并成为真正的自我 To condense a lifetime of analysis into seven days,为了将分析周期压缩为7天 the process is highly structured, very intense,该过程高度结构化 非常紧凑 and applies a multitude of techniques.并应用了多种技术 Afterward, participants often understand why they are the way they are,之后 参与者往往明白为什么他们会变成现在的样子 and learn to let go of the negative sides of their personality.并学会放弃他们性格中的消极面 To understand how the process works,为了弄清这个过程是如何运作的 let us look at three types of people who on the outside, look just fine,我们来看这三种类型的人 他们表面上看起来还不错 but on the inside, deeply struggle.但内心深处 深深地挣扎着 Eva is 27, a university graduate,Eva27岁 大学毕业生 and she has just started her first job.她刚刚开始自己的第一份工作 She’s unable to trust men她无法信任男人 and is at a loss when it comes to forming healthyrelationships.并在建立健康的人际关系方面不知所措 Jay is 51, an overachiever, and a respected CEO.Jay现年51岁 是一位卓越的成功人士 也是一位受人尊敬的CEO However, his marriage is broken and his two adult children hardly ever call.然而 他离了婚 和他两个成年的孩子几乎不联系 He asks himself if that’s really all that life has to offer?他问自己生活是否真的只能这样了 Tom is 45, married with one child, but he’s got no friends.汤姆45岁 已婚并有一个孩子 但他没有朋友 He lives with his family far outside town他和家人住在离城镇很远的地方 and signs up for the process when he realizes当他意识到女儿在交友方面也有问题时 that his daughter also has problems making friends.他就报名参加了这个过程 Through the process Eva will realise that,通过这个过程 Eva会意识到 when her dad left when she was 4,在她4岁时 父亲离开后 and her mother then struggled as a single mom and a lonely woman,她母亲作为单身母亲和孤独的女人苦苦挣扎着 it had a big impact on her.这对她产生了很大的影响 Over the years, her own relationship with her father became broken多年来 她与父亲的关系破裂 and she learned that men couldn’t be trusted.这使她认为男人是不可信的 Jay will learn that his life was going greatJay会知道他的生活一直很美好 up until his little brother was born — a funny,extraverted and bright boy.直到他的弟弟出生——一个有趣 外向 聪明的男孩 Afterwards, Jay was hardly noticed.之后 Jay几乎不被关注 Jay soon realises that his parents would only pay attention to himJay很快意识到 只有在学业或体育方面表现出色 if he excelled in school or sports,父母才会关注他 causing him to grow into an adult who tries to be the best in everything,这使他成了一个在任何事情上都努力做到最好的人 in order to get the love he seeks.只为了获得他所寻求的爱 Tom will realize that he was an accident,Tom会意识到 他是一个意外 born to a young couple who had just begun dating.由一对刚开始约会的年轻情侣所生 As a young boy he was often neglected, because their life was difficult.作为一个小男孩 他经常被忽视 因为他们的生活很艰难 His parents who were overwhelmed by the situation他的父母被这种情况弄得不知所措 would often snap at him over the smallest thing.他们经常会因为小事而对他大发雷霆 Little Tom began to think that he was the cause of all misery,小Tom开始认为 他是所有苦难的根源 he should never have been born.他本不该出生 The process begins with a phone call from a designated therapist.这个过程从指定治疗师的电话开始 This is followed by a 50-page questionnaire that helps their client to reflect on their lives.接着是一项50页的 可以帮他们的客户反思自己生活的问卷 Going through the questions, the participants identify particular patterns in behavior通过这些问题 参与者识别特定的行为模式 and link them to their parents.并将它们与自己的父母相联系 Once returned, the therapist uses the questionnaire to understand the underlying issues.交回后 治疗师会通过问卷来了解他们潜在的问题 On day 1, all three arrive at the retreat,第一天 三人都来到了度假村 a place isolated from the outside world.一个与外界隔绝的地方 They hand over their phones and any books to ensure there are no distractions.他们上交了手机和书籍 以免分心 Tom then meets his therapist for an in-depth conversation.Tom随后会见了他的治疗师并与之深入交谈 Afterwards, he gets to know the other 17 participants之后 他认识了其他17名参与者 and learns that everyone carries within them an inner child并认识到每个人内心深处都有一个 that manages their expectations, thoughts, and feelings.管理他们期望 想法和感受的“孩子” On day 2 ,Jay and the others learn more about their parents第2天 Jay和其他人更多地了解了他们的父母 and how their behavioral patterns have formed out of love for their father and mother.以及对父母的爱是如何塑造了他们的行为模式 Jay, who only got real attention when he impressed his parents,只有给父母留下深刻印象时 Jay才得到真正的关注 could never be good enough to get all the love he needed.他永远无法获得他需要的所有爱 Such conditional love is negative这种有条件的爱是消极的 because subconsciously Jay takes on the blame for this disjunction因为潜意识里 Jay 承担了这种脱节的责任 and develops a ‘core shame belief’并形成了“核心羞耻信念” he begins to think something is inherently wrong with himself.他开始认为自己生来就有什么问题 And so, even after 50 years of trying so hard to be the best,因此 即使经过50年的努力 获得巨大的成功 his inner child is still looking for the unconditional love he got so little of.内心的自我仍然在寻找他很少获得的无条件的爱 On day 3, Eva realizes how the patterns she established as a young girl第3天 Eva认识到她小时候潜意识中建立起的模式 subconsciously project into her adult relationships是如何投射到自己的成人关系中 anyone who reminds Eva of her father, can’t be trusted.任何让Eva想起她父亲的人都是不可信任的 Through a group game later that day, she experiences that there are men she can rely on.通过当天晚些时候的小组游戏 她体会到 有些男人是可以依赖的 Eva then accuses her parents of making her the victim of their broken relationshipEva后来指责她的父母使她成为他们破裂关系的受害者 this is important这很重要 because this way she can retrace her negative pattern back to her parents.因为这样她就可以将她的消极模式追溯到她的父母 Afterwards, she learns to understand their story,之后 她学会了理解他们的故事 because they too were once children, with parents who had their own issues.因为他们也曾是孩子 他们的父母也有自己的问题 This is important because then she can understand their situation这很重要 因为这样她才能理解他们的处境 and realizes that the way she was brought up was all her parents were able to provide.并意识到她的成长方式都是父母能够提供的 Now she can make peace with her past, and her mistrust of men begins to wither.现在她可以与过去和解 对男人的不信任也开始消退 On day 4, participants say goodbye to their parents and their childhood第4天 参与者告别“父母”和“童年” and ask themselves:Where am I from?并问自己:我从哪里来? What injuries do I bring along from my mother and father?父母对我造成了哪些伤害? How have these injuries impacted my life?这些伤害如何影响我的生活? What strategies have I developed to compensate for these injuries so far?到目前为止 我制定了哪些策略来弥补这些伤害? Jay, who didn’t want to be reminded of the painful thoughtJay不想想起 that he’s not worthy of his parents unconditional love,自己不值得父母无条件的爱 compensated by only contacting them when he had outstanding news,such as another promotion.他有好消息时才联系父母 比如获得晋升 Knowing that they would then surely listen and act predictably,知道他们肯定会倾听并按预期行事 he reduces the risk of feeling hurt.他降低了自己受伤的风险 After this realization,有了这个认识之后 Jay creates a development plan to follow his vision for life after the process.Jay制定了一个发展计划 以在此过程之后遵循他对生活的愿景 Day 5 is about our vindictiveness.第5天是关于“我们的报复” Tom, who didn’t want to be reminded that he is the root of all problems,Tom不想被提醒 自己是所有问题的根源 compensated for the pain he experienced by hiding himself.他通过隐藏自己来补偿所经历的痛苦 At a young age,children keep their honor by thinking of how to,小时候 孩子们通过思考如何 one day, pay their parents back for the misery they caused them.在将来某天报复 给他们带来痛苦的父母来保持荣誉 As we mature, such vindictive thoughts move into the subconscious随着我们的成熟 这种报复性的想法会进入潜意识 and by the time he is a teenager, Tom begins to pay back.到了青少年的时候 Tom就开始报复了 First by breaking the law,then by breaking all contacts with his friends and family.首先是触犯法律 然后断绝与朋友和家人的所有联系 On this day, Tom stops feeling vindictiveand makes peace with his parents.在这一天 Tom不再怀“恨”在心并与父母和解 His inner child regains his honor and grows in strength.他内心的自我 重获荣誉并成长壮大 Grown-up Tom can now leave his hiding place and finally enjoy meeting other people.长大的Tom现在可以离开他的藏身之处 终于可以享受与他人见面的乐趣了 On day 6 the participants get to know the saboteur,第6天 参与者开始认识“破坏者” the inner voice that warns us of any change这个警告我们远离任何改变的内心声音 in order to keep us in the safe old world we know so well.为了让我们留在熟悉而安全的旧世界 Eva hears the voice,whenever she opens up to the opposite sex每当Eva向异性敞开心扉 就听到这个声音 it whispers “remember, you can’t trust men”.它会低声说“记住 你不能信任男人” Tom hears it when he enters a group of people — “you are not welcome here”.Tom走进人群 听到这个声音——“这里不欢迎你” Whenever Jay tries to relax and be himself,每当Jay试图放松并做自己 the saboteur says “Don’t just do nothing! You are better than this!”破坏者说:“不要什么都不做!你能比现在更好!” After getting to know this evil agent,在了解这个邪恶的代理人后 they learn how to deal with this enemy of our progress.他们学会了对付我们前进中的这个敌人 Then the group recaps the entire process然后小组回顾了整个过程 and celebrates their new found selves.并庆祝他们发现了新的自我 On day 7, they learn practical tools第7天 他们学习了使用实用工具 on how to cope with the change they will face when they go back into their lives.处理他们回到生活中将面临的改变 Finally, they go home to their parents,最后 他们回家见了父母 to complete what they have started, end their old lives and begin afresh.完成他们已经开始的事情 结束他们的旧生活并重新开始 The Hoffman Process was developed in 1967 by Bob Hoffman.霍夫曼过程由鲍勃·霍夫曼于1967年提出 Today the process is being offered in over 16 countries如今 该流程已在超过16个国家使用 and over 100.000 people have gone through this intense journey of self-discovery超过100000人参加了这段激烈的自我发现之旅 including Justin Bieber and Katy Perry.包括贾斯汀·比伯和凯蒂·佩里 To learn more about the Hoffman process,要了解有关霍夫曼过程的更多信息 or to read the research on it by the Harvard Center for Public Leadership,或阅读哈佛公共领导中心对它的研究 check out the descriptions below.看看下面的描述 Prior to creating this channel,our founder went through the Hoffman Process在创建此频道之前 我们的创始人参加了霍夫曼过程 and it had a profound effect on his life.这对他的生活产生了深远的影响
  • 2021-10-30如何通过做简单的事情就能获得成功这个视频是和Beautiful Science合作的This video is a collaboration with Beautiful Science. 一定要在视频结束后去了解这个不可思议的频道哦Be sure to check out their incredible channel after the video. 如果你像绝大多数人一样So if you’re like most people, you’ve had a vision of 对于未来的自己有个更为成功的期望your potential future self, the more successful, 成为一个有着更好的打扮 更富有 更快乐的自己better groomed, richer, happier version of yourself. 但你可能也想知道But you’ve probably also wondered 你能否成为这个人 或者if you can actually become this person or if this person 这个人只是你凭空虚构出来的is just a figment of your reckless imagination. 因为有些时候 你是谁Because sometimes the contrast between who you are 和你想成为谁之间的对比似乎非常明显and who you want to be seems so stark. 你想知道你的潜能是可以实现的You wonder if this idea of your potential is even 还是只是一个虚无缥缈的愿望attainable or is it just an instrument of false hope, 就像给骡子吃胡萝卜一样like a carrot to a mule. 毕竟 只有少数人真正的实现了他们的梦想After all, while some few people really do achieve their 并且改变了世界dreams and change the world, 其他的绝大多数人则做不到the vast majority of others don’t. 他们甚至接近不了他们的梦想They don’t even come close. 那么这两类人的差距在哪儿呢?So what’s the difference between these two types of people 我们怎么才能让我们梦想不只是梦想and how can we not let our dreams be dreams 而是真正成为我们理想中的自己and actually become the person we think about, 让潜能这个词可以扔一边去呢?when the word potential is thrown around? 作家Jeff Olsen认为有一种可靠的方法Author Jeff Olsen suggests that there is a reliable tactic 你可以借此方法获得成功you can use for achieving success. 不管那对你意味着什么whatever that may mean to you. 一定有个会使你在生活中的任何想法里There is a surefire way to make massive progress 取得巨大进步的方法in any area of your life and 它并不像你想象中的那么难it’s not as hard as you might think. 这个方法在这 每一个曾经成功过的人So here it goes. Everyone who has ever been successful 都明白这个叫做轻微优势的东西understood this thing called the Slight Edge. 他们也许不将其称为轻微优势They may not have called it the slight edge, 但轻微优势的存在是毋庸置疑的but the slight edge was without contention. 这是他们获得成功的主要因素The main factor in them achieving success. 那么它是如何工作的呢?So how does it work? 好的 假设你有个非常富有的叔叔Okay. So say you had a ridiculously rich uncle 而且他觉得自己很慷慨 有一天who was feeling really generous one day and 他对你说 Kevin 我的孩子 我将给你两个选择he said to you “Kevin, my boy. I’ll give you two options. 要么我现在给你100万美元的现金Either I give you 1 million dollars cash right now and 你走出门就会变成百万富翁you can walk out the door a millionaire or 或者我现在给你一分钱I give you a single penny, 接下来一个月内 这一美分将每天翻倍one cent and I will double it every day for a month.” 这种选择到处都是That accent was all over the place. 你将会选择哪一个呢?Which option would you choose? 直觉告诉你选第一种Gut instinct tells you Option 1. 但如果你做些简单的计算But if we do some simple math, 第一种选择只会给你100万美元这是很简单的数学题Option 1 gives you 1 million dollars. It’s pretty simple math. 但是如果你有耐心和毅力But if you had the patience and perseverance to 坚持这么做30天stick it out for 30 days, 那么第二种选择会带给你5,368,709美元和12美分Option 2 gives you 5,368,709 dollars and 12 cents, 其价值是选项1的五倍之多over five times the value of Option 1, 因为选择选项2是奇怪的which is weird because with Option 2, 对于绝大多数人而言for the vast majority of those days, 这种使钱翻倍的方式看上去是浪费时间的this money doubling seems like a waste of time. 经过20天的翻倍以后After 20 days of doubling, you would have only had 你可能只有5000多的美元a little over 5,000 dollars. 在那个时候 如果你是KevinAt that point, if you were Kevin, 你肯定会认为你已经搞砸了一切you definitely would have thought you’d screwed up big time. 但只要你坚持下去 就会发生巨大的变化But by sticking with it, dramatic change happens. 这是另一个例子So here’s another example. 当然有一天你可以非常努力地去健身房Sure, you can hit the gym really hard one day, 就像是你人生中最重要的工作一样去做like the best heaviest work out of your life, 你非常的努力 之后的每件事你也完成的很好just straight barbaric and afterwards you do everything right. 你吃了一顿富含蛋白质的大餐You have a giant protein rich meal and 并美美的睡了一觉a long restful night’s sleep. 但是不幸的But unfortunately, 即便在这一切之后 你也不会看到任何的结果even after all that, you won’t see any results. 从外表上看 你会和你离开之前一样胖Visually, you’ll be just as big as you were before you went. 事实上 如果你那天完全不去健身房In fact, if you were to skip the gym that day altogether 在你的瘦身计划里in the grand scheme of things, 它也不会有任何影响it wouldn’t really make a difference. 如果你问你的朋友If you asked a friend how you look 在你锻炼完的前后你看上去有什么不同before and after your workout, 假如没有肌肉肿胀的话assuming there is no such thing as being swole, 他们会说你看上去一模一样they’d say you look the exact same. 那是因为 你不可能因为有一次That’s because you don’t get to have huge muscles 你非常有动力去健身房锻炼了by going to the gym harder than everyone else that 而且比其他人更努力地锻炼 就能得到肌肉one time you’re motivated enough to go to the gym. 只有你每天都去健身房锻炼并一直坚持You get to have huge muscles by just showing up to 才能得到强壮的肌肉the gym every single day for a long period of time. 因此这就是所谓的轻微优势So the slight edge can all be boiled down to this. 成功不是因为你做了多么困难非凡的事情Success is not the result of doing difficult extraordinary things, 而是每天都做平凡的but rather the result of doing unremarkable 相对容易的事情 并持续了很久relatively easy to do things every single day 才得到的结果over a long period of time. 也许你想要写本书Maybe you want to write a book. 如果是这样的话 那么你就不该If that’s the case, then you shouldn’t think about it 从创造200页优秀的文学作品的角度in terms of somehow possessing the massive inspiration 来思考这个问题to crank out 200 brilliant pages of literature. 因为你知道那是不可能发生的Because you already know that’s never gonna happen. 如果你想写本书If you want to write a book, 只写半页就可以当作完成一天的工作了write half a page and then be done for the day. 当你第二天早上醒来以后Then when you wake up the next morning, 继续写完那页并休息一下finish that page and take a break. 把写半页变成一个简单的日常习惯Make writing half a page into a simple daily habit and 那么它最终会变成一个良性的循环it’ll eventually turn into a well-oiled machine that 让你很容易就达成你的目标will easily take you to your goal. 通过每个早上随便的记录By casually showing up, every single morning 写下相对简单 能够完成的文字数量to write a relatively easy amount of words. 一年过去 你将会拥有182.5页的作品After a year’s time, you’ll have written 182.5 pages. 那这本书你几乎就不费任何吹灰之力的完成了That’s a book and you did it with hardly any strain and 那是因为写半页书对你而言是容易的that’s because writing half a page is easy. 这是你真正喜欢做的事情Something you’re actually likely to do. 随着时间流逝 半页变成了一本书But when leveraged by time, half a page turns into a book. 在健身房45分钟的锻炼时间变成了热辣的身材45 minutes at the gym turns into a beachbody. 30分钟的吉他练习变成别人的赞美30 minutes of practicing guitar turns into “天哪 Fred 我不知道你是一个这么优秀的音乐家”“Holy Fred. I didn’t know you’re such a good musician.” 因此如果你想在生活中的某个特定领域So if you want to achieve massive progress in your life 取得巨大的进步in any particular area, 把它分解成为一个小的动作 变成一些简单的事情break it down into a tiny little action, something easy, 简单到你很有可能去做so easy that you’re actually likely to do it. 但是要确保每天都去做它But make sure to do it every single day. 因为做它容易Because as easy as it is to do, it’s just as easy not to do 不做它也很容易and doing it or not doing it is the difference 做或是不做就是成功的人生between a life of success and one of mediocrity 与平庸的人生之间的差别later down the road. 所以我现在在Saskatchewan北部的So I’m in a really small town in northern Saskatchewan 一个名叫水牛城的小镇上called Buffalo Narrows. 我不知道你们是否听说过I don’t know if you guys have heard of it. 但是不管怎样 我想说的是But anyways, I just wanted to say that 如果你喜欢这个视频 请继续关注Chrisif you enjoyed this video, go on over to Chris, Chris的频道 就是Beautiful ScienceChris’s channel. It’s Beautiful Science. 链接在视频简介里 并点击订阅他的频道The link is in the description of the video and go subscribe 因为我认为他被严重的低估了to his channel because I think he’s super underrated. 他在这个视频的动画制作上做的非常好He did a great job animating this video. 非常感谢ChrisSo thank you very much, Chris. 如果你喜欢这样的视频 不妨点个订阅If you like videos, like these, hit that Subscribe button, 通过订阅来提高视频的排名hit that Like button in order to improve the rankings and 这样视频就会被推荐然后帮助一些需要帮助的人so that this video shows up and helps some people out. 当然啦 希望你喜欢这个与平时But yeah. Hope you enjoy the video 略有所不同的风格的视频a little bit of a different style this time. 但我将永远在这个频道上更新But I’m gonna continue to experiment on this channel forever. 因此如果你想方便继续观看的话So if you want to hop along for the ride, 点击订阅按钮hit that Subscribe button, 以便观看下个视频 我们在Facebook的群组里见哦catch you the next video and see you in the Facebook group guys 祝你今天愉快!Have a great day!
  • 2021-10-30怎样学得快、记得牢、用得准?试试费恩曼学习技术Feynman learning technique is effective full learning something new费恩曼学习技巧对学习完整的新知识非常有效 deepen your understanding of what you already know能够加深你对已学知识的理解 or helping you study for an exam或帮助你参加考试 the first step is to pick a topic you want to understand and start studying it.第一步是挑选一个 你想要理解的课题并开始学习 once you know what it is about take a piece of paper and write about it一旦你选好了 就在一页纸上写下来 as if you’re teaching the idea to someone else就像你要教别人的那样 ideally write and speak at the same time just as a teacher does it at the blackboard写下来的同时要开口说 就像老师在黑板写时一样 this makes you realize which part you understand and where you still have gaps这会提醒你你掌握了哪部分 哪部分又是你的知识缺口 whenever you get stuck go back to study and repeat that process until you have当你卡住了 回去学习并重复刚才的步骤 explained the whole topic from start to end直到你能从头到尾解释整个课题 when you’re done repeat the process from the beginning but this time simplify your language or当你完成了这步 又从头开始重复过程 use a graphic analogy to make a point但是这一次简化你的语言 或者使用图形类比来说明知识点 if your explanation ends up wordy or confusing如果你的解释冗长又令人费解 you probably have not understood it well enough so you should start again说明你还没有充分理解 所以你应该重新开始 thinking about an idea by explaining it makes this learning method very effective通过解释来思考一个想法 这个学习方法非常有效 once you can explain an idea in simple language you have deeply understood it一旦你能够用简洁的语言来解释想法 说明你已经对知识已经有了深刻理解 and will remember it for a long time并且会长时间记住 Richard Feynman was a leading theoretical physicist who received a理查德·费曼是杰出的理论物理学家 Nobel Prize for his work in quantum electrodynamics因在量子电动力学方面做出的贡献 获得诺贝尔物理学奖 he was notorious for asking his fellow mathematicians to explain concepts in simple language他出了名地喜欢请数学家同事 用简洁的语言来解释概念 to test their understanding以此来测试他们的理解 thanks for watching谢谢观看 also check out others Sprouts learning techniques也欢迎收看Sprouts其他学习技巧视频 as they can complement the methods explained in this video他们可以补充本视频解释过的学习方法 please use the comments below to give us feedback or tell us which of the techniques is your favorite请在下面评论给我们反馈 或者让我们知道你最喜欢哪个技巧
  • 2021-10-30绅士们遇到混蛋是如何处理的Welcome back to the Gentleman’s Gazette!欢迎回到《绅士杂志》 Today’s video is all about how to deal with jerks今天的视频是关于如何应对“混蛋” because we will have a jerk or two in our lives因为我们的生活中总会有一两个混蛋 You probably have a boss who is jerk,你的老板可能就是个混蛋 maybe your neighbor a family member a friend或是你的邻居 家庭成员 或者朋友 or someone else或和你亲近的 who’s close to you.其他人 I mean, frankly, we’re all jerks sometimes;我的意思是 坦白说 我们都有混蛋的时候 If we have bad nights of sleep有时是我们晚上没睡好觉 maybe if we were sick,有时是生病了 or if we just have another thing to deal with或是有时只是要去处理其他事情 we can all behave like a jerk.我们都会表现得像一个混蛋 However, we’re talking more about people 然而 我们将更多的谈论那些 who are constantly and unapologetically a jerk.经常做混蛋事并毫无歉意的人 The weird thing is that being a jerk 奇怪的事情是作为一个混蛋 is sometimes correlated to being successful.有时侯会与成功联系在一起 For example, Steve Jobs was a bonafide jerk 例如 史蒂夫·乔布斯就是个不折不扣的混蛋 yet he was very successful.但他非常成功 So just because you’re a jerk doesn’t mean然而这不意味着成为混蛋 you’re automatically successful. 你就能自然而然地成功 Often, it’s the opposite.事实恰恰相反 And in today’s video,在今天的视频中 we show you how you can deal with jerks我们会教你如何在不降低自身水准的情况下 without going down to their level.来应对混蛋 So first of all,首先 what exactly is a jerk究竟什么是混蛋? and how can you earn respect without being one如何优雅的赢得他人的尊重? To answer those questions, please check out this video here.为了回答上述问题 请看这段视频 In a nutshell,简而言之 jerks are stubborn,混蛋们很顽固 they’re just full of themselves, they just care about themselves,他们非常自我 他们只关心自己 they’re not open to criticism or change,他们不接受批评和改变 and they’re just about winning, putting others down,他们只想着赢 打倒别人 and getting ahead in life no matter the cost.不计代价地在生活中领先其他人 Interestingly, when surveyed, 有趣的是 在接受调查时 a lot more people describe being subjected to oppression of jerks更多的人描述自己曾遭受过混蛋的压迫 rather than admitting to being one themselves.而不会承认自己也是混蛋中的一员 That means there are a lot people who are jerks这意味着 很多人实际上也是混蛋 but they don’t think of themselves as being a jerk,但他们并不认为自己是混蛋 this is called the blame bias.这就是所谓的责备偏见 When we see behavior in others,当我们审视他人的行为时 we assume that they’re trying to be a jerk 我们假设他们想成为一个混蛋 and mean about things 但当我们自己 yet when we do the exact same thing,做了同样混蛋的事时 we have different motives 我们就有了不同的动机 and we don’t think of ourselves as being a jerk, 我们不认为自己是一个混蛋 when in fact, other people assume we are.事实上 其他人认定我们就是混蛋 When people behave badly当人们的举止很糟糕时 they often think of it as being justified他们常常认为自己的行为是合理的 but they’re the only one thinking that way但只有他们自己是这样想的 all the others just think you’re a jerk.其他人都会把他们看作混蛋 The bigger problem with this behavior is that it can be contagious 此行为带来的更大问题是 它是会传染的 and other people can act in the same way 其他人会跟着那样做 and then it brings down the entire community.这会让整个社区变得糟糕 The first strategy in dealing with jerks 应对混蛋的第一个策略是 is to make sure you’re not one yourself.就是确保你自己不是其中之一 So once you’ve decided you’re not a jerk,所以一旦你确定自己不是个混蛋 the first step to dealing with jerks is to take action.应对混蛋首先要做的就是采取行动 Simply accepting behavior of jerks 放任混蛋的行为 or just letting it go is not going to make the situation better或是毫不在意并不能让事态好转 or resolve anything. 或解决问题 You’re instead empowering the jerks to continue doing what they do这只会让混蛋们更加得寸进尺 because they see no obstacle in behaving that way.因为这并未妨碍他们的混蛋行为 Jerks are often stubborn and are unlikely to change,混蛋们通常很固执并且难以改变 so you have to change something because that’s something you can control.因此你必须要改变 因为这是你能掌控的 First of all, you have to determine what kind of jerk you’re dealing with,第一步 你要判断清楚你遇到的是哪种混蛋 is it a clueless jerk who doesn’t know he’s a jerk 是那种他们没有意识到自己很混蛋的笨蛋 or is it an unrepentant jerk 还是那种顽固不化的混蛋 who knows what they do is wrong but they just don’t care.他们知道自己做错了 但毫不在意 Dealing with a clueless jerk is easy应对无知的混蛋很容易 because they actually might mean well 因为也许他们实际上是好意 and they simply just don’t know about it. 而且他们只是单纯没意识到 The best way to deal with it最好的处理方式是 is to take that person aside in a private moment 找一个私人时间 把他(她)叫到一边 and address the issue.然后解决这件事情 Don’t address it in front of a group 不要当着一群人的面说这些话 where they can feel attacked 在别人面前 他们会觉得受到了攻击 or where they feel particularly vulnerable,或者感到自己很脆弱 take them aside, so no one else can see it,把他们叫到一边 这样别人就看不见了 have a word with them, and explain what you’ve seen.跟他们交谈 解释你看到的 A clueless jerk will likely apologize,一个无知的混蛋可能会道歉 be sorry about it, and promise to change.对此感到遗憾 并承诺改变 Now in those situations,在这种情况下 it is best not to confront the people head-on面对这样的人 最好讲话不要太直接 but just say”I noticed”,”it seems like”. 而只需说“我注意到…”“它看起来…” Avoid terms like”you behave like an asshole”,避免用“你表现地很混蛋” 这样的措辞 instead say, ” lately I noticed that there were some tensions around you而是说 “最近 我注意到你身边的气氛很紧张” or you behaved in a way that made others uncomfortable” 或是说“你的表现让其他人感到不舒服” that way, you’re not just blaming him outright那样说的话 你并没有直接怪罪他 but you just explain a situation而只是在解释一下情况 and giving them a way to save their face.并给他们台阶下 It’s important to focus on their behavior, not them as a person,注重他们的行为 而不是他们本身 这是很重要的 otherwise, they’re likely to shut down否则 他们可能会让你闭嘴 and not take any of your criticism. 还不接受你的任何指正 Second, it’s great to have a remedy in mind 第二步 提前替他们想一些补救措施 and not just throw something out there 而不是仅仅把问题抛出来 and expect them to come up with a solution. 等着他们自己拿出解决方案 Again, don’t tell people what they should or should not do. 此外 不要告诉他们该怎么做或不该怎么做 Rather, share maybe an experience of a similar situation 而是 分享一个能真正帮助给出解决方案的 which really helped to come to a solution.类似情形的经历 That way, the clueless jerk will think they came up with a solution这样的话 笨蛋们会认为这是他们想出来的方案 and because of that, they’re much more likely to act on it也正因为如此 相比于你告诉他们该怎么做 rather than if you tell them what they should or should not do.或不该怎么做 他们更有可能采取行动 Now, when you’ve dealt with jerks,现在 当你应对混蛋的时候 you probably assume that they’re not a clueless jerk 你或许不会认为他们是无知的混蛋 because to you, it seems obvious they are unrepentant因为对于你来说 很明显 他们是故意的 and they do it because they enjoy it他们这样做 是因为享受 but that is part of the blame bias 但这也是指责偏见的一部分 and it’s best for you to assume 你最好假设 that everyone is a clueless jerk 每个人都是无知的混蛋 and therefore, you should always, as a first step,因此 你应该经常 像第一步说的那样 take them aside privately and approach them in the way just described.私下里把他们带到一边 用刚才描述的方法接近他们 Now if you’ve done that and the behavior doesn’t change,如果你这样做了 他们还没有改变 you deal with an unrepentant jerk.那你面对的就是顽固不化的混蛋 Unfortunately, there’s not a cooking recipe to deal with those kind of jerks,不幸的是 针对这一类混蛋 目前还没有应对方法 however, chances are they’re not likely or easily going to change. 然而 他们不太可能也不容易改变 Also, the power dynamics in a relationship are hugely important.此外 关系中的权力对比非常重要 If the jerk is a parent or a boss and you feel powerless,如果你的父母或者老板是这类混蛋 你感到无力 it’s best to ignore those people, walk away from them,最好的方式就是忽略他们 离他们远远的 and politely decline to even engage in a conversation with them.甚至礼貌地拒绝与他们交谈 Simply ignore them and take out the steam of their behavior that way.简单地忽略他们 让他们自讨没趣 The next step means it’s time to change for you.接下来 你需要做出改变了 You either have to quit, transfer to a different department,你要么辞职 要么转到另外一个部门 or maybe end the relationship或是结束这段关系 because if you address their behavior directly with your superior,因为如果你直接和你的上司谈论他们的行为 chances are they’re gonna retaliate against you 他们很可能会报复你 and make your life even worse. 让你的生活更糟糕 Now,if the power dynamics are equal 如果你们处于同一权力地位 and it’s someone like a friend, a sibling, or a colleague,他们是你的朋友 兄弟姐妹 或者是你的同事 you are at the same level, you have a few different options. 你们处于同一地位 你可以采取不同的方法 The one is to simply shun them, ignore them, exclude them from events,其中一个就是避开他们 避免和他们一起参加活动 and have a certain icy politeness but you’re clear态度冰冷而不失礼貌 但你要明确 that you don’t want to have anything to do with them,你不想再和他们扯上关系 you don’t want to listen to them,你不想听他们胡说八道 and you don’t want to be around them.你不想和他们呆在一起 Another option would be to fight fire with fire. 另一种方法就是以牙还牙 Now, this is very risky这很冒险 because a jerk will drag you down to their level 因为混蛋们会把你拉低到他们的水平 and beat you there with experience. 然后用经验打败你 So if a jerk yells at you, 所以当混蛋朝你大吼时 it’s not wise to yell back but you can speak up,最好不要跟他们大喊大叫 you can confront them, and tell them that it’s not okay.但你能发声 能直面他们 告诉他们这不行 You can even do so in front of others 你甚至可以当着别人的面这样做 and see if that makes a change.看看他们是否会有所改变 If it doesn’t, chances are its best simply to ignore them 如果没有 最好最简单的方式还是忽略他们 and again, quit that relationship or try to move in a place 再说一遍 结束这段关系 或尝试搬到一个 where you don’t have to deal with that kind of behavior.不用再面对这些行为的地方 If quitting is not an option, 如果没办法逃离 fighting fire with fire is your only option 那就只能跟他们硬碰硬 and that unrepentant jerk really understands that language 顽固不化的混蛋很懂这一套 so it may lead you somewhere but be careful.他们知道如何套路你 所以一定要小心 Now what about if you have a jerk 那么现在如果你的下属 who is your employee or your subordinate?或地位比你低的人是混蛋呢? In that case, things are a lot easier. 这样的情况处理起来就容易多了 Basically, you use your power and your force to require change,基本上 运用你的权力 就能改变 you take them aside, you address the issue, 把他们叫到一边 跟他们挑明情况 you tell them what needs to happen, and if it doesn’t happen,你告诉他们要怎么做 如果不那么做的话 you simply fire them and you just have to stick to that.直接炒掉他们 然后坚持下去 Now, one thing that works 现在 有一种方法很有效 no matter what the power dynamics are is to not give a ****, 无论在哪种权力地位情况下都很适用 however, that’s the most difficult one然而 这也是最难的一个 and it often requires a lot of good acting 这不仅需要你很会演 and self-discipline 又要很自律 but ultimately, if you can show people但基本上 如果你能表现出 that you don’t care either about their behavior or about them,你对他们的行为或他们自身毫不在乎 it makes them maybe angry or rethink their behavior 这可能会让他们生气或反思自己的行为 simply because a jerk wants attention 因为混蛋做那些事情就是想吸引注意力 and if you don’t give them attention 如果你不关注他们 and if you don’t give them gratification,如果你不给他们满足感 they may deflate and maybe they’ll move on 他们可能就会泄气 但也可能会继续 and you can stay where you are.而你可以保持立场 In my opinion, it’s one of the hardest approaches 在我看来 这是最难的一种方法 because it requires a lot of willpower on your end.你需要有超强的意志力 So in conclusion, jerks are everywhere.总结起来 混蛋无处不在 You should always assume that if you encounter them 如果你遇到他们 你应该假设他们都是无知的混蛋 that they’re clueless jerks take them aside privately tell them about it把他们带到一边 私下告诉他们 if they still don’t correct their behavior they are unrepentant jerks 如果他们毫无悔改 他们就是顽固的混蛋 and now you have different methods to deal with 这时候你有不同的方法去应对 that you can either shun them ignore them or fight fire with fire你要么避开他们 或忽视他们 要么以牙还牙 In today’s video,在今天的视频中 I am wearing a single breasted navy suit with notched lapels,我穿的是缺角翻领的单排扣海军蓝西装 but I really changed the look of it内衬红色条纹衬衫 by wearing a red striped shirt 搭配天鹅绒般雌鹿皮的 combined with a contrasting off-white double-breasted waistcoat 米白对比色双排扣背心 in velvety doe skin material.很大程度上地改变了这套衣服的观感 I’m combining it with a dark or medium brown grenadine tie 我搭配了一条深棕色或中褐色的薄纱领带 with a boutonniere from Fort Belvedere 加上来自贝尔威得堡的胸花 just like the tie which you can find in our shop 和领带一样 你可以在我们的店里买到它 here and it picks up the white tones of the vest 今天 我选择了白色基调的背心 and a stripe in the shirt 以及条纹衬衫 the pocket square is red and off-white polka dots 口袋方巾上是红色的 上有米白色的圆点 and it picks up the overall color scheme 它的配色与衣服配色相呼应 as you can see如你所见 because of the contrast it looks very different 跟你那套普通的海军服比起来 than your typical run-of-the-mill navy suit 它看上去非常与众不同 this is enhanced by the fact 事实证明 that I’m wearing brown suede leather boots which are softer我穿的棕色绒面革皮靴 than maybe a black oxford that you would usually encounter比你通常穿的黑色牛津款更柔软 yet it works well with my brown tie.现在和我的棕色领带也很搭 My shirt cuffs are French cuffs for double cuffs 我的衬衫袖口是是法式双袖口 and I’m wearing a pair of gold monkey fist knot cuff links并且我戴着一对永恒经典的 which very timeless and classic金猴拳结袖扣 and are inspired by the nautical knot 它们的灵感来自航海绳结 and you can find them in our shop, here您可以在我们的商店中找到它们
  • 2021-10-30关于CRISPR你必须知道的东西有人听说过 CRISPR 吗So, has everybody heard of CRISPR? 大家不可能没听过吧I would be shocked if you hadn’t. 这是一种人为改变染色体的技术This is a technology — it’s for genome editing — 这种技术如此全能却又十分引人争议and it’s so versatile and so controversial 以至于各种有趣的争论应运而生that it’s sparking all sorts of really interesting conversations. 我们应该复活猛犸象吗Should we bring back the woolly mammoth? 我们应该改造人类胚胎吗Should we edit a human embryo? 我最喜欢的一个问题是And my personal favorite: 我们能够接受How can we justify wiping out an entire species 用这种技术that we consider harmful to humans 将一个人类认为有害的物种off the face of the Earth, 从地球上完全消灭吗?using this technology? 这种科技比控制它本身的常规技术This type of science is moving much faster 发展的还要快than the regulatory mechanisms that govern it. 在过去六年里And so, for the past six years, 我致力于I’ve made it my personal mission 让更多人了解这种技术to make sure that as many people as possible understand 以及它的意义何在these types of technologies and their implications. 现在 CRISPR已经成了媒体炒作的焦点Now, CRISPR has been the subject of a huge media hype, 最普遍的用于描述它的词是“容易” 和“廉价”and the words that are used most often are “easy” and “cheap.” 我想将这个话题深入下去So what I want to do is drill down a little bit deeper 并探讨与之有关的谜团以及现实状况and look into some of the myths and the realities around CRISPR. 如果 你想在一条染色体上做CRISPRIf you’re trying to CRISPR a genome, 你得首先破环DNA分子the first thing that you have to do is damage the DNA. 这种破坏需要从双螺旋结构上The damage comes in the form of a double-strand break 斩断双链结构through the double helix. 随后细胞的修复机制开始插手And then the cellular repair processes kick in, 这时我们就可以让这些修复系统and then we convince those repair processes 来改造我们想要的基因了to make the edit that we want, 这不是自然的改造and not a natural edit. 这就是这种技术的原理That’s how it works. 这是一个两步走的技术It’s a two-part system. 首先要有一个Cas9蛋白质 还有一种向导RNAYou’ve got a Cas9 protein and something called a guide RNA. 可以将其比作定向引导导弹I like to think of it as a guided missile. 于是Cas9蛋白质 我喜欢将其拟人化So the Cas9 — I love to anthropomorphize — Cas9 就像是吃豆人中的小圆脸so the Cas9 is kind of this Pac-Man thing 迫不及待地想要吃掉 DNAthat wants to chew DNA, 向导RNA相当于拉住它 使它远离染色体的牵引绳(类似遛狗)and the guide RNA is the leash that’s keeping it out of the genome 直到它找到特定的位点until it finds the exact spot where it matches. 这两种分子的结合体就叫做 CRISPRAnd the combination of those two is called CRISPR. 这是一种我们从It’s a system that we stole 古老的细菌结构中发现的方法from an ancient, ancient bacterial immune system. 最令人惊奇的部分是 RNAThe part that’s amazing about it is that the guide RNA, 虽只有20个有效信息only 20 letters of it, 但却是整个结构的定位部分are what target the system. CRISPR 设计起来非常容易This is really easy to design, 并且价格低廉and it’s really cheap to buy. 这种手法已经被模块化So that’s the part that is modular in the system; 并且一成不变everything else stays the same. 因此这种技术用起来十分便捷 并且有效This makes it a remarkably easy and powerful system to use. 向导 RNA 和 Cas9 蛋白质组成一个整体The guide RNA and the Cas9 protein complex together 在染色体上来回穿梭go bouncing along the genome, 当它们发现一个与向导 RNA 吻合的部位时and when they find a spot where the guide RNA matches, 就会嵌入双螺旋结构then it inserts between the two strands of the double helix, 将其撕裂it rips them apart, 导致 Cas9 蛋白质开始切割工作that triggers the Cas9 protein to cut, 于是突然之间and all of a sudden, 你就让一个细胞处在了极大的恐慌之中you’ve got a cell that’s in total panic 因为它的一条 DNA 被破坏because now it’s got a piece of DNA that’s broken. 这时它该怎么办呢What does it do? 呼叫现场急救员It calls its first responders. 细胞有着两种主要的修复机制There are two major repair pathways. 第一种是直接将断掉的 DNA 接上The first just takes the DNA and shoves the two pieces back together. 这种方法不是最有效的This isn’t a very efficient system, 由于有时会多一个链环because what happens is sometimes a base drops out 有时又会少一个or a base is added. 这种方法只能… 算撞出一个基因来It’s an OK way to maybe, like, knock out a gene, 但不是我们通常想要的基因改造方式but it’s not the way that we really want to do genome editing. 第二种修复机制更为有趣The second repair pathway is a lot more interesting. 在这种机制中In this repair pathway, 细胞会寻找一条相同的 DNAit takes a homologous piece of DNA. 在有着双染色体的生物 比如说人类And now mind you, in a diploid organism like people, 我们得到了我们父母 各自的一组染色体we’ve got one copy of our genome from our mom and one from our dad, 如果一条 DNA 受损so if one gets damaged, 细胞可以用另外一条来修复它it can use the other chromosome to repair it. 这就是这种技术的原理So that’s where this comes from. 修复成功之后The repair is made, 染色体又重获安全and now the genome is safe again. 我们将其调包的方法The way that we can hijack this 是用一条新的DNA替换中间段is we can feed it a false piece of DNA, 两端与原来相同a piece that has homology on both ends 的新DNA来修复它but is different in the middle. 于是你可以随心所欲地将你想要的中间部分安装上去So now, you can put whatever you want in the center 细胞本身却毫无察觉and the cell gets fooled. 你可以改变基因中的一条信息So you can change a letter, 也可以删除它you can take letters out, 但最为重要的是你可以像特洛伊木马一样but most importantly, you can stuff new DNA in, 将一条全新的 DNA 嵌入kind of like a Trojan horse. CRISPR 的作用出人预料CRISPR is going to be amazing, 它能推动许多in terms of the number of different scientific advances 不同领域的科技发展that it’s going to catalyze. 它的特殊之处在于这个攻击系统模块The thing that’s special about it is this modular targeting system. 我们多年来一直尝试着将 DNA 嵌入生物体中I mean, we’ve been shoving DNA into organisms for years, right? 但由于这种模块攻击系统But because of the modular targeting system, 我们能将它放在我们想要的地方we can actually put it exactly where we want it. 问题是现在有很多关于 它的廉价性The thing is that there’s a lot of talk about it being cheap 和便捷性的话题and it being easy. 我有一所社区实验室And I run a community lab. 并且开始收到人们的来信I’m starting to get emails from people that say stuff like, 我能在开放夜来你那吗?“Hey, can I come to your open night 我能用 CRISPR 编辑一下自己的基因吗?and, like, maybe use CRISPR and engineer my genome?” (笑声)(Laugher) 讲真的Like, seriously. 我说 不能I’m, “No, you can’t.” (笑声)(Laughter) 但我听说那很便宜 很简单啊“But I’ve heard it’s cheap. I’ve heard it’s easy.” 我们谈谈这个吧We’re going to explore that a little bit. 究竟有多便宜So, how cheap is it? 相对来说确实便宜Yeah, it is cheap in comparison. 实验所需材料It’s going to take the cost of the average materials for an experiment 花费从几千美元降至几百美元from thousands of dollars to hundreds of dollars, 还能节约时间and it cuts the time a lot, too. 几周的工作几天就能完成It can cut it from weeks to days. 这很好That’s great. 但你仍需要专业的实验室来做You still need a professional lab to do the work in; 没有实验室是不可能完成这项技术的you’re not going to do anything meaningful outside of a professional lab. 别相信那些说I mean, don’t listen to anyone who says 你可以在自家厨房里做实验的人you can do this sort of stuff on your kitchen table. 这项技术真的不简单It’s really not easy to do this kind of work. 更别说有一场如火如荼的专利战打的正酣Not to mention, there’s a patent battle going on, 即使发明者创造出了这样的奇思妙想so even if you do invent something, 布罗德研究所和 UC 伯克利也在为专利权而争斗不休the Broad Institute and UC Berkeley are in this incredible patent battle. 隔岸观火很有趣It’s really fascinating to watch it happen, 因为他们都在不断控诉对方 称其发布诬告性言论because they’re accusing each other of fraudulent claims 他们中的有人常常说and then they’ve got people saying, 我在我的笔记本上到处都记了笔记“Oh, well, I signed my notebook here or there.” 这件事好几年都没完This isn’t going to be settled for years. 即使真的解决了And when it is, 到那时你就得为使用这项技术you can bet you’re going to pay someone a really hefty licensing fee 支付高昂的费用in order to use this stuff. 所以它真的便宜吗So, is it really cheap? 如果你有自己的实验室 并且在做基础学科实验的话 确实很便宜Well, it’s cheap if you’re doing basic research and you’ve got a lab. 容易吗 现在我们来谈谈这个How about easy? Let’s look at that claim. 魔鬼总藏在深处The devil is always in the details. 我们仍然不十分了解细胞We don’t really know that much about cells. 他们就像是一个黑匣子They’re still kind of black boxes. 比如说 我们不知道为什么有一些RNA十分好用For example, we don’t know why some guide RNAs work really well 有一些却不好使and some guide RNAs don’t. 我们也不知道为什么 一些细胞采用一种修复机制We don’t know why some cells want to do one repair pathway 另一些采用另外一种and some cells would rather do the other. 除了这些以外And besides that, 在一开始 将这个系统植入细胞时there’s the whole problem of getting the system into the cell 同样面临着问题in the first place. 在培养皿中 这不是很难In a petri dish, that’s not that hard, 可是如果是整个生物体but if you’re trying to do it on a whole organism, 那就很麻烦了it gets really tricky. 采用血液或是骨髓是可行的It’s OK if you use something like blood or bone marrow — 它们也是现在的研究重点those are the targets of a lot of research now. 有个关于一位女孩的奇迹There was a great story of some little girl 她患了白血病who they saved from leukemia 最后通过将血取出 人为将其改造后放回人体by taking the blood out, editing it, and putting it back 最终痊愈——用的是CRISPR的前期技术with a precursor of CRISPR. 这是一种人们希望从事的研究And this is a line of research that people are going to do. 但是如果你想针对整个人体But right now, if you want to get into the whole body, 可能就要用到病毒了you’re probably going to have to use a virus. 采集病毒以后 将 CRISPR 放进去So you take the virus, you put the CRISPR into it, 你需要让病毒感染细胞you let the virus infect the cell. 但只要你将病毒注入细胞内部But now you’ve got this virus in there, 就可能出现长期的副作用and we don’t know what the long-term effects of that are. 而且 CRISPR 还有一些伤及无辜的攻击行为Plus, CRISPR has some off-target effects, 只占很小一部分—— 但总是存在的a very small percentage, but they’re still there. 一段时间过后又会发生什么呢What’s going to happen over time with that? 这不是小事These are not trivial questions, 有科学家一直想要解决这些问题and there are scientists that are trying to solve them, 而且它们最终会被解决 很有这种可能and they will eventually, hopefully, be solved. 但研究需要时间But it ain’t plug-and-play, not by a long shot. 这种方法真的容易吗So: Is it really easy? 在经过几年的深入研究之后Well, if you spend a few years working it out in your particular system, 它才真正变得容易yes, it is. 还有一个问题是Now the other thing is, 我们不知道怎样通过改变染色体中的某个部位we don’t really know that much about how to make a particular thing happen 来达到我们想要的目的by changing particular spots in the genome. 我们现在还无法获知We’re a long way away from figuring out 怎样使一只猪长出翅膀how to give a pig wings, for example. 或是多长一条腿 就拿这个举例Or even an extra leg — I’d settle for an extra leg. 那会十分有趣 不是吗That would be kind of cool, right? 但现状是But what is happening CRISPR 正被成千上万的科学家is that CRISPR is being used by thousands and thousands of scientists 用来完成十分重要的工作to do really, really important work, 例如 构建更好的动物疾病模型like making better models of diseases in animals, for example, 或是找到可用的化学物质生产方法or for taking pathways that produce valuable chemicals 用它们进行工业生产和发酵and getting them into industrial production in fermentation vats, 甚至是有关基因功能的基本研究or even doing really basic research on what genes do. 这就是 CRISPR 的故事This is the story of CRISPR we should be telling, 我不喜欢它浮华的那一面and I don’t like it that the flashier aspects of it 将它真正的光芒掩盖了are drowning all of this out. 是不计其数的科学家呕心沥血地造就了 CRISPRLots of scientists did a lot of work to make CRISPR happen, 让我感到欣慰的是and what’s interesting to me 这些科学家得到了社会的广泛支持is that these scientists are being supported by our society. 想一想Think about it. 我们有着能够让一小部分人愿意倾其一生We’ve got an infrastructure that allows a certain percentage of people 从事科学研究的机构to spend all their time doing research. 这让我们所有人成为了 CRISPR 的创造者That makes us all the inventors of CRISPR, 让我们成为 CRISPR 的掌控者and I would say that makes us all the shepherds of CRISPR. 我们需要负起责任来We all have a responsibility. 所以我们需要重视这方面的技术So I would urge you to really learn about these types of technologies, 因为 只有这样because, really, only in that way 我们才能掌控这些技术的发展are we going to be able to guide the development of these technologies, 和它们的应用the use of these technologies 然后确保到最后我们能得到正面的结果and make sure that, in the end, it’s a positive outcome — 不管是对这颗星球还是我们自己for both the planet and for us. 谢谢Thanks. (掌声)(Applause)
  • 2021-10-30你好,陌生人[启点字幕组]Light up the world 我们来谈谈信任问题吧Let’s talk about trust. 大家都知道 相互信任是为人处世的基本原则We all know trust is fundamental, 但说到信任他人but when it comes to trusting people, 就大有深意了something profound is happening. 如果你曾是Airbnb民宿网的房东或房客Please raise your hand 请举下手if you have ever been a host or a guest on Airbnb. 哇喔 好多啊Wow. That’s a lot of you. 谁有比特币呢Who owns Bitcoin? 还是有很多人 好的Still a lot of you. OK. 如果你曾经用Tinder 玩过在线交友And please raise your hand if you’ve ever used Tinder 请举下手to help you find a mate. 这次不太好统计啊 因为你们是这样举手的This one’s really hard to count because you’re kind of going like this. 随着科技的进步These are all examples of how technology 一系列新的制约机制is creating new mechanisms 使得我们可以相信陌生人 陌生公司及各种新想法that are enabling us to trust unknown people, companies and ideas. 但与此同时And yet at the same time, 我们对各种机构的信任trust in institutions — 比如说银行 政府 甚至是教会banks, governments and even churches — 却正在瓦解is collapsing. 那么 这到底是怎么回事儿呢So what’s happening here, 到底该相信谁呢?and who do you trust? 让我们从法国的一个平台说起吧—— 我该称它为一家公司Let’s start in France with a platform — with a company, I should say — 一家拥有有趣名字的公司with a rather funny-sounding name, BlaBlaCarBlaBlaCar. 它是为愿意一起进行长途旅行的司机与乘客It’s a platform that matches drivers and passengers 进行搭配的一个平台[提供车子者-联系的平台BlaBlaCar-需要搭车者]who want to share long-distance journeys together.Offers a ride – Connecting platform(Bla Bla Car) – Needs a ride 旅途的平均行程是320公里The average ride taken is 320 kilometers. 所以你最好明智地选择自己的旅伴So it’s a good idea to choose your fellow travelers wisely. 社交网站的个人信息和评论可以助你一臂之力Social profiles and reviews help people make a choice. 你可以了解到对方吸烟与否 喜欢的音乐类型You can see if someone’s a smoker, you can see what kind of music they like, 以及是否会带着宠物狗一同上路you can see if they’re going to bring their dog along for the ride. 但事实上 人们最关注的社交习惯But it turns out that the key social identifier 是旅途中你是否健谈is how much you’re going to talk in the car. bla 代表着话不多Bla, not a lot, bla bla 代表你想要简单的寒暄bla bla, you want a nice bit of chitchat, bla bla bla 则代表着你能滔滔不绝的从伦敦and bla bla bla, you’re not going to stop talking the entire way 侃到巴黎from London to Paris. 真是不可思议 是吧 这个与我们儿时被灌输的It’s remarkable, right, that this idea works at all, 不要与陌生人拼车的思想 相背离的思想cause it’s counter to the lesson most of us were taught as a child: 竟然被接受了never get in a car with a stranger. 而且BlaBlaCar每月输送的乘客And yet, BlaBlaCar transports more than four million people 超过四百万人次every single month. 这是什么概念呢To put that in context, that’s more passengers 就是说 这比欧洲之星或者美国捷蓝航空公司的运营量还大than the Eurostar or JetBlue airlines carry. BlaBlaCar完美展现了 科技是如何帮助人们BlaBlaCar is a beautiful illustration of how technology is enabling 实现在全球范围内的信任关系的飞跃的millions of people across the world to take a trust leap. 当我们甘愿冒险做些新的不同寻常的举动时A trust leap happens when we take the risk to do something new or different 就会产生信任上的飞跃to the way that we’ve always done it. 我们来一起想象一下Let’s try to visualize this together. 好的 请大家闭上眼睛OK. I want you to close your eyes. 那边有一位男士瞪大眼睛盯着我There is a man staring at me with his eyes wide open. 我知道自己正站在这个大的红圈上 我看得见的I’m on this big red circle. I can see. 快把眼睛闭上吧So close your eyes. 我会和大家一起做I’ll do it with you. 请想象一下 你和某个陌生事物之间And I want you to imagine there exists a gap 有一条鸿沟between you and something unknown. 它可以是你刚刚遇到的某个人That unknown can be someone you’ve just met. 或是你从未去过的某个地方It can be a place you’ve never been to. 抑或是你从未尝试过的某件事It can be something you’ve never tried before. 想象到了吗You got it? 好 大家可以睁开眼睛了OK. You can open your eyes now. 你要冒险从一个熟悉的环境For you to leap from a place of certainty, 去接触未知的人或事物to take a chance on that someone or something unknown, 这就需要某种力量来推你一把you need a force to pull you over the gap, 这种非凡的力量就是信任and that remarkable force is trust. 信任不可捉摸Trust is an elusive concept, 然而我们的生命活动却依赖于它and yet we depend on it for our lives to function. 晚上 当我的孩子们说他们会马上熄灯时I trust my children 我相信他们when they say they’re going to turn the lights out at night. 我相信飞行员可以安全地把我带到这儿I trusted the pilot who flew me here to keep me safe. 我们总把这个词儿挂在嘴边It’s a word we use a lot, 却未必会常思考它真正的含义without always thinking about what it really means 以及它在不同生活情景中的作用and how it works in different contexts of our lives. 实际上信任的定义有数百种There are, in fact, hundreds of definitions of trust, 大部分可以概括为对事物正常运转的可能性and most can be reduced to some kind of risk assessment 给予的某种风险评估of how likely it is that things will go right. 但我不喜欢这种定义But I don’t like this definition of trust, 因为这样听起来 信任是理性且可预测的because it makes trust sound rational and predictable, 而且它并未触及到人性层面and it doesn’t really get to the human essence 即引导我们的行为of what it enables us to do 促使我们and how it empowers us 与他人交流to connect with other people. 所以我所定义的信任略有不同So I define trust a little differently. 我把它定义为 对未知事物的自信I define trust as a confident relationship to the unknown. 现在 当你通过这个镜头观察Now, when you view trust through this lens, 它会告诉你 信任为何有这种独特的力量it starts to explain why it has the unique capacity 使我们能够应对不确定性to enable us to cope with uncertainty, 对陌生人予以信任to place our faith in strangers, 并且一路高歌猛进to keep moving forward. 人类跨越信任鸿沟的行为Human beings are remarkable 一向卓越非凡at taking trust leaps. 你还记得第一次在网上Do you remember the first time you put your credit card details 输信用卡信息时的场景吗into a website? 那就是一次信任的飞跃That’s a trust leap. 我清楚地记得我曾告诉父亲I distinctly remember telling my dad 自己想在易贝网买辆深蓝色二手标致汽车that I wanted to buy a navy blue secondhand Peugeot on eBay, 他一本正经地指出and he rightfully pointed out 卖家的名字叫“无形男巫”that the seller’s name was “Invisible Wizard” 那么买这辆车也许并不明智and then this probably was not such a good idea. 我的工作和研究聚焦于科技是如何So my work, my research focuses on how technology 转变社会中的社交紧密度is transforming the social glue of society, 以及人与人之间的信任关系trust between people, 而且这是一个引人入胜的研究领域and it’s a fascinating area to study, 因为它仍存在很多未解之谜because there’s still so much we do not know. 例如 在数字环境中 男性和女性的信任方式有差异吗?For instance, do men and women trust differently in digital environments? 互信方式的建立由线下转为线上了吗Does the way we build trust face-to-face translate online? 信任会转移吗Does trust transfer? 所以如果你相信在Tinder上可以找到人生伴侣So if you trust finding a mate on Tinder, 那么是否更应相信用BlaBlaCar能找到顺风车呢?are you more likely to trust finding a ride on BlaBlaCar? 但是 通过对数百家网站及市场的研究来看But from studying hundreds of networks and marketplaces, 人们遵从一种共有的模式there is a common pattern that people follow, 我称其为 “循序渐进的模式”and I call it “climbing the trust stack.” 就以BlaBlaCar来说吧Let me use BlaBlaCar as an example to bring it to life. 第一层次On the first level, 你要接受这个想法you have to trust the idea. 即 你必须要相信So you have to trust 拼车这个想法是安全且值得一试的the idea of ride-sharing is safe and worth trying. 第二个层次 要对平台有信心The second level is about having confidence in the platform, 要相信BlaBlaCar会帮你解决突发状况that BlaBlaCar will help you if something goes wrong. 第三个层次是 利用少量的信息And the third level is about using little bits of information 来确定旅伴是否可靠to decide whether the other person is trustworthy. 我们第一次攀登信任之峦时Now, the first time we climb the trust stack, 感觉怪异甚至凶险异常it feels weird, even risky, 但在达到某种程度后 就会意识到 这些想法似乎完全正常but we get to a point where these ideas seem totally normal. 我们行为转变的速度Our behaviors transform, 通常相当之快often relatively quickly. 换句话说 信任促进改变与创新In other words, trust enables change and innovation. 有个想法引起了我的兴趣 希望大家也考虑一下So an idea that intrigued me, and I’d like you to consider, 我们能否透过信任的镜头is whether we can better understand 更好地理解major ways of disruption and change in individuals in society 摧毁与改变社会个体的种种方式through the lens of trust. 好吧 结果证明 在人类历史的浩瀚长河中Well, it turns out that trust has only evolved 仅有三次关于信任的重要变革:in three significant chapters throughout the course of human history: 局部改革 制度上的改革local, institutional 以及我们如今正在进入的 分布式改革and what we’re now entering, distributed. 所以在19世纪中期前的So for a long time, 很长时间内until the mid-1800s, 信任仅建立于组织严密的关系中trust was built around tight-knit relationships. 所以 假如我和前五排观众So say I lived in a village 生活在同一个村庄with the first five rows of this audience, 我们彼此知根知底and we all knew one another, 如果我想借钱and say I wanted to borrow money, 那位先前瞪大眼睛的男士可能会借给我The man who had his eyes wide open, he might lend it to me, 如果我不还钱and if I didn’t pay him back, 大家都会知道我是个老赖you’d all know I was dodgy. 我就会声名狼藉I would get a bad reputation, 大家将来也会拒绝与我做生意and you would refuse to do business with me in the future. 信任大多是局部团体内的并且基于人的负责任态度Trust was mostly local and accountability-based. 19世纪中叶In the mid-19th century, 社会经历巨大变迁society went through a tremendous amount of change. 人们迁移至快速发展的城市 如伦敦和旧金山People moved to fast-growing cities such as London and San Francisco, 一位本地银行家被并不了解我们的and a local banker here was replaced by large corporations 大公司所取代that didn’t know us as individuals. 我们开始将信任We started to place our trust 置于合约 保险 规则等的into black box systems of authority, 权力黑箱系统之中things like legal contracts and regulation and insurance, 对他人的直接信任却下降了and less trust directly in other people. 信任开始基于制度及委托关系Trust became institutional and commission-based. 机构及许多公司品牌的可信度持续下降的话题It’s widely talked about how trust in institutions and many corporate brands 已经传的沸沸扬扬has been steadily declining and continues to do so. 我不断地被很多违反信任机制的行为震惊:I am constantly stunned by major breaches of trust: 新闻集团电话窃听the News Corp phone hacking, 大众汽车排放丑闻the Volkswagen emissions scandal, 天主教堂里普遍的虐待行为the widespread abuse in the Catholic Church, 金融大危机后 仅有一个普通银行职员the fact that only one measly banker 入狱的事实went to jail after the great financial crisis, 或是最近巴拿马文件透露的or more recently the Panama Papers 富人如何建立离境避税天堂that revealed how the rich can exploit offshore tax regimes. 而且真正让我诧异的是And the thing that really surprises me 当我们的信任崩塌时is why do leaders find it so hard 为什么领导人会觉得to apologize, I mean sincerely apologize, 真心实意的道歉有这么难when our trust is broken? 不难推断 基于制度上的信任 毫无用处It would be easy to conclude that institutional trust isn’t working 因为我们已经对because we are fed up 虚伪的精英们的厚颜无耻忍无可忍with the sheer audacity of dishonest elites, 但是当下的情形but what’s happening now 比对体系结构和规模的诘责 更甚一步runs deeper than the rampant questioning of the size and structure of institutions. 我们开始意识到We’re starting to realize 基于制度的信任that institutional trust 并不适合数字时代wasn’t designed for the digital age. 对品牌 领袖和整个体系的信任的建立Conventions of how trust is built, 管理 失去和修复——managed, lost and repaired — 其相关的惯例in brands, leaders and entire systems — 已经被完全颠覆is being turned upside down. 现在的情况令人兴奋Now, this is exciting, 但也令人恐惧but it’s frightening, 因为这迫使我们反思because it forces many of us to have to rethink 与顾客 职员甚至爱人间的信任how trust is built and destroyed with our customers, with our employees, 是如何建立和毁掉的even our loved ones. 几天前 我跟一个国际领先的酒店品牌的CEO聊天The other day, I was talking to the CEO of a leading international hotel brand, 如往常一样 我们谈到Airbnb这个话题and as is often the case, we got onto the topic of Airbnb. 他坦言自己对于这家公司的成功感到困惑And he admitted to me that he was perplexed by their success. 他不明白He was perplexed at how a company 基于陌生人相互信任 这样一个愿景的公司that depends on the willingness of strangers to trust one another 是如何做到在191个国家经营得风生水起的could work so well across 191 countries. 所以我对他说 我得跟你说实话So I said to him that I had a confession to make, 然后他有点奇怪地看着我and he looked at me a bit strangely, 我说——and I said — 我确定你们中很多人会和我一样——and I’m sure many of you do this as well — 在离开酒店时I don’t always bother to hang my towels up 不会费心挂起毛巾when I’m finished in the hotel, 但作为Airbnb的房客 绝不会这样做but I would never do this as a guest on Airbnb. 理由就是And the reason why I would never do this as a guest on Airbnb 房客知道 房东会对他们进行评价is because guests know that they’ll be rated by hosts, 而这种评价会影响到and that those ratings are likely to impact their ability 他们未来的投宿to transact in the future. 这只是一个线上信任改变我们It’s a simple illustration of how online trust will change our behaviors 现实生活的简单例子in the real world, 使我们以自己都无法想象的方式make us more accountable 负起责任来in ways we cannot yet even imagine. 我不是说我们不需要酒店I am not saying we do not need hotels 或传统权威机构了or traditional forms of authority. 但我们不得不承认But what we cannot deny 我们社会的信任流通方式已然改变is that the way trust flows through society is changing, 它带来的结果是惊人的 它使得我们从and it’s creating this big shift away from the 20th century 20世纪的制度性信任转换为21世纪的分布式信任that was defined by institutional trust towards the 21st century that will be fueled by distributed trust. 信任不再是自上而下 而是分门别类 自下而上Trust is no longer top-down. It’s being unbundled and inverted. 不再是含混不清或是一目了然It’s no longer opaque and linear. 一种新型的基于责任感的信任正在兴起A new recipe for trust is emerging that once again is distributed amongst people 并且又一次扩散开来and is accountability-based. 这种转换只会随着And this shift is only going to accelerate 区块链的兴起而加速发展with the emergence of the blockchain, 这种创新的分类技术也是比特币的技术基础the innovative ledger technology underpinning Bitcoin. 现在 坦白的说Now let’s be honest, 环顾周围 区块链的运作方式是令人震惊的getting our heads around the way blockchain works is mind-blowing. 其中一个原因就是它需要处理And one of the reasons why is it involves processing 一些有着可怕名称的复杂概念some pretty complicated concepts with terrible names. 比如 密码算法和散列函数I mean, cryptographic algorithms and hash functions, 还有被称为矿工的人们来负责核实交易——and people called miners, who verify transactions — 所有这些都是由中本聪这个或是这群all that was created by this mysterious person 神秘的人创造出来的or persons called Satoshi Nakamoto. 现在 想象中的信任的大跃进发展还没有成真Now, that is a massive trust leap that hasn’t happened yet. 不过我们可以想象一下这个But let’s try to imagine this. 《经济学人》杂志将区块链形象地描述为So “The Economist” eloquently described the blockchain 将事物确切化的伟大链环as the great chain of being sure about things. 说得更简单一点 就是将区块看作The easiest way I can describe it is imagine the blocks as spreadsheets, 填满数据的单元格and they are filled with assets. 所以那可能是一份财产契据So that could be a property title. 一桩股票交易It could be a stock trade. 或是一种创新型资产 比如一支歌曲的版权It could be a creative asset, such as the rights to a song. 每次 物品从寄存器的某处Every time something moves 移至其它地方from one place on the register to somewhere else, 在区块链上都是有时间证明that asset transfer is time-stamped 及正式记录的and publicly recorded on the blockchain. 就这么简单 对吧It’s that simple. Right. 所以区块链真正的意义是So the real implication of the blockchain 除去了对任何第三方信托机构的需求 比如律师is that it removes the need for any kind of third party, such as a lawyer, 信用中介 或是能促进交易的非政府性机构or a trusted intermediary, or maybe not a government intermediary to facilitate the exchange. 所以如果回到之前的信用层次So if we go back to the trust stack, 你还是要信任这个想法you still have to trust the idea, 信任这个平台you have to trust the platform, 但却不需要信任传统观念里的其他人but you don’t have to trust the other person in the traditional sense. 这点很有意义The implications are huge. 互联网以同样的方式打开全民信息共享的大门In the same way the internet blew open the doors to an age of information available to everyone, 区块链将会在全球范围彻底革新信任机制the blockchain will revolutionize trust on a global scale. 我特意等着结束前提一下优步Now, I’ve waited to the end intentionally to mention Uber, 因为我意识到它是一个有争议的because I recognize that it is a contentious 被用滥了的例子and widely overused example, 但在信任发展的新的时代背景下 它却是一个很好的研究案例but in the context of a new era of trust, it’s a great case study. 现在 我们会看到一些滥用分布式信任的案例Now, we will see cases of abuse of distributed trust. 这些我们已经看到了 而且情况还会愈演愈烈We’ve already seen this, and it can go horribly wrong. 看到满世界的出租车组织都在抗议 我一点也不惊奇I am not surprised that we are seeing protests from taxi associations all around the world 他们宣称优步不安全 并希望政府以此将其取缔trying to get governments to ban Uber based on claims that it is unsafe. 举行抗议的那段时间我刚好在伦敦I happened to be in London the day that these protests took place, 并且碰巧注意到一条来自英国贸易部长马特•汉考克的推特and I happened to notice a tweet from Matt Hancock, who is a British minister for business. 他写道 And he wrote, “谁能给我讲讲你们聊的这个优步是怎么回事“Does anyone have details of this #Uber app everyone’s talking about? 我怎么之前从来没听说过它”I’d never heard of it until today.” 现在 出租车组织Now, the taxi associations, 他们默认了信用层次的第一层they legitimized the first layer of the trust stack. 将曾经试图消除的主意合法化了They legitimized the idea that they were trying to eliminate, 优步签约率在24小时内上升了850%and sign-ups increased by 850 percent in 24 hours. 这个例子有力的说明Now, this is a really strong illustration 一旦围绕某个行为或部门的信任发生转变了of how once a trust shift has happened around a behavior or an entire sector, 你将无法“复辟”you cannot reverse the story. 每天都有500万人经历着信任的飞跃Every day, five million people will take a trust leap 并用优步打车and ride with Uber. 在中国的网约车平台滴滴上面In China, on Didi, the ride-sharing platform, 每天有1100万次乘车记录11 million rides taken every day. 也就是每秒127次That’s 127 rides per second, 说明这是一种跨越文化的共性showing that this is a cross-cultural phenomenon. 有趣之处在于 司机和乘客都宣称And the fascinating thing is that both drivers and passengers report 看见姓名that by seeing a name 照片和等级and seeing someone’s photo and their rating 会让他们觉得安心些makes them feel safer, 正如你可能经历过的那样and as you may have experienced, 司乘双方的言谈举止都更加和善even behave a little more nicely in the taxi cab. 优步和滴滴虽然出现得较早 但却有力的说明Uber and Didi are early but powerful examples 技术能够以不同的方式革新人们之间的信任关系of how technology is creating trust between people 这种规模在以前是绝不可能的in ways and on a scale never possible before. 今天 我们很多人觉得搭乘陌生人的车很舒服Today, many of us are comfortable getting into cars driven by strangers. 我们偶遇某人 右划屏幕来与其匹配We meet up with someone we swiped right to be matched with. 与陌生人分享房屋We share our homes with people we do not know. 这仅仅是个开始This is just the beginning, 因为正在崩解的because the real disruption happening 不是技术性的东西isn’t technological. 而是其带来的信任的转变It’s the trust shift it creates, 对我而言 我想帮助人们理解这个信任新纪元and for my part, I want to help people understand this new era of trust 从而使我们能够正确地体会它so that we can get it right 而且我们可以把握机遇去重新设计and we can embrace the opportunities to redesign systems 更透明 更具包容性和更有责任感的系统that are more transparent, inclusive and accountable. 非常感谢Thank you very much. 谢谢Thank you.
  • 2021-10-26如何背诵元素周期表当记忆大师们在记纸牌或者π小数点后一千位数时When a memory expert memorizes playing cards or the first thousand decimals of pi, they 他们通过联想来记忆use mental imagery techniques. 在本系列的视频中你将通过专家们的方法来记住元素In this series of videos you’re going to memorize the first 20 elements of the periodic 周期表的前20个元素table by doing what the experts do. 我不仅将明确告诉你应该在脑海中联想什么画面I’ll tell you exactly what to picture in your mind, 我还可以帮你画出来and I’ll even draw it for you too.. 集中注意力于脑海中每一幅画面 你会对你能如此轻易Focus on seeing each picture in your head, and you’ll be amazed how easily you can 想起一切而吃惊recall everything. 让我们开始吧Let’s get into it. 我们将从想象出一幅经典的元素周期表开始We’ll begin by picturing a typical poster or chart of the periodic table. 许多小巧 色彩缤纷 内有名称 编号和元素符号的小方格There are many small, colorful squares, each with a name, number and symbol of an element, 共同构成了一个不规则的图形and together they create a large irregular shape. 这个画面将像锚一样将连接所有元素的记忆链牢牢This image will act as an anchor in your memory, holding down the chain of images which link 固定在你的记忆里together all the elements. 现在我们将拿着这彩色的表格来联系第一个元素Now we’ll take that colorful poster and attach it to the first element. 想象元素周期表的样子再想象它被一个救火龙头Picture that poster of the periodic table and imagine it’s wrapped around a water 包围hydrant. 为什么是消防栓Why a water hydrant? 元素周期表的第一个元素是氢The 1st element in the periodic table is Hydrogen. 氢气读起来像消防栓然后这就是你将想起它的方式Hydrogen sounds similar to hydrant and that’s how you’ll be reminded of it. 想象你在人行道上看见一个消防栓Picture a water hydrant you see on the sidewalk. 它又短又秃而且红红的 看起来很牢固It’s short, stubby, red, and looks strong. 消防栓像个子矮小的男人 头上戴着一顶小帽子The hydrant is like a little man with a small hat on top and stubby arms sticking out the 粗壮的手臂向两边伸开来side. 想象着那个消防栓被元素周期表包围着Imagine that hydrant with the chart of the periodic table wrapped around it. 当你想起元素周期表时 你将会想象出它When you think of the chart of the periodic table, you’ll picture it wrapped around 包围着一个消防栓a water hydrant. 因为消防栓听起来像氢 所以你会知道第一个元素Because hydrant sounds similar to hydrogen, you’ll know the 1st element in the table 是氢is Hydrogen. 第二个元素是氦The 2nd element is Helium. 若你像我的话 当你想起氦 你马上就会想起氦气球If you’re like me, when you think of Helium, you automatically think of a helium balloon. 当你放手的时候 它就会消失在天际When you let it go, it’s the type that floats up into the sky. 现在 想象一个巨大的氦气球Now imagine an enormous helium balloon. 想象它有汽车那么大而且被绑在了消防栓上Make it the size of a car and picture it attached to the water hydrant. 因为氦气球这么大而且升力也很大 所以它开始把Because the helium balloon is so big and has so much lifting power, it starts to lift the 消防栓从路边连根拔起water hydrant up off the sidewalk. 它们一起慢悠悠地飞上天 消失在天边Together they slowly float up into the air and away into the sky. 现在 当你想象氢气球向上飞的时候 你将知道第二个Now, when you visualize the helium balloon floating upwards, you’ll know the 2nd element 元素是氦is Helium. 第三个元素是锂The 3rd element is Lithium. 锂听起来有点像 lithpLithium sounds a bit like “lithp”. 那些口齿不清也就是有言语障碍者的人 不能发出People that have a lisp – a type of speech impediment – aren’t able to pronounce lisp的音 只能说lithp“lisp” and say “lithp”. 我们设想这个很大的氦气球有着口齿不清的毛病Let’s pretend the large helium balloon has a lisp. 它还破了一个洞 导致气球慢慢泄气It also has a small hole in it, causing the balloon to slowly deflate. 一个泄气的气球一般会慢慢发出”斯斯”的声音 但Usually a balloon with a hole in it will make a slow “ssss” sound, but because this 它口齿不清 所以它发出的是thhh的声音balloon has a lisp or “lithp”, it makes a “thhh” sound. 设想这个打气球一边漏气一边发出thhh的声音Visualize the large balloon slowly deflating making a “thhh” sound. 当你想起气球口齿不清时 你将想起第三个元素 锂When you think of the balloon’s “lithp”, you’ll be reminded of the 3rd element, Lithium. 第四个元素是铍The 4th element is Beryllium. 当你慢慢说铍的时候 听起来你就好像在说蜜蜂很爱吃If you say Beryllium slowly, it sounds like “bee really yum”. 想象你那个慢慢泄气的气球吧Picture your slowly deflating balloon. 想象巨大的大黄蜂落在气球上Imagine an enormous bumble bee lands on the balloon. 这只蜜蜂跟足球一样大 而且是亮黄和黑色相间的肤色The bee is the size of a football and has bright yellow and black stripes and buzzes 大声地嗡嗡叫loudly. 大黄蜂舔了舔气球说:”真好吃!”The bee licks the balloon to have a taste and says, “that’s really yum!” 它很喜欢气球的味道It really likes the taste of the balloon. 当你在想蜜蜂舔气球的时候你就会想起 蜜蜂真可口When you picture the bee licking the balloon, you’ll think, “bee really yum”, and 然后就会想起第四个元素 铍be reminded of the 4th element, Beryllium. 第五个元素是硼The 5th element is Boron. 我们可以把硼这个单词拆成孔和上面两个字词We can break up the word Boron into “bore” and “on”. 这个字 洞 可以理解为 钻洞The word “bore” can mean to drill a hole. 现在想象这只品尝过气球的蜜蜂Picture now the bee, after tasting the balloon. 它用它的刺把气球刺穿 气球旋转着It uses its stinger, pierces the balloon and starts to spin around in a drilling motion. 这只蜜蜂落在了气球上 舔了舔它 现在 它开始在The bee has landed on the balloon, tasted it, and now it’s started to “bore on” 气球上钻孔了the balloon. 当你想象蜜蜂在气球上钻孔的时候 你就会想起第五个元素When you picture the bee begin to bore on the balloon, you’ll remember the 5th element, 硼Boron. 好吧 这就是前五个元素的记法了Alright, that’s the first 5 elements of the periodic table. 我很确定你很容易就能记住它们 但现在你应该快速在I’m sure you can easily remember them, but quickly revise your memory story now by replaying 脑海中回顾一遍来加深印象it and “watching” it in your mind. 想象一张元素周期表Picture a poster of the periodic table. 元素周期表把消防栓包围 所以你想起了 氢The poster of the periodic table is wrapped around a hydrant, which reminds you of Hydrogen. 之所以消防栓飞到天边 是因为它连在一个氦气球上The hydrant starts to float up into the sky because it’s got a huge helium balloon attached 从而你将回忆起氦to it, reminding you of Helium. 当它飞得很高的时候 气球开始漏气 但它口齿不清When it gets high up in the sky, the balloon starts to slowly deflate and makes a “thhh” 所以发出的是thhh的声音 你又记起了 锂sound, because it has a “lithp”, giving you Lithium. 然后你看见大黄蜂落在气球上了 它舔了舔气球 还说Then you see a huge bumblebee land on the balloon, lick it and declare it’s “really 真美味yum”. 蜜蜂 真好吃 铍Bee, really yum – Beryllium. 蜜蜂用刺在气球上扎了一个洞 让你想起了 硼The bee starts to bore on the balloon with its stinger, making you recall Boron. 这就是周期表的前五个元素了 这真是轻而易举And that’s the first five elements of the periodic table, how simple was that? 我希望这个视频对你有所帮助 并能在半小时内I hope this video has served you well, check out the others in this series and in less 为明天的化学测验记下其他的元素than half an hour you’ll be ready for that chemistry exam tomorrow. 如果你认为这个视频有所帮助的话 请点赞并且转发Please like this video, please share it with your friends, and please leave a comment below 在下方留言if you thought it was helpful. 我会认真阅读所有评论并且亲自回答问题 所以I do read all the comments and reply to any questions personally, so feel free to ask 畅所欲言吧anything you like. 感谢观看 我们下个视频再见Thanks for watching, I’ll see you in the next video.
  • 2021-10-26如何记住对方面孔和名字为什么大多数人更容易记住人脸而不是人名呢?Why are most people better at remembering faces than names? 记忆有两种方法 可以分为识别和回忆Two of the ways you can remember things are by recognition or by recall. 识别很明显更容易 因为你不需要在你的脑海里搜索信息Recognition is typically easier because you don’t have to search for the information in your head. 它就放在你面前 你只需要识别你之前所看过的it’s put in front of you and you just need to recognise that you’ve seen it before. 这就是为什么我们容易记住人脸而不是人名的原因That’s why we’re better at people’s faces than their names. 记住一张脸都是跟识别有关的 但是记住一个名字需要我们Remembering a face is all about recognition – but remembering a name requires us to 在记忆里回想起来recall it from our memory. 在这个视频里我会给你一个简单的记忆挑战来证明识别的能力In this video I’m going to give you a simple memory challenge to demonstrate the power of recongition, 然后在下一个视频里给你一些提高回忆人名的能力的小技巧and then in the next video I’ll give you some tips on how to improve your recall of people’s names. 首先我会让你看30张图片 每张看几秒 然后会让你做一个测试First, I’ll show you 30 pictures for a couple of seconds each, and then I’ll give you a little test. 放松 享受这些图片 你的头脑会完成这些行为 只要你不老想着它Just relax and enjoy the images, your brain will do the work without you even thinking about it. 我们开始吧!Here we go. 好吧 这真的足够简单Ok, simple enough. 现在我要测试你的识别能力了Now I’m going to test your memory for recognition. 这次我会同一时间给你看两张图片 你需要选择出哪一张是你看过的This time I’ll show you two pictures at a time and you need to choose which one you’ve already seen. 你会有几秒的时间做出决定 然后我会揭晓答案You’ll have a couple of seconds to decide and then I’ll show which one is correct. 如果你答错了 用你的手指记一次数When you get one wrong, keep score on your fingers. 我想你会做得很棒 所以不需要用到很多根手指I think you’ll do really well on this, so you won’t need too many fingers. 准备好了吗?Ready? 我们开始吧Here we go. 就是这样!And that’s it! 你们做得怎么样?How did you go? 在下面留下你的评论 告诉我你认出了多少张图片Leave a comment below and tell me how many pictures you recognised correctly. 这就是为什么我们很擅长记忆人脸So that’s why we’re so good at remembering faces, 因为我们只需要识别出我们看到过就可以了because we just need to recognise that we’ve seen them before. 如果我让你回忆所有你记得的图片 然后把它写入名单If I asked you to recall all the pictures you remember and write them down in a list 这就会困难很多– that would be much harder. 实际上 这有点像回忆人名In fact, it’d be a bit like having to recall someone’s name. 下一个视频我会告诉你怎么记忆和回忆别人——你曾经见过的人——的人名In the next video I’ll show you how to remember and recall the name of someone you’ve just met. 人人都喜欢别人能记住他的名字 所以这真的很重要People love it when you remember their name, so this is important to know. 我的名字是凯尔•布坎南 我是白板动画的记忆教练和记忆学院的创始人My name is Kyle Buchanan, I’m the whiteboard animation memory coach and the creator of Memorize Academy. 如果你觉得这个视频很赞 请点个赞 留下评论和订阅我的频道If you thought this video was cool, please give it a like, leave a comment and subscribe to my channel 你会收到我新视频的通知so you’ll get notified about my new mind-blowing videos. 谢谢观看!Thanks for watching. 再见!Bye!
  • 2021-10-26化恐惧为动力-克里斯·哈德菲尔德生活中任何值得做的事情都有风险Anything worth doing in life has risk. 这是我通过观察得出的结论It’s been my observation. 如果你想要学走路If you want to learn to walk 就像我们大多数人小时候那样 也是有风险的like most of us did when we were a little,that had risk. 当我学走路的时候When I was learning to walk, 那时我刚刚一岁多 我摔倒了when I was just a little over a year old, I fell. 我们当时住的公寓是水泥地面We were living in an apartment that hada concrete floor. 我摔倒了 脑袋磕到了地上 头破血流I fell and banged my head on the floor and actually cracked my skull. 但是我需要学会走路But I needed to learn to walk. 即使当时也没有人向我解释原因And even though no one had explained it to me, 即使在那个阶段 生物学 进化论和我周遭的一切even at that stage, biology and evolution and world around me 都迫使我学会走路had put me in a position where learning to walk, 虽然这很危险 但也值得去做which is dangerous, was worth doing. 作为一名宇航员 你的生活差不多就是这样As an astronaut, that sort of becomes your life. 你会说 这是一个危险的工作You say, this is a dangerous job. 驾驶火箭发射船会有生命危险Flying a rocket ship kills people. 驾驶用来训练使用火箭发射船的喷气式飞机Flying the jet aircraft that we use to train to fly rocket ships 会有生命危险that kills people. 在水下训练太空行走时 我们中也有人去世了We’ve had people die underwater training to do spacewalks. 这是一个危险的职业It’s…It’s a dangerous profession 但就像学着走路和骑自行车一样But much like learning to walkor learning to ride a bike. 如果你能学会了这项技能If you can gain this skill, 如果你能做到这件事if you can do this thing, 也许这些风险值得你去冒then maybe those risks are worth taking 而我在很早之前决定And in my case, I decided a long time ago 去探索未知的宇宙that exploring the rest of the universe 是值得冒险尝试的was worth taking a risk for. 对我来说 这是一个值得做的事情To me, that’s a worthy thing. 我愿意改变自己I’m willing to change who I am. 我并不是一个会盲目冒险的人I’m not just a person who is blindly taking a risk. 而是一个懂得理性思考的人But I am, instead, a calculating thinking human 我正尝试着去做一些人类从未做过的事情who is trying to do something that we haven’t done before 同时我要了解如何战胜风险and figure out how I can defeat the risk, 我要如何去战胜危险how I can beat the danger 把我们安置到一个新地方and put us in a new place, 安全的到达这新地方get to that new place safely, 然后安然无恙的走出舱come out the other side without a cracked head. 实际上 我喜欢做这样的事I like what that does, actually 如果你觉得 因为值得 所以冒险in that if you say “I’m gonna take a risk because it’s worth it”, 这会改变你的身份that changes your part. 你并不是一个旁观者You aren’t a spectator. 你也不是一个过客You’re not a passenger. 你正是战胜风险这个过程的重要部分You are now part of the process by which you’re going to defeat that risk. 你不需要害怕You don’t have to feel afraid. 相反 你会感受到些许instead you can sort of feel 解决问题的动力like motivated to solve the problems. 你是试图实现这件事的重要角色You’re part of this thing trying to make this happen. 因此 当我进出火箭船舱时So that when I walk out to a rocket shipand I’m about to get in, 我明白这很危险I know it’s dangerous. 这些年 我一直在思考这件事的危险性I’ve been thinking about the danger of it for years and years. 但我不再感到害怕But I no longer have to feel afraid. 这并不只是因为我做好了防御机制That’s not the only defense mechanism that I have. 我已经在这儿工作了太长时间I’ve been working on this thing so long, 而且我的工作并不是整天坐在这儿and my job has not been to sit there 祈祷好运和希望的and cross my fingers and hope. 我现在的工作是负责驾驶火箭发射船My job is now to pilot this thing, 或者至少是训练机上的机组人员or at least to be part of the flight crew onboard 然后安全战胜风险and safely defeat the risk, 最后成功的到达另一个地方get out the other side of it with success. 对于生活中的所有事情 我都会这样想And I sort of treat everything in my life that way. 我认为值得去做的事是什么?What is it that I think is worth doing? 这些事会有哪些风险?What are the risks involved? 我要如何处理这些实际存在的风险And how can I address the actual risks 才能实现我认为重要的事?so that I can achieve the things that I think are important? 进入太空的宇航员从来不会迷信祈祷No astronaut launches for space with their fingers crossed. 那不是我们处理危险的方式That’s not how we deal with risk. 我们不会把这个问题推诿给其他人We don’t just take it as somebody else’s problem. 我们已经准备好 正视风险 迎难而上We are ready to confront the risk head on 我们知道 危险与害怕是有区别的and recognize that there is a differencebetween danger and fear. 危险并不等同于害怕They’re not synonymous. 很多人都不懂So many people ask 因为在英语中 这两个词经常混用because in English, it’s sort of crept in. 噢 那一定很可怕的事物Oh, that must be a scary thing. 事物并不可怕And things aren’t scary. 是人觉得可怕People are scared. 这是有区别的It’s different. 事物就是事物而已The thing is just the thing. 无论你觉得它可怕与否——有些人害怕蜘蛛Whether you choose to be scared — some people are afraid of spiders. 有些人害怕镜子Some people are afraid of mirrors. 有些人害怕空旷的区域 密闭的空间Some people are afraid ofopen spaces, confined spaces. 但这仅仅是你对存在事物的反应But that’s just your reaction to a thing that exists. 你可以选择害怕与否You can choose to be afraid or not. 如果你害怕某个事物 为什么呢?And if it makes you afraid, why? 为什么这会使我感到恐惧?Why does this make me fearful? 也许有我不该面对的危险Maybe there’s a dangerthere I shouldn’t be confronting. 我永远也不会去做一个走钢丝的人I am never going tobe a tightrope walker. 对我来说 走钢丝太危险了To me, there’s so much dangerin walking down a tightrope 几乎也不能从中得到好处and so little benefit to getting across the tightrope 我不愿意冒其中的风险that it’s not a risk I’m willing to take. 这是一种真实存在的危险It’s a real danger. 我能感受到走钢丝的恐惧I can feel the fear of doing it 这种恐惧感提醒我 这很危险the fear warns me that this is a danger 而我并不想承受这种风险I don’t want to I don’t want to subject myself to. 但是生活中还有许多其他的风险But there’s lots of other risks in life 我认为是值得一试的that I do think are worthwhile. 我认为 生活中真正重要的一步是And the real, I think, important step in life 去辨别哪些风险是值得尝试的is to identify what are the risks worth taking 如果它们使你害怕 又是为什么呢?If they do make you afraid, why? 因为这可能代表着Because that’s probably an indicator 你还没有学会that you haven’t learned how to do 你需要做的事what is you need to do yet. 然后开始改变自己And then start changing who you are. 掌握技能Gain your skill. 战胜恐惧最好的办法就是掌握能力The best antidote for fear is competence. 如果你很有能力If you can make yourself competent, 那么你就不再恐惧害怕then you’re not just relying on fear, 反之 你已经成为能做这种事的人but you’re actually a person who can do this thing. 而且如果你有能力And if you’re competent, 那么你不但能做这类事情then not only can you do this thing, 而且你做这件事的时候 还能抽空休息一下but you can relax while you’re doing it. 你可以环顾四周You can look around. 感受一下 你做的这件事有多酷You can notice how cool this thing is. 现在正在发生的这件危险的事 有我呢This dangerous thing that’s happening, I got this. 我知道如何去做这件事I know how to do this thing. 我不会像一只吉娃娃那样吓得落荒而逃I am not just a chihuahua shaking away, 希望这个问题消失 放我一条生路hoping that this problem will disappear without killing me. 与此不同的是 你是一个有能力有潜力的人Instead, you’re a functioning thriving human. 正在做一件了不起的事in the middle of something amazing, 并且你已经变成了一个真正能让大家欣赏的人and you have turned yourself into somebody who can truly appreciate it. 对我来说 那才是你该处理风险的方式To me, that’s how you should deal with risk. 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  • 2021-10-26预算时告诉自己的5条谎言大家好 这里是《财务瘦身》 我是切尔西Hey guys, it’s Chelsea from The Financial Diet. 本周视频由SkillShare赞助And this week’s video is brought to you by Skill Share. 这周我们来谈谈做预算这件事So this week we’re gonna be talking about making a budget. 更确切地说 是我们在做预算时And more specifically, the lies 对自己撒的那些谎we tell ourselves when we make one. 我们取名为《财务瘦身》A big part of the reason that we called ourselves the 很大程度上是因为the financial diet, is because we believe 我们认为健康理财that getting healthy with money, 跟健康饮食很相似is very similar to the way you get healthy with food, 它们都要求以一种which is to say in a very moderate and 克制又上进的方式progressive way that allows for 忠于自己的生活the way you honestly live your life. 就像一时兴起的节食起不了作用Just like a crash diet for food won’t work, 冲动式的缩减开支住往会使你花得更多a crash diet with money will leave you overspending 而且会一直感到不安and feeling anxious all the time. 一个健康康又可持续的And part of creating that financial diet that 省钱方式必须是忠于自己的is healthy and long-lasting is being super honest with yourself. 这就意味着当你在做预算时That means that when you’re creating a budget, 不管你手头上有多少钱no matter the amount of money you’re dealing with. 你必须要坦诚地面对自己You have to be really really transparent with yourself 你的消费习惯是怎样的about how you actually spend, 哪些是你真的能坚持的and what you’re actually going to be able to stick to. 大多数人第一次做预算时Most of us so when we’re first starting a budget. 都做不到这点Don’t tend to do this, 我们往往会把目标定得太大we tend to be overly ambitious and 隐瞒自己真实的and lie to ourselves in the process 消费习惯about our own habits. 所以我们列举出了五种So we’ve put together five common lies that 在做预算时常对自己说的谎言we tell ourselves when we’re making a budget, 以及如何有效地应对它们and also how do we effectively deal with them. 第一条 没事 我只需要Number one: It’s fine, I can only have 大幅减少每月的insert drastically cut-down number here, 外出开支就行to spend on going out per month. 基本上很多人在准备做预算时So basically a lot of people’s first 第一个大动作就是big moves when they look to start a budget, 查看一下他们外出时的花费is to look at how much they spend on going out, 包括和朋友去酒吧 餐厅and that includes everything from like bars to restaurants to 临时小聚 看看电影之类的事random events and movies with your friends, 然后发现 ” 啊 浪费了好多钱and say “oh, that’s a waste of money, 我要尽量少出去”I should cut as much of that out as possible.” 特别当你是那种Especially when if you’re someone who 出门要喝酒的人has drinks when you go out, 当你喝醉后you can tend to do a lot of this frivolous spending, 更容易做出一些不必要的消费while already a little tipsy. 比如说 当你路过回家途中的杂货店时For example, that stops at the bodega on the way home 你可能会买三包薯片where you get like three bags of chips 和两瓶无糖汽水and two diet sodas. 如果你是清醒的That’s probably not something that 可能就不会有这些开支sober you would have spent on. 别误解我的意思And don’t get me wrong, 想减少你的外出开销是件好事it is good to want to reduce your going out spending, 尤其是对大多数人而言especially because for most of us, 外出开销占到了it represents the biggest part 可自由支配钱数的绝大部分of our discretionary spending money, 甚至超过了购物的开销even more so than shopping. 但是就像节食一样 一时兴起是不行的But just like with food, crash diets won’t work. 所以 不要很武断地骤然减少So instead of giving yourself an arbitrary low number that 你每月在外出开销you think is the right amount 部分的预算to be spending on going out every month, 先核算一下你每一项外出开销究竟是多少look at what you’re actually spending in that category, 像mint这样的应用可以帮你计算出具体数字an app like mint will help you figure that number out. 然后先将外出开销And then start by reducing 20 percent 降低20%from that spending category. 对于每个月的外出开销There’s no one right number 无法做到统一to be spending on going out every month, 因为这主要取决于你住哪里especially because depending on where you live, 就连简单的一杯啤酒或一顿晚餐the cost of something as simple as 价格也可能大大不同a beer or a dinner can cost wildly different amounts. 但大家可以在现在的But everyone can start by trying to reduce 开销基础上进行缩减from the number they’re already at, 而且我们发现先从每一项中and we’ve found that starting at around 减少约20%20% in each category, 是一个非常合理又能让你坚持下去的目标is a reasonable enough goal that you can stick to it without 你也不会感觉自己完全脱离了社交生活feeling like you’ve totally cut out your social life. 当你的大脑接受了这个精减后的预算As your brain adjusts to this reduced budget 并且习惯了这种新常态and gets used to it as the new normal, 你就可以找到更节省的you can start finding even more 晚上出去玩的方式thrifty ways to enjoy your nights out, 进一步减少外出开销and seek to reduce the category even further. 但一定要从削减20%开始But start with just cutting by 20%, 有一件事应该不用我说and maybe it should go without saying 你从外出开销上省出的20%but that 20% you’re taking out of the going-out category 应该用来储蓄和投资should go straight into savings and investments. 第二条 我不会再在这件或那件事上Number two: I’m just not going to spend any more 花更多的钱了money on X or Y category. 我根本不需要它I don’t need it. 你总是这样说You always say this 然后发现自己其实需要它until you do need it. 举个贴切的例子Let me give you a great example, 很多人在准备精减预算many people when they’re looking to really 或者开始制定预算时overhaul their budget or to start one for the first time, 都会从去除某一项开支开始start by cutting out a category of spending. 因为审核预算不仅是Because not only is it a really black-and-white way 白纸黑字的事to rethink your money, 还是个有趣的挑战it’s also kind of a fun challenge, 许多人的做法是and a lot of people do this 决定再也不购物in the form of a shopping ban. 比如在我们的节目上And on TFD for example, 有很多这样的文章we have many articles where people detailed 人们详细写出了30天their shopping bans whether 甚至一整年的购物禁令it was for 30 days or an entire year. 但是我们不仅有立禁令的文章But for every article we have like that, 也有那些打破了购物禁令的人we also have an article for people who 写的文章failed their shopping bans. 事实上 你很难去预测The truth is, it’s extremely difficult to predict 一天 一周或六个月后what you’re going to need, 自己需要什么a day a week or six months from now. 更关键的是 你是人And more importantly, you’re a human being 逃不掉人类的需求who’s subject to human being needs 以及狂妄和愚蠢and whims and stupidity. 比如说 你可能For example, you might say 会在一月初的时候说at the beginning of January “整个2017年都不买衣服”“No buying clothes for the entirety of 2017.” 但在六月份 你上班穿的正装But then in June, your go-to-work blazer 在干洗店被弄坏了gets destroyed at the dry cleaner, 你会怎么办?what are you gonna do? 今年不穿正装上班了么?Just not have a blazer for work all year? 我觉得不可能I think not. 即使不是在这样极端的情况下And even if it’s not such a dire situation, 人类的大脑还是能很高效地the human brain is incredibly effective 确定自己想要的东西at defining things you want 并骗自己说”我真的需要这个”as something you absolutely need. 你会发现你自己总是在You’ll always find yourself 找借口购买那些justifying something along the way, 或许已列入购物禁令的化妆品 酒或衬衫whether you’ve cut out makeup or booze or shirts. 一种更健康的方式是这样告诉自己A much healthier way to approach this, is to say “我总体上已经避免了这个或那个的开支“I’m generally avoiding X or Y category, 但在我每个月的预算中but in my budget every month, 还是有一点过度消费”there is a little splurge category.” 有些人的预算中And some people also budget 这样的过度消费会持续半年their splurge category by the six month, 或者一年or one year mark. 重点是 这部分预算The point is, this is the area of your budget 属于你尽量避免购买的东西that goes to things that you’re generally trying to avoid, 但意外的需求总是时不时出现but might just come up inevitably from time to time. 如果你额外拿出200美元So let’s say you have 200 dollars set aside 用于接下来的半年内for every six month period to go towards 你免不了要购买的东西things you’re generally not buying. 那么当干洗店弄坏了That means that when your dry cleaner might 你的正装mess up that go-to-blazer, 你不得不再买一件时you don’t have to feel like 就不用觉得像是you’re breaking some cardinal rule 打破了什么基本原则by getting yourself another one. 因为我们知道Because lest we forget, 当你觉得你已经违反了你的节食计划时the moment you feel like you’ve broken your diet, 就是你迈向堕落深渊之时is the moment you will go off the rails, 因为节食计划已不再重要了because it doesn’t matter anymore. 第三条 这是我一整年的预算Number three:This is the budget I’m using for the year 一般而言 预算不可能generally speaking, a budget is not meant to be 一整年都不变the same throughout an entire calendar year. 一年当中可能发生很多事情So many things can happen in a year. 你的工资可能会涨You can start earning more money at work, 你可能会找到一份新兼职or get a new side job, 可能会开始存钱或者需要取钱or start in your savings account or move, or find that 可能会发现更加合算的存钱方式you can just be more efficient at saving somewhere. 最好的办法是The point is about three times per year, 每年检查三次自己的预算it’s really healthy to go through your budget, 检查下你的计划look at your statements, 再检查下你的开销分类look at your spending categories, 估算一下自己是不是and really reassess if you’re getting 省下了大部分赚来的钱the most out of the money you’re making. 而且避免生活方式上的通胀It’s also the most efficient way to avoid 也很重要lifestyle inflation, which is 它的意思是 当你赚得更多时basically when you start earning 也会花得更多more money and therefore spending more money, 然后形成新常态and that becomes your new normal. 一个良好的预算要做到A healthy budget means that 即使你突然赚了更多的钱even if you’re earning more money suddenly, 花销也不会增加you’re not spending more, 而是进行更加有效的储蓄和投资you’re just saving and investing more effectively. 这种一年检查多次预算的方式And this multi-annual checkup 对于第一次制定预算的人特别有用is especially true if this is your first real budget. 因为 坦诚地讲Because let’s be honest, 如果你是第一次做预算if this is your first real budget, 你一定要对你的各项开支you’re going to have to be really really generous 都非常慷慨with yourself in all spending categories, 因为你根本不习惯to compensate for the fact that 按照做预算的逻辑来思考you’re really not used to thinking in terms of a budget. 如果你刚开始做预算If you’re starting out on an early budget, 你可能会在这削减个20%chances are you cut maybe 20% here, 在那削减个10%10% there, to end up saving 然后每个月能有点积余a little bit of your monthly take-home pay. 但做预算的本质是让自己But the point of a budget is to train your mind 在资源更少的情况下活得开心to live well on less than you have, 让自己能存储So that you can eventually work up 更多的钱to higher savings goals. 举个例子 如果你每月For example, if you’re earning 税后赚2500美元twenty five hundred a month take-home, 存下400到500美元saving four to five hundred dollars of that 刚开始看起来是挺多的seems enormous at first. 但是如果你不断地修正你的预算But if you are constantly reassessing your budget, 看看哪里可以and seeing where you can add 增加点收入a bit more income, 哪笔消费可以更理性一点and spend a bit more smartly, 这绝对是你能慢慢做到的that’s definitely something you can work up to. 总之 一年都不修正预算Long story short, letting a budget sit unchanged for 基本上意味着an entire year, is almost guaranteeing that 你根本不会遵守它you won’t get the most out of it. 第四条 我已经写好了预算Number four: Now I’ve made my budget, 可以马上执行了I’m ready to go. 这一条对于第一次Now this is specifically for people 做预算的人来说特别普遍who are starting out on their first budget, 我不想打击你们and I hate to be the bearer of bad news. 但事实上But chances are high that 如果这是你第一次做预算if this is your first budget, 结果可能很糟糕it is probably going to be terrible. 第一次做预算There are really two stages 有两个阶段to making a first budget, 你不能就想着and you can’t just think “好的 我已经写下所有的数字“Okay, I’ve written out all the numbers 我已经做好了预算的excel表格 一切搞定”I’ve got my excel sheet whatever, I’m good.” 第一阶段是回顾过去六个月Stage one is taking a look back at about 的开销情况six months of your spending 看看你在没有做预算的时候是怎么生活的to see how you were living without a budget. 而第二阶段是看看But stage two is looking at about 做了预算的三个月是如何生活的about three months with the budget and seeing 看看你在哪一块可以多省一点where you could be saving more, 你对自己的哪些消费习惯估计失误or where you’ve really misunderstood your own habits. 你的第一个真正意义上的预算Your first real budget will come 要到三个月后才能制定after about three months of that initial one 因为你需要时间来学习和调整when you’ve had time to learn and adjust. 例如 你会发现第一次做预算For example, a common problem 都会犯同一个毛病that you’ll notice with the first budget attempt 就是把计划定得太细is that you’ve made it way too detailed. 比如说 在购物这一项上For example, when it comes to shopping, 很多第一次做预算的人a lot of people making their first budget 会把它拆得很细will break it down into like 分成衣服 鞋 化妆品 美容产品clothes, shoes, makeup, beauty products. 然后你会意识到And then you’ll realize “噢 每个月的情况不同“Hey, every month is different 这些应该放在同一类里”those should all go into one category.” 或许你可以将它们归为”让我更美”类Maybe you can call it “How good I look.” 你爱叫啥都行Whatever you want to call it. 重点是 你将会更适应The point is, you will start to get more comfortable 你的消费习惯with your own spending habits, 要知道把预算做得更细and realize that making things more detailed 不代表更容易遵守does not mean they’re easier to keep track of. 事实上 在做预算的时候In fact, when it comes to budgeting, 结果可能适得其反it almost has the opposite effect, 因为它会让你在购买每一件东西时because it makes you way too hyper aware 都很紧张of every single purchase. 你永远不可能You’re never going to be able to plan 把开销具体到某一件东西上your spending down to the individual purchase. 而是要边做预算边不断学习The point is, to learn as you go with your budget 习惯于做大致的计划to get more comfortable by planning in generalities. 第五条 我不是一个Number five: I’m not the kind of person 能严格遵守预算的人who can keep a budget. 这大概是我经常对自己撒的Now this is probably the biggest lie 最大的谎了I always told myself. 因为这是我不想对钱Because it was the perfect excuse not to 精打细算最好的借口have to think or try too hard with my own money. 认为自己Deciding that you’re just going to be 处理不好金钱方面的问题one of those people who’s bad with money, 会让自己is basically the only way to guarantee that 永远是个理财小白you will always be financially illiterate. 把手一甩It’s so easy to throw up your hands 说自己不是那种人 永远不可能做预算and be like “well I’m not that type kind of person, 是很容易的I’ll never make a budget.” 但现在可是2017年But it’s 20 freaking 17, 有一百万种方法让你遵守你的预算there are a million ways to keep track of your budgets 不是你想象的那样坐在那儿that don’t involve like you sitting there, 拿着算盘 笔和纸with like an abacus and a pen and paper 旁边放一盏绿色的会计灯and one of those like green accounting lamps 等等等等from the producers and all that stuff. 如果你是那种If you’re one of these people 一看到账单就紧张who get stressed out just looking at an account 甚至连excel都打不开的人or feel like you can’t even open Excel, 可以找一些能帮你处理这类问题的start looking at different apps 不同的手机应用that will help you do these things. 我和劳伦刚刚做过一个视频Lauren and I made a video a while back 介绍了一些你可能没听过的about different apps you might not have heard of 能帮你理财的手机应用that will help you manage your money, 我们会把链接放到视频简介里and will link that in the description. 我一直觉得For me, I always felt like 我不是那种能精打细算I couldn’t do that needy greedy of adding 严格遵守预算的人and subtracting and keeping track of numbers. 那会让我觉得自己又回到了It made me feel like I was in math class again, 让人沮丧的数学课堂which was really upsetting. 所以大概四年前So about four years ago, 我开始使用一款叫做mint的手机应用I started using an app called Mint that 它帮我解决了很多琐碎的数学问题helps do a lot of those number crunching parts for me, 你只需要打开邮件里的报表and it feels really manageable 操作起来特别简单when I just open up the statement in my email. 现在 我已经习惯了And now that I’ve gotten so used 追踪我的收入流向to looking at my money, 再也不怕做预算了it doesn’t scare me anymore to do the other parts. 不要欺骗自己Don’t kid yourself, saying 说自己不是做预算的人that you’re just not a budget person, 说自己处理不好金钱问题or you can’t deal with money, 或者说自己数学不好or you don’t know how to use math, 这些都是借口is a total cop-out. 即使你觉得你的钱很少Even if you have so little money that you feel 少到每个月都没有余钱可以存like you can’t find a penny to save every month, 尽管把预算写出来just writing it all out and being super aware 认真地盯着你的收入和支出情况of how it’s coming in and how it’s going out, 这是你学会掌握自己收支情况的第一步is the first real step to having control over it. 我不仅靠这个方法恢复了信用卡信誉度It’s how I first rehabbed my credit, 还靠这个方法but it’s also now how I look at every year not just 评估我这一年的结余how I’m gonna get to the end of the year, 以及为下一年做打算but where do I want to be intended. 当你对自己说The day you say to yourself “我无法做预算”的时候“I can totally have a budget.” 就是你开始做预算的最佳时机is the day you’ll start making one. 不承认自己It’s really easy to lie to ourselves 真实的习惯 花销about our habits or our spending or how 或者处理钱财的方式是很容易的we just approach money in general. 还没开始就放弃And it’s really easy to give up 也不难before we’ve even started. 但是不做预算But without a budget, 你一定会总是you’re guaranteed to almost 感觉自己过得胆战心惊always feel like you’re broken, 感觉压力很大and always be stressed out 因为你不知道如何做规划because you don’t know how to plan. 开始坦诚地面对自己Start being honest with yourself, 自然能做出良好的预算and a healthy budget will follow. 你可能不仅在做预算时Chances are you’ve been lying to yourself 对自己撒谎a little bit about your budget, 在学习新东西时你可能也会but you’ve also probably been lying to yourself 对自己撒谎about learning new things. 你总是对自己说You’re always saying “哦 我打算去上这门课”“Oh I’m going to go back and take this class.” 或者是”嗯 我打算学习那门技术”or “Oh I’m going to go back and get that skill.” 但是不知怎的 你就是从来不去做But somehow you just never end up doing it. 这就是为什么你们需要SkillshareBut that’s why you should check out Skillshare, 这是一个网上学习社区it’s an online learning community for creators 拥有16000堂课with more than 16,000 classes in design 包括设计摄影等方面photo and more, and they are currently 现在他们还为前500位点击链接的观众offering a 2 month free trial to the first 提供两个月的免费试听课500 people who go to the link in the description. 劳伦订阅了很多课程Lauren for example has taken everything 包括杰西卡·海希的字体设计课from a lettering class with Jessica Hesh, 食物摄影课 可以去博客晒美图to a food photography class for bloggers, 以及视频后期处理教程 能让她to after-effects video tutorials that help her make 为我们的节目制作更好看的视频even more beautiful videos here on TFD. 而且你可以随时随地学习And plus you can learn from anywhere, 如果你将这款应用下载到安卓机或苹果手机上if you download the mobile app on Android or iPhone, 离线时都可以上课you can tap into classes even when you’re offline. 支持《财务瘦身》So support TFD and finally 学习你一直没学的技能learn that skill you’ve been putting off, 点击视频简介里的链接by going to the link in the description 你将会得到两个月的to claim your two free month trial 超赞的免费试听课of all the amazing classes 还有他们提供的学习教程 开始学习吧and tutorials they have to offer. Start learning. 还是那句话 谢谢你们的观看As always guys, thank you for watching, 不要忘记点击订阅哦and don’t forget to hit the subscribe button, 记得每周二来看最新最好玩的视频 拜拜and to come back every Tuesday for new and awesome videos. Bye~
  • 2021-10-26有些负面情绪不要紧的生活中绝对会遇到些不好的事情There are definitely some things that are bad. 你读过今天发表的那篇文章吗?Did you read that article that came out today 那上面说 你只可以吃6根薯条that said you should only eat six fries? 什么?你脑子出毛病了?What? Are they delusional? 谁能只吃6根薯条啊?Who can only eat six fries? 我不知道 文章上是这么说的I don’t know, that’s what the article said. 一辈子只能吃6根 还是一餐只能吃6根?Like over the course of my life or in one sitting? 如果我每个小时吃6根薯条呢?I mean what if I eat six fries every hour? 我不知道啊I don’t know. 好吧 不过吃这6根薯条难道没有时间限制的吗?Okay, but like what are the time parameters for six fries? 6秒?6个月?6年?I mean six seconds? Months? Years? 我不知道啊 要不你自己去看文章呗?I don’t know, maybe read the article? 但是你读过文章了 然后毁了我的生活Okay, but you read the article and have now ruined my life 所以你得给我更确切的信息so I would like some elaborate answers 而不是什么“不能吃6根以上薯条”beyond:”don’t eat more than six fries.” 你这样才不会有朋友呢This is why you have no friends. 我就一个人I’m alone. 我们一直被灌输一个观点I mean one thing we’ve been sort of trained to believe “负面情绪是不好的”is that negative emotions are bad. 嫉妒心 没有安全感 疑神疑鬼 偏执Jealousy, insecurity, doubt, paranoia. 这样的负面情绪有很多很多I mean the list goes on and on. 那些心灵鸡汤尤其强调这点The positivity movement especially has this “你应该摆脱坏情绪 让内心充满阳光”mentality that you should cast aside these emotions in favor of the happy ones. 有点类似于 你要假装你控制住情绪了Sort of like fake it to make it 但是要把虚假的情绪变成真实but feel it to… make real it. 我不觉得这样做会带来长久的改善Which I don’t think works long term 因为如果你只是不断忽视这些情绪 because then you sort of become detached and disconnected with your emotions 你就会被剥离情感 失去和情感的联系by just constantly dismissing them. 好了 朋友们!经过最近的体内研究All right everyone! After some recent discussions internally 我们决定把你们都解雇!we’ve decided to fire you all! 从现在开始 只剩下愉悦的情感啦!From now on it’s all joy! 嫉妒:你说……什么?愤怒:你什么意思?你想什么呢? 悲伤:我被解雇了…… 你不能就这么把我们解雇 我们住在你身体里呢!You can’t just fire us we live inside of you! 收拾好你们的破烂然后滚蛋吧 拜拜!Pack your shit and leave, Bye! 还有些鸡汤告诉你 你要和情绪相处 对不对?Then there’s also the view that you need to sit with your emotions, right? 理论是:接受那些负面情绪吧The idea of: acceptance of negative feelings 这样它们就会从你的身体里穿行而过in order to let them pass through you. 但是我发现当我这么做的时候But I’ve found that when I do this 我只会沉浸在这些不良情绪中 然后一蹶不振I just get stuck in the bad feeling and just ruminate 因为我让那些坏情绪接管了我的人生because I’m allowing that emotion to take over my life. 今天会很糟糕的呦!It’s gonna be a terrible day. 这顿饭超难吃的呦!It’s gonna be a terrible meal. 总有一天他会死掉 然后你就完蛋了!HE’S GONNA DIE SOMEDAY AND YOU’RE GOING TO BE DEVASTATED! 现在 我找到了一个可以帮到我的好办法And now I have found a brilliant technique that has helped me so much. 先忍耐一会Now bear with me 我知道接下来的话听起来很肉麻because I know it’s gon na sound a little cheesy, 但如果你是个有很多焦虑情绪或缺乏安全感的人but if you’re someone who deals with a lot of anxiety or insecurity 或者情感上正经历痛苦的人or emotional pain of any kind 我诚心希望你可以用开放的态度试一下这个办法I urge you to have an open mind and try it. 那么 当你感受到负面情绪So, when you feel a negative emotion, 比如说 没有安全感let’s say insecurity. 我想让你先想一想I want you to first think 这情绪看起来是怎样的of what that emotion would look like, 给它一个具象化的描述a physical representation of it. 对我来说 我的不安看起来像个锯齿状的水晶So for me, my insecurity would look like a jagged crystal formation. 当你赋予它一个清晰的外表后And once that image is really clear 我需要你在想象中I want you to mentally 把这个具象化的情感从身体里拿出来take that physicalized emotion from your body 把它拿到身前 然后问问它:and hold it in front of you and ask it: 为什么你会在我身体里?Why are you here? 因为事实上 你的每种情感都是来帮助你的Because every feeling you have is actually trying to help you. 它们都是在向你表达一些东西It’s trying to let you know something. 这就是你能感受到它们的原因I mean, that’s why you feel it. 这些真实的信息不应给被忽视或盲目吸收It’s this physical cue that shouldn’t be just ignored or blindly accepted 它们需要被理解but understood. 好吧 到底怎么了?说说你想告诉我什么事?OK. So what’s up? What are you trying to tell me? 我不想你受到伤害I don’t want you to get hurt. 什么?为什么我会受到伤害?What? Why would I get hurt? 你去了个派对 那里的所有人都很拉风Well you were at this party and everyone here is really cool 你很喜欢这些人and you like them a lot, 但是如果他们不像你喜欢他们一样喜欢你怎么办?But what if they don’t like you as much as you like them? 如果他们觉得你很菜怎么办?What if they think you’re lame? 我只是想保护你不被伤害I just want to make sure that you’re safe 让你觉得被关爱着 没人能伤害你and you’re loved and that no one hurts you. 你还在看嘛?Are you still with me? 我的水晶是不是听起来超可爱?And isn’t my crystal voice just like super adorable? 好了 认真点But seriously, 你的每种情感都是在试图对你产生影响literally every emotion you feel is trying to do something for you. 你的愤怒是一种对自己的保护Whether it’s your anger trying to protect you, 你的焦虑是在给自己提供动力your anxiety wanting to motivate you to do better, 那些不被需要的感觉or your feelings of unworthiness wanting 是为了确保你得到应有的爱to make sure that you get the love you deserve. 你要把负面情绪看作是“理解偏差”You need to think of negative emotions as misunderstood, 这样之后 一旦你知道为什么会产生这些负面情绪and then, once you really know why it’s there, 下一步the next step 就是想想你希望感受到什么is to think of what you would rather feel. 对我来说 当我理解我的不安只是在保护我免受伤害时so for me when I understand that my insecurity is trying to keep me safe from getting hurt, 我会想“唔……我还是更愿意觉得自己很脆弱”I would think,”Hmm, well I would rather feel vulnerable. 我更愿意希望自己可以跨出一步 迎接挑战I’d rather feel like I can put myself out there and take a risk 然后知道自己就是这样的人 这就足够了and know that I’m enough just as I am. 当我产生了这样的感受以后 我会把这种情绪也具象化once I have that feeling I make it a physical object as well. 在想象中把它拿到身前 然后把两种情绪融合到一起Pull it out of my body mentally and I merge the two together. 当你把两种情绪融合到一起之后So once you merge these two together, 它们会变成新的东西 继续留在你的脑海中it becomes a new object and then, still in your head here, 你会把新的东西放回身体 然后带着它继续生活you will put the new object back in your body and carry on. 好了 隔着屏幕我也能感受到你的想法Now, I can feel your judgment through the screen. 我感受到了Like I feel it 一些观众像这样翻着白眼and I know some of you are like rolling your eyes and be like, “我的天啦 安娜变成正念冥想师了”“Oh my god, Anna so New Age LA now,” 那么 我就想让你问问自己and I want you to ask yourself, 为什么你这么爱评头论足呢?why do you feel judgmental? 这种情绪对你来说意味着什么?How is it trying to serve you 它看起来是什么样子的?and what does it look like? 我知道这或许不适合所有人And I know this may not be for everyone but 但它确实在我的生活中派上了用场it’s literally come in handy so much of my life 我希望把它分享出来that I did want to share it, 因为现在我明白了 所有负面情绪都是有意义的because now I understand that every negative emotion is trying to do something for me. 与其把它推开 或屈服于它Instead of just pushing it away or succumbing to it, 现在我可以把它转化成有助于我生活的 更容易接受的情绪了I can now transform it into something that helps make my existence more bearable. 我希望这方法多少对你有点帮助If anything, I hope that this helps you in some way because, 因为你懂的 有时生活真的很艰难you know, life can be really hard sometimes 我真的不愿意自己成为那个最糟糕的自己and I’m- I’m really tired of being the person who makes me feel the worst. 所以 我正在努力改变So I’m working on it. 我是安娜·阿卡纳 要做个酷酷的人噢 小坏蛋们!I’m Anna Akana, stay awesome Gotham! 我要感谢Squarespace对本期节目的赞助I want to say thank you to Squarespace for sponsoring today’s episode! Squarespace是个屡获殊荣的一体化知识平台Squarespace has award-winning templates and an all-in-one one platform 没有补丁 不用升级或安装!so there’s no patches, upgrades, or installs ever! 如果你需要域名 Squarespace可以帮到你If you need a domain, Squarespace has got you. 他们的操作流程简单而独特They’ve got a simple and unique set up experience and 还有24小时在线的客户服务24-hour customer service 有任何问题或疑惑 只管联系客服if you have any questions, concerns, or just want to tell them a story. 你可以到squarespace.com/AnnaYou can go to squarespace.com/Anna 即日起开启免费试用to start your free trial today 使用优惠码ANNA可以打九折and use the offer code ANNA for 10 % off at checkout. 一切尽在squarespace.com/anna,At squarespace.com/anna, 使用优惠码ANNA可以打九折噢!and the offer code ANNA for ten percent off.
  • 2021-10-26来认识这位12岁的APP开发者我总是对电脑与科技有着I’ve always had a fascination for computers and technology, 于是我制作了一些iPod touch ,iPhone,iPad 的应用。and I made a few apps for the iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad. 我也想要和你分享I’d like to share a couple with you today. 我的第一个应用叫做My first app was a unique fortune teller called “Earth Fortune” 它展示了地球的不同颜色that would display different colors of Earth 取决于你的运气时怎样的depending on what your fortune was. 我最喜欢并且最成功的应用My favorite and most successful app 是“Bustin Jieber”,是–is “Bustin Jieber,” which is — (笑声)(Laughter) 是 一个which is a Justin Bieber whack-a-mole. (笑声)(Laughter) 我开发这个应用因为很多人在学校I created it because a lot of people at school 我的很多同学都不太喜欢贾斯汀·比伯,disliked Justin Bieber a little bit, 于是我决定开发了这个应用so I decided to make the app. 于是我开始编程So I went to work programming it, 接着我在2010年前的假期发布了它and I released it just before the holidays in 2010. 很多人问我你是怎么做到的A lot of people ask me, how did I make these? 很多情况下,那些问这个问题的人,A lot of times it’s because the person who asked the question 自己也想要做应用wants to make an app also. 很多孩子喜欢玩游戏A lot of kids these days like to play games, 他们也想制作游戏 但这很困难but now they want to make them, and it’s difficult, 因为很多孩子并不知道 怎样找到制作软件的方法because not many kids know where to go to find out how to make a program. 打个比方 如果你想踢足球 你可以加入一支足球队I mean, for soccer, you could go to a soccer team. 想学小提琴 你可以报个小提琴班For violin, you could get lessons for a violin. 但如果你想开发个应用呢?But what if you want to make an app? 父母们年轻的时候 也许踢过足球、或者学习过小提琴 And the kid’s parents might have done some of these things when they were young, 但没有多少父母写过应用吧!but not many parents have written apps. (笑声)(Laughter) 那么你要怎样学习写应用呢? Where do you go to find out how to make an app? 嗯 我是这样学习的Well, this is how I approached it, this is what I did. 最开始时 我学习了用好几种语言来编程First of all, I’ve been programming in multiple other programming languages 由此而掌握了编程的基础知识to get the basics down, 比如Python语言、C语言以及Java语言等等such as Python, C, Java, etc. 之后苹果发布了iPhoneAnd then Apple released the iPhone, 随之也发布了iPhone软件开发工具and with it, the iPhone software development kit, 这套软件开发工具是用来开发and the software development kit is a suite of tools 与研制iPhone应用的工具for creating and programming an iPhone app. 这为我开启了一个全新充满无限可能的世界This opened up a whole new world of possibilities for me, 在摆弄过这些软件开发工具之后and after playing with the software development kit a little bit, 我制作了一些应用 以及一些测试应用I made a couple of apps, I made some test apps. 其中一个就是‘’Earth Fortune‘’One of them happened to be “Earth Fortune,” 当时我准备在苹果商店中发布这个应用and I was ready to put “Earth Fortune” on the App Store, 我说服了我父母替我支付了99美元的费用and so I persuaded my parents to pay the 99 dollar fee 这样我的应用就在苹果商店上线了to be able to put my apps on the App Store. 他们同意了 我现在在苹果商店有了我开发的应用They agreed, and now I have apps on the App Store. 我的父母、朋友和老师 I’ve gotten a lot of interest and encouragement 给了我很多灵感与鼓励 甚至连App Store的用户都给了我许多鼓励from my family, friends, teachers and even people at the Apple Store, 这些对于我来说都是莫大的帮助and that’s been a huge help to me. 我也从乔布斯那里获得了许多启发I’ve gotten a lot of inspiration from Steve Jobs, 我在学校创办了一个应用社团and I’ve started an app club at school, 学校里一个老师支持着我的社团and a teacher at my school is kindly sponsoring my app club. 学校的学生都可以来学习如何设计应用Any student at my school can come and learn how to design an app. 这样我就能与他人一起分享我的经验This is so I can share my experiences with others. 目前有一系列叫做iPad Pilot Program的应用程序(为各大学校利用iPad教学提供技术支持的应用软件)There’s these programs called the iPad Pilot Program, 有些地区可下载使用这些程序and some districts have them. 幸运的是 我所在的地区就在其中I’m fortunate enough to be part of one. 而我们目前面临的挑战是应该怎样利用iPadA big challenge is, how should the iPads be used, 以及iPad上应该有哪些应用程序and what apps should we put on the iPads? 所以我们对学校教师进行了调研So we’re getting feedback from teachers at the school 看他们喜欢什么样应用to see what kind of apps they’d like. 当我们设计完这些应用并将其出售时When we design the app and we sell it, 当地学校可以免费使用 而从收费地区获得的收入 it will be free to local districts; and other districts that we sell to — 则会捐赠给当地的教育机构all the money from that will go into the local ed foundations. 如今 学生们所掌握的科技These days, students usually know a little bit more than teachers 通常会比老师多那么一点点with the technology. (笑声)(Laughter) 所以So — (笑声)(Laughter) 抱歉Sorry. (笑声)(Laughter) 所以这对老师而言是一种资源So this is a resource to teachers, 教育工作者应该了解这些资源 并充分地利用它们 and educators should recognize this resource and make good use of it. (笑声)(Laughter) 最后 我想谈谈我未来的计划I’d like to finish up by saying what I’d like to do in the future. 首先 我要开发出更多的应用、更多的游戏First of all, I’d like to create more apps, more games. 目前我正在与一个第三方公司合作开发应用I’m working with a third party company to make an app. 我想开始安卓系统应用的编程与开发I’d like to get into Android programming and development, 同时 我也要继续我的应用社团 and I’d like to continue my app club, 为同学们找到其他的方式 共同分享知识and find other ways for students to share knowledge with others. 谢谢大家!Thank you. (掌声)(Applause)
  • 2021-10-26如何不对世界无知Hans Rosling: I’m going to ask you汉斯·罗斯林:我要问你们 three multiple choice questions.三个选择题 Use this device. Use this device to answer.用这个 用这个装置来回答我的问题 The first question is, how did the number第一个问题是 每年 of deaths per year由于自然灾害而死亡的 from natural disaster,人数是多少 how did that change during the last century?这个数字在上个世纪的变化趋势是怎样的? Did it more than double,是比原来的两倍还多 did it remain about the same in the world as a whole,全世界整体持平 or did it decrease to less than half?还是减少了一半以上? Please answer A, B or C.请选择A B或C I see lots of answers. This is much faster than I do it at universities.我看到了很多答案 这比我在大学里问这个问题时收到回答的时间快多了 They are so slow. They keep thinking, thinking, thinking.他们慢到家了 老是想啊 想啊 想啊的 Oh, very, very good.啊 很好 很好 And we go to the next question.下面是第二个问题 So how long did women 30 years old全世界30岁的女性 in the world go to school:平均在校时间是多少 seven years, five years or three years?7年 5年还是3年? A, B or C? Please answer.A B还是C 请选择 And we go to the next question.然后下一个问题 In the last 20 years, how did the percentage在过去的20年内 of people in the world全球赤贫的人口比例 who live in extreme poverty change?是如何变化的? Extreme poverty — not having enough food for the day.赤贫是指一个人没有足够的食物满足其一天的需求 Did it almost double,是几乎是原来的两倍 did it remain more or less the same,还是基本持平 or did it halve?亦或是减半了? A, B or C?A B还是C Now, answers.现在来公布答案 You see,你看 deaths from natural disasters in the world,全世界死于自然灾害的人数 you can see it from this graph here,你可以从这个图中看出 from 1900 to 2000.从1900到2000年 In 1900, there was about half a million people在1900年 每年大约50万人 who died every year from natural disasters:死于自然灾害 floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruption, whatever, droughts.洪水 地震 火山爆发 等等等等 干旱 And then, how did that change?然后呢 这个数据有了什么变化 Gapminder asked the public in Sweden.Gapminder在向瑞典人问了这么一个问题 This is how they answered.这是他们的回答 The Swedish public answered like this:瑞典民众回答的分布是这样的 Fifty percent thought it had doubled,50%的人认为人数翻倍了 38 percent said it’s more or less the same,38%认为基本不变 12 said it had halved.12%认为减半了 This is the best data from the disaster researchers,而这是灾害研究者收集的最佳数据 and it goes up and down,它时高时低 and it goes to the Second World War,第二次世界大战时上升 and after that it starts to fall and it keeps falling之后就一直下降 下降 and it’s down to much less than half.降了远远低于一半 The world has been much, much more capable世界随着时间的推移 as the decades go by越来越能够 to protect people from this, you know.保护人们不受自然灾害侵袭 你知道的 So only 12 percent of the Swedes know this.而仅仅12%的瑞典人知道这一点 So I went to the zoo and I asked the chimps.然后我去了动物园问黑猩猩们 (Laughter) (Applause)[大笑][鼓掌] The chimps don’t watch the evening news,黑猩猩们从来不看晚间新闻 so the chimps,它们 they choose by random, so the Swedes answer worse than random.随机选择 而瑞典人的回答情况比随机选择还差 Now how did you do?你们做的咋样? That’s you.这是你们的答案 You were beaten by the chimps.你们被黑猩猩们打败了 (Laughter)[大笑] But it was close.但是很接近啦 You were three times better than the Swedes,要知道你们比瑞典人好了三倍 but that’s not enough.但是这还不够 You shouldn’t compare yourself to Swedes.你们不能跟瑞典人比 You must have higher ambitions in the world.你们得有更高的追求 Let’s look at the next answer here: women in school.看看下一个问题的答案:女性的受教育年数 Here, you can see men went eight years.这儿 你们可以看到男性平均受教育年数有8年 How long did women go to school?女性受教育年数有多少? Well, we asked the Swedes like this,好吧 我们也问了瑞典人这个问题 and that gives you a hint, doesn’t it?这给了你们点提示 有没有? The right answer is probably the one正确答案应该是 the fewest Swedes picked, isn’t it?瑞典人选的最少的那个 对吧 (Laughter)[大笑] Let’s see, let’s see. Here we come.来看看 来看看 答案来了 Yes, yes, yes, women have almost caught up.是的 是的 是的 女性几乎追上了男性 This is the U.S. public.这是美国人的答案 And this is you. Here you come.而这是你们的答案 Ooh.噢…… Well, congratulations, you’re twice as good as the Swedes,好吧 恭喜你们 你们有瑞典人两倍棒啦 but you don’t need me —但你们不用我提醒…… So how come? I think it’s like this,所以 这是怎么回事 我觉得是这样的 that everyone is aware that there are countries所有人都知道全球范围内 and there are areas在某些国家和地区 where girls have great difficulties.女孩们会遇到很多的阻力 They are stopped when they go to school,来阻止她们上学 and it’s disgusting.这很令人作呕 But in the majority of the world,但在全球大部分地区 where most people in the world live,大部分人中 most countries, girls today go to school大部分国家里 女孩们的受教育年数 as long as boys, more or less.和男孩们是差不多的 That doesn’t mean that gender equity is achieved,这不代表着已经实现了性别平等 not at all.完全算不上 They still are confined to terrible, terrible limitations,她们仍然被那些糟糕的限制所束缚者 but schooling is there in the world today.但是如今已经在全球都实现了学校教育了 Now, we miss the majority.现在 我们忽视了主流情况 When you answer, you answer according to the worst places,当你们作答时 你们是根据了那些最糟糕地区的状况做出判断 and there you are right, but you miss the majority.从那个角度来看你们是对的 但是你们忽视了主流 What about poverty?那么贫穷问题呢 Well, it’s very clear that poverty here好吧 很清楚了 was almost halved,赤贫状况基本上减少了一半 and in U.S., when we asked the public,而在美国 我们问了这个问题 only five percent got it right.只有5%的人答对了 And you?而你们呢 Ah, you almost made it to the chimps.啊 你们马上就要达到黑猩猩的水平了 (Laughter) (Applause)[大笑][鼓掌] That little, just a few of you!你们中间 就这么点人答对了! There must be preconceived ideas, you know.你们肯定有了一些先入为主的认知 And many in the rich countries,而很多在发达国家的人 they think that oh, we can never end extreme poverty.他们觉得 啊 我们永远不能终结赤贫 Of course they think so,他们当然这么觉得了 because they don’t even know what has happened.因为他们根本不知道过去都发生了什么 The first thing to think about the future了解未来的第一件事 is to know about the present.是了解现在 These questions were a few of the first ones这些问题选自我们 in the pilot phase of the Ignorance ProjectGapminder基金会扫盲计划在试验阶段 in Gapminder Foundation that we run,提出的前置问题 and it was started, this project, last year而这个计划 在去年 由我的老板 by my boss, and also my son, Ola Rosling. (Laughter)也是我的儿子 欧拉·罗斯林 开始实施 [大笑] He’s cofounder and director,他是这个项目的共同创办人和指挥者 and he wanted, Ola told me欧拉告诉我他希望 we have to be more systematic在全力扫盲的时候 when we fight devastating ignorance.得采用更系统的方法 So already the pilots reveal this,所以 既然试验项目已经 that so many in the public score worse than random,揭示了民众得分甚至不如随机选择 so we have to think about preconceived ideas,那么我们必须好好思考一下那些先入为主的观念 and one of the main preconceived ideas而一个最广为人知的先入为主的观念 is about world income distribution.是关于世界收入分布的 Look here. This is how it was in 1975.看这里 这是1975年的收入分布 It’s the number of people on each income,这是按收入划分的人数统计图 from one dollar a day —从每天1美元 (Applause)[掌声] See, there was one hump here,看到了吗 在1美元这里 around one dollar a day,有一个隆起 and then there was one hump here这边是另一个隆起 somewhere between 10 and 100 dollars.在人均10美元到100美元中间 The world was two groups.世界分为两个集团 It was a camel world, like a camel with two humps,这就是个骆驼的世界 双峰的骆驼 the poor ones and the rich ones,穷人和富人 and there were fewer in between.还有一小部分人位于两者之间 But look how this has changed:但是看看之后的变化 As I go forward, what has changed,当我把时间向前拨动时 变化了的是 the world population has grown,世界人口增加了 and the humps start to merge.而驼峰开始合并 The lower humps merged with the upper hump,较低的隆起与较高的隆起合并了 and the camel dies and we have a dromedary world双峰骆驼死了 生出来了 with one hump only.一个单峰骆驼 The percent in poverty has decreased.贫穷人口比例下降 Still it’s appalling但数据仍然骇人听闻 that so many remain in extreme poverty.仍有这么多人生活在赤贫中 We still have this group, almost a billion, over there,这部分人群仍有10亿人口 but that can be ended now.但是这些可以被终止 The challenge we have now我们现在面对的挑战 is to get away from that, understand where the majority is,是抛开那些问题 来理解什么是主流情况 and that is very clearly shown in this question.而答案已经在问题中写得很明白 We asked, what is the percentage of the world’s我们询问了 one-year-old children who have got those全球一岁儿童中 basic vaccines against measles and other things有多少孩子 接受了我们已经接受了很多年的 that we have had for many years:基本疫苗的注射 如麻疹疫苗等等 20, 50 or 80 percent?20% 50%还是80% Now, this is what the U.S. public and the Swedish answered.这是美国和瑞典人的答案 Look at the Swedish result:看看瑞典人的结果 you know what the right answer is.你们就该知道正确答案了 (Laughter)[大笑] Who the heck is a professor of global health in that country?谁是瑞典的世界健康教授 给我站出来 Well, it’s me. It’s me.好吧 是我 就是我 (Laughter)[大笑] It’s very difficult, this. It’s very difficult.这个很困难 好吗 很困难的 (Applause)[掌声] However, Ola’s approach无论如何 奥拉设计了一个方法 to really measure what we know made headlines,来衡量我们知道的哪些知识能够成为头条新闻 and CNN published these results on their web而CNN在网站上公布了这些结果 and they had the questions there, millions answered,他们的网站上 几百万人回答了这些问题 and I think there were about 2,000 comments,大概有2000条评论 and this was one of the comments.下边是其中一条评论 “I bet no member of the media passed the test,” he said.我打赌没有媒体工作者能答对这些问题 他说 So Ola told me, “Take these devices.欧拉告诉我 带上这些发明 You are invited to media conferences.你被邀请参加媒体见面会了 Give it to them and measure what the media know.”在那里用这些发明测测他们都知道什么 And ladies and gentlemen,女士们 先生们 for the first time, the informal results有史以来第一次 from a conference with U.S. media.来自和美国媒体会面的非正式数据 And then, lately, from the European Union media.之后 还有欧盟媒体数据 (Laughter)[笑声] You see, the problem is not that people你看 问题不在于 don’t read and listen to the media.人们不接收媒体信息 The problem is that the media doesn’t know themselves.而在于媒体工作者们自己就不知道啥 What shall we do about this, Ola?欧拉 你说这该怎么办 Do we have any ideas?有什么主意么 (Applause)[掌声] Ola Rosling: Yes, I have an idea, but first,欧拉·罗司斯林:我有个主意 但首先 I’m so sorry that you were beaten by the chimps.先让我对你们被黑猩猩打败而表达遗憾 Fortunately, I will be able to comfort you幸运的是 我同样也要安慰安慰你们 by showing why it was not your fault, actually.因为这的确不是你们的问题 Then, I will equip you with some tricks然后 我会教给你们一些技巧 for beating the chimps in the future.让你们在将来可以打败黑猩猩们 That’s basically what I will do.这就是我接下来主要要做的 But first, let’s look at why are we so ignorant,首先 让我们看看为什么我们如此无知 and it all starts in this place.一切都是从这里开始的 It’s Hudiksvall. It’s a city in northern Sweden.这是胡迪克斯瓦尔 一座瑞典西部的城市 It’s a neighborhood where I grew up,这是我长大的街区 and it’s a neighborhood with a large problem.也是一个问题比较严重的街区 Actually, it has exactly the same problem实际上 同样的问题 which existed in all the neighborhoods也存在在所有的街区中 where you grew up as well.包括你成长的环境 It was not representative. Okay?这不是个例 It gave me a very biased view它让我们对这个星球上的生活 of how life is on this planet.产生偏见 So this is the first piece of the ignorance puzzle.这就是无知的第一个答案 We have a personal bias.我们有个人偏见 We have all different experiences每个人都有不同的经历 from communities and people we meet,我们来自不同的社区 遇到过不同的人 and on top of this, we start school,最重要的是 我们还要上学 and we add the next problem.这就有了另一个问题 Well, I like schools,嗯 我喜欢学校 but teachers tend to teach outdated worldviews,但老师们往往教授的是过时的世界观 because they learned something when they went to school,因为他们掌握的是多年前他们上学时的知识 and now they describe this world to the students然后他们又把这些教给了学生 without any bad intentions,当然不带任何恶意 and those books, of course, that are printed当然还有这些书 因为世界日新月异 are outdated in a world that changes.所以它们被刊印出来的时候已经过时了 And there is really no practice而根本没有办法 to keep the teaching material up to date.能保证教学材料紧跟时代的脚步 So that’s what we are focusing on.所以这就是我们的关注点 So we have these outdated facts我们掌握着过时的知识 added on top of our personal bias.加上个人偏见 What happens next is news, okay?结果就是新闻了 对吧 An excellent journalist knows how to pick一个出色的记者知道怎么挑出 the story that will make headlines,能够出现在头版头条的故事 and people will read it because it’s sensational.而因为新闻带来的轰动效应人们就会去看 Unusual events are more interesting, no?稀奇的事件才更有趣 是吧 And they are exaggerated,还得有夸张 and especially things we’re afraid of.还有尤其我们都害怕的东西 A shark attack on a Swedish person一条鲨鱼袭击了一个瑞典人 will get headlines for weeks in Sweden.这能在瑞典新闻头条上呆上几个礼拜 So these three skewed sources of information所以这是三条歪曲的信息来源 were really hard to get away from.实在很难摆脱掉 They kind of bombard us它们无时无刻不在轰炸我们 and equip our mind with a lot of strange ideas,让我们的脑袋里充满了奇怪的想法 and on top of it we put the very thing顶端是最重要的 是让人类与其他动物区别开来的特质 that makes us humans, our human intuition.人类直觉 It was good in evolution.它在进化过程中很有用 It helped us generalize帮助我们总结 and jump to conclusions very, very fast.并十分快速地得出结论 It helped us exaggerate what we were afraid of,它夸大我们害怕的事物 and we seek causality where there is none,让我们在毫无关系的事物中找寻联系 and we then get an illusion of confidence让我们对自己产生虚假的信心 where we believe that we are the best car drivers,比如每个人都相信自己是最好的司机 above the average.非同一般 Everybody answered that question,每个人都会说 “Yeah, I drive cars better.”是的 我开的更好 Okay, this was good evolutionarily,可以说 就进化而言这是优点 but now when it comes to the worldview,但是现在 在树立世界观的问题上 it is the exact reason why it’s upside down.这就是为什么认知与事实完全相反 The trends that are increasing are instead falling,我们以为上升的趋势实际上在下降 and the other way around,反之亦然 and in this case, the chimps use our intuition against us,而且在这个案例中 黑猩猩利用我们的直觉打败了我们 and it becomes our weakness instead of our strength.直觉成了我们的弱点 而非优势 It was supposed to be our strength, wasn’t it?它本来应该是优势的 不是吗? So how do we solve such problems?所以我们怎么解决这种问题? First, we need to measure it,首先 我们要衡量它 and then we need to cure it.然后 我们治愈它 So by measuring it we can understand通过衡量它 我们能够 what is the pattern of ignorance.理解无知的模式 We started the pilot last year,我们去年开始做试验项目 and now we’re pretty sure that we will encounter而现在我们非常确信我们会面对 a lot of ignorance across the whole world,全世界数不清的无知 and the idea is really to而这个主意 scale it up to all domains根据不同地区和国家的 or dimensions of global development,不同领域或方面而成比例升高 such as climate, endangered species, human rights,好像气候问题 濒危物种 人权问题 gender equality, energy, finance.性别平等 能源 金融 All different sectors have facts,所有这些领域都有一些知识 and there are organizations trying to spread有组织正在致力于提高人们 awareness about these facts.对这些知识的了解度 So I’ve started actually contacting some of them,所以我已经开始接触其中一些组织 like WWF and Amnesty International and UNICEF,比如世界自然基金会 国际特赦组织 联合国儿童基金会 and asking them, what are your favorite facts问他们 你最喜欢 which you think the public doesn’t know?而公众不知道的知识有哪些 Okay, I gather those facts.好了 我收集好了那些知识 Imagine a long list with, say, 250 facts.现在想象一张冗长的单子 上面写了 比如 250个小知识 And then we poll the public然后我们让民众投票 and see where they score worst.看看他们得分最低的点在哪里 So we get a shorter list所以我们生成了一张短一点的单子 with the terrible results,上面是得分糟糕的部分 like some few examples from Hans,就像汉斯的实验中的例子 and we have no problem finding these kinds想要得到得分糟糕的部分 of terrible results.总是不费力的 Okay, this little shortlist, what are we going to do with it?好了 有了这份短清单 接下来我们要做什么呢 Well, we turn it into a knowledge certificate,我们把它改成了一个知识量资格证 a global knowledge certificate,全球知识量资格证 which you can use, if you’re a large organization,在大型组织 a school, a university, or maybe a news agency,学校 大学 或者新闻机构中 to certify yourself as globally knowledgeable.你都可以用它来证明你对全球知识的了解程度 Basically meaning, we don’t hire people基本上就意味着 我们不招知识量只有 who score like chimpanzees.黑猩猩级别的人 Of course you shouldn’t.当然也不能这么做 So maybe 10 years from now,所以可能今后10年 if this project succeeds,如果这个项目成功了 you will be sitting in an interview可能你在面试时 having to fill out this crazy global knowledge.就得填写这张丧心病狂的全球知识了解程度测试 So now we come to the practical tricks.现在我们来谈谈实际操作 How are you going to succeed?你怎么成功 There is, of course, one way,当然 有个方法就是 which is to sit down late nights深夜坐在书桌前 and learn all the facts by heart看所有有关报道 by reading all these reports.然后用心记住每一个知识 That will never happen, actually.实际上这不可能 Not even Hans thinks that’s going to happen.就算汉斯相信也不可能 People don’t have that time.人们根本没那么多时间 People like shortcuts, and here are the shortcuts.人们都喜欢捷径 而在这个问题上还真有捷径可走 We need to turn our intuition into strength again.我们得让直觉重新变成优势 We need to be able to generalize.我们要拥有总结的能力 So now I’m going to show you some tricks那么现在我教你们几个小技巧 where the misconceptions are turned around可以用拇指规则 into rules of thumb.直接将错误的观念变成正确的 Let’s start with the first misconception.我们来看第一个错误观念 This is very widespread.它传播非常广泛 Everything is getting worse.一切都在变糟 You heard it. You thought it yourself.你听到了 心里默默想着 The other way to think is, most things improve.另一种思考方式是 绝大多数事情变好了 So you’re sitting with a question in front of you你坐在第一个问题面前 and you’re unsure. You should guess “improve.”不确定答案是什么 那你就猜“好转” Okay? Don’t go for the worse.行不 不要选“变糟” That will help you score better on our tests.这样会让你测试得分更高的 (Applause)[掌声] That was the first one.刚刚是第一个 There are rich and poor世界上有穷人有富人 and the gap is increasing.贫富差距在逐渐拉大 It’s a terrible inequality.糟糕的不平等 Yeah, it’s an unequal world,对 这是个不平等的世界 but when you look at the data, it’s one hump.但是你看看数据 这是单峰 Okay? If you feel unsure,好吗 你不确定 go for “the most people are in the middle.”那就选“大多数人处于中间区域” That’s going to help you get the answer right.这样会更容易选出正确答案 Now, the next preconceived idea is现在 下一个先入为主的观念是 first countries and people need to be very, very rich第一世界的国家和人民只有变得很有钱 to get the social development才能带来社会发展 like girls in school and be ready for natural disasters.比如女孩儿可以上学 会受到自然灾难的冲击 No, no, no. That’s wrong.不不不 错了 Look: that huge hump in the middle看 在那些处于中间的大驼峰位置的国家里 already have girls in school.女孩儿已经可以上学了 So if you are unsure, go for the所以如果你不确定 “the majority already have this,”就选“大部分已经实现了这一制度” like electricity and girls in school, these kinds of things.比如供电 允许女孩儿上学 等等 They’re only rules of thumb,全都只是靠的拇指规则 so of course they don’t apply to everything,当然这条规则不是万能的 but this is how you can generalize.但是这是总结的方法 Let’s look at the last one.我们来看最后一题 If something, yes, this is a good one,这个很不错 sharks are dangerous.鲨鱼很危险 No — well, yes, but they are not so important不是——哦不 是的 但在全球数据里面 in the global statistics, that is what I’m saying.他们还没那么重要 这就是我要说的 I actually, I’m very afraid of sharks.事实上我很怕鲨鱼 So as soon as I see a question about things I’m afraid of,所以一旦我看到有关我害怕的东西的问题 which might be earthquakes, other religions,可能是地震 其他宗教 maybe I’m afraid of terrorists or sharks,我还害怕恐怖分子或者鲨鱼 anything that makes me feel,凡是让我觉得…… assume you’re going to exaggerate the problem.假设你要夸大这个问题 That’s a rule of thumb.这是拇指规则 Of course there are dangerous things that are also great.当然还有些危险的事情也很大 Sharks kill very, very few. That’s how you should think.鲨鱼杀人案发生得非常非常少 你得这样想 With these four rules of thumb,有了这四条拇指规则 you could probably answer better than the chimps,你就能答得比猩猩好了 because the chimps cannot do this.因为猩猩不会拇指规则 They cannot generalize these kinds of rules.他们无法总结规则 And hopefully we can turn your world around希望我们能帮你修正世界观 and we’re going to beat the chimps. Okay?然后去打败黑猩猩 怎么样 (Applause)[掌声] That’s a systematic approach.这就是一个系统方法 Now the question, is this important?现在问题来了 这重要吗 Yeah, it’s important to understand poverty,当然了 理解贫穷 extreme poverty and how to fight it,赤贫和如何对付它 and how to bring girls in school.还有如何扩大女孩受教育权利很重要 When we realize that actually it’s succeeding, we can understand it.当意识到实际上我们正在取得胜利时 我们就能理解它们了 But is it important for everyone else但这个方法对于那些关心富人的人 who cares about the rich end of this scale?是否也重要呢 I would say yes, extremely important,我会说 是的 极其重要 for the same reason.原因是一样的 If you have a fact-based worldview of today,如果你对当今世界的观念是基于事实形成的 you might have a chance to understand那你就可能会明白 what’s coming next in the future.未来将会发生什么 We’re going back to these two humps in 1975.我们再来看看1975年的这两个驼峰 That’s when I was born,我那年刚好出生 and I selected the West.我选了西方国家 That’s the current EU countries and North America.也就是当今的欧盟国家和北美 Let’s now see how the rest and the West compares我们来比较一下剩下的国家和西方国家 in terms of how rich you are.看看哪个更富有 These are the people who can afford这是有能力 to fly abroad with an airplane for a vacation.坐飞机去国外度假的人 In 1975, only 30 percent of them lived1975年 这样的人只有30% outside EU and North America.生活在欧盟和北美之外 But this has changed, okay?但时过境迁了 So first, let’s look at the change up till today, 2014.首先 我们来看到今天发生了怎样的变化 即2014年 Today it’s 50/50.现在是双方平分秋色 The Western domination is over, as of today.如今西方独占鳌头的时代已经结束了 That’s nice. So what’s going to happen next?不错 那么接下来会发生什么呢 Do you see the big hump? Did you see how it moved?看到大驼峰没有 有没有看到它是怎么移动的 I did a little experiment. I went to the IMF, International Monetary Fund, website.我做了一点实验 我登了IMF 即国际货币基金组织的官网 They have a forecast for the next five years of GDP per capita.他们预测了未来五年内的人均GDP So I can use that to go five years into the future,我据此预测了一下未来五年的形势 assuming the income inequality of each country is the same.前提是假设每个国家收入差距相等 I did that, but I went even further.我做了这些以后 没有止步不前 I used those five years for the next 20 years我利用那些五年数据又往前推了20年 with the same speed, just as an experiment what might actually happen.速度一样 只是做个实验看看会发生什么 Let’s move into the future.让我们步入未来 In 2020, it’s 57 percent in the rest.2020年 57%在其余国家 In 2025, 63 percent.2025年 63% 2030, 68. And in 2035, the West is outnumbered in the rich consumer market.2030年 68% 而到了2035年 西方国家的富人消费者就被没其余国家多了 These are just projections of GDP per capita into the future.这只是对未来人均GDP的推测 Seventy-three percent of the rich consumers将会有73%的富消费者 are going to live outside North America and Europe.生活在北美和欧洲之外 So yes, I think it’s a good idea for a company to use this certificate我觉得对于企业来说 在未来用知识量资格证书 to make sure to make fact- based decisions in the future.来确保正确决策也是个不错的办法 Thank you very much.非常感谢 (Applause)[掌声] Bruno Giussani: Hans and Ola Rosling!Bruno Giussani: 汉斯和欧拉·罗斯林
  • 2021-10-26Uber的下一个计划:用更少的车搭载更多的人今天我想 好了 今天早上Today I wanted to — well, this morning — 我想谈一谈人力运输的未来I want to talk about the future of human-driven transportation; 有关于我们如何通过 用更少的车搭载更多乘客的方式about how we can cut congestion, pollution and parking 来解决塞车 污染和停车的问题by getting more people into fewer cars; 以及如何运用 我们口袋里的科技来实现这个目标and how we can do it with the technology that’s in our pockets. 没错 我谈的是智能手机……And yes, I’m talking about smartphones … 不是自动驾驶车not self-driving cars. 不过在开始(这个话题)之前 我们先把目光移回到100年前But to get started we’ve got to go back over 100 years. 其实在 Uber 之前 就已经有一个“Uber”了Because it turns out there was an Uber way before Uber. 如果它一直存在And if it had survived, 那未来的交通运输方式 现在可能已经出现了the future of transportation would probably already be here. 让我向各位介绍 jitneySo let me introduce you to the jitney. 它是在1914年由一位叫 LP德雷珀的人创造或发明的In 1914 it was created or invented by a guy named LP Draper. 他是一位来自洛杉矶的 汽车销售员 他有一个点子He was a car salesman from LA, and he had an idea. 他当时在我的家乡Well, he was cruising around downtown Los Angeles, 洛杉矶市中心兜风时my hometown, 看到电车旁and he saw trolleys 排了很长的队伍 大家正准备排队上车with long lines of people trying to get to where they wanted to go. 他就想 为何我不在我的车上 放个牌子招呼大家He said, well, why don’t I just put a sign on my car 让大家只要花5分钱that takes people wherever they want to go for a jitney — 就能去他们想去的地方呢?that was slang for a nickel. 于是人们开始跳上车And so people jumped on board, 而且不只洛杉矶 全国都开展了这项服务and not just in Los Angeles but across the country. 才仅仅过了1年And within one year, 也就是1915年by 1915, 在西雅图每天就有5万人次乘坐jitneythere were 50,000 rides per day in Seattle, 在堪萨斯每天有4.5万45,000 rides per day in Kansas 在洛杉矶则有15万人次and 150,000 rides per day in Los Angeles. 给各位补充一些概念To give you some perspective, 100年后的今天Uber in Los Angeles 洛杉矶的 Uber 每天有is doing 157,000 rides per day, today … 15.7万人次搭车100 years later. 所以 当时这些电车司机And so these are the trolley guys, 也是当时交通的垄断巨头the existing transportation monopoly at the time. 他们对 jitney 巨大的成功 感到非常的不爽They were clearly not happy about the jitney juggernaut. 所以他们在全国And so they got to work 各大城市穿梭游说and they went to cities across the country 联合起来制定针对 jitney 的各种规则 来拖慢 jitney 的发展速度and got regulations put in place to slow down the growth of the jitney. 各式各样的法规五花八门And there were all kinds of regulations. 营业执照——通常都很贵There were licenses — often they were pricey. 在一些城市里In some cities, 如果你是个 jitney 司机if you were a jitney driver, 你会被要求一天16个小时都得在 车里才能运营 jitneyyou were required to be in the jitney for 16 hours a day. 在另一些城市里In other cities, 他们要求两个 jitney 司机使用一辆车they required two jitney drivers for one jitney. 但有一条法规很搞笑But there was a really interesting regulation 每一台 jitney 的后座上必须安上灯which was they had to put a backseat light — 因为他们想要阻止install it in every Jitney — “后座拥吻”这一伤风败俗的“新发明”to stop a new pernicious innovation which they called spooning. [笑声](Laughter) 好的 那么后来发生了什么呢?All right. So what happened? 一年当中 jitney 发展非常迅猛Well, within a year this thing had taken off. 但在到了1919年 jitney 被立法完全禁止But the jitney, by 1919, was regulated completely out of existence. 真的很可惜……That’s unfortunate … 因为当你不能找人拼车的时候 你就必须自己去买一辆because, well, when you can’t share a car, then you have to own one. 所以也难怪And car ownership skyrocketed 私家车行业开始蓬勃发展 到了2007年and it’s no wonder that by 2007, 美国平均每个男人 女人 小孩都拥有一辆车there was a car for every man, woman and child in the United States. 而这个现象席卷了全球And that phenomenon had gone global. 在中国 到2011年为止In China by 2011, 当时的汽车销售数量 已经超越美国there were more car sales happening in China than in the US. 当然 大量的私家车 导致了公众要付出高昂的代价Now, all this private ownership of course had a public cost. 在美国 我们每年都会在In the US, we spend 7 billion hours a year, 交通拥堵上浪费70亿个小时wasted, sitting in traffic. 间接导致了160亿美元的损失160 billion dollars in lost productivity, 当然 当你坐在车里of course also sitting in traffic, 有五分之一的碳排放and one-fifth of all of our carbon footprint 是我们在塞车时释放到空气中的is spewed out in the air by those cars that we’re sitting in. 这也只是占我们所有问题的4%而已Now, that’s only four percent of our problem though. 因为 如果你必须拥有一台车Because if you have to own a car 那就表示有96%的时间 你的车是静止不动的then that means 96 percent of the time your car is sitting idle. 而且有将近30%的土地 及我们居住的空间And so, up to 30 percent of our land and our space 要用来存放这些大铁怪is used storing these hunks of steel. 我们甚至已经有了 为这些车盖的摩天大厦We even have skyscrapers built for cars. 这就是我们当今居住的世界That’s the world we live in today. 城市已经为解决这些问题 尝试了好几十年Now, cities have been dealing with this problem for decades. 叫做大众运输It’s called mass transit. 但是即使是像纽约这样的城市And even in a city like New York City, 这样一个在全世界拥有one of the most densely populated in the world 最密集的人口和最复杂的 公共交通的城市and one of the most sophisticated mass transit systems in the world, 每天仍有250万辆车要经过那些桥there are still 2.5 million cars that go over those bridges every day. 为什么会这样?Why is that? 因为大众运输还搞不清楚Well, it’s because mass transit hasn’t yet figured out 如何把每个人载到家门口how to get to everybody’s doorstep. 回到我住的地方 旧金山And so back in San Francisco, where I live, 状况更糟糕the situation’s much worse, 事实上 比全世界其它地方还要糟in fact, much worse around the world. Uber 在刚起步的2010年——And so the beginning of Uber in 2010 was — 我们只是实现“一键叫车”well, we just wanted to push a button and get a ride. 我们还没有任何远大的野心We didn’t have any grand ambitions. 不过当非常多的人But it just turned out 想要使用“一键叫车”时that lots of people wanted to push a button and get a ride, 我们后来发现这些路线中 有很多是重复的and ultimately what we started to see was a lot of duplicate rides. 我们发现有很多人We saw a lot of people 在同一时刻叫车pushing the same button at the same time 要去的几乎是同一个地方going essentially to the same place. 所以我们开始设想And so we started thinking about, 要如何把两条相近的线路合并成一条well, how do we make those two trips and turn them into one. 因为如果我们这样做的话 那出车的成本会大大降低Because if we did, that ride would be a lot cheaper — 最高能降一半up to 50 percent cheaper — 这样一来and of course for the city 城市里就会有更少的车 搭载更多的人you’ve got a lot more people and a lot fewer cars. 那么摆在我们面前最大的问题就是:And so the big question for us was: 这可行吗?would it work? 能够让打车费足够便宜到Could you have a cheaper ride 使人们愿意共乘吗?cheap enough that people would be willing to share it? 很幸运 答案是“响当当”的是And the answer, fortunately, is a resounding yes. 在旧金山In San Francisco, 在我们推出 UberPOOL 之前before uberPOOL, we had — 不管想去什么地方 每个人都想开自己的车well, everybody would take their car wherever the heck they wanted. 图上明亮的区域就是车流量最大的地方And the bright colors is where we have the most cars. 在我们推出 UberPOOL 之后And once we introduced uberPOOL, 你会发现明亮的部分大大减少well, you see there’s not as many bright colors. 这说明更多的人们乘坐了更少的车More people getting around the city in fewer cars, 减少了路上的车流量taking cars off the road. 看起来 uberPOOL 效果不错It looks like uberPOOL is working. 所以八个月前我们也把它And so we rolled it out in Los Angeles 推广到了洛杉矶eight months ago. 从那时起 我们至今总共减少了 790万英里的总行驶里程And since then, we’ve taken 7.9 million miles off the roads 也减少了1400吨的二氧化碳排放and we’ve taken 1.4 thousand metric tons of CO2 out of the air. 但我最在意的地方是But the part that I’m really — [掌声](Applause) 不过我最喜欢的统计数据是But my favorite statistic — 别忘了 我来自洛杉矶remember, I’m from LA, 我一生中花了不少时间I spent years of my life 坐在拥挤的车潮中思考 “我们要如何解决这个问题?”sitting behind the wheel, going, “How do we fix this?” — 我最喜欢的部分是8个月后my favorite part is that eight months later, 我们每周都有10万新人来拼车we have added 100,000 new people that are carpooling every week. 在中国 所有数字都无比庞大Now, in China everything is supersized, 我们每个月有1500万人次 使用uberPOOLand so we’re doing 15 million uberPOOL trips per month, 每天差不多50万that’s 500,000 per day. 我们见证了这种指数增长And of course we’re seeing that exponential growth happen. 实际上 这和我们在洛杉矶 见到的情况差不多In fact, we’re seeing it in LA, too. 我们的团队讨论时从来不会说And when I talk to my team, we don’t talk about, “嘿 我们每周已经有10万人参与拼车了 目标完成了”“Hey, well, 100,000 people carpooling every week and we’re done.” 而是 我们该怎么样达到百万?How do we get that to a million? 实际上在中国 可能有几百万人次的潜力And in China, well, that could be several million. 所以 UberPOOL是解决城市内部 拼车问题的很好方案And so uberPOOL is a very great solution for urban carpooling. 但是对于郊区是否同样适用呢?But what about the suburbs? 这条街 是我在洛杉矶长大的街道This is the street where I grew up in Los Angeles, 是加州典型的郊区 叫做Northridgeit’s actually a suburb called Northridge, California, 而……and, well — 看看这些邮箱 顺着街道绵延不绝look, those mailboxes, they kind of just go on forever. 每天早上差不多同一时刻And every morning at about the same time, 车子从他们的车道开出来cars roll of out their driveway, 但他们大部分车子里只有一个人most of them, one person in the car, 然后开车去工作的地方and they go to work, they go to their place of work. 所以我们的问题是:So the question for us is: 我们要如何把well, how do we turn 所有这些通勤车all of these commuter cars — 不夸张地说 差不多好几千万台and literally there’s tens of millions of them — 我们要如何把这些通勤车转换成共乘车?how do we turn all these commuter cars into shared cars? 为了解决这个问题 我们最近设计了一个叫UberCOMMUTE的产品Well, we have something for this that we recently launched called uberCOMMUTE. 当你早上起来 准备去上班 喝完一杯咖啡You get up in the morning, get ready for work, get your coffee, 走向你的车go to your car 只要打开 Uber APPand you light up the Uber app, 一眨眼的功夫and all of a sudden, 你就成为了一名Uber司机you become an Uber driver. 我们会为你自动匹配和你有着And we’ll match you up with one of your neighbors 同样上班路线的邻居们on your way to work 这件事还真是不错and it’s a really great thing. 现在只有一个障碍要克服……There’s just one hitch … 它叫做法规it’s called regulation. 每英里54美分 这是什么?So 54 cents a mile, what is that? 这是美国政府定义的Well, that is what the US government 拥有一辆车每英里的成本has determined that the cost of owning a car is per mile. 在美国 任何人提前预约You can pick up anybody in the United States 你就可以载他们到任何他们想去的地方and take them wherever they want to go at a moment’s notice, 但你只能收取每英里54美分for 54 cents a mile or less. 但如果你每英里收费 超过60美分 你就犯法了But if you charge 60 cents a mile, you’re a criminal. 但如果每英里60美分But what if for 60 cents a mile 我们就可以吸引超过50万人 在洛杉矶加入共乘制度呢?we could get half a million more people carpooling in Los Angeles? 或如果每英里60美分And what if at 60 cents a mile 我们可以吸引超过5000万人 在美国加入共乘制度呢?we could get 50 million people carpooling in the United States? 如果我们可以的话If we could, 这很明显是我们应该做的it’s obviously something we should do. 所以 这带我们回到了jitney的教训And so it goes back to the lesson of the jitney. 如果在1915年这个生意刚起步时If by 1915 this thing was taking off, 想像一下 没有这些规定的束缚imagine without the regulations that happened, 如果jitney可以一直发展下去 会如何呢?if that thing could just keep going. 今日的城市会有多大的不同?How would our cities be different today? 我们现在的停车场是否就能变成公园?Would we have parks in the place of parking lots? 是的 我们已经错过了这次机会Well, we lost that chance. 但是科技为我们提供了一次新的机会But technology has given us another opportunity. 现在 我和其他人一样 对自动驾驶感到十分的兴奋Now, I’m as excited as anybody else about self-driving cars 但我们真的必须再等 5年 10年 甚至20年but do we have to really wait five, 10 or even 20 years 才能打造一座新城市吗?to make our new cities a reality? 通过我们口袋里的科技With the technology in our pockets today, 和多一点点人性化的法规and a little smart regulation, 我们就可以把每辆车变成共乘车we can turn every car into a shared car, 而且从今天就可以开始 拯救我们的城市and we can reclaim our cities starting today. 谢谢各位!Thank you. [掌声](Applause) Chris Anderson(CA): Travis, 谢谢你Chris Anderson: Travis, thank you. Travis Kalanick(TK):谢谢你Travis Kalanick: Thank you. CA:我觉得你的公司确实很了不起CA: You know — I mean the company you’ve built is absolutely astounding. 刚刚你谈论了其中一个很小的部分You only just talked about a small part of it here — 也是很重要的部分a powerful part — 把大家的车变成 大众运输工具的这个想法the idea of turning cars into public transport like that, 真的很酷!it’s cool. 不过我也有一些问题But I’ve got a couple other questions 因为我知道其他人也很关心because I know they’re out there on people’s minds. 首先 上礼拜 如果我没记错的话So first of all, last week I think it was, 我打开手机 试着要从 Uber 叫车I switched on my phone and tried to book an Uber 但我发现我找不到Uber的App了and I couldn’t find the app. 你对 Uber图标进行的重新设计 真的很坚决和彻底 勇气可嘉You had this very radical, very bold, brave redesign. TK: 是的TK: Sure. CA: 这事你怎么看?CA: How did it go? 是不是注意到其他人那天 也找不到你们的App了呢?Did you notice other people not finding the app that day? 你是否准备好在新设计上 重新赢取用户呢?Are you going to win people over for this redesign? TK: 嗯 我首先要说的是TK: Well, first I should probably just say, 我们想要完善的well, what we were trying to accomplish. 实际上和我们公司的历史有关And I think if you know a little bit about our history, 重新设计对此有非常大的意义it makes a lot more sense. 当我们一开始创立Uber的时候Which is, when we first got started, Uber里的车全都是黑色的it was just black cars. 我们想让你按下Uber的按钮之后 就会有S级车来为你服务It was literally you push a button and get an S-Class. 所以我们本来想做的And so what we did 是一个打车品牌的奢侈品 通过模拟豪华车的车标was almost what I would call an immature version of a luxury brand 把Uber做成奢侈品的象征that looked like a badge on a luxury car. 但当我们成长为全球化的公司And as we’ve gone worldwide 从S级骄车到印度的小黄包车and gone from S-Classes to auto rickshaws in India, 这变成了一个对我们相当有意义的事it became something that was important for us 因为这样可以让Uber变的平易近人to be more accessible, 更加的本土化to be more hyperlocal, 更加在乎我们居住的城市to be about the cities we were in 这就是你看到我们公司的模式和颜色and that’s what you see with the patterns and colors. 需要变得更图像化And to be more iconic, 是因为U无论在印度语because a U doesn’t mean anything in Sanskrit, 还是在汉语中都没有具体的含义and a U doesn’t mean anything in Mandarin. 所以重新设计是有这样一层原因的And so that was a little bit what it was about. 当你第一次推出这样的设计Now, when you first roll out something like that, 肯定会紧张到手心冒汗I mean, your hands are sweating, 你会you’ve got — 有一点担心you know, you’re a little worried. 我们看到的是很大一群人What we saw is a lot of people — 实际上 刚开始我们看到 很多人打开了Appactually, at the beginning, we saw a lot more people opening the app 因为他们很好奇 打开时会有什么发现because they were curious what they would find when they opened it. 而我们得到的数字比预期的稍为高一点And our numbers were slightly up from what we expected. CA: 好的 这确实非常酷CA: OK, that’s cool. 我不得不说 你现在 在很多人看来挺神秘的Now, so you, yourself, are something of an enigma, I would say. 你的支持者与投资者 这一路来一直跟随着你Your supporters and investors, who have been with you the whole way, 他们相信只有believe that the only chance 残忍无情的竞争者才能担负起of sort of taking on the powerful, entrenched interests 这责任重大的机会of taxi industry and so forth, 挑战根深蒂固的计程车行业利益等等is to have someone who is a fierce, relentless competitor, 而你最近也证明你做到了which you’ve certainly proved to be. 一些人感觉你把这种文化带的太远了Some people feel you’ve almost taken that culture too far, 你也知道——在一到两年前and you know — like a year or two ago 对于 Uber 有次巨大的争论 很多的女士感觉相当失望there was a huge controversy where a lot of women got upset. 公司在那段时间 内部是什么感觉?How did it feel like inside the company during that period? 你是否注意到公司出现了任何损失?Did you notice a loss of business? 或者说你在这个过程中学到了什么?Did you learn anything from that? TK:我觉得TK: Well, look, I think — 我从高中就已经是个企业家I’ve been an entrepreneur since I’ve been in high school 你在困难时期and you have — 一定会遇到各种不同的挑战In various different ways an entrepreneur will see hard times 对我们来说and for us, 一年半前的事件it was about a year and a half ago, 也是我们的困难时期and for us it was hard times, too. 在公司内部 我们感觉Now, inside, we felt like — 我们当时感觉到I guess at the end of the day “我们是对的人在做对的事”we felt like we were good people doing good work, 但在外人看来 就没那么明显but on the outside that wasn’t evident. 所以 可以这么说And so there was a lot that we had to do 我们还有很多方面要努力to sort of — 我们是从一个很小的公司开始的We’d gone from a very small company — 我的意思是 如果你回到2年半前I mean if you go literally two and a half years ago, 我们公司只有400人our company was 400 people, 现在已经有6500人and today it’s 6,500. 所以 当你经历了整个成长的过程And so when you go through that growth, 你就必须凝聚公司的文化价值you have to sort of cement your cultural values 并随时谈论它们and talk about them all of the time. 并且你需要人们能够持续地认可And make sure that people are constantly checking 你们是“对的人在做对的事”to say, “Are we good people doing good work?” 如果你能够保证这些And if you check those boxes, 那么剩下的部分就是你要讲述你的故事the next part of that is making sure you’re telling your story. 而我认为我们得到很多教训And I think we learned a lot of lessons 但最后 我们会变得更坚强but I think at the end of it we came out stronger. 虽然这会是一段很困难的时期But it was certainly a difficult period. CA: 在我看来 每次你做出改变的时候CA: It seems to me, everywhere you turn, 你都会直面别人给你提出的难题you’re facing people who occasionally give you a hard time. 纽约和其他地方的一些Uber司机Some Uber drivers in New York and elsewhere 现在已经气疯了 因为你改变勒费率are mad as hell now because you changed the fees 他们声称——他们几乎干不下去了and they can barely — they claim — barely afford the deal anymore. 你要如何How — 就如你说的 你创办公司的初衷You know, you said that you started this originally — 仅仅是想简单地按下按钮打辆车而已just the coolness of pressing a button and summoning a ride. 但公司却发展得非常快This thing’s taken off, 基本在目前这个时间点上 你正在影响全球经济you’re affecting the whole global economy, basically, at this point. 不管你想不想 你已经不得不这么做You’re being forced to be, whether you want it or not, 你是用一种长远的世界观 在改变这个世界a kind of global visionary who’s changing the world. 我的意思是——你是谁?I mean — who are you? 你真的有想过会这样吗?Do you want that? 你有准备好并承担这一切吗?Are you ready to go with that and be what that takes? TK: 好吧 你一时间 问了好几个问题 所以TK: Well, there’s a few things packed in that question, so — [笑声](Laughter) 首先是价格方面First is on the pricing side — 我的意思是 要记住一点 对吧?I mean, keep in mind, right? UberX 我们刚开始这个项目的时候UberX, when we first started, 理论上要比我们的黑色 专车产品便宜10%到15%was literally 10 or 15 percent cheaper than our black car product. 现在It’s now 在很多城市 Uber 还比出租车 便宜差不多一半in many cities, half the price of a taxi. 我们所有的资料显示And we have all the data to show 所有的驾驶员每小时的收入 比他们当出租车司机时还要多that the divers are making more per hour than they would as taxi drivers. 当价格下降后What happens is when the price goes down, 人们就更喜欢搭 Uber 了people are more likely to take Uber 同一天不同的时间一直如此at different times of the day than they otherwise would have, 他们在一些场合似乎还 比之前更喜欢使用Uberand they’re more likely to use it in places they wouldn’t have before. 这就意味着 驾驶员无论 把乘客送到哪里And what that means for a driver is wherever he or she drops somebody off, 他们几乎是马上又拉到一个乘客 可以继续工作了they’re much more likely to get a pickup and get back in. 也就是说 每个小时的载客次数变多了And so what that means is more trips per hour, 每小时的服务分钟也变多了more minutes of the hour where they’re productive 且实际上收入也增加了and actually, earnings come up. 我们有一些城市 已经降价5-6次And we have cities where we’ve done literally five or six price cuts 而且随着时间越久 价格就降得越多and have seen those price cuts go up over time. 所以 即使是在纽约So even in New York — 我们有一篇博客文章 叫做“4个九月”We have a blog post we call “4 Septembers” — 内容就是compare the earnings 把每年9月份的收入September after September after September. 进行比较Same month every year. 我们可以看到当价格下降后And we see the earnings going up over time 司机反而赚的越多as the price comes down. 到时会有一个完美的价格档——你不能永远降价下去And there’s a perfect price point — you can’t go down forever. 在有些地方 我们降价后And in those places where we bring the price down 但看不到收入增加but we don’t see those earnings pop, 我们就会再调整回来we bring the prices back up. 所以这是我对第一部分的回答So that addresses that first part. 至于第二部分 谜一般的人 还有所有的事儿And then the enigma and all of this — 我的回答是 我是一个对I mean, the kind of entrepreneur I am 解决难题会感到很兴奋的创业者is one that gets really excited about solving hard problems. 我喜欢这样形容这件事 就是有点像数学教授And the way I like to describe it is it’s kind of like a math professor. 如果一个数学教授 没有困难的问题可以解决You know? If a math professor doesn’t have hard problems to solve, 那他真是一个可悲的教授that’s a really sad math professor. 我们Uber也是这样 我们非常喜欢难题And so at Uber we like the hard problems 在解决它们的过程中 我们会获得很大的满足and we like getting excited about those and solving them. 但我们要的不是只有数学问题But we don’t want just any math problem, 我们要的是能找到最难的问题we want the hardest ones that we can possibly find, 并找出那个可以解决问题的关键因子and we want the one that if you solve it, 那才是我们最想要的there’s a little bit of a wow factor. CA: 在几年之后CA: In a couple years’ time — 有些人说是五年之后 其实我也不知道是什么时候say five years’ time, I don’t know when — 你会推出炫酷的无人驾驶车服务you roll out your incredible self-driving cars, 可能比现在打 Uber 还便宜at probably a lower cost than you currently pay for an Uber ride. 到时候 面对你的百万 驾驶人军队时 你要怎么说?What do you say to your army of a million drivers plus at that time? TK:请再说一遍 大概什么时候?TK: Explain that again — at which time? CA: 在自动驾驶到来的时候CA: At the time when self-driving cars are coming — TK:好的 好的 好的 抱歉 我没听清楚TK: Sure, sure, sure. Sorry, I missed that. CA: 面对他们你要怎么说?CA: What do you say to a driver? TK:好吧 我认为首先TK: Well, look, I think the first part is it’s going to take — 无人驾驶车还有一段it’s likely going to take a lot longer 比广告或媒体预测的 还要长的路要走than I think some of the hype or media might expect. 这是第一部分That’s part one. 其次 会有一段过渡时期Part two is it’s going to also take — 这段时间也会很长there’s going to be a long transition. 自动驾驶一开始只能在特定的地方使用 不是在所有地方都行得通These cars will work in certain places and not in others. 不过对我们来说 这也是个 很有意思的挑战 对吧?For us it’s an interesting challenge, right? 因为Because, well — 谷歌从2007年就开始研究自动驾驶Google’s been investing in this since 2007, 特斯拉也开始投资 苹果也开始投资Tesla’s going to be doing it, Apple’s going to be doing it, 所有的制造商都已经准备好生产了the manufacturers are going to be doing it. 这是一个让世界永续生存的好理由This is a world that’s going to exist, and for good reason. 每年有100万人死于车祸A million people die a year in cars. 而且我们已经看到人类 每年要花几十亿甚至几兆个小时And we already looked at the billions or even trillions of hours worldwide 浪费在车子里面 焦虑 沮丧that people are spending sitting in them, driving frustrated, anxious. 想像一下And think about the quality of life that improves 当你把时间还给人们 让他们不用再忧心忡忡when you give people their time back 生活品质会改善多少and it’s not so anxiety-ridden. 所以 我认为会有很多好处So I think there’s a lot of good. 我们认为这件事是一个挑战And so the way we think about it is that it’s a challenge, 但是一种对乐观领导力的挑战but one for optimistic leadership, 而不是像之前的出租车业Where instead of resisting — 或电车业resisting technology, 要对抗、拒绝科技maybe like the taxi industry, or the trolley industry — 我们必须拥抱它或把它成为 我们未来的一部分we have to embrace it or be a part of the future. 但我们要如何乐观地领衔度过这一时期呢?But how do we optimistically lead through it? 有没有与城市 成为伙伴关系的方式?Are there ways to partner with cities? 在过渡期间 有没有教育系统或 职业训练Are there ways to have education systems, vocational training, etc., 等等的方式呢?for that transition period. 这会比我认为大家期待的时间还要长It will take a lot longer than I think we all expect, 特别是过渡时期especially that transition period. 但这才是我们面对的世界But it is a world that’s going to exist, 而且会是一个更美好的世界and it is going to be a better world. CA:Travis 你的贡献真的很了不起CA: Travis, what you’re building is absolutely incredible 我非常荣幸能邀请你来TED 并敞开心胸与我们分享and I’m hugely grateful to you for coming to TED and sharing so openly. – 非常感谢- 非常感谢– Thank you so much.- Thank you very much. [掌声](Applause)
  • 2021-10-26你喜欢自己的声音吗如果你问进化生物学家If you ask evolutionary biologists 人之为人是什么时候的事when did humans become humans, 他们有些人会说some of them will say that, well, 是在我们开始双脚站立的那一刻at some pointwe started standing on our feet, 变成两足动物 变成地球主人的时候became biped and becamethe masters of our environment. 还有一些人会说 因为我们的大脑在增大Others will say that because our brainstarted growing much bigger, 可以进行更复杂的认知过程that we were able to havemuch more complex cognitive processes. 也有些人可能会认为 那是因为我们发展了语言And others might arguethat it’s because we developed language 使我们的物种得以进化that allowed us to evolve as a species. 有趣的是 这三种现象互相关联Interestingly, those threephenomena are all connected. 我们不确定它们是怎样或以什么顺序联系We are not sure how or in which order, 但它们都和你脖子后面but they are all linked with the change 小骨形状的改变有关of shape of a little bone in the back of your neck 它改变了我们头部与身体的角度that changed the anglebetween our head and our body. 那意味着我们不仅能够站直That means we were able to stand upright 还可以让我们的大脑进化but also for our brainto evolve in the back 同时也能让我们的喉头and for our voice box to grow 从灵长类的7厘米生长到from seven centimeters for primates 人类的11到17厘米to 11 and up to 17 centimetres for humans. 这被称作喉头的“一脉相承”And this is calledthe descent of the larynx. 喉头就是你发声的地方And the larynx is the site of your voice. 当人类婴儿出生时 他们的喉头还没有长出来When baby humans are born today, their larynx is not descended yet. 这只在发生在他们三个月左右大的时候That only happensat about three months old. So, 打个比方 在座的每一位metaphorically, each of us here 都重温了我们整个物种的进化过程has relived the evolutionof our whole species. 让我们来谈谈宝宝And talking about babies, 当你在妈妈的子宫里开始生长时when you were starting to develop in your mother’s womb, 你拥有的 来自外界的第一感觉the first sensation that you hadcoming from the outside world, 是在你三周大的时候at only three weeks old, 长得如虾一样大时when you were about the size of a shrimp, 通过触觉来感受来自母亲声音的振动were through the tactile sensation 所以 正如我们所知道的那样coming from the vibrations of your mother’s voice. So, as we can see, 人类的声音在物种层面 在社会层面the human voice is quite meaningful and important 是非常重要且有意义的at the level of the species, at the level of the society — 这就是我们交流和创造纽带的方式this is how we communicate and create bonds, 在个人以及人与人之间的层面——and at the personaland interpersonal levels — 用我们的声音 我们分享的不止是语言和数据with our voice, we share much morethan words and data, 我们分享的其实是我们自己we share basically who we are. 而且我们的声音与其他人听到的不同And our voice is indistinguishablefrom how other people see us. 它是我们在社会上戴的面具It is a mask that we wear in society. 但我们和自己声音的关系不明显But our relationship with our own voiceis far from obvious. 我们很少为自己使用我们的声音We rarely use our voice for ourselves; 我们把它作为送给他人的礼物we use it as a gift to give to others. 这就是我们彼此接触的方式It is how we touch each other. 这是一种辩证修辞It’s a dialectical grooming. 但我们如何看待自己的声音呢But what do we think about our own voice? 如果你不喜欢从录音机中听见你的声音So please raise your hand if you don’t like the sound 请举起你们的手of your voice when you hear it on a recording machine. (大笑)的确(Laughter) Yeah, 谢谢你们 真的是这样thank you, indeed, 大部分人声称自己不喜欢他们录制的声音most people report not liking the sound of their voice recording. 那这意味着什么呢So what does that mean? 我们在接下来的十分钟弄懂它Let’s try to understand thatin the next 10 minutes. 我是麻省理工媒体实验室的一名研究员I’m a researcher at the MIT Media Lab, 是Opera of the Future的成员part of the Opera of the Future group, 我的研究关注的是and my research focuses on the relationship 人们与自己声音和别人声音之间的关系people have with their own voice and with the voices of others. 我们研究能从声音中学到什么东西I study what we can learnfrom listening to voices, 从各种领域 神经学到生物学 认知科学 语言学from the various fields, from neurology to biology,cognitive sciences, linguistics. 在我们组 我们创造工具和体验In our group we createtools and experiences 来帮助人们更好地理解他们的声音to help people gain a betterapplied understanding of their voice 为了减少偏见in order to reduce the biases, 成为更好的倾听者to become better listeners, 创造更健康的关系to create more healthy relationships 或只为更好的理解自身or just to understand themselves better. 这真的需要声音的整体分析And this really has to come with a holistic approach on the voice. 因为考虑到声音的应用和影响Because think about allthe applications and implications 我们对声音的认知更深入了that the voice may have,as we discover more about it. 声音是一种非常复杂的现象Your voice is a very complex phenomenon. 它需要你身体一百多块肌肉同步It requires a synchronization of more than 100 muscles in your body. 通过听声音And by listening to the voice, 我们能知道身体可能发生的异样we can understand possible failuresof what happens inside. 例如:聆听非常特殊的振动类型For example: listening to very specifictypes of turbulences 和非线性特征的声音and nonlinearity of the voice 可以帮助预测早期帕金森can help predictvery early stages of Parkinson’s, 用电话就行just through a phone call. 听呼吸声可以帮助诊断心脏疾病Listening to the breathness of the voice can help detect heart disease. 而且我们也知道 在个人话语中 语速的改变And we also know that the changes of tempo inside individual words 是抑郁症的一个明显标志is a very good marker of depression. 你的声音也与你的荷尔蒙水平紧密相连Your voice is also very linkedwith your hormone levels. 听到女声的第三方Third parties listening to female voices 能非常精确地确定were able to very accuratelyplace the speaker 她们的月经周期on their menstrual cycle. 而这仅需用听觉信息来判断Just with acoustic information. 而且现在用技术不断听我们的声音And now with technologylistening to us all the time, 例如 亚马逊的回声助理AlexaAlexa from Amazon Echo 甚至能在你之前might be able to predictif you’re pregnant 预测出你是否怀孕even before you know it. 所以想象一下So think about — (大笑)(Laughter) 考虑道德标准的应用Think about the ethicalapplication of that. 你的声音也与你如何创造关系紧密相关Your voice is also very linkedto how you create relationships. 对每个和你谈话的人 你的声音都会不同You have a different voicefor every person you talk to. 如果我截取自己一小段声音来分析If I take a little snippet of your voice and I analyze it, 我可以分辨出你是在和你妈妈I can know whether you’re talking to your mother, 还是你哥哥 你的朋友或你的老板讲话to your brother, your friend or your boss. 我们也可以把发音方式作为预测器We can also use, as a predictor,the vocal posture. 就是说 当你和某人说话时你可以决定自己说话的方式和语调Meaning,how you decide to place your voice when you talk to someone. 还有你和伴侣讲话时声音的方式And you vocal posture,when you talk to your spouse, 可以帮助预测的不仅如此 而且在你将离婚时也可以预测can help predict not only if, but also when you will divorce. 所以从听声音可以学到很多So there is a lot to learnfrom listening to voices. 而且 我相信这要从理解开始And I believe this has to startwith understanding 我们不止有一个声音that we have more than one voice. 所以 我接下来谈论的是So I’m going to talk about three voices 我们大部分人的三种声音that most of us posses, 在我称之为面具的模式中in a model of what I call the mask. 因此 你看着面具时So when you look at the mask, 你看到的是一个人的投影what you see is a projection of a character. 我们把它称为外在声音Let’s call that your outward voice. 这也是考虑声音的最经典方式This is also the most classic way to think about the voice, 这是一种将自己投射到世界上的方式it’s a way of projectingyourself in the world. 这个推测机制很好理解The mechanism for this projectionis well understood. 你的肺收缩隔膜Your lungs contract your diaphragm 这就产生了自我维持的声带振动and that creates a self-sustainedvibration of your vocal fold, 因此也产生了声音that creates a sound. 然后你张开和闭上口腔的方式And then the way you open and close the cavities in you mouth, 会让声音随着声道有所改变your vocal tract is going totransform the sound. 所以 每一个人有同样的机制So everyone has the same mechanism. 但是嗓音都特别独特But voices are quite unique. 这是因为大小 生理 激素水平上的差异非常微妙It’s because very subtle differencesin size, physiology, in hormone levels 都将会在你的外在声音上产生细微差异are going to make very subtledifferences in your outward voice. 你的大脑非常擅长And your brain is very good 从其他人的外部声音中识别出细微差异at picking up those subtle differencesfrom other people’s outward voices. 在我们的实验室 我们致力于教这些机器In our lab, we are workingon teaching machines 理解那些细微差异to understand those subtle differences. 我们通过深度学习 创造一个实时说话者的识别系统And we use deep learning to create a real-time speaker identification system 为了提高大家对共用声乐空间的认识—to help raise awareness on the use of the shared vocal space — 会议期间谁发言谁从不讲话——以增加团队智慧so who talks and who never talks during meetings — to increase group intelligence. 其中的一个难点是 你的声音不是一成不变的And one of the difficulties with that is that your voice is also not static. 我们前面已经说过 声音会随着与你交谈的人的变化而改变We already said that it changes with every person you talk to 而且这个改变发生在你的日常生活中but it also changes generallythroughout your life. 在生命开始和结束时At the beginningand at the end of the journey, 男性和女性的声音非常相似male and female voices are very similar. 我们很难区别出It’s very hard to distinguish 一个童声是属于男孩还是女孩the voice of a very young girl from the voice of a very young boy. 但在这两者之间你的声音成为你的流体特性的标志But in between, your voice becomes a marker of your fluid identity. Generally, 通常 男性的声音在青春期变化很大for male voicesthere’s a big change at puberty. 而女性的声音And then for female voices, 则在每次怀孕时改变 在更年期有巨大改变there is a change at each pregnancy and a big change at menopause. 所有这些都是别人在你说话时听到的声音So all of that is the voice other people hear when you talk. 那为什么我们对它如此陌生呢So why is it that we’re sounfamiliar with it? 为什么我们听到的声音不是它呢Why is it that it’s notthe voice that we hear? So, 让我们思考一下let’s think about it. 你戴着面具 实际上却看不见面具When you wear a mask,you actually don’t see the mask. 而当你试图观察面具时And when you try to observe it, 你看到的只是面具的内部what you will see is inside of the mask. 而那就是你的内在声音And that’s your inward voice. 所以 为了理解它不同的原因So to understand why it’s different, 我们试着理解这种内在声音的意识机制let’s try to understand the mechanism of perception of this inward voice. 因为你的身体有很多不同的过滤外部声音的方式Because your body has many waysof filtering it differently from the outward voice. 所以为了感觉这种声音 首先得传到你的耳朵So to perceive this voice, it first has to travel to your ears. 你的外部声音在空气中传播And your outward voicetravels through the air 而你的内在声音通过骨头传播while your inward voicetravels through your bones. 这称为骨骼传导This is called bone conduction. 正因为如此Because of this, 你的内在声音听起来会比较低沉your inward voice is going to sound in a lower register 也比你的外部声音更和谐and also more musically harmonicalthan your outward voice. 一旦它传播到那 它得通过你的内耳Once it travels there,it has to access your inner ear. 在这儿会有其他的机制And there’s this other mechanismtaking place here. 它是一个机械过滤器It’s a mechanical filter, 它是一个小的隔离物 每次你发声时 它会保护你的内耳it’s a little partition that comes and protects your inner ear each time you produce a sound. 所以它也减少了你听到的声音So it also reduces what you hear. 接着是第三个过滤器 它是一个生物过滤器And then there is a third filter,it’s a biological filter. 你的耳蜗——它是你内耳的一部分 能编程声音——Your cochlea — it’s a part of your inner ear that processes the sound — 是由很多活细胞组成的is made out of living cells. 这些活细胞根据它们听到声音的频率And those living cellsare going to trigger differently 会产生不同的反应according to how oftenthey hear the sound. 它是一种习惯化效果It’s a habituation effect. 所以 正因如此So because of this, 因为你的声音是你在生活中最常听到的as your voice is the sound you hear the most in your life, 而实际上你听到的却少于其他声音you actually hear it lessthan other sounds. Finally, 最后 我们有一个第四层的过滤器we have a fourth filter. 它是一个神经渗透器It’s a neurological filter. 神经学家最近发现Neurologists found out recently 当你张开嘴发声时that when you open your mouthto create a sound, 你自己的听觉皮质会关闭your own auditory cortex shuts down. 所以 你听到你的声音So you hear your voice 但是你的大脑实际上从没有听过你的声音but your brain actually never listens to the sound of your voice. Well, 进化也许解释了它evolutionarilythat might make sense, 因为我们感觉得到我们的声音会是什么样子because we know cognitivelywhat we are going to sound like 所以我们可能不需要花能量分析信号so maybe we don’t needto spend energy analyzing the signal. 这称为伴随放电And this is called a corollary discharge 你身体做的每一个动作 它都会发生and it happens for every motionthat your body does. 伴随放电的准确定义是The exact definitionof a corollary discharge 由大脑发送的运动指令的副本is a copy of a motor command that is sent by the brain. 这个副本自身不会产生任何动作This copy doesn’t create any motion itself 而是被发送到大脑的其他区域but instead is sentto other regions of the brain 通知它们完成后续动作to inform them of the impending motion. 对于声音 伴随放电也有一个不同的名字And for the voice, this corollary discharge also has a different name. 它是你的内在声音It is your inner voice. 那么 我们概括一下So let’s recapitulate. 我们有面具 外部声音We have the mask, the outward voice, 面具的内部 你的内在声音the inside of the mask, your inward voice, 接着你产生了你的内在声音and then you have your inner voice. 我喜欢把这个当作是And I like to see this oneas the puppeteer 傀儡抓住了整个系统的附带条件that holds the stringsof the whole system. 你的内在声音是 当你默读一篇文章时Your inner voice is the one you hear when you read a text silently, 或排练一场重要对话时 你听到的声音when you rehearsefor an important conversation. 有时很难转换Sometimes is hard to turn it off, 在没有内在声音阅读的情况下it’s really hard to look at the text written in your native language, 你真的很难看懂用你的本国语言写的文本without having this inner voice read it. 也是这个声音拒绝停止唱 你头脑中愚蠢的歌It’s also the voice that refuse to stop singing the stupid song you have in your head. (大笑)(Laughter) 对于一些人 实际上很难控制内在声音And for some peopleit’s actually impossible to control it. 那就是精神分裂症患者的案例And that’s the caseof schizophrenic patients, 他们有幻听who have auditory hallucinations. 他们完全不能区分来自他们头脑内部或外部的声音Who can’t distinguish at all between voices coming from inside and outside their head. 所以我们实验室也致力于So in our lab, we are alsoworking on small devices 帮助他们区分那些差异to help those peoplemake those distinctions 让他们知道声音是否是内在或外在的and know if a voiceis internal or external. 你可以把它当做是内在声音You can also think about the inner voice 当作你梦里说的声音as the voice that speaks in your dream. 这种内在声音可以采取很多形式This inner voice can take many forms. 在你们的梦中 你实际上释放了内在声音的潜能And in your dreams, you actually unleash the potential of this inner voice. 那就是我们实验室在做的另一个工作That’s another workwe are doing in our lab: 努力在梦里接近内在声音trying to accessthis inner voice in dreams. 即使你不能总是控制它So even if you can’t always control it, 也可以一直通过对话 内心独白the inner voice –you can always engage with it 使用它——内在声音through dialogue, through inner dialogues. 你甚至可以看见这种内在声音And you can even see this inner voice 当思想与行动之间失去连接时as the missing link between thought and actions. 我希望我已经给了你们So I hope I’ve left youwith a better appreciation, 关于你对声音的全新理解a new appreciation of all of your voices 和它在内外部起的作用的更好解释——and the role it playsinside and outside of you — 因为你的声音是决定as your voice is a very critical determinant 成就人类of what makes you humans 以及你如何与世界交流的关键因素and of how you interact with the world. 谢谢你们Thank you. (掌声)(Applause)
  • 2021-10-26两个华裔高中生探索用细菌降解塑料的旅程汪郁雯: 今天我们来聊聊“意外”Miranda Wang: We’re here to talk about accidents. 大家觉得“意外”怎么样?How do you feel about accidents? 当我们想到“意外”的时候When we think about accidents, 通常我们都会认为“意外”是有害的we usually consider them to be harmful, 是不幸的 甚至是危险的 很多时候“意外”的确是这样的unfortunate or even dangerous, and they certainly can be. 但是 “意外”真的那么糟糕吗?But are they always that bad? 比方说 青霉素的发现The discovery that had led to penicillin, for example, 可能是有史以来最幸运的“意外”is one of the most fortunate accidents of all time. 要是没有生物学家亚历山大·弗莱明Without biologist Alexander Fleming’s moldy accident, 因对工作台疏于管理而造成的意外“发霉”caused by a neglected workstation, 我们根本无法战胜如此之多的细菌感染病we wouldn’t be able to fight off so many bacterial infections. 姚佳韵: 今天我和米兰达来到这儿Jeanny Yao: Miranda and I are here today 跟大家分享“意外”是如何because we’d like to share how our accidents 造就我们的科学发现的have led to discoveries. 我们在2011年的时候参观了温哥华垃圾中转站In 2011, we visited the Vancouver Waste Transfer Station 看到了堆成山的塑料垃圾and saw an enormous pit of plastic waste. 我们当时意识到 当塑料垃圾被运到垃圾场时We realized that when plastics get to the dump, 因为他们密度相近 由此导致分类困难it’s difficult to sort them because they have similar densities, 而且当塑料跟有机物以及and when they’re mixed with organic matter 建筑碎片混合在一起的时候 几乎不可能and construction debris, it’s truly impossible 将它们筛选出来并进行环保处理to pick them out and environmentally eliminate them. 汪: 可是 塑料确实是有用的MW: However, plastics are useful 它们结实耐用 可塑性也大because they’re durable, flexible, 可以制成各种形态的实用形状and can be easily molded into so many useful shapes. 然而这种便利带来的不利便是The downside of this convenience 我们要付出很大的环境代价is that there’s a high cost to this. 塑料垃圾会引发一系列严重的问题Plastics cause serious problems, such as 比如对生态系统的破坏the destruction of ecosystems, 对自然资源的污染the pollution of natural resources, 以及对可用土地空间的占用and the reduction of available land space. 你们看到的这张图是太平洋环流This picture you see here is the Great Pacific Gyre. 当我们将塑料污染When you think about plastic pollution 跟海洋环境联系在一起时and the marine environment, 我们就想到了太平洋环流we think about the Great Pacific Gyre, 将会变成了一座座塑料垃圾的浮岛which is supposed to be a floating island of plastic waste. 然而 用这个来描述塑料垃圾堆海洋环境的影响But that’s no longer an accurate depiction 已经不再准确of plastic pollution in the marine environment. 事实上 现在整个海洋都像是一锅充斥塑料垃圾悬浮物的汤Right now, the ocean is actually a soup of plastic debris, 现在已经找不到一片and there’s nowhere you can go in the ocean 没有塑料垃圾的海域了where you wouldn’t be able to find plastic particles. 姚: 在我们这个依赖塑料制品的社会JY: In a plastic-dependent society, 减少塑料的生产固然重要 但这远远不够cutting down production is a good goal, but it’s not enough. 那些已经变成垃圾的塑料该怎么办?And what about the waste that’s already been produced? 塑料的生物降解过程需要成百上千年Plastics take hundreds to thousands of years to biodegrade. 所以 我们就想So we thought, you know what? 与其让那些垃圾在那越堆越多Instead of waiting for that garbage to sit there and pile up, 不如想个办法把它们消灭掉let’s find a way to break them down ——细菌分解with bacteria. 听起来还不错吧!Sounds cool, right? 观众: 对. 姚: 谢谢你Audience: Yeah. JY: Thank you. 但我们遇到了一个问题But we had a problem. 你们知道的 塑料的构造十分复杂You see, plastics have very complex structures 并且很难生物降解and are difficult to biodegrade. 然而 我们还是很好奇并且满怀希望Anyhow, we were curious and hopeful 仍然想试一试and still wanted to give it a go. 汪: 怀着这样的想法 珍妮和我在网上MW: With this idea in mind, Jeanny and I read through 阅读了几百篇科学论文some hundreds of scientific articles on the Internet, 然后我们在高三刚开始的时候and we drafted a research proposal 起草了一个研究方案in the beginning of our grade 12 year. 我们希望能从本地的弗雷泽河(音译)中寻找到一种细菌We aimed to find bacteria from our local Fraser River 能够降解一种叫做邻苯二甲酸酯(phthalate)的有害塑化剂that can degrade a harmful plasticizer called phthalates. 邻苯二甲酸酯是一种应用于日常塑料制品的添加剂Phthalates are additives used in everyday plastic products 它们可以提高塑料产品的延展性 耐用性和透明度to increase their flexibility, durability and transparency. 尽管它们(邻苯二甲酸酯)也是塑料的构成部分Although they’re part of the plastic, 但并不与塑料聚合物主链共价绑定they’re not covalently bonded to the plastic backbone. 因此 它们可以轻易地散泄到我们的环境中As a result, they easily escape into our environment. 邻苯二甲酸酯不仅污染我们的环境Not only do phthalates pollute our environment, 它们还“污染”我们的身体but they also pollute our bodies. 更严重的是 邻苯二甲酸酯存在于很多To make the matter worse, phthalates are found in products 我们经常接触的产品中 比如婴儿的玩具to which we have a high exposure, such as babies’ toys, 饮料瓶 化妆品 甚至食物包装中beverage containers, cosmetics, and even food wraps. 邻苯二甲酸酯的可怕之处还在于Phthalates are horrible because 它们能轻易被吸收进我们的身体they’re so easily taken into our bodies. 它们可以通过皮肤接触 食用 呼吸等方式被吸收They can be absorbed by skin contact, ingested, and inhaled. 姚: 每年至少有四亿七千万磅的邻苯二甲酸酯JY: Every year, at least 470 million pounds of phthalates 在污染我们的空气 水以及土壤contaminate our air, water and soil. 环境保护署甚至将The Environmental Protection Agency 邻苯二甲酸酯划定为危险类别的污染物even classified this group as a top-priority pollutant 因为研究显示邻苯二甲酸酯会通过干扰荷尔蒙because it’s been shown to cause cancer and birth defects 引发癌症和出生缺陷by acting as a hormone disruptor. 我们了解到 每年温哥华市政府都会We read that each year, the Vancouver municipal government 监测河流中邻苯二甲酸酯的浓度monitors phthalate concentration levels in rivers 来评估河流的安全性to assess their safety. 所以我们设想 假如弗雷泽河周边地区So we figured, if there are places along our Fraser River 有已经被邻苯二甲酸酯污染的that are contaminated with phthalates, 同时在这些地区有可以存活的细菌and if there are bacteria that are able to live in these areas, 那么 也许这些细菌已经进化then perhaps, perhaps these bacteria could have evolved 到可以分解邻苯二甲酸酯to break down phthalates. 汪: 所以我们将这个设想跟MW: So we presented this good idea 英属哥伦比亚大学的林赛·埃尔迪斯(音译)博士进行了沟通to Dr. Lindsay Eltis at the University of British Columbia, 出乎意料的是 他竟带我们去了他的实验室and surprisingly, he actually took us into his lab 并让他的学生亚当(音译)和詹姆斯(音译)协助我们and asked his graduate students Adam and James to help us. 那时候我们根本没有想到Little did we know at that time 一次参观垃圾场的经历 在网上做的一些研究以及that a trip to the dump and some research on the Internet 我们遵循内心想法去做事的勇气and plucking up the courage to act upon inspiration 会带领我们踏上这样一段充满意外跟发现would take us on a life-changing journey 甚至改变我们一生的旅程of accidents and discoveries. 姚: 我们第一步是JY: The first step in our project 从弗雷泽河周边三个不同地点was to collect soil samples from three different sites 采集土壤样本along the Fraser River. 我们想要从成千上万种细菌中找出Out of thousands of bacteria, we wanted to find ones 可以分解邻苯二甲酸酯的that could break down phthalates, 为此我们用邻苯二甲酸酯作为so we enriched our cultures with phthalates 培养基中的唯一碳源as the only carbon source. 这意味着 如果有任何细菌可以在我们的培养基中生长This implied that, if anything grew in our cultures, 那么它们必然能靠邻苯二甲酸酯存活then they must be able to live off of phthalates. 从那以后一切都进展得很顺利Everything went well from there, 我们成了了不起的科学家(笑声)and we became amazing scientists. (Laughter) 汪: 呃……珍妮姚: 我就是开个玩笑MW: Um… uh, Jeanny. JY: I’m just joking. 汪: 好吧 其实部分责任在我……MW: Okay. Well, it was partially my fault. 因为 我意外地打破了You see, I accidentally cracked the flask 装有第三个加富培养基的烧瓶that had contained our third enrichment culture, 结果就是我们不得不用漂白剂跟酒精and as a result, we had to wipe down the incubator room 将细菌培养室擦洗了两遍with bleach and ethanol twice. 这仅仅是我们实验过程中And this is only one of the examples of the many accidents 许多意外事件中的一个例子that happened during our experimentation. 但这个不小心的错误却变成了一个意外收获But this mistake turned out to be rather serendipitous. 我们注意到 没有破损的培养基We noticed that the unharmed cultures 来自于污染程度不同的两个地方(鸟类保护区和垃圾填堆埋区)came from places of opposite contamination levels, 这让我们想到so this mistake actually led us to think that 也许我们可以对来自perhaps we can compare 不同污染地区的细菌进行the different degradative potentials of bacteria 降解能力的比较from sites of opposite contamination levels. 姚: 接下来在我们培养细菌的时候JY: Now that we grew the bacteria, 我们想要用划线接种到调整皿的方法来将分离菌种we wanted to isolate strains by streaking onto mediate plates, 因为我们觉得这样可以降低发生意外的可能because we thought that would be 但我们又错了less accident-prone, but we were wrong again. 当我们在接种的时候戳破了培养基We poked holes in our agar while streaking 并且污染了一批样本跟真菌and contaminated some samples and funghi. 结果就是 我们不得不多尝试几次As a result, we had to streak and restreak several times. 然后我们监测了邻苯二甲酸酯的利用率Then we monitored phthalate utilization 与细菌增长率and bacterial growth, 我们发现这两者呈现出负相关and found that they shared an inverse correlation, 也就是当细菌数量增长时so as bacterial populations increased, 邻苯二甲酸酯浓度就会降低phthalate concentrations decreased. 这意味着我们的细菌样本实际上是靠邻苯二甲酸酯存活的This means that our bacteria were actually living off of phthalates. 汪: 如今我们发现了可以分解邻苯二甲酸酯的细菌MW: So now that we found bacteria that could break down phthalates, 我们想了解这些细菌究竟是什么we wondered what these bacteria were. 所以珍妮和我取样了三个最有效的菌株So Jeanny and I took three of our most efficient strains 之后对它们进行了基因扩增测序and then performed gene amplification sequencing on them 并且将我们的数据跟一个在线综合数据库进行了比对and matched our data with an online comprehensive database. 我们很高兴地发现We were happy to see that, 尽管我们的三个菌株是之前已被识别的细菌种类although our three strains had been previously identified bacteria, 但其中两个之前并未与邻苯二甲酸酯的降解联系在一起two of them were not previously associated 所以这实际上是一个全新的发现with phthalate degradation, so this was actually a novel discovery. 姚: 为了更好地理解这样一个生物降解过程JY: To better understand how this biodegradation works, 我们想要检测这三个菌株的分解代谢过程we wanted to verify the catabolic pathways of our three strains. 为此 我们从这些细菌中提举了酶样本To do this, we extracted enzymes from our bacteria 并且跟一种邻苯二甲酸媒介进行了化学反应and reacted with an intermediate of phthalic acid. 汪: 我们使用分光光度测定法监测了这个实验MW: We monitored this experiment with spectrophotometry 并且得到了这个美丽的曲线图and obtained this beautiful graph. 这个曲线图显示我们的细菌确实有一种This graph shows that our bacteria really do have 可以生物降解邻苯二甲酸酯的基因路径a genetic pathway to biodegrade phthalates. 我们的细菌可以将邻苯二甲酸酯这样一种有害毒素Our bacteria can transform phthalates, which is a harmful toxin, 转化成二氧化碳 水into end products such as carbon dioxide, water 还有酒精and alcohol. 我知道你们中一定有人在想I know some of you in the crowd are thinking, 二氧化碳不好 是一种温室气体well, carbon dioxide is horrible, it’s a greenhouse gas. 但如果我们的细菌没有进化到可以降解邻苯二甲酸酯But if our bacteria did not evolve to break down phthalates, 它们就会使用其他碳资源they would have used some other kind of carbon source, 同时其有氧呼吸最终and aerobic respiration would have led it 还是会产生类似二氧化碳的产物to have end products such as carbon dioxide anyway. 我们也惊喜地发现We were also interested to see that, 尽管我们从鸟类栖息地采集到了although we’ve obtained greater diversity 具有各种降解能力的细菌of bacteria biodegraders from the bird habitat site, 但降解效果最佳的细菌却来自垃圾填埋场we obtained the most efficient degraders from the landfill site. 这也充分显示了是大自然的进化So this fully shows that nature evolves 真的是物竞天择适者生存through natural selection. 姚: 米兰达和我在赛诺菲(音译)生物天才挑战赛上JY: So Miranda and I shared this research 分享了这个研究 人们认为这个发现也at the Sanofi BioGENEius Challenge competition and were recognized 最具有商业潜能with the greatest commercialization potential. 尽管我们并不是第一个发现Although we’re not the first ones to find bacteria 可以分解邻苯二甲酸酯的细菌的人that can break down phthalates, 但我们确实是第一个从当地河流中we were the first ones to look into our local river 找到能解决当地问题的可能性方案的and find a possible solution to a local problem. 我们不仅证明了细菌可以We have not only shown that bacteria 解决塑料污染 也证明了can be the solution to plastic pollution, but also that 对未知结果保持开放头脑以及冒险精神being open to uncertain outcomes and taking risks 可以为意想不到的科学发现创造时机create opportunities for unexpected discoveries. 通过这次经历 我们也发现自己对于科学的热爱Throughout this journey, we have also discovered our passion for science, 现在我们在大学里and are currently continuing research 继续进行有关化石燃料制品的研究on other fossil fuel chemicals in university. 我们希望在不久的将来We hope that in the near future, 我们可以创造出有机体模型we’ll be able to create model organisms 用来分解包括邻苯二甲酸酯在内的that can break down not only phthalates 其他更多种类的污染物but a wide variety of different contaminants. 我们可以将此研究应用于污水处理厂We can apply this to wastewater treatment plants 来净化我们的河流to clean up our rivers 以及其他自然资源and other natural resources. 也许有一天我们能够解决And perhaps one day we’ll be able to tackle 固体塑料垃圾的问题the problem of solid plastic waste. 汪: 我认为我们的经历确实改变了MW: I think our journey has truly transformed 我们对于微生物的看法our view of microorganisms, 珍妮和我证明了and Jeanny and I have shown that 即便是错误也能引导科学发现even mistakes can lead to discoveries. 爱因斯坦就曾说过Einstein once said, “你不能用你制造问题的思路“You can’t solve problems by using the same kind 去解决问题。”of thinking you used when you created them.” 如果我们制造塑料的方式是“(人工)合成式”的If we’re making plastic synthetically, then we think 那么我们解决塑料污染问题的方式就应该是“生物化学降解式”的the solution would be to break them down biochemically. 谢谢大家姚: 谢谢大家Thank you. JY: Thank you. (掌声)(Applause)
  • 2021-10-26何谓可相许终身之良人When I was growing up,在我成长的过程中 there was this song we used to sing on the playground,曾经在操场上唱过这样一首歌 and it went like this,歌词是这样写的: “Tracy and so and so, sitting in a tree, k-i-s-s-i-n-g,‘’Tracy等等坐在树下 亲嘴儿 first comes love, then comes marriage,首先是爱情 接着是婚姻 then comes baby in a baby carriage.”然后是童车里的婴儿‘’ And I’m like, “OK,我就想 ‘’好吧 that’s it! That’s how you do life.That’s how you do a relationship. 就是这样 就这样过一辈子 就这样谈恋爱 Love, marriage, baby carriage. OK, got it!”爱情 婚姻 童车 好 我懂了‘‘ And then I grew up,然后我长大成人了 and this is what my life turned out to be.这就是我现在生活的样子 Slightly more complicated, right? 稍微复杂了点儿 对吧 Love, marriage, divorce,dry spells, love, marriage, co-parenting,爱情 婚姻 离婚 空窗期 爱情 婚姻 共同抚养孩子 another marriage, another divorce;再一次婚姻 再一次离婚 you got the picture.你看懂这张图了吧 So if you’re good at math and/or a fast reader,如果你擅长数学或者一目十行 what you’ve got there is that I’ve been married three times.你可以看出 我结过三次婚 Yep,three, and divorced.对 三次 并且都离了 And what that is supposed to mean is that I’m a total failure at relationships.这也许意味着 我在感情方面一败涂地 And that is one way to look at it,这是看待问题的其中一个角度 but not the only way.但绝不是唯一的 Because what I think really happened is that I kept marrying the wrong person.因为我觉得自己真的是一直都嫁错了人 No,it’s not that I didn’t —我没有 you know it’s not that I chose bad guys.并不是说我选择了坏男人 My first two husbands were amazing men我的前两任丈夫都是很棒的男士 who are now married to wonderful women who aren’t me.他们现在都娶了贤妻 那个人不是我 And my third husband, well, we’re friends on Facebook now.我的第三任丈夫 我们现在在脸书上是朋友 So, all is well that ends well, right?所以 一切都好 对吧 After the collapse of my third marriage in 2005,在2005年 我的第三次婚姻土崩瓦解后 I realized that I’ve been marrying everyone in sight,我意识到自己的每次婚姻都是闪婚 except the one person that I really needed to marry除了为赢得一段更美好的感情 in order to have a great relationship值得嫁的那个人 and that once I married that person,我一旦嫁了那个人 all of my relationships would be successes, even the failures.我所有的关系都会是成功的 即使是失败 The so-called failures, actually.其实是 所谓的失败 Since we’re talking today about women inventing,鉴于今天我们正讨论女性创造 I’m going to talk about inventing relationships.我要说说建立关系 What I’ve found through a lot of trial and obviously, many, many, many errors,通过大量实践 显而易见 我发现 许多 许多 许多的错误 to be the thing that has transformed my life and love,改变了我的生活和爱情 and that is this idea of marrying yourself.这就是和自己结婚的想法 So what does it mean to marry yourself?和自己结婚是什么意思呢 It’s a big idea.这是个大想法 It is as big as marriage itself except,和结婚本身一样郑重 if I could just summarize it,如果简而言之 it would be that you enter into a relationship with yourself你可以和自己发展一段关系 and then you put a ring on it.并附上戒指一枚 In other words, you commit to yourself fully.换句话说 全心全意对待自己 And then you build a relationship with yourself然后 与自己开始一段恋情 to the point where you realize that you’re whole right now,直到你觉得自己现在是完整的 that there is no man, woman, job,circumstance没有男人 女人 工作等情况 that can happen to you that is going to make you more whole能作用于你并使你更加完整 because you already are.因为你早已很完整了 And this changes your life.而且这还会改变你的人生 So by now, I’m sure at least some of you are wondering现在 我肯定你们中的一部分在想 why you should be listening to a three-time divorcee talk about marriage?为什么要听一个离婚三次的女人谈婚姻? Even to herself. And I understand that.就算是对她来说也是如此 我理解 Here’s what I have to say about that:以下是我必须要说的: is what I’ve learned and my experience is我学到的和我的经验是 that the places where you have the biggest challenges in your life你在人生中遇到最大挑战的地方 become the places where you have the most to give if you do your inner work.若能修身养性 此处会成为你收获最多的地方 I kind of want to say that again:我还想再强调一遍: the places where you have the biggest challenges面临最大挑战的地方 are the places where you have the most to give.即是你收获最多的地方 So let me tell you a little bit我来告诉大家一些 about the person I truly needed to marry: myself.我真的想嫁的这个人:我自己 I am from Minneapolis. Wooh!我来自于明尼阿波利斯 My mom was a prostitute and an alcoholic.我的妈妈是性服务工作者也是一个酒鬼 She put me in foster care when I was three months old.我三个月大的时候 就被她交给了寄养家庭 My dad was a criminal;我父亲是罪犯 he was a drug dealer and a pimp with a heart of gold是个心地善良的毒贩和皮条客 – actually, they both had hearts of gold –事实上 他们俩都很善良 and he spent more or less my whole life in prison.几乎在我全部的人生中 他都呆在监狱里 He just got out of prison after his most recent sentence which was 20 years.最近他刚服满20年刑期 得以刑满释放 and I spent, you know我花了 你知道 until the age of nine, I was probably in two dozen foster homes.九岁时 我大概就在二十几个寄养家庭生活过 The thing you need to know about this story对这个故事 你需要知道的是 – there are a lot of details, obviously –有很多细节 显而易见 but the thing you need to know但你需要知道的是 is that I came out of that childhood with one goal: to never be left.我的童年就只有一个目标:永远不被遗弃 And the way I was going to do that is我过去的方法就是 that I was going to get married.我要结婚 That was the way I was going to accomplish that goal.这就是我达到目的的方式 So I got married the first time to所以我的首次婚姻是 a guy I met when I was 17.和我17岁时遇到的小伙子 We got married a couple of years later, when I was 19.几年后 我们结婚了 那时我19岁 He was a really good guy from a great family,他真的是个出身优越的好男人 he had an MBA.拥有MBA I mean, it was like, you know, marriage material.我的意思是 这就像 你懂得 物质婚姻 And you know, I was thrilled.你明白 我很兴奋 I was like,”I have a family. I belong somewhere. This is wonderful.”就像是 ‘’我有家了 我有归属了 这太棒了‘’ And then after five years I left him.过了5年 我离开了他 Then ten years later,然后10年之后 I got married again to another wonderful guy,我再次和一个很棒的人结婚了 who is the father of my now 16-years-old son.他是我16岁儿子的父亲 We still have a wonderful relationship.我们的关系依然很好 He is a really good guy.他人真的很好 But after four years I left him, too.但四年以后我也离开了他 And I am not proud to say that I did that,讲述这些事情不会让我感到骄傲 but in order to really marry yourself,但为了真正与自己结婚 you have to get sometimes very painfully honest with yourself你必须对你自己做过的事非常诚实 about what it is that you’ve done.即使那伴随着痛苦 So I’m not proud of that.所以我并没有以此为傲 Then eight years later,八年以后 I got married again, when I was 40,我又结婚了 那时我四十岁 and I was like,”OK, this feels right!”就像是 ‘’嗯 这次感觉对了‘’ Let me tell you what felt right to我来告诉你们 a girl who was in 24 foster homes:对一个在24个寄养家庭生活过的女孩 这是什么感觉: a guy who started to date after nine months of marriage; essentially,一个男人结婚九个月后开始约会 基本上 he started dating a 21-year-old girl. 他开始和一个21岁的女生约会 OK, I mean, it would be funny, 好吧 我是说 如果这件事不是那么悲惨 if it weren’t so tragic.还是很好笑的 You have to have a sense of… that is why we’re Facebook friends. So,你必须有这样一种意识 为什么我们在脸书上是朋友 所以 here I am looking at this person that I just described with a terrible track record of relationships,我正看着这个我刚描述的 拥有一段糟糕情史的男人 and I’m like,”I’m supposed to marry her?心想 ‘’我该娶她吗? This is the woman you want me to marry?”你想让我娶的是这个女人吗‘’ And the answer is yes.答案是 没错 Because here is the deal:是这样的: the thing about marrying yourself is not just like cohabitating.和自己结婚并不只是共处 You’re not just going to date你不仅要约会一段时间 for a while and see how it turns out.还要看看事情如何发展 You are going to do this till death do you part.你要这么做 直至死亡将你们分离 You are going to take vows.你还要立誓 So here are the vows.以下是誓言 Number 1: you are going to marry yourself for richer or for poorer.第一 无论富有或贫穷 你都会和自己结婚 This means you are going to love yourself right where you are.这意味着 任何时候你都会爱自己 You don’t say to yourself,你不会对自己说 ” When you get to the corner of Hollywood and Vine,“当你在《好莱坞与酒》中饰演角色时 then I will marry you.”我就娶你“ You don’t say,” When you lose ten pounds,你不会说:“你减肥十磅 then I will love you.”我才会爱你“ And you don’t say,”If you hadn’t married that loser, I would love you,你不会说”如果当初你没嫁给那个废物 我就会爱你 but since you did, I’m sorry, I think it’s over.”但既然你做了 对不起 我们结束了” When you marry yourself,you walk yourself down that aisle exactly where you are.和自己结婚时 你会沿着那条路走到你现在的位置 And paradoxically, I found that loving myself exactly where I am奇怪的是 我发现 喜欢现在的自己 is the only way to get where I am going.是到达目的地的唯一途径 Number 2: you are going to marry yourself for better or for worse.第二 无论好坏 你都会和自己结婚 So what this means is这意味着 that most of us are willing to love ourselves for better,我们多数更愿意爱更好的我们 I mean, sure, I am having a great hair day today.我的意思是 当然 我今天发型很美 I love me.我爱我自己 That’s not what I am talking about.这不是我正在谈的 I’m talking about for worse, you know, the big life disappointments.我要谈的更糟 你知道 人生中的失望 Maybe you don’t own a home,也许你没有成家 you didn’t get the career you wanted,没有从事希望的工作 maybe you didn’t graduate from college, or get the relationship you wanted.也许你并非大学毕业 或拥有一段憧憬的恋情 Maybe it hasn’t turned out– maybe you fight with your mum,也许还没有发生 也许你会和妈妈吵架 maybe you watch too much reality TV,也许你看了太多现实剧 whatever it is, it doesn’t matter anymore.Right?无论是什么 都不再重要了 Because when you marry yourself,因为当你和自己结婚时 you agree to stay with you no matter what.无论如何 你都会承诺和自己在一起 Third, you marry yourself in sickness and in health.第三 无论健康或疾病 都会和自己结婚 What this means is that you forgive yourself for your mistakes.这句话的意思是 原谅自己的错误 A mistake isn’t actually a failure错误并非失败 unless you don’t learn from it除非你不吸取教训 and unless you don’t grow.除非你不会成长 There is a saying,” You ask for patience,有这样一句谚语:“你想要耐心 and what you get is a line at the bank.”那就在银行排队” What that means is它的意思是 that life does not give you what you’ve asked for,生活并不能给你所有你想要的 it gives you the people, places, and situations他给了你人物 地点 情景 that allow you to develop what you ask for.允许你发展自己所希冀的 And the thing is事实是 if you don’t get it right the first time,你第一次做不对 life will give it to you again.生活会再给你一次机会 Because life is very generous that way.因为生活就是那么慷慨 It’s like I didn’t get it the first time,就像一开始 in the first marriage,第一次婚姻中我没有得到我想要的 and I didn’t get it the second time,第二次我还是没有得到 maybe the third time I’ll get it.或许第三次我会得到 So inside that terrible experience of that third marriage,所以在第三次糟糕的婚姻经历下 I learned something about”in sickness and in health”.我学会了一些关于“无论疾病或健康”的事 What I learned is how to sit by my own bedside,我学会了如何独自坐在床边 and how to hold my own hand,如何握住自己的手 and how to nurse myself,如何照顾自己 and how to comfort myself.如何安慰自己 What I learned is that I am a person that I can count on.我意识到自己是那种独立自主的人 Last but not least, you marry yourself–最后一点 和自己结婚 when you marry yourself, it’s to have and to hold yourself.和自己结婚 就是拥有和拥抱自己 So, what does it mean to have and to hold?那么 拥抱和拥有是什么意思呢 Well,I think it means that you love yourself我想这意味着 the way you want someone else to love you.以希望他人爱你的方式爱自己 I had always been going through life with this sense of lack.在生活中我一直有着这样一种缺失的感觉 I felt like I was kind of half a person,我觉得自己只是半个人 and that I was missing something.总是缺了点什么 I went into my relationships hoping to solve this feeling我步入这段感情 希望能够解决 that I had my entire life:我整个生命中的这种感觉: that I was not whole unless someone loved me.有人爱自己 自己才是完整的 The truth was真相是 that I wasn’t ever going to feel whole until I learned to love myself.我在学会如何爱自己之前不会变的完整 So this business of marrying yourself transforms every area of your life:和自己结婚将会改变你生命的各个阶段: your business, family relationships, kids, social relationships, friends.你的生意 家庭关系 孩子 社会关系 朋友 Because when you marry yourself, this huge thing happens:因为当你娶了自己 这样一件大事会发生: you become able to love in this whole new way.你会以全新的方式爱自己 You become able to love other people right where they are,你会爱上身边的人 for who they are,无论他们是什么样子 the same way you’re already loving yourself.就像爱自己一样爱他们 And of course, this is what the world needs more of.当然 这是我们的世界所需要的 So when I married myself,当我和自己结婚时 and I realized that I already had everything I needed,我意识到自己已经拥有了我想要的一切 I started seeing it我开始明白 as my job to basically just light up my little corner of the world.我的工作只是点亮我生命的一角 That’s my new job.这是我的新工作 Because I don’t need anything, I already have it.因为我不需要任何东西 我已经拥有了 So when I take meetings,当我参加会议时 it’s all about how can I help this person achieve her goal?这关乎我怎样帮助别人实现目标 When I’m in my social communities,当我在社交时 it is like what can I bring to this that only I can bring?就像是 我能带来什么独特的东西? When I go on dates,当我约会时 it is like how can I就像 just discover another person maybe for just one hour which,我如何在短短一小时内发现另一个人 of course, brings me a full circle.当然 带给我一个完整的过程 Because people always asked me about my love life; they want to know.因为人们经常问起我的恋情 他们就是想知道 You know, the answer is, I am still working on it.你知道 答案是 我仍然在努力中 Aren’t we all? You know我们不都是吗 So this is where I am right now.这是我现在的情况 About three months ago, I went on a first date.三个月以前 我第一次去约会 About 30 minutes into the date, I found myself paying attention30分钟后 我发现我关注的不是 not to whether he liked me, but how I felt in his presence.他是否喜欢我 而是在他面前我的感觉 I noticed that I was light, happy, joking.我注意到自己很轻松 开心 幽默 As I reflected on the date afterwards, I was like,”Wow, I got really excited! Look,回想这次约会 我想:“ 哇 我真的太开心了 看呐 this is how committed I am to myself.”这是我承诺自己的方式“ I am not even on this date trying to get someone to like me.甚至我约会都不是为了别人喜欢我 I am more interested in how I feel我更在乎我的感受 about me than how he feels about me,而不是他对我的感觉 not because I am selfish, but because the only relationship不是因为我自私 而是因为 I am ever going to have with another person我唯一会发展的 is the one that I am already having with myself –是我和自己已经拥有的关系 just going to have it with them now.只是现在和他们一起发展这段关系而已 So it turned out he liked me, and we are still together.最终他喜欢我 我们现在还在一起 It’s cool and amazing, but I’ve been married three times,这很酷也很美妙 但是我结过三次婚 so slow down!所以 慢慢来 The thing is that I am not trying to get security事实上我并不是试着 from him through marriage, and,通过与他的婚姻获取安全感 并且 God forbid, a baby carriage.但愿这样的事不会发生 一辆童车 I am only here to just be in a relationship.我在这儿只是为了开始一段感情 I am not dying to hear the words,”Will you marry me?”我并不渴望听到:“你会嫁给我吗?” Because even though those words are very powerful因为就算这些话语掷地有声 – and very powerful to a person like me –对像我这样的人很有说服力 I don’t need them to hear it from him我不需要从他那儿听到这些 because I have already heard them from myself.因为我已经听到了我自己的声音 The way I see it is在我看来 like I took myself to the top of a mountain,就像爬山登顶 or maybe to the bottom of the ocean,或者潜入海底 and I got down on one knee, and I said,”I’ll never leave you.”然后我单膝下跪 说道:“我永远不会离开你” And now I am married to the one现在我已经 person I really wanted to be with all along, myself.嫁给了我真心想与之在一起的人:我自己 Thank you.谢谢
  • 2021-10-17高效能人士的7个习惯在介绍第一个习惯前So before speaking about the first habit, 我想让你注意一种新型思维模式I want to bring to your attention a new mindset. 在读这本书以前So before I read this book, 我从未有过这样给力的人生观 实际上它永远地改变了我的思想I never really had this super-awesome outlook on life and in fact changed my thinking forever. 不论你的人生置于何种境地So when you’re in any situation in life, 你可以选择消极被动或积极主动you can choose to be reactive or proactive 不过常规的思想是选择后者but the basic idea is that by choosing to be proactive 你选择扩大你的影响范围you choose to increase your circle of influence 你明白有些事在可控范围内you see there are things that you can control in 有些却不能直接控制there are things you can’t directly control 比如说天气 出生地或是such as the weather where you were born or 你老板的个人决定your personal decisions of your boss 你能控制的就是怎样面对它Things that you can control include how you react to it. 这也是你人生中唯一可控的This is really the only thing you can control in life 如果你无脑应对或对朋友恶语相向If you react without thinking or you say a harsh word to your friend 亦或是宿醉 长时间放纵自己or you drink all night and live in self-indulgent after a long day 当天气阴沉就变得沮丧where you just become depressed when the weather is gloomy, 那么你就成了一个被动的人you are becoming a reactive person. 你被周围环境控制着You let the environment control you and 你只是一个具有简单应激反应的人you ‘re simply a person reacting to stimuli. 当你消极被动的时候When you were reactive, 如果只关注那些无法掌控的事情if you focus on things you can not control, 例如 你也许出生于For example, you may have been born 一个社会中下层的家庭into a socio-economic lower or middle class family, 也可能是一个虐童家庭you may have been born into an abusive family, 甚至确诊重病you may even been diagnosed with a terrible illness, 但关注这个也无法改变事情无法控制but focusing on it will not change it. 你要知道你能控制什么You know what you can control. 诀窍就是变得积极主动This is the secret to being proactive 从而成为高效人士and in turn becoming an effective person. 你能保持你的职业操守You can control your work ethic 你能把握生活中对人的态度you can control how you treat the people in your life 你还能决定要不要系安全带and you can control if you put on your seatbelt or not. 关注你可控的东西By focusing on things that you can control 将会给生活带来更多活力 也能扩大你的影响力you bring more power into your life and widen your circle of influence. 就是说 消极被动型的人常常牢骚满腹So when short reactive people are people who complain a lot 却不愿锻炼自己 改变自己的行为习惯instead of actually going out and changing their actions 而积极主动型的人明白即使and proactive people understand that even if 发牢骚是人之常情they’re complaining was justified 但抱怨改变不了什么Complaining about it wouldn’t change anything. 它只会成为让生活消极的毒药It would just be negative toxins in their life 也会影响社交环境including their social environment of their peers. 之所以看到那么多人抱怨 只是因为这更容易See most people choose to complain simply because it’s easier. 接着我们来看看第二个习惯So let’s move on to the second habit. 你希望在葬礼上如何被人铭记呢How do you want people to think of you at your funeral. 第二个习惯是关于如何变成理想中的你The second habit is all about becoming the person you want to be 通过仔细考虑别人对你的看法by thinking deeply about how other people think of you. 如今的我足够成熟Now I’m mature enough person and 不会把大多数人对我的看法放在心上not really care what most people think of me 但我仍非常在意我所爱之人的看法but I do care what my loved ones think of me 我希望我的女友觉得我忠诚可信 在一起时感到快乐I want my girlfriend to think i’m loyal trustworthy and fun to be around 因此我不会背叛她and because of this i’m not going to cheat on her 不会对她说谎I’m not going to lie to her 我们的交流也不会满是抱怨和消极想法and I’m not going to fill our conversations with complaints or negative thoughts 想象一下你死了 一群人在站在你的灵柩前see when you die and there’s a crowd of people standing around your coffin 有关你的最好和最坏的记忆what will they say 他们会说些什么呢over their best memories of you or their worst memories of you be 在做任何重大决定前考虑下后果 这会帮助你成为更有效率的人thinking about the end before any major decision and a more effective person 你想成为对社会有贡献名垂青史的人吗do you want to be remembered as a person who added value to society 或许你该开始使脸书资料页上的状态更积极 内容更向上maybe start filling your facebook statuses with more positivity and upbeat content 基本上你正在做的事让你成为你想成为的那种人basically are you doing the things that allow you to save you’ve become the person that you want to be 第二种习惯也将创造一点the second haibit also be going to creation a bit 根据作者史蒂文科维说see according to Steven Covey the author 任何事情都有两面性everything is created twice 一种是思想上的 一种是物质世界的once in the mind and once in the physical real world 问题是很多事都是我们幻想的the problem is that many things are created in the mind 而并不是真实发生的but never manifested into tangible things 因为很多时候我们告诉自己我做不到because we tell ourselves I can’t do it 大多数时间是你限制了自己a lot of time the only thing stopping you from doing something is youself 更坏的情况是and even worse situation is 当完全没有意识产生的情况下when things aren’t even created in the mind at all 对有些人来说就像是债务 毒品 绝望或是其他生活问题for some people debt drugs despair or other life problems 阻止人去思考创造并使自身变得消极prevent a person from thinking about creation and only on the negative outcomes of their situation 这就是第一个问题面对的症结所在 停止关注你不能控制的事and this is where the first have it comes back stop focusing on what you can’t control 你将会创造出更多 你将会对世界更有价值and you’ll be able to create more you’ll be able to add more value to the world 这章中史蒂文·科维提到的最后一件事叫做个人任务清单the last thing Steven Covey mentions in this chapter something called a personal mission statement 现在这有一列你可以依赖的事now this is the one line sit-ins that you can rely on 给你一种目标感to give you a sense of purpose in the world 一个非常简单的任务清单就是 因为我这个世界变得更好a very simple mission statement is I want the world to be better because i was here 实际上那是威尔史密斯的人生信条in fact that’s Will Smith’s personal mission statement 奥普拉想成为一名老师Oprah wants to be a teacher and be known 并以激励我的学生去超越他们想象而知名for inspiring my students to be more than they thought they ever could be 如果当你做每个决定时都时刻记着这个信条if you keep this mission statement in mind when you make every decision 你会永远保持下去you will always keep the end in mind 既然我们已经说了结束 现在让我们说说开始now that we’ve talked about the end let’s talk about the beginning 所以 史蒂文科维鼓励 这件事叫做迫切的和重要的母体so Stephen Covey came up with this thing called the urgent and important matrix 基本上 任何事你都可以将它分为四类basically everything you can do falls into one of four categories 这有一个很简单的图画去理解here’s the super easy graphic they can make it easier to understand 基本上 尽快做需要紧急做的事情basically anything urgent is something that needs to be done as soon as possible 让我们更有效果的事and anything important is something that makes us effective 作者给我们的建议是先做不紧急的the advice the author gives is to do things that are not urgent 但是很重要的事but they have to be important as soon as possible 因为如果你在没火烧眉毛前就着手做该做的事because if you do things that aren’t urgent before they are urgent 直到最后一秒也不会焦躁then you won’t have to fret about doing them last minute 这有一件事困扰着我here’s the thing that kind of annoys me 如果我问大多数人什么是重要的事if I ask most people what they thought was important 他们会说像是他们的健康 人际关系they would say things like their health their relationships 他们的金融信用their financial credibility 当你观察他们的行为时when you look into their actions 他们把时间花在无意义的事上像是they spend their time doing other meaningless things like 整理论文organizing papers 吃饭磨磨唧唧的浪费时间going out for long lunches 随波逐流hanging out with the wrong crowd 因为一点小事就抱怨 在一天中最好的时刻做蠢事fussing over little crab doing stupid stuff for the better part of their day 这些对他们来说是重要的事不会使她们更好that doesn’t lead them to bettering the things that they said was important to them 所以你需要把最重要的放首位so you got to put first things first 在你浪费时间做像玩游戏前先花时间和你的家人在一起spend some time with your family before you waste your time doing something like playing video games 开始努力节省每月预算start putting effort into creating a monthly budget 而不是努力寻找新事物instead of putting your effort pinning new things on pinterest 在看到新的问题前先去解决前一个go and work out first before watching that new episode 这有一个问题心理学家称之为认知不协调the problem here is something psychologists call cognitive dissonance 当你认为对你最重要的事情and it’s when the things you say are most important to you 不是你最花时间的事情aren’t the same things that you’re spending most of your time on 实际上 一些心理学家说这是不健康的in fact some psychologists say that this is unhealthy 我们说什么做什么之间是分开的the disconnect between what we say we will do and 我们实际做得很糟糕what we actually do is terrible 我认为致力于这点将使生活档次提高很多and I think working on this would improve a lot of our lives 所以 第一个到第三个习惯是关于管理你自己so the first three habits are about managing yourself 并知道你能独立做什么and what you can do independently 有一些你可以改变的事情there are things you can make changes 你可以选择的心态 你可以调整的态度mindsets you can alter an attitude you can adjust to 他们为下面三个习惯奠定了基础they set the foundation for the next three habits 变成社会上高效的人必须做什么which have to do with becoming an effective person in society 包括依赖他人and involve being dependent 所以第四个习惯叫做双赢思维so the fourth habit is called think win-win 史蒂文科维说这有六种关系Stephen Covey says that there are six types of relationships 你可思考它们作为个人 商业甚至是生物学上两性之间的关系and you can think of them as personal business or even biological animalistic relationships 首先是大多数的人认为世界是什么the first to what most people think the world is made of 失败成功或是成功失败lose win or win lose 赢对我而言是别人输或其他的什么东西which means for me to win you have to lose or the other way around 拥有这种心理的人认为people with this type of mentality think 这山望着那山高 别人家的房子才是最好的that to have the largest skyscraper in the neighborhood 一定要把别人家的房子给炸掉they must tear all the other skyscrapers down 你应该避免这种情况you should avoid these situations 因为有人会输即使净赚20because someone will lose even if the net gain 20 事实上 大多数人并不同意我们的观点in fact most people don’t even agree to us 他们相信从长远来看能够互利互惠in this they believe in reciprocal altruism in the long run 失败就像是寄生虫with lose is like a parasite 赢家只有一个 其他全是输家where one wins and the other losses 我们将要谈论下一个关系是有毒的和不快的事the next relationship that we’re going to talk about is just toxic and nasty 叫做双输思维it’s called lose-lose 我能想起最好的例子是the best example I can think of is 有一个故事 一对夫妇结婚there’s a story where this couple got married 几年后他们决定离婚couple years later they decided to get divorced 但是这个男人知道他的前妻将在法庭上分到他的一半家产but the man knew that his ex-wife when half of everything that he owned in court 但是他非常自负 他不想让前妻得到他的法拉利和兰博基尼but he had quite the ego and he didn’t want her getting his Ferrari or Lamborghini 所以他用每辆10美元的价格把它们都卖了so he sold them both for ten dollars each 看吧 在这种情况下人们都失去了有大量价值的物质see both people in this situation lost a substantial amount of value 因为他们怨恨because of their hatred 你应该清楚地避免上述任何一种情况and you should definitely avoid any type of relationship like this 下面一种关系并不糟糕 但是也应该避免the next to relationships are not bad but they should also be avoided 所以 他们获胜的关系并不完全是真的so lely win relationships aren’t really a relationship at all 由于他们只能影响一个人since they only affect one person 在这种关系中人们不关心其他人得到的people in this type of relationship don’t care what anyone 只要他们得到自己想要的就行了else gets as long as they get what they want 事实上这很自私it’s actually very selfish 接下来的一种关系叫做不作为that the next relationship is called No Deal 或者不作为是一种中立的心态or No Deal is a neutral mentality 实际上最好的一个是最后一个没有提到and it’s actually the most preferable one is the last one is not offered 基本上 每一个个人意见是双方都不能赢basically each individual agrees that if both parties don’t win 不作为换句话说它是全是无私的there is no deal in other words it’s completely unselfish 如果没有你给的好处我不能得到我想要的if I can’t get what I want without you benefiting to 它是无价值的并且不作为it’s not worth it and there’s no deal 下一种关系我们将要说的叫做双赢the next relationship we’re gon na talk about is called win-win 这发生在夫妻关系或是商业关系and these happen in couple relationships or business relationships 甚至是生态上and even in ecology 共生关系或是共栖是使12种动物和平共处mutualistic relationships or symbiosis is the term 12 animals benefit from living together 让你赢 其他人也不会输for you to win the other person does not have to lose 我可以买下并阅读一本让我对目前的问题有深刻见解的书I could buy and read a book that gives me huge insight into a recent problem 我读它 因此我能从建议中受益I’m dealing with and because of this i benefit from the advice 而作者能从中挣钱and the author benefits from the money 我可以做视频上传到油管上I can make a video and uploaded to youtube 得到广告收益and benefit from the advertisement revenue 我们将花费一生来改变观点and we will spend life changing perspective 所以 开始寻找共赢关系so start searching for win-win relationships 你一定会成为有效率的人and you will surely become an effective person 啊哈 下一个习惯 我喜欢它发生haha the next habit i love this happen 所以其他人给我一个短故事so the other gives a little story 是关于他和他儿子所处的情况where that is talking about situation with his son 父亲和儿子谈话 然后 父亲去寻求朋友的建议the father and son have a talk after the talk to dad goes to his friend for advice 我只是有时不理解我儿子I just can’t understand my son sometimes 父亲说道 他不听我的话that dad says he won’t listen to me and 他的朋友说让我们换个说法his friend goes let me rephrase that 你不能理解你的儿子因为他不听你的 朋友说you can’t understand your son because he won’t listen to you says the friend 我认为去理解其他人你必须认真的聆听i thought to understand another person you have to listen to them 实话说当我听到这个短故事时我确实有点懵honestly when I read this little story i actually got goose bumps 但是作者是十分正确的but the author is so right 很多次我们对其他人生气how many times we get mad at another person 因为他们的想法和我们不一样because they don’t think the way that we think 我们并没有先尝试听他们的故事we haven’t even tried to hear their side of the story first 我们甚至从刚出生开始就通过眼睛看世界we see the world through our eyes even from a baby we are born egotistical 但理解其他人并不是天生的and understanding others views does not come natural 学习成为有效率的人learning to become an effective person is 是要理解每个人有他们各自的看法和意见understanding everyone has their own perspectives and opinions from 这来源于他们一生中自己的个人经历their own personal experiences in life events 你应该首先寻求理解因为一旦你理解这种情况下人们的感情倾向you should seek first to understand because once you understand the situation 你就可能有更好去帮助他们理解你的机会and the person’s feelings towards that you might have a better chance of helping them understand you 所以这是一个小技能 但是我想进入五个递进阶段的倾听so this is a little technical but I want to get into the five levels of listening that Covey of covers 第一阶段叫做忽视 这真是粗鲁the first is called ignoring and it’s just downright rude 所以第二个阶段是一种我姐姐和妈妈谈话方式的阶段so the second level is the kind of level my sister talks to to my mom 叫做拖延 是 嗯哼 对it’s called pretending yeah uh-huh right 你至少回应了他you’re at least responding to the person 第三阶段叫做选择性倾听the third level is called selective hearing 我们只听谈话中的某几个通常是对我们有利的部分we only hear certain parts of the conversation usually only the parts of benefit us 和说很多的人或是学龄前儿童这样做是很容易的and it’s really easy to do this with someone who talks a lot or preschool child 另一阶段叫做注意听那些不必要听的内容another level up is called attentive listening which is not necessarily listening to the content 类似于说话方式but rather the way the words are being spoken 你注意他们的能量and you focus on the energy 如果你听一个励志演讲人if you listen to a motivational speaker 另一种语言 你确实变得积极and another language and you actually get motivated 这叫做注意倾听that’s called attentive listening 最后一种我们从未经历过 叫做入神的听the last type of listening we hardly ever experience and it’s called empathic listening 这种听是带有目的的去理解this type of listening is the listening with the intent to understand 你将得到其他人的思想结构并更好的理解他们you will get inside the other person’s frame of thinking and understand them better 并不只是他们说什么或是他们如何说and it’s not just the words they say or how they’re saying them either 我们投入我们的注意力包括we give them all of our attention including 关注他们的肢体语言 他们的感觉paying attention to their body language and paying attention to their feelings 这很有效因为这会给你准确的数据去和他人一起工作this is very powerful because it gives you accurate data to work with 去理解他们的思想 情感和目的而不是to understand their thoughts feelings and motives instead of 你变成一面墙说顺从我you being a brick wall saying conform to me 史蒂文给出的另一个很好的建议是another form of great advice Stephen gives 在你描述前先去诊断is to diagnose before you prescribe 意思是在你给建议前去理解which basically means to understand before you give advice 用更好的方式去发现双赢局面one of the best ways to find more win-win situations 理解其他人的需求和欲望is to understand what the other person wants and needs 在你能找到你们都能获益的方式前before you can find a way both of you can benefit 所以下一个习惯叫做协同作用so the next habit is called synergize 他花费了我一点时间去完全理解这个and it took me a while to completely understand this 实际意思是双方或多方交互作用but it basically means the interaction of two or more parts 去创造比他们个人成果之和更好的结果to produce an outcome that is greater than the sum of their individual parts 所以最基本的协同来自于教学和生理so very basic version of synergy comes from a teaching and physiology 所以 一部分可能是我们的心理so one part might be our heart 其次的可能是你的大脑 第三可能的是你的胃another might be your brain and the third maybe your stomach 当然 这些也是独立的复合组织of course these are very complex organs individually 但是如果他们一起工作 效率会特别棒but if they work together they are extremely effective 另一个例子是树和松鼠another example would be trees and squirrels 分别的 树能产生坚果并掉到地上separately trees can reproduce by their nuts falling to the ground 请避免说明please refrain from commenting about this 但是 除非这有强风否则不会传播的很快unless there’s a really strong wind they won’t spread very quickly 另一方面 松鼠不能离开树生活on the other hand squirrels can live without trees 但是他们不得不住在丛林地带只能吃浆果but they would have to live in bushes and eat only berries 他们可能努力生存 在冬天吃东西they might struggle hibernating and eating food in the winter 同时 尽管树木卷轴得到保护 数以屯计的坚果也会被吃掉together though the scrolls get protections in the trees as well as tons of nuts to eat 树木通过我们的坚果传播到更远的地方得到了益处the trees get the benefit of getting our nut spread across even more land 同时 他们获得了成功成长了更多比他们分开together they achieve and grow more than if they were separate 最后一个例子是药物和酒精and one last example would be drugs and alcohol 安眠药和酒一起吃时的作用更强the effect of sleeping medicine is intensified greatly when mixed with alcohol 这并不是暗示你去尝试它and not suggest trying this on your own 事实上 大多数医生警告过反对这个行为and in fact most doctors and warned against it 这被认为是建设上的协同it these are considered constructive synergy 协同作用也是there are also read of synergy 这个例子是如果你有麻烦example of this is if you had the plague 但是你并不沮丧it but then you’re also diagnosed with depression 这两种都很糟糕 如果你同时拥有它们both are really bad to have and if you have them at the same time 好吧 你可能需要一些额外的帮助well you might need some external help 实际上药物是为此起作用的 他叫做发病率and medicine there’s actually work for this and it’s called come morbidity 协同作用的反方向也会发生the opposite of synergy can also happen 有时提到的消极协同作用sometimes referred to as negative synergy 这是当浪费时被创造的and this is when waste is created 我们说你花5百万美元做一个商业交易let’s say you spend five million dollars on a business deal 另一家公司花5百万美元and another company puts in five million dollars 为你投资的同一家公司投更多的钱for the you both can invest in the same company for more money 然而这个交易你花更多的钱但实际上却失败了however the business that you put money and actually failed 因为它进入了一个确定的数量because it went over a certain amount 由于税收 它失败了and because of taxes it failed 总结这两部分 实际上是总数比分开的少the sum of two parts is actually less than the total amount of both separately 一个消极协同的例子将是1+1=1/2an example of negative energy would be one plus one equals one-half 寻找协同作用在你生活中得许多方面都是有益的seeking synergy will benefit your life in many ways 尤其是商业关系but particularly your business relationships 如果你能发现协同作用对常规的生活也是有益的and general life will benefit if you can find synergy 协同作用基本上是1+1=3synergy is basically one plus one equals three 那是第六个that was a sixth Abbott 总结这些习惯 你可以提升你自己and that concludes the habits that you can do with improving yourself 通过处理它们by dealing with others 现在我们将要注意你如何通过投资解放你未来的潜在可能性now we’re going to be moving on how you can unleash your future potential by investing 你可以做的最棒的投资是投资你自己to the best investment you can make is in yourself 我在读这本书时你正在走弯路am I reading this book you’re ahead of the curve 看这个视频你将有比其他人更大的优势and by watching this video you have a huge advantage of other people 所以科维举个例子 有人砍树so comfy gives the example of this guy cutting down a tree with a very dole salt 我的意思是他将花至少6个小时砍这颗大树I mean it’s gon na take him at least six hours to cut down this huge tree 如果他花一小时磨斧子if he were to spend one hour sharpening the saw 他将花三小时就能砍倒这棵树it would only take him three hours to cut down the tree 总共花费四小时而不是六小时leading to a total of four hours instead of six 看这多简单we see how simple this is 这个人高效砍树是多么容易how easy it is for the guy to cut the tree down faster 但是在生活中我们很难应用同样的原则but we hardly ever apply the same principle to our lives 例如 我们能通过吃来强健我们的身体for example we can sharpen our physical saw by eating while 保持健康的饮食 定期锻炼身体maintaining a healthy diet and exercising regularly 一周规划三次磨斧子let’s sharpen the saw by working out three times a week 在40岁前有病治病and send the pain for with advanced medical treatment in 40 years 磨利我们的头脑的例子是通过学习阅读和训练another example of sharpening our minds is by learning reading and teaching 大量研究表明there are plenty of studies that show 训练某人某事是大脑产生想法很棒的方式teaching someone something is a great way to ingrain ideas into her head 实际上 这也是我做这个视频的一个原因and in fact it’s one of the reasons i’m making this video 不是读指导手册instead of reading the instruction manual 当我们贬低自己时我们尝试自己做并浪费三个小时we try to do it ourselves and waste three hours when we could have humbled ourselves 磨利我们的思想 科维也建议磨利我们生活中的其他领域and sharpened our mental song but he also suggests sharpening some other areas our life 例如情感和精神领域such as emotional and spiritual areas 你可以在其它很多方面投资你的关系you can invest in your relationships with others in many ways 包括花时间和朋友一起some of which includes spending time with your friends 和家人做游戏 或是和同学学习playing games with your family or studying with classmates 丰富你的精神生活也是重要的enriching your spiritual life is also important 不论你在 或是听音乐whether you’re religious or not listening to music 参加创作艺术 花时间祷告或冥想engaging in creating art and spending time in prayer or meditation 长远看来也能增加你生活的价值will always add value to your life in the long run 有意义的生活和高效的生活不只是发生living a meaningful and effective life doesn’t just happen 你必须花时间培养你生活的这些领域 那些你想得到成果的领域you have to make time to cultivate the areas of your life you want to produce fruits 你通过磨利锯子来做这个事情and you do this by sharpening the saw 希望在看完后 你至少可以 获得有用的知识或生活建议i hope after watching this video you’ve gained at least one gold nugget of knowledge or practical life advice 这让你朝成为高效的人的正道前进they move you in the right direction of becoming a more effective person 如果喜欢这段视频 请点赞if you like this video please leave a big fat like 想了解更多有用的生活改善视频 订阅吧if you want more educational valuable life improving videos like this subscribe 感谢观看thanks for watching [音乐]music
  • 2021-10-17最好用的三个交友肢体语言Welcome to lesson 6 of the Bee Friend course.欢迎观看《蜜友课》第六期 In our previous lesssons在我们之前的课程中 we talked about the three reasons我们讲解了三点 why learning and paying attention to body language is so important.关于学习和注重肢体语言如此重要的原因 In today’s lesson I’m gonna show you the three body language signs在今天的课堂中 我将向你们展示三种 you need to use in all of your future interactions.在以后的交际中用得到的肢体语言 These three so-called friend signals are the three most powerful signs.这三个友好信号是三个最有效的信号 If used correctly,如果运用得当 will make others like you a lot more upon meeting you它会让其他人在遇到你时更加喜欢你 and also make you seem like a much more approachable也会让你看起来更有亲和力 and trustworthy person.而且值得信赖 So let’s get started.那么我们开始吧 we are gonna start off the one sign out of these three就拿着三个信号中的一个说起 that you probably already know,你可能已经知道了 which is the smile.那就是微笑 Smiling is the most powerful friend signal微笑是最有效的友好信号 and this is for a very good reason.这是有道理的 See when we smile our brain actually releases endorphins当我们微笑的时候 大脑会释放内啡肽 which are chemicals that make us feel good这种物质让我们感到愉悦 and what’s interesting is that people who see your smile而有趣的是 看到你微笑的人 will also release endorphins in their brains.他们的大脑中也会释放内啡肽 So when you’re genuinely smiling during a conversation,因此 在你与人交谈真诚地微笑时 both you and whoever you are interacting with will feel good.你们双方都会感到非常的开心 But we have to pay close attention to the word genuine.不过我们要特别注意真诚这个词 See the truth of the matter is there are many moments in our lives事实上 生活中很多时候 where we force ourselves to smile.我们在强迫自己微笑 During awkward conversations working retail with mean customers在和过分的顾客还有讨厌的老板 and dealing with terrible bosses,进行尴尬的谈话时 we often put on a fake smile我们经常假笑 to pretend that everything is a okay.来装作一切都很好 But the problem is It’s pretty easy to tell the difference 然而问题在于人们很容易区分出 between a fake smile and a genuine one.真笑还是假笑 If you smile incorrectly, the fake way,如果你笑得不对 在假笑 people will think you are faking your emotions人们会认为你在伪装情绪 and they will have a hard time trusting you.他们会难以信任你 It’s gonna have the opposite effect of what you want.这样就事与愿违了 So it’s very important that you learn所以学会控制自己 how to create a genuine smile on command correctly.正确地真诚微笑 是非常重要的 A genuine smile looks something like this.一个真诚的微笑看起来是这样 When someone is truly happy and they smile,当一个人真的很开心时 bags will appear under their eyes.笑起来眼睛下方会隆起 Their cheeks will raise very high他们的双颊也会鼓起 and slight wrinkles called crow’s feet will appear眼角会出现 on the edge of their eyes.细微的鱼尾纹 The best way to practice this is最好的练习方法 by paying attention to the next time就是留意下一次 you’re actually having a good time,当你真的开心 when you’re actually smiling or laughing because you feel great.而发自内心的微笑或者大笑时 Pay attention to how your face feels and注意此时自己的面部的感受 then practice it on your own at home in front of a mirror.然后就可以回到家在镜子面前开始练习了 It takes some practice这需要练习 but you’ll eventually be able to pull it off.不过你最终会成功的 And the crazy thing is神奇的是 when you learn how to create a genuine smile on command,当你学会了如何控制自己发出真诚的微笑 you will actually feel better in your interactions with others,你会在和别人交流时感受更好 which makes you seem like an even more fun person to be around.这会让大家觉得你更加有趣 The second friend signal is what’s called第二个信号叫做 the eyebrow flash.挑眉 This is when you raise and drop your eyebrows very very quickly.就是飞快地将眉毛扬起 放下 In fact you can practice this right now其实你现在就可以试一下 by raising and lowering your eyebrows as fast as you can尽可能快地挑起 放下你的眉毛 just like this.就像这样 If you sit down and watch people in a crowded area,如果你在一个人多的地方坐下来观察 you’ll notice that almost all close friends就发现基本所有亲近朋友 who are meeting up will use it upon seeing each other.互相一见面就会挑动眉毛 It’s kind of a way of saying hello.像是一种打招呼的方式 So when you use it with a complete stranger所以 当你对陌生人 or an acquaintance that you barely know.或者不太熟的人挑眉 It’s gonna make you appear a lot friendlier会让你看上去更友好 because it’s a body language sign因为这种信号 that we’re accustomed to seeing our friends use.是我们习惯看到好朋友用的 So how do we use the eyebrow flash?那么我们如何运用挑眉呢 Well, it’s best used from a distance最好在有段距离的时候挑眉 at least a couple of feet away.至少有几步远 Let’s say you see someone across the room比如说房间里有个人 that you’d like to talk to.你想和他交谈 By using the eyebrow flash combined with a bit of eye contact同时运用眉毛的跳动 一点眼神的交流 and a genuine smile,和一个真诚的微笑 you’d be telling them hey I’m a friendly person就是在说 嗨我很友好 and I like to talk to you.和我聊天吧 Now it’s very important to note that一定要注意 you have to do this correctly.你必须把这些做对 If you do the eyebrow flash incorrectly,如果你的眉毛挑得不好 you’re gonna come off as a complete creep.你看起来就会像一个大变态 The most common mistake that people make when using the flash动眉毛时大家最容易犯得错就是 is that they hold their eyebrows up for too long就是眉毛抬的时间太长 just like this.像这样 Another common mistake is that they don’t smile.另一个常见错误就是挑眉时不笑 If you use the eyebrow flash and just stare at someone without smiling,如果你挑眉又一直盯着别人又不微笑 you’re gonna come off as a potential threat.就像在威胁别人一样 So try not to do that.所以千万别这样做 Alright, so let’s move on to the final friend signal,让我们来看看最后一个友好信号 which is the head tilt.歪头 Now the head tilt is a powerful friend signal这是一个有效的友好信号 because of what it implies.得益于它的含义 See the arteries on the side of our neck我们脖子侧面的动脉 are some of the most important arteries in our body.是一些全身最重要的动脉 So when we humans and also other mammals feel threatened,所以人类和其他哺乳动物受到威胁时 we tend to tuck our neck in往往会缩起脖子 in order to protect these sensitive areas.来保护这一敏感的部位 When you actively tilt your head to the side,当你主动把头倾向一边 you’re actually exposing one of the most vulnerable parts of your body实际上你就暴露出你最脆弱的部位 to the world which signals to whoever you’re interacting with that这对于和你交流的人来说意味着 you feel extremely comfortable relaxed and at ease.你现在感到极度的舒适和放松 And remember like we mentioned before when you do something like smile记得刚刚我们提到的当你笑的时候 and you feel a certain way你所感受到的 whoever you’re interacting with和你交流的那个人 will also feel a little bit of that too.也会有一点相同的感觉 So, your feeling of ease and comfort will transfer over所以你的放松和愉快的感觉会传递到 to whoever you’re interacting with.和你交流的人身上 People are going to think,人们会想 “Wow! This person is so relaxed around me!哇 这个人和我相处时好自在 That makes me feel better even though I just met him.”即使刚认识 也给我更好的感觉 Now how exactly do we do the head tilt?怎样才能做好这个动作呢 Well, it’s actually quite simple.其实很简单 You want to make sure that you’re tilting your head你得先保证你倾斜头部 just a little bit, not so much,一点就可以了 不要太过 anywhere from 10 to 20 degrees.大约10到20度 If you tilt your head so much gonna look kind of weird.如果倾斜得太过 看上去会很奇怪 You want to use the head tilt when you’re close to someone在你和他人距离较近时歪头 like when you’re sitting down at a table or at the bar.比如你们在饭桌或吧台的时候 It is especially powerful when someone else is talking and you’re listening to them尤其当对方说话时你歪着头倾听 as it will look like you are extremely focused会让别人觉得你特别专注的在倾听 on whatever it is that they’re saying他们所说的话 and people love a good listener.大家都喜欢好的聆听者 Now if you combine all three of these powerful friend signals properly如果你能把这三个有力的友好信号恰当地组合 then it should look something like this.看起就是这样 And just to give you an idea of how powerful this is.现在来看一下这些信号有多强大 Let’s compare it to the same person doing none of these things.让我们对比同一个人不做这些动作的时候 Can you see the difference?看出差别了吗? Which one would you want to talk to more?你更愿意和谁交谈呢? These three friends signals are extremely important当你想给别人留下良好的第一印象的时候 when it comes off to giving a good first impression.这三种友好信号就非常重要了 So make sure you practice using them所以在未来的交际活动中 in all of your future interactions.一定要多练习使用它们 If you do I guarantee that如果你做了 我保证 you will see an improvement in how people receive you.你能看到自己在交友有很大的提升 In our next lesson we’re gonna talk下一期我们讲 about body language signs you want to avoid.一些需要避免的肢体语言 You just learned about what signals will make you become more likeable刚刚学习了如何变得更讨人喜欢 but there are also signals out there that you need to avoid like the plague.但还有一些肢体语言你要像避瘟疫避开 Signals that will make you unlikable.会让你被讨厌的肢体语言 So make sure you subscribe and hit that Bell icon所以别忘了点击铃铛图标订阅 because you definitely don’t want to miss it.你一定不想错过这些内容 Besides that guys, stay tuned.请继续关注我们
  • 2021-10-17怎样能提高数学成绩?如果我让你去想出一个非常难的问题If I asked you to think of a really tough problem 你首先想到的会是什么?what is the first thing that comes to mind? Well, 如果你像我一样 很可能if you’re anything like me you probably thought 你可能想到一个大而复杂的数学方程 对吧?of some big complex math equation, right? 对于大多数人而言 似乎数学For most people, math seems like one 是最难的科目之一of the most difficult subjects out there. 数学是抽象的 复杂的 不幸的是It’s abstract, it’s complex, and unfortunately 正因为如此 许多人认为for those reasons a lot of people adopt the 自己不是学数学的料belief that they’re just not math people. 这显然是不正确的Which is patently untrue 因为数学和其它学科一样 是一种能够学会的技能because math is a skill that can be learned just like any other. 但是因为你点击了本视频But since you clicked on this video 希望你不是这样的人hopefully you are not one of those people. 希望你至少在某种程度上相信Hopefully you have at least some degree of belief 你会学好数学的that you can become better at math and you 而且你愿意学好have the motivation to do so. 如果你想学好数学 摆在面前的问题是And if you do, the obvious question is 怎样学好数学?how do you get better at math? Well, 幸运的是fortunately, 这是有一个有非常简单答案的问题this is one of those questions that has a pretty simple answer. 如果你想要学好数学If you want to get better 你必须做许多许多的数学题at math you have to do lots and lots of math. 而且问题越难 越好And the tougher theproblems are, the better. 因为难的问题会拓展你的思维 让你有新突破Because tough problems will stretch your understanding and lead you to new breakthroughs. But, 然而在学习数学过程中 做这些难题时in the course of studying math and working through these 最终你都会遇到难住你的问题tough problems you are eventually going to come to problems that just 你完全没有思路stump you, that you get completely stuck on. 这时 最重要的是And when you get to these points it’s 如何最终解决这些问题important to know how to eventually solve these problems, 因为这些问题真的能够because these are the ones that are really 拓展 建立你的(数学)技能体系going to stretch and build your skill set. 这就是我要在本视频中讲的重点So that is what I want to focus on in this video. 我会告诉你们使用一些实用的技巧I want to give you practical techniques for working through, 最终会解决这些最初看起来难以攻破的难题and eventually solving those problems that seem insurmountable at first. 首先 我想要讲讲匈牙利数学家To start, I want to focus on a piece of advice the Hungarian mathematician 乔治·波利亚在他的著作《如何解决问题》中分享的一条建议George Polya shared in his1945 book”How to Solve It.” 他说:“如果你不能解决一个问题 那么你一定能够解决一个比较简单的问题 找到它”It goes: “If you can’t solve a problem, then there is an easier problem you can solve:find it” 在我看来 这是This is, in my opinion, the most important 我们要解决数学问题时technique to understand and put 要懂得的最重要的 实用的技巧”into practice when you’re trying to solve tough math problems. 因为数学是自己本身的叠加Because math builds upon itself. 很多复杂的概念是建立在比较简单的概念之上More complex concepts arebuilt upon simpler concepts. 如果你对基本原则And if you don’t have a strong grasp 掌握得不牢 那么 复杂的on the fundamental principles, then a more complex 问题就会难住你problem is going to likely stump you. So, 所以在你遇到一个if you come across a problem 解不了的问题时 首先 找到你要解决问题时that you can’t solve, first, identify the components 必须要用到的基本原则和操作or the operations that itwants you to carry out. 大多复杂问题都会是多个问题的叠加A lot of times, complexproblems will have multiple. Now, 现在 这种情况下你能够做的是what you can do 把这个问题分解成许多小问题in this case is split the problem into multiple problems 每个小问题只解决其中一方面that isolate just one of those components or operations. 我想在实际问题中讲讲这一点I want to show you this concept in action 咱们看一下一个例题so let’s work through a quick example. Now, 我的确挑了一个I did have one example picked out 非常简单的问题that would be pretty easy but it ended up 有点过于简单being a little bit too easy, so let 我们做一个稍微有点复杂的‘s do something a little bit more complicated. So, 这是一个求和问题 用到了希腊符号∑this is a summation problem which uses the Greek symbol, sigma. 这是把一系列And it essentially says that we’re going to 表达式加在一起add up a series of expressions that use a 变量是从1到4variable starting at one and ending at four. But, 你可能注意到了 这个求和问题if you notice, this summation problem 里面还有一个分数指数also has a fractional exponent in it. Now, 可能你们其中有些数学奇才maybe some of you math wizards out there could 闭着眼睛都能做这种题do this kind of a problem in your sleep but it 但是也很可能‘s also possibly the case that you don’t have a 你没有完全掌握求和或者分数指数really firm grasp on either summation or fractional exponents. So, 当你在做一道由这两部分内容组成的问题时when you’re working a problem that combines the two of them, 你可能会被难住you might get stuck. So, 想象一下assuming that’s the case, let’s 能把这个问题分解成两个简单点的问题break this problem into two simpler problems that each focus 每个问题只针对一方面on just one of the underlying concepts. First, 首先一起咱们去掉分数指数let’s create a simpler summation 构成一个简单点的求和问题problem that just gets rid of that fractional exponent altogether. Now, 我们要做的就是all we have to do isevaluate that expression 这个表达式加4次four times and then add up the answers 得到最终答案66which gets us to a final answer of 66. 现在咱们再进行分数指数运算And now let’s move on tothe fractional exponent. Now, 我这里会算得非常快I’m going to go pretty quick here 因为这不是教分数指数的课程because this is not a lesson on fractional exponents 但是 基本上你们能把4^3/2改写成but essentially you can rewrite this as four to the power 4^3*1/2of three times the power of one half. 然后能再写成And then you can rewrite that again to the square root √4^3of four to the power of three. 一旦你算出这些 就得到答案8And once you evaluate that,you get an answer of eight. Now, 解决这个较简单的单一概念问题的重点是the whole point of working these simpler 掌握要用的基本single concept problems is to master the underlying concept 概念或运算or operation that you’re working on here. So, 如果你解了几道题if you solve a few and you 仍然觉得心里没底still don’t feel really confident on that concept 就再做几道题 直到你觉得自己掌握了keep working it until you do. Remember, 记住:掌握的意思是不能出错mastery means notbeing able to get it wrong. 不是只做对一次Not just getting it right once. Anyway, 一旦你掌握了那些单一问题的基本部分once you’ve mastered those underlying components in 就可以回到an isolated setting now you can come back to 更复杂的包含那些基本题的问题上了the more complicated problem that combines them. 这时 你应该闭着眼睛都能At this point, you should be able to work those 解这些题 也就是说你心理上isolated concepts in your sleep which means that all of your 有能力面对如何去解决mental processing power can go towards the new and novel problem 一连串的新问题了of how they work in tandem. Now, 现在 我要谈另一个简化there is one additional way of simplifying tough problems that 难题的方法 你可能猜到了I want to talk about and you might have already guessed it 如果你仔细看这些例题if you paid really close attention to the examples. 我没有用很复杂的数字I didn’t use really complex numbers. 没有长数字I didn’t use long numbers. 没有小数点I didn’t use decimal points. 没有大的分数I didn’t use big fractions. 求和的项数也不多And I stuck to a low limiton my summation problem. 复杂的数字 大数字 有许多小数点的数Really complex, big numberswith lots of decimal points 会分散你的注意力 不能关注can distract your attentionaway from the concepts 你应该练习的基本概念和运算and the operations that you’resupposed to be practicing. So, 所以 如果你遇到的难题有if you’re stuck on a 这些数字tough problem that has these kinds of numbers 就去做个类似的 数字不大go work a similar problem with really small 整个数字容易在脑中whole numbers that are easy to add or operate 相加或运算 这样 你才能真正in your head, that way you can really 专注于实际的概念zero in on the actual concepts. 当然 有时你不确定Of course, sometimes you have too shaky of an 自己是否清楚解题要用到的understanding of the concepts and operations themselves for you to 某些概念和运算actually work with them and solve that problem. 这时 就该去学习了And in that case, it’s timeto go do some learning. 去看你的课本 翻笔记Go dig into your book, look through your notes, 或在网上找些例题or find example problems online that you can follow 带你一步步地看别人along with step-by-step so you can see how people are 怎么用这些概念解决问题的getting to the solutions, using these concepts. And, 如果你需要if you need to, 你也可以找到自己正在解的you can actually get a step-by-step solution to the exact problem 那道题的解题步骤you’re working on as well. 你可以有很多工具来做到这点There are several tools out there that you can use to do this. 本视频中我想重点The two that I want to focus 推荐我能找到的最好的两个on in this video which are the best ones I’ve been able to find WolframAlpha 和 Symbolabare WolframAlpha and Symbolab. 这两个网站都让你Both of these websites will allow you to type 输入方程 得到答案in an equation and get an answer and also Alpha and Symbolabs Alpha 和Symbolabs你都可以用that you can follow along with. 两者区别是The difference between the two is that WolframAlpha, WolframAlpha更强大 如果你想看分步骤讲解while being much more power and capable, does require you to be 需要付费part of their paid plan if you want to get those step-by-step solutions. 而 在SymbolabBy contrast, while I found that typing in 输入方程式费点劲equations into Symbolab was a little bit slower and 而且不如WolframAlpha直观less intuitive than it is with WolframAlpha 但是分步骤讲解是免费的their step-by-step solutions are free. 这里不管你用哪一种工具Regardless of the tool that you choose to use 重要的是有时here the underlying point is that sometimes it can 看如何解难住你的难题的be useful to see a step-by-step solution 步骤是很有用的for a problem you’re stuck on. But, 但是 这里有两个重要的说明there are two veryimportant caveats here. 首先最重要的是First and foremost,before you go running off 在你去搜索问题的答案时 诚实地问自己to find a solution, ask yourself “ Honestly, 我对这道题have I pushed my brain to the limit 已经绞尽脑汁了吗?trying to solve this problem first?” 自己费尽心思地去解题Expending the mental effort required to solve the 能增强你的能力problem yourself is going to stretch your capabilities. 和让你更好地解有时看起来It’s going to make you a better mathematician 解不出的数学题in a way that just looking through solutions won’t. Now, 如果你的确需要查找答案if you do need to look up a solution, 可以that’s fine. 去查吧 按照步骤Look it up, follow the steps and make sure 一定要明白答案是如何得出的that you understand how the answer was arrived at. But, 但是 一旦你看完了 考考自己once you’ve donethat, challenge yourself 让自己不看答案 再重做一遍题to go back and rework the problem without looking at that reference. 这一点真的很重要It is really important tostay vigilant about this. 因为如果你想数学变好Because if you want to get better 重点是要掌握at math the whole point is to master the concepts 你做的题目的概念that you’re working with. 查答案会出现的危险是The danger that comes with looking up solutions is that 数学按步骤看懂with math it’s really easy to follow along with 真的很容易a step-by-step solution and comprehend what’s going on. 但是能独自解题与此差别很大But that is very different than being able to do it on your own. 这就说说最后一个建议And that brings me tomy final tip for you. 对任何人做数学作业And this is especially important 都尤其重要for anybody in a math class working through assigned homework. 在做数学题的时候不要着急Don’t rush when you workthrough math problems. 我知道大家都想尽快I know it’s really tempting to try to work 把作业做完through homework as fast as you can and heck, 我最近就此问题还录了个视频I even made a video about it pretty recently. But, 但是 对于数学 科学with math and science 任何真正复杂的学科and any sort of really complex subject especially 急匆匆只会给你的未来带来坏处rushing is only going tohurt you down the road. 因为你着急时 就没有掌握基本概念Because when you rush, youdon’t master the concepts. 你只是强迫自己作答You just brute force your way to answers or you 你或者去搜索答案 或者其它欺骗的手段look things up, or you otherwise kind of cheaty-face 去完成作业your way to a completed homework assignment. 然后 当你参加测试时And later on, when you’re sitting in a testing room, 或者在现实中 你要运用所学知识时or you have to apply what you’ve learned 因为你没掌握的知识in the real world you are going to get a harsh 你会得到残酷的教训lesson about exactly what it is you don’t know. 所以 咱们扼要重述一下So let’s recap here. 如果你想学好数学If you want to get better at math and you 如果你真的想提高数学解题能力want to improve your ability to solve those really tough 首先 要能辨别出题目中有problems first, identify the combination of concepts 哪些基本概念和运算 把它们分解出来or operations being used in a problem and then isolate them. 分别解出较简单的一个问题 掌握每个概念Work simpler problems that use just one and then master each concept. 你也可以让题目原封不动You can also simplify the problem by leaving the combination 只是把数字变小点 易于运算of concepts intact but swapping in smaller, easier to handle numbers. 如果你概念不清If you need help 翻翻课本 或在网上找找解释with the concepts themselves go to your book or an explainer article online 找点简单的题目look up sample problems, 或使用工具 WolframAlpha 或Symbolab找or use a tool like WolframAlpha or Symbolab to get step-by-step solutions 解题的步骤to the problem you’re working on. 最后要说的是 不要急匆匆地应付完作业And finally, don’t rush throughyour homework assignments. 一定要专心掌握这些概念Make sure that you’re focusing intently on mastering the concepts, 不要只是完成就行not just finishing. 希望这些技巧能给你信心Hopefully these tips will give you the confidence to tackle 处理真正难的数学题 拓展你的技能some really tough math problems and to expand your math skill set. 请注意And on that note, 我想告诉你们一句名言I want to leave you with a quote 是伟大的物理学家理查德·费曼说的 他说:from the great physicist,Richard Feynman, who said, “我不认为数学只是特定一部分人能理解的 其他人都是普通人 数学是人类的发现 不会复杂到人理解不了的水平” 关键是:最终The bottom line is this: Ultimately, your ability 你擅长数学和其它技能的能力to get good at math and anything else for that 始于你有信心学会matter starts with having the confidence to approach it. 当你解决问题 取得突破时And as you solve problemsand make mental breakthroughs 自然你的信心就增加了your confidence is goingto naturally increase. 这成为一个良性循环It becomes a self-sustaining cycle. 如果你对开始这个循环感兴趣If you’re interested in starting the cycle of learning now, 可以从这里启程 Brillianta great place to begin your journey is at Brilliant. 这是个学习平台 以解决实际问题A learning platform that uses hands-on problem solving as 为基础帮你学习数学 科学a basis to help you learn math, science 计算机 真的很有效and computer science, really effectively. 实际上 我正在上他们的基础计算机课程I’m actually taking their computer science fundamentals course right now, 我正在参加第一阶段的and as I was going through the first section on 代数测试 这些问题迫使我学algorithms the quiz questions they gave me forced me to learn 以前从没学过的新数学知识new math I had never learned before. 我不得不去查维基百科 找例题I had to dig into wikisand example problems. 最终 我整理出了一页And eventually I had to get out a sheet 笔记 基本上得到的每一步算法of notebook paper and literally draw out algorithms step-by-step 这样我能理解了问题so I could understand what was going on. 这个过程给了我This process provided me 比我大学期间任何课上都with a much more intense and effective learning experience than I got 更具有激情 更有效的学习体验sitting through mostof my college lectures. 这种困难真的迫使你去查清And these types of challenges that really force you to dig in, 形成所有课程的form the foundation 基础知识for all of their courses. 包括概率 逻辑 微积分 天文Which include probability, logic, calculus astronomy, 计算机内存 等等computer memory and more. 除了这些编排好的课程 Brilliant还有每周难题In addition to the structured courses Brilliant also has weekly challenges that 你可以做做来提高自己的技能 那还有社区you can use to improve your skills and has a community where 你可以和其他学习者讨论问题you can talk with other learners and it has a fantastically detailed 还有非常详细的维基百科上面有大量讲解和例题and helpful wiki with lots of explanations and examples. So, 所以 如果你想试一下Brilliantif you want to give Brilliant a 点击下面描述框的链接try click the link the description down below and 免费注册开始学习吧sign up for free to start learning. And, 作为奖励 如果你是as a bonus, if you’re among 前200名注册的the first 200 people to sign up, you’ll 每年有20%的优惠also get 20 % off your annual premium subscription. 我想要特别感谢BrilliantI want to give a huge thanks to Brilliant 赞助本视频 资助本频道for sponsoring this video and helping to support this channel. And, 像以往一样 谢谢大家观看as always guys, thankyou so much for watching. 如果你觉得本视频对你有帮助 请点赞If you found this video helpful you can give it a like 支持本频道 也许你可以考虑和to support this channel and maybe you can consider sharing it with 朋友分享本视频 让他也受益a friend who could benefit from it as well. Otherwise, 你也可以去那 如果你想第一个知道新视频发布you can subscribe right there and maybe hit that bell 点击钟形按钮订阅icon if you want to be the first to know when new 点击这里videos drop or click right there to get a free copy of 免费得到一册我的关于如何提高成绩的书my book on how to earn better grades. 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  • 2021-10-17说这些词会让你显得很蠢Say this?说这些? And look stupid.你会像个傻瓜 In today’s video,今天的视频里 phrases and words that make you look like an idiot.我们来聊聊那些让你显得很蠢的短语和词汇 So let’s start things off with the word “plethora”.就让我们从“plethora”这个词开始吧 Do you have a plethora of piñatas?你有很多节日饰品吗? Do you know what plethora means?你知道plethora是什么意思? And if you don’t, don’t worry.如果你不知道 不要担心 Neither did Jefe.Jefe也不知道 In the classic movie The Three Amigos,经典电影《三个朋友》里 we’ve got El Guapo making fun of Jefe,EL Guapo取笑Jefe because Jefe did not have an understanding因为Jefe不理解 of that very complex and rarely used word.这个非常复杂 又不常用的单词 And here’s the point.重点来啦 If you’re using an overly complex word如果你使用一个过于复杂的词 to try to make yourself look smarter, more superior to others,试图让自己显得比别人更聪明更优秀 this is going to backfire on you.这往往会适得其反 So this was proven in the amply named 2005 study,此结论被2005年的一项有着巨长名字的研究所证明 Consequences of Erudite Vernacular Utilized Irrespective of Necessity:《论不切实际乱用方言的后果: Problems with Using Long Words Needlessly.使用不必要的长单词的问题研究》 So what the researchers at Princeton discovered普林斯顿的研究者们发现 is when someone purposely used words that were overly complex,当某人本可以选择更简洁的表达 when they could have chosen something that was simpler,却故意使用了过度复杂的词汇时 people’s opinion of them actually dropped.人们对他们的评价实际上会下降 So, the point here,所以 此处的重点是 don’t think that bringing in words that nobody has heard of,不要认为使用不常用的词 that nobody knows is going to make you look smarter.没人知道的词会让你显得更聪明 Most likely, it’s gonna backfire.很有可能适得其反 Next up, we’ve got the word “actually”.接下来 我们说说“actually(实际上)”这个单词 So the problem here is此处的问题是 when you use this at the beginning of a sentence,当你把它用在一句话的开头 when you’re responding to somebody,来回答别人的问题时 it makes it sounds like you’re criticizing them.听上去像是你在批评他们 You’re being defensive,你在自我防御 that you’re coming up with an excuse.你正在找借口 So, imagine if one of your coworkers asks you,想象一下 如果你的一个同事问你说 “Hey, are you ready to get started working on that project?”“嘿 你准备开始做这个项目了吗?” Now, what’s the feeling being conveyed here当你说 “其实 还没呢” when you say, “Actually, I’m not.”?你表达的是什么感受呢? In my opinion, this seems a bit defensive.我觉得 这似乎有点戒备心太强了 And why wouldn’t you just simply say,为什么不直接简单点儿说 “No, I’m not ready”?“没 我还没准备好”呢? What was the point of saying “actually”?说“actually”的意义何在呢? It just made you look defensive.它只会让你看上去防备心太强 It kind of turns off the other person.还会让别人对你失去兴趣 It’s not necessary.没必要这么说 Next up on the list, the word “honestly”来看我们列表的下一个词“honestly(老实说)” So, I’ve been guilty of this.其实我自己一直在说这个词 Honestly, let me tell you what happened.真的 就让我告诉你发生了什么吧 So, when you say this, think about it.这么说的时候 请你想一想 Are you meaning that all the times before this,你的意思是此前 you were lying to the person?你都在对这个人说谎吗? If you have to state如果你非得申明 that you are being honest this one time,这一次要坦诚相待 what does that say about all the other times那这怎么解释你其他时间 that you’ve spoken and you’ve said something?曾经说过的话呢? Again, we’re oftentimes putting these words in there同样 我们通常不思考暗含的意思 without even thinking about what they’re implying.就用上了那些词 Next up, we’ve got “no offense”.下一个 我们来看看“no offense(无意冒犯)” So when you hear no offense,当你听到无意冒犯的时候 what do you think is gonna come next?你觉得接下来会发生什么呢? That person is going to offend you.那人就要冒犯你了 They’re gonna say something that is going to他们就要说一些 disagree something you don’t wanna hear,你不想听的反对意见 something that’s gonna be critical.一些批评的言论了 And when you hear that’s coming, what do you do?当你听到这些 你会做什么呢? You tighten up.你会紧张起来 You set up your defenses.你会产生戒备心 You are not…你不是…… You know this person is gonna say something你就知道这个人要说一些 that you probably don’t wanna hear.你很可能不想听的话了 Another thing with saying no offense 说无意冒犯的另外一个问题是 is you oftentimes say this in front of other people.你经常在别人面前说这个词 And then you go into that criticism.然后就开始批评 Publicly criticizing somebody and preempting it with no offense,公然批评某人 并以无意冒犯先堵住对方的口 really, this is a failure of leadership.真的 这是领导的失败 I think that you should take the person back into a private area我觉得你应该把那人带到私密空间 and then make it about you.把它当成你自己的个人问题来解决 I have concerns.我很担心 Can we talk about this?我们可以谈谈这个问题吗? Are you open to feedback?我可以给你反馈吗? That’s a lot better and it’s a lot more direct这比用无意冒犯这个词开始 than starting it off with no offense.要好得多 直接得多 Just saying.就是说说而已 Thank you for clarifying that you just said, what you just said,谢谢你澄清你刚才说的话 and that you let me know that you just said it.并让我知道你刚说了这话 What’s the point of saying “just saying”?你说“说说而已”的重点在哪里呢? Okay, we know this.好吧 我们懂的 Maybe there’s a little bit of emotion that you’re trying to get across.也许你想让对方明白你的一点小情绪 Pointing out that, you know, hey,指出来说 嘿 你知道 I’m kind of removed from this.我已经说完了 不再纠结这个了 Don’t blame me.不要怪我 The point is what you’re saying makes no sense.问题是 你说的讲不通 Just saying.不过说说而已 Next up, we’ve got the word “like”.下面 我们说说“like(好像)”这个词 A very common crutch word that many of us fall to.一个我们经常依赖的拐杖词 I know I have.我反正用过 The problem here, you sound like a valley girl.此处的问题是 你听上去像个富家大小姐 Yeah, I was late for work,是啊 我上班迟到了 like it was just…就好像…… Everything was falling out of place.一切都乱七八糟 I missed the bus, like what could I do?我错过了巴士 我还能怎样呢? I got on the phone and I like tried to call somebody.我拿起电话 想给某人打个电话 How many times are you gonna say that?这个词你要说多少次呢? And you’re already late for work.而且你已经上班迟到了 And now, we’re hearing the way that you speak.现在 都听到你们说话的方式了吧 Maybe I’m your boss’s boss, talking to you.或许我就是你老板的老板 在跟你谈话 And my impression is not gonna be good.我对你的印象不会好的 This is not a sign of high intelligence.这不是高智商的标志 You may be the smartest person in the room,你也许是房间里最聪明的人 but if you use the crutch word “like” all the time,但如果你总是用“好像”这样的拐杖词的话 you are not gonna come off that way.你是不会摆脱这个样子的 Similar to the crutch word like,和拐杖词like类似的 we’ve got the crutch word “uhhh”.还有“额”这个词 And this isn’t even a word.这甚至都不算个词 This is just something that we say这只是我们思考接下来该说什么时 when we’re thinking about what to say next.所说的东西 The problem here is that it takes our intelligence这里的问题在于 这让我们的智力 or our perceived intelligence level或说别人眼中我们的智力水平 and it drops it significantly.显著的下降 People that default,那些习以为常 that fall into these crutch words again and again,反复使用这些词的人 are rated as less intelligent,会被认为不够聪明 as less of a leader.不配做领导 So you gotta be careful here.所以这里你得小心了 You do wanna know when this is happening.它的出现时 你一定要觉察到 And this is the scariest part is that many of us,最可怕的一点就是 我们中很多人 and I know I fall into this,我知道我反正是这样 we don’t even notice when we’re doing it.就是我们甚至意识不到自己在说这个词 The best thing I can advise you here is slow down.我能给你的最好的建议就是说慢点 It’s okay to speak a little bit slower.说慢一点没关系 When you’re speaking with someone one on one当你单独跟某人说话 or you’re giving a presentation,或者演讲时 don’t be afraid to slow it down不要怕说得慢 and know what you want to say.并且心里要清楚你想说什么 Now let’s talk about the word “irregardless”.现在我们说说“irregardless”这个词 It’s not a word.这不是个词 Yes, I know it’s in the dictionary somewhere,是的 我知道字典上有这个词 but it’s not a proper word.但这不是个正确的词 What you probably mean to say is regardless,你的意思大概是regardless(不管) and that’s what you wanna say.这才是你想说的 Don’t say irregardless.不要说irregardless When you say regardless, it’s, you know,当你说regardless的时候 你知道 I really don’t care about the consequences意思是我真的不在乎后果 and that’s what you mean.这才是你想表达的意思 So, irregardless, don’t say it.所以 不要说irregardless Now let’s talk about the words “literally”, “actually” and “basically”.现在 我们来谈谈“真地” “实际上”和“基本上” These are intensifiers.这些都是加强语气的词 We use these words to add emphasis to what we’re saying.我们使用这些词来强调我们所说的话 The problem is that they’re easily overused.问题是 它们很容易被过度使用 So, if you use literally all the time,所以 如果你一直使用literally(真的/实际上) that’s the word you default to.你已经对这个词习以为常了 You need to actually be doing it,你应该实际上正在做那件事 and it needs to have been done.而且需要做完 So if you say, “Okay, I’m literally falling asleep here.”,所以如果你说 “好的 我真的要在这里睡了” that meant that you have fallen asleep.那就是说你已经睡着了 And if you’ve fallen asleep, how are you talking?如果已经睡着了 你怎么会说话呢? And that’s not really truly the case.但事实上并非如此 So, you’re lying?所以 你是在撒谎吗? You see, you wanna make sure you’re using this word correctly.你瞧 你本想确保正确使用这个词的 Similar to literally, actually is overused all the time.和literally一样 actually(实际上)也一直被过度使用 What you’re saying here is that this is 100% true.你在此想表达的是 这是100%真实的 So, when you say, “Actually, it was the most amazing night ever.”,当你说 “实际上 这是有史以来最美妙的夜晚” are you doing that, you just wanted to add emphasis你这么说 只是想强调一下(它很美) or really was it the most amazing night ever?还是这真的是有史以来最美妙的夜晚呢? Because you actually… when you add that there,因为你其实…… 当你把它用在那里 you are saying this was better than any other night.你是在说这比任何一个夜晚都美妙 And if that’s not the case, then technically you’re lying.如果事实并非如此 那么严格来讲 你在撒谎 And now let’s talk about basically.现在我们谈谈basically(基本上) A lot of people default.很多人习惯用这个词 They say this at the beginning of their sentences.他们把它用在句首 If you’re saying this如果你说了这个词 and you’re explaining things in basic terms,你在用基本术语解释事情 why did you need to state that那你为什么需要申明 you were gonna explain them in basic terms?你要用基本术语解释它们呢? And if you’re using it just because it’s a crutch,如果你用它只是因为它可以帮助填补空白 the issue here is it makes you look really nervous.那这里的问题就是 它让你看起来很紧张 It makes you look unsure of yourself.它让你看起来不自信 Now, this next one.来看下一个 I personally make this mistake all the time.我个人一直在犯这样的错误 And that is the use of “I personally”.就是使用“我个人” Why do I need to state that I’m personally saying something 为什么我需要声明我个人正在说的 which you can clearly tell I am stating it?你能清楚分辨是我在说的事呢? Again, it’s one of those crutch words we default to,这还是我们习以为常的拐杖词之一 we fall to when we’re looking for words to fill space.我们寻找词汇填补空白时使用的 And if you’re looking to get better,如果你想改进 you’re looking to improve,你想要提升 my best advice to you is to record yourself.我最好的建议就是把自己录下来 Slow down, think,速度慢一点 想一想 find small areas that you can improve,找到可以改进的细微之处 and then practice.然后进行练习 And really, that’s what it is.真的 就是这样 I know I’ve become a better speaker creating these videos.我知道 制作这些视频让我自己成了一个更好的演讲者 And you can start to master the language.你也可以精通这门语言 You can start to put this information into practice你可以把我刚说的这一点付诸实践 by simply taking action.开始行动即可 So have you ever used the phrase “could care less”?你曾使用过“could care less”这个短语吗? What you meant to say is “couldn’t care less”.其实你是想说“couldn’t care less(毫不关心)” Because if you could care less, guess what?因为如果你could care less 猜猜会怎样? You could actually care less.你可能实际上就是不是很关心 So, the amount you care所以你关心的程度 is a bit higher than couldn’t care less.比couldn’t care less(毫不关心)要高一点 Because if you couldn’t care less,因为如果你毫不在乎 that means that you have hit rock bottom.意味着你已经到底限了 The point of saying this is that you don’t care,这么说重点是要表达你不在乎 that you’re not worried about this.你不担心这个 Just make sure that you’re saying the right thing.确保你的表达正确就好 With all due respect.恕我直言 So when you say this, the funny part about this当你说这句话时 有趣的一点是 is that you really don’t respect that person.你真的不尊重那个人 You’re frustrated with them.你对他们感到沮丧 You wanna just speak your mind,你只想说出你的想法 but you don’t wanna be held accountable for it.但是你不想对此负责 Here’s the deal, is that by saying with all due respect事情是这样的 你说恕我直言 does not absolve you from the consequences of your words.并不能消除你说话的后果 And when you say this, we all know what it means,你这么说的时候 我们都知道它的意思 that this person you just don’t see eye to eye with.你和这个人意见根本不一致 You’re frustrated, and you don’t respect them.你感到沮丧 而且你并不尊重他们 So, how to deal with this?那么 如何处理这个问题呢? Don’t start it with that.不要以这个短语开头 That’s gonna make the other person defensive.这会让对方产生戒备心 Again, pull them into a private conversation.同样 还是把他们带到私密空间单独聊 Since studies have shown因为研究表明 whenever people are behind closed doors,无论何时人们身处私密空间时 they’re not having to act for a crowd.他们都不必在大众面前表演 They’re not having to look good in front of others.他们不必在别人面前要面子 They’re more open to seeing another person’s point of view.他们更能敞开心扉接受别人的观点 And don’t try to press it on them.而且不要试图强迫他们接受 You want people to trip over your point of view, your truth.你想让人们自然接受你的观点 你的真理 And you wanna help them see it你要帮助他们看到 and help them realize the point.帮助他们明白这一点 You’re not gonna be able to force someone to see something,你不能强迫一个人明白某事 but you can help them realize the truth.但是你能帮助他们了解那个真理 Let’s nip this in the butt.让我们nip this in the butt吧 That’s not what you meant to say.这不是你想说的 You wanna say nip this in the bud.你其实想说nip this in the bud(防患于未然) Nip this in the bud refers to防患于未然是指 cutting something off before it has the chance to grow.在某物有机会长大前就剪掉 It refers to plants.它指的是植物 And the idea here is a little bit of work early on这里的意思是提早做点工作 can save you a lot of hassle later.能为你减轻很多后续的麻烦 Check out this video to learn what to say.请看这个视频学习该说什么 I’ve got 21 phrases that every man needs to say more often.我在里面讲了21个每人都需要多多说的短语 Guys, I’ve been told this is one of my best videos ever made.朋友们 有人说这是我拍的最好的视频之一 So go check it out.所以去看看吧 It’s a great video.这是个很棒的视频 And really, I talk about the things真的 我谈到了 that a guy should say to be able to express himself一个人要表达自己 and also to really have a direct and a big impact on other people.真正直接对别人产生重大影响 应该说的话
  • 2021-10-172019比尔·盖茨冬季推荐书单The holidays are a great time to catch up on reading.节假日是大量阅读的极佳时机 Here are five books that really stood out to me.以下是5本令我印象深刻的书 These Truths by Jill Lepore吉尔·莱波雷 《这些真理》 A lot of people once you leave school,许多人离开校园后 you never really go through the broad scope of American history again.就不再重温波澜壮阔的美国历史 She brings this lens of looking backwards.她把视角转向过去 How do we compare to other countries?我们怎样与其它国家相比较? What was controversial?有哪些争议? What hung in the balance?有哪些悬而未决的事情? Particularly slavery and gender and immigrants.书中特别讲到了奴隶制 性别平权以及移民问题 I think the book is very worth reading.我认为这本书非常值得一读 Why We Sleep by Matthew Walker马修·沃克 《我们为什么要睡觉》 I’m a night person, but I’ve been paying more attention to sleep.虽然我是个夜猫子 但对睡眠却一直很关注 This guy is super persuasive about本书作者非常具有说服力 他在书中说 if you want to lose weight, get good sleep.如果你想减肥 那么就先睡个好觉吧 If you want to really learn things, get good sleep.如果想真正学进东西 还是先睡个好觉吧 He literally tells you,他直接在书中告诉你 if you’re reading this when you should be sleeping,如果你在该睡觉的点还在看这本书 please close the book.请把书合上 An American Marriage by Tayari Jones塔雅丽•琼斯 《美国婚姻》 This is about a black couple in the south它讲述了美国南部一对黑人夫妇的故事 and an injustice that totally reshapes the lives of the husband and the wife一桩不公正的案件彻底改变了夫妻俩的命运 and eventually dooms their marriage.最终导致婚姻走向破裂 The husband and wife are put into a difficult position.丈夫和妻子陷入困境 You wouldn’t call it a happy ending, because they’ve been through so much.由于他俩经历了太多 你不会觉得故事的结局是圆满的 Prepared by Diane Tavenner戴安•塔文纳 《做好准备》 She asks the right questions about middle school and high school systems.作者对中学和高中体系提出了合理质疑 What she’s done is really amazing.她所做的事情十分令人惊叹 Not many people are brave enough to create a new school system.很少有人有足够的勇气去创造新的学校体系 You have self-confidence, the ability to learn,你需要拥有自信以及学习能力 the ability to manage your time,时间管理能力 a sense of what you want to go and do.清楚自己以后想做什么 该怎样实现 Sometimes, kids will get discouraged.有时 孩子们会感到沮丧 You just hope your kid gets curious about something.但大家只不过希望孩子对于某些事物仍然能够保持好奇心 Growth by Vaclav Smil瓦科拉夫•斯米尔 《增长》 Modern civilization has performed all these miracles,现代文明已创造出很多奇迹 and yet, you do hit limits.但也达到了极限 We’ve been on various plateaus.我们在很多方面陷入了停滞 When did we figure out how to build certain big buildings?我们是什么时候弄懂如何修建高楼大厦的? What was holding us back in terms of doing that?修建高楼大厦的过程中有什么阻碍? Why don’t we build them to the sky now?为什么建筑物不是修得越高越好? If you said to me “Oh, when you’re young, you can travel over the speed of sound,如果你对我说 “年轻时 你可以超音速飞行 but then when you get older, you won’t be able to travel over the speed of sound,”但年老后 你就不能超音速飞行了” I would have been like, ‘That’s crazy.’我的反应可能是这样:“那真是太荒唐了” I found these books to be really clever and engaging.在我看来 这些书籍充满智慧 也十分吸引人 I hope you find them as intriguing as I did.希望大家在阅读时也能和我一样发现其中的乐趣
  • 2021-10-17唐纳德·特朗普秘密的交易决策在竞选美国总统前 大约三十年前 特朗普写了本书Before vying to become President of the United States of America, Donald Trump wrote a book 这本书成为有史以来最成功的商业书籍之一nearly thirty years ago that became one of the most successful business books of all time. 特朗普从把我们带回1987年的一周开始Trump starts by taking us through a week in 那时他才刚刚40岁his life back in 1987 when he’d just turned 40. 那时极度缺乏正式会议 一天却有50到100个电话There are a distinct lack of formal meetings but a large amount of phone calls usually 那些电话都是短而重要的 其间包含数个临时会议between 50-100 a day, that are short and to the point. Interspersed between these are 在6:30离开办公室后 电话在晚上以及整个周末a dozen or so impromptu meetings. After leaving the office at 6.30, the calls continue into 依旧不断地打来 显然特朗普身后有一个坚强的女人the evening and all weekend. It’s clear that there is a strong woman 他的妻子伊凡娜照顾他们的3个房子并扶养他们的3个孩子behind Trump, his wife Ivana looks after their three homes and raises their three children. 她甚至通过运营“特朗普的城堡”(第二座特朗普买下的酒店兼赌场)She even helps out on the business side by running Trump’s Castle, the second hotel 来照顾生意 当涉及到交易决策的细节时and casino complex Trump bought. When it comes to the specifics of deal-making, 特朗普目标很高 然后他坚定不移的去尝试并完成它Trump aims very high and then pushes relentlessly to try and get it. 他敢于畅想的能力是他很大的一个优点 因为很多人都害怕做决策和成功His ability to think big gives him a great advantage as many people fear decision-making 他并不只是经营一家酒店 他经营的是附带一个大赌场的大酒店and success. He doesn’t just run a hotel; he runs a large hotel with a huge casino attached 他作出任何一个必作的决定前都要先询问许多问题to it. Any decisions he has to make are made only 并且问清所有相关人员的想法after asking lots of questions and getting the opinion of everyone who is involved. Knowing 对市场的了解是必须的 要想使产品有价值 就得让公众了解它the market is essential. To make a product valuable, getting the word 制造兴趣和激情是必要的 而特朗普认为他最好亲力亲为out is crucial. Generating interest and excitement is needed and Trump thinks it’s better to 而不是让公关人员代劳do it himself than having public relations people to do it for him. 他无畏 充满争议 甚至有时候是无耻的这使得报纸既会用积极也会用消极的话来形容他He’s bold, controversial and sometimes outrageous. This causes the press to write about him both 但是单纯从商业角度讲 被报道的好处远大于坏处positively and negatively, but from a pure business viewpoint, the pros of being written 然而 即使有再多的推销 激情 和夸张都不能在你无法发货的时候有所帮助about far outweigh the cons. However, no amount of promotion, excitement 你没办法长时间欺骗民众and hyperbole will help if you can’t deliver the goods. You can’t con people for long. 你必须要有一个好产品在特朗普的成长过程中You need to have a great product. Trump’s greatest influence growing up was 他受到的最大的影响来自他的父亲他的父亲在纽约建立了租金受控制的房产his father. His father built rent-controlled property in New York and taught him toughness 并教授了他在业务中的韧性以及在利润率如此之低的行业里如何保持竞争力和效率in business as well as competence and efficiency in an industry where profit margins were so 成本必须保持低廉 所以他学会了如何与供应商进行谈判low. Costs had to be kept down so he learnt how to negotiate hard with suppliers. His 他的父亲也承诺付款的可靠性和未来的工作 以此使供应商降价father also promised reliability in payment and the promise of future work as a way of 这些就是他的儿子在进入上游房地产业务时所遵循的策略getting suppliers to lower prices. These were strategies that his son followed when he moved 在13岁的时候 特朗普就读于军校 后来进入沃顿商学院into the upper market real estate business. At the age of 13 Trump enrolled in a military 在学习期间 他与父亲在他们从俄亥俄州辛辛那提购买的一座公寓大楼里工作school and later attend Wharton School of Business. Whilst studying he worked with his 其中包含1200个房间father on an apartment complex they purchased in Cincinnati, Ohio, which contained 1,200 他们通过改善大楼的外观和清洁使居住率上涨到100%properties. They increased the occupancy rate to 100% by improving the look and cleanliness 然后卖了它换取利润 特朗普搬到纽约的曼哈顿岛并开始从事于更大的项目of the complex and then sold it for a profit. Trump moved to Manhattan in New York and started 在1974年 他对购买开普敦科莫多酒店产生了兴趣working on larger projects. In 1974 he became interested in buying the Commodore hotel, 那个酒店是个损失金钱的又黑又脏的地方 但处于一个好的位置(接近中央车站和地铁)a dark and dingy place that was losing money but in a good location next to Grand Central 特朗普不久之后便对这个酒店做了新建筑的设计station and the subway. Trump soon got some designs for the new architecture 并且和与他的酒店是竞争对手的凯悦酒店做了笔生意of the hotel and entered a deal with the Hyatt hotel chain where they were equal partners. 特朗普将建造酒店 而凯悦将在它建成时管理它Trump would build the hotel and Hyatt would manage it once built. 他们花了许多时间谈判和修改 但当酒店在1980年的9月重新开放时It took several years of negotiation and renovation but when the hotel reopened in September 1980, 他们把房价从以前科莫多酒店的20.80美元提升至新的君悦酒店的115美元 入住率超过80%they increased the room rate from $20.80 in the old Commodore, to $115 at the new Grand 同时 特朗普为了盖一栋摩天大楼Hyatt, with over 80% occupancy. At the same time Trump was negotiating a secret 在地段显眼处谈了笔生意 秘密购买了一些第五大道的地皮deal to buy some land in a prime location on 5th Avenue to build a giant glass skyscraper 那将会变成川普大楼 大楼越高大 特朗普可以在那建造的公寓以及能赚到的钱就会越多that would become Trump Tower. The taller and bigger it was, the more apartments he 最后 这个城市规划委员会认可了一个68层的大楼could put in there and the more money he’d make. In the end the city planning commission 当时在纽约最高的居住楼approved a 68 storey building, the tallest residential building in New York City at the 这个富有魅力的高楼吸引了许多明星来购买公寓time. The glamorous tower attracted many stars to 从斯蒂芬•斯皮尔伯格到列勃拉斯purchase apartments, from Steven Spielberg to Liberace. Trump moved into one of the penthouse 在1983年 特朗普和他的家人搬进顶楼的其中一个公寓apartments on the top floor with his family in 1983. 整个川普大楼工程花了190亿美元 公寓的销售额达240亿美元The entire Trump Tower project cost $190million. Sales of the apartments generated $240million. 特朗普也获得了1000万美元的销售额提成 加上从零售和办公空间租用得到的更多的利润Trump also received $10million in sales commission plus more profit from rental of retail and 接下来 特朗普就进军了赌场业 在1984年建造了特朗普广场赌场office space. Trump then moved into the casino business, 他和假日酒店变成利润五五分成的伙伴关系building the Trump Plaza in 1984. He had gone into a 50-50 partnership with Holiday Inn 但在伙伴关系破灭后 特朗普买下假日酒店的全部产权并在1986年一次性收购了整栋大楼but after disagreements in the partnership, Trump bought out Holiday Inn and owned the 他试着通过雇佣他的竞争对手的员工来增加赌场的利润whole building by 1986. Once in sole charge, he tried to improve the profit of the casino 他的政策就是by hiring his competitor’s employees. His policy was: 1.从你的竞争对手里雇佣最好的人才2.支付他们更多的钱(比他们现在挣到的多)1. Hire the best people from your competitors 2. Pay them more than they were earning 3给他们基于绩效的奖金和提成3. Give them performance based bonuses and incentives. 结果就是比计划中多了2000万美元的利润The result was a profit of $20million more than was projected. 不久以后 特朗普广场赌场开张了 特朗普计划把可能消极的形势变为积极的 有利可图的Soon after Trump Plaza had opened, Trump managed to turn a potentially negative situation into 希尔顿酒店已经开始在大西洋城建造一个巨大的赌场酒店来与特朗普的赌场竞争a positive and profitable one. Hilton hotels had started building a huge 他们渴望获得利润 于是casino-hotel in Atlantic City to rival Trump’s facility. Eager to start making a profit, 他们在申请赌博许可证的同时开始了建设they started construction at the same time as applying for a gaming licence. Unfortunately 对他们来说 不幸的是 他们的建设快要完成时 许可证被驳回了for them, they were rejected a licence just as construction was nearing completion. 特朗普开始和董事长巴伦•希尔顿谈判并获得一笔320亿美元的生意来购买设施Trump started negotiating with chief executive Barron Hilton and negotiated a cut price deal 在1985年 特朗普的城堡开张了of $320million to purchase the facility. In 1985, Trump’s Castle opened and took a gross 并且那年开张后6个月就获得了总额为13100万美元的收入income of $131million for the six months it was open that year. 在1986年的5月 特朗普在他的川普大楼的公寓里俯瞰中央公园的沃尔曼溜冰场In May 1986, Trump was in his apartment in Trump Tower, overlooking Wollman Ice Skating 这个城市附近溜冰场在2年半内被关闭又重建Rink in Central Park. The rink was supposed to be closed and rebuilt in two and a half 6年以后 花了将近1300万美元 他们离完成这项工作还差得远years by the city. Six years later and after nearly $13million spent, they were no nearer 特朗普写信给市长 主动提出在6个月内重建溜冰场 并自己提供了300万美元to completing the job. Trump wrote to the mayor and offered to rebuild 在最初被驳回之后the rink in six months, putting up the $3million dollars himself. After being rejected at first, 这封信泄露给了都支持特朗普的出版社the letter leaked to the press, who all sided with Trump. The negative publicity caused 负面宣传令市长转变态度 和特朗普达成一项协议 特朗普只在完成这项工程后得到300万美元的回报a u-turn from the mayor and a deal was struck, with Trump getting paid back the $3million 通过每日检查进度 贯彻一些强有力的领导only on completion of the project. Implementing some strong leadership by checking 特朗普在4个月里监察着溜冰场的全部建成以及低于预算的75万美元on progress daily, Trump oversaw the rink fully built in four months and $750,000 under 唐纳德•特朗普花了他的工作寿命的头二十年budget. Donald Trump spent the first two decades of 完成了许多据说做不到的事his working life accomplishing things that many said could not be done. At the end of 在他的书的结尾 他承诺要继续好好利用他最好的技巧中的两项:his book, he promised to continue to put two of his best skills to good use: overcoming 克服障碍以及激励人们去做他们最好的职业obstacles and motivating people to do their best work.
  • 2021-10-17保持冷静的秘诀几年前 我闯进了自己的房子A few years ago,I broke into my own house. 那大约是蒙特利尔的晚冬 我看望完我的朋友杰夫后I had just driven home, it was around midnightin the dead of Montreal winter, 穿过小镇开车回到家I had been visiting my friend,Jeff, across town, 走廊里的温度计显示零下40度and the thermometer on the front porchread minus 40 degrees — 不管是摄氏还是华氏and don’t bother askingif that’s Celsius or Fahrenheit, 零下40度 这两个计量方法 -都非常地冷minus 40 is where the two scales meet — it was very cold. 我站在走廊里哆哆嗦嗦的摸进口袋And as I stood on the front porchfumbling in my pockets, 我发现我的钥匙不见了I found I didn’t have my keys. 事实上 我能透过窗户看见它In fact, I could see themthrough the window, 我把它落在了厨房的桌子上了lying on the dining room tablewhere I had left them. 所以我跑着寻找周围所有其他的门和窗户 它们都被锁得紧紧的So I quickly ran aroundand tried all the other doors and windows, and they were locked tight. 我考虑打电话给开锁匠——至少我还有手机I thought about calling a locksmith –at least I had my cellphone, 但是半夜 等开锁匠过来得等一会儿but at midnight, it could take a whilefor a locksmith to show up, 天气太冷了and it was cold. 由于太晚了我不能回朋友杰夫那I couldn’t go back to my friendJeff’s house for the night 而且第二天早上我还要乘早班飞机去欧洲because I had an early flightto Europe the next morning, 我需要拿护照和行李and I needed to getmy passport and my suitcase. 所以 那一刻我感到绝望透了 而且要被冻僵了So, desperate and freezing cold, 我找到了一块大石头我打碎了地窖的窗户清除掉玻璃碴子I found a large rock and I brokethrough the basement window, cleared out the shards of glass, 我爬进去 找到一块木板 粘在开口处I crawled through, I found a piece of cardboardand taped it up over the opening, 早上做上记号 在去机场的路上figuring that in the morning,on the way to the airport, 我给我的房东打电话 让他去修理I could call my contractorand ask him to fix it. 这可能很贵 但是不可能比半夜找开锁匠更贵This was going to be expensive, but probably no more expensivethan a middle-of-the-night locksmith, 所以我想 在这种情况下 我只能这样做so I figured, under the circumstances,I was coming out even. 现在经过培训我已成为一名神经系统科学家Now, I’m a neuroscientist by training 我了解了一点点大脑在压力之下会如何表现的知识and I know a little bitabout how the brain performs under stress. 它会释放皮质醇 使你的心跳加快It releases cortisolthat raises your heart rate, 还会调节你的肾上腺素水平 使你的思想消极it modulates adrenaline levels and it clouds your thinking. 第二天早上 我只睡了一小会就醒来了So the next morning, when I woke up on too little sleep, 一直在担心窗户上的洞worrying about the hole in the window, 大脑提醒我我必须给房东打电话 还有令人冻僵的温度and a mental notethat I had to call my contractor, and the freezing temperatures, 和即将到来的我的欧洲会议and the meetings I had upcoming in Europe, 而且 你知道 随着我满脑子皮质醇的增多 我的思想完全混乱了and, you know, with allthe cortisol in my brain, my thinking was cloudy, 由于思维混乱 我根本意识不到这个问题but I didn’t know it was cloudybecause my thinking was cloudy. (大笑)直到我到了机场的检票口(Laughter) And it wasn’t until I gotto the airport check-in counter, 我才意识到我没有带护照that I realized I didn’t have my passport. (大笑)(Laughter) 所以我在冰雪中飞奔回家 用了40分钟So I raced home in the snowand ice, 40 minutes, 拿到我的护照 又奔回机场 刚好及时赶上飞机got my passport,raced back to the airport, I made it just in time, 但是他们把我的座位赠给了其他人but they had given awaymy seat to someone else, 所以我倚着飞机座的后背 挨着盥洗室so I got stuck in the back of the plane,next to the bathrooms, 在一个不能斜椅的座位旁边度过了8小时的飞行时间in a seat that wouldn’t recline,on an eight-hour flight. 其实在那八个小时的时间里 我没有睡觉 我有许多时间思考Well, I had a lot of time to thinkduring those eight hours and no sleep. (大笑)我开始想 如果我把能做的都做了 系统方法应用在正确的地方(Laughter) And I started wondering,are there things that I can do, systems that I can put into place, 就能阻止坏事情的发生了吗?that will prevent bad thingsfrom happening? 或者至少 如果不好的事情发生了 也要将灾难的可能性降到最低Or at least if bad things happen, will minimize the likelihoodof it being a total catastrophe. 所以我开始思考这些 但是直到一个月后我才理清思绪So I started thinking about that, but my thoughts didn’t crystallizeuntil about a month later. 我正和我的同事丹尼·卡内曼吃晚饭 他是诺贝尔奖获得者I was having dinner with my colleague,Danny Kahneman, the Nobel Prize winner, 我略带尴尬地告诉他我打破玻璃的事情and I somewhat embarrassedly told himabout having broken my window, 还有你知道的 忘记护照的事情 丹尼和我分享了and, you know, forgotten my passport, and Danny shared with me 他一直在练习叫做展望后见之明的东西that he’d been practicingsomething called prospective hindsight. (大笑)那是他从心理学家盖理·克莱因那知道的(Laughter) It’s something that he had gottenfrom the psychologist Gary Klein, 盖理·克莱因几年之前写过这方面的东西who had written about ita few years before, 也叫提前为即将发生的坏事情做准备also called the pre-mortem. 现在 你们都知道死后会怎么样了Now, you all know what the postmortem is. 无论什么时候有灾难 一组专家就会赶来他们会努力搞清楚哪里出了问题 对吗?Whenever there’s a disaster, a team of experts come in and they tryto figure out what went wrong, right? 嗯 丹尼解释说 提前为坏事情做准备Well, in the pre-mortem, Danny explained, 你往前看 你要努力弄清楚所有可能出错的细节you look ahead and you try to figure outall the things that could go wrong, 然后努力弄清楚你能做什么and then you try to figure outwhat you can do 可以让阻止那些事情的发生或者使损失降到最低to prevent those things from happening,or to minimize the damage. 所以今天我想跟你们讨论的是So what I want to talk to you about today 在事情发生之前我们能做的事are some of the things we can doin the form of a pre-mortem. 一些东西很明显 一些东西很含蓄Some of them are obvious,some of them are not so obvious. 我们先从明显的这方面来说I’ll start with the obvious ones. 在家周围 指定一个容易丢东西的地方Around the home, designate a placefor things that are easily lost. 现在 这听起来像常识 就是这样Now, this soundslike common sense, and it is, 但是基于空间记忆的方法but there’s a lot of scienceto back this up, 有许多要备份的科学based on the way our spatial memory works. 在大脑内有一个结构叫海马结构There’s a structure in the braincalled the hippocampus, 它经过了上万年的进化that evolved over tensof thousands of years, 去追踪重要的事情的地址to keep track of the locationsof important things — 井在哪哪能找到鱼where the well is,where fish can be found, 哪里有果树that stand of fruit trees, 哪里生活着朋友 哪里生活着敌人where the friendly and enemy tribes live. 海马结构是大脑的一部分 它被伦敦的出租车司机扩大化了The hippocampus is the part of the brain that in London taxicab driversbecomes enlarged. 它是大脑的一部分 它可以让松鼠找到它们的坚果It’s the part of the brainthat allows squirrels to find their nuts. 如果你想搞清楚 其实有人曾做过实验And if you’re wondering,somebody actually did the experiment 他们切掉了松鼠的嗅觉器官 发现松鼠仍能找到它们的坚果where they cut offthe olfactory sense of the squirrels, and they could still find their nuts. 他们不用嗅觉而是用海马结构They weren’t using smell,they were using the hippocampus, 这是由于大脑在找东西方面的敏锐的进化机制this exquisitely evolved mechanismin the brain for finding things. 但是不经常移动一些东西是正确的But it’s really good for thingsthat don’t move around much, 经常移动东西其实没有好处not so good for things that move around. 所以这就是我们丢钥匙 眼镜和护照的原因So this is why we lose car keysand reading glasses and passports. 因此在家 为你的钥匙指定一个位置–So in the home,designate a spot for your keys — 挂在门上的钩子上 或者一个装饰的容器里a hook by the door,maybe a decorative bowl. 你的护照 放在特定的抽屉里For your passport, a particular drawer. 你的眼镜 放在特定的桌子上For your reading glasses,a particular table. 如果你指定一个位置 而且特别谨慎地对待这件事If you designate a spotand you’re scrupulous about it, 当你找你的东西时 它会一直在那your things will always be therewhen you look for them. 如果是旅行呢?What about travel? 给你的信用卡Take a cell phone pictureof your credit cards, 你司机的证件 你的护照拍下照片your driver’s license, your passport, 在云端上发给自己mail it to yourself so it’s in the cloud. 如果这些东西丢了或者被盗了 你能容易地找到替代品If these things are lost or stolen,you can facilitate replacement. 现在这些是一些相对明显的事情Now these are some rather obvious things. 记住当你在压力之下的时候 大脑会释放皮质醇Remember, when you’re under stress,the brain releases cortisol. 皮质醇是有毒的 它会使我们的思维混乱Cortisol is toxic,and it causes cloudy thinking. 所以练习事前对坏结果做好准备So part of the practice of the pre-mortem 便是承认在压力之下你并不处于最好的状态is to recognize that under stressyou’re not going to be at your best, 你应该把东西系统化and you should put systems in place. 可能没有比你在面对做医疗决定And there’s perhapsno more stressful a situation 更大的压力的状况了than when you’re confrontedwith a medical decision to make. 在某种意义上来讲 我们所有人都要面对那一天And at some point, all of usare going to be in that position, 那个时候我们不得不对自己的医疗护理方面做一个重要决定where we have to makea very important decision 或帮助我们爱的人的这方面做一个决定about the future of our medical careor that of a loved one, to help them with a decision. 所以我想讨论这个And so I want to talk about that. 我要讨论一个非常特殊的医疗状况And I’m going to talk abouta very particular medical condition. 但是这代表作为一个代理人做各种医疗决定But this stands as a proxy for all kindsof medical decision-making, 甚至做资金决定和社会决定–and indeed for financial decision-making,and social decision-making — 你不得不做一些决定any kind of decision you have to make 根据事实的理智的判断来获得最大利益that would benefit from a rationalassessment of the facts. 所以假设你去找你的医生 医生说So suppose you go to your doctorand the doctor says, “我刚拿回你的检测报告 你的胆固醇有点高”“I just got your lab work back,your cholesterol’s a little high.” 现在 你们都知道高胆固醇Now, you all know that high cholesterol 会增长患心血管疾病 心脏病 中风的风险is associated with an increased riskof cardiovascular disease, heart attack, stroke. 所以你意识到高胆固醇不是件好事情And so you’re thinking having high cholesterolisn’t the best thing, 所以医生说 :”你知道 我想给你开个药and so the doctor says,”You know, I’d like to give you a drug 帮你降低你的胆固醇 它是一种抑制素”that will help youlower your cholesterol, a statin.” 可能你听说过这种抑制素 你知道他们是今天世界上被广泛运用的药And you’ve probably heard of statins, you know that they’re amongthe most widely prescribed drugs in the world today, 你可能认识那些吃这些药的人you probably even knowpeople who take them. 所以你在想”嗯!给我抑制素”And so you’re thinking,”Yeah! Give me the statin.” 但是在这一点上有一个问题你应该问一下 有一个大多数医生不喜欢谈论But there’s a questionyou should ask at this point, a statistic you should ask for 制药公司更不喜欢的问题that most doctorsdon’t like talking about, 你应该问一下and pharmaceutical companieslike talking about even less. 那就是需要治疗的人数It’s for the number needed to treat. 现在 这是什么?需要治疗的人数?Now, what is this, the NNT? 它是在一个人被帮助之前It’s the number of peoplethat need to take a drug 需要吃药或者手术或者接受任何医疗过程or undergo a surgeryor any medical procedure 的人的数量before one person is helped. 你在想 到底这个惊人的数据是哪种呢?And you’re thinking,what kind of crazy statistic is that? 正确数据应该只有一个The number should be one. 我的医生不会给我开无用的药方My doctor wouldn’t prescribesomething to me if it’s not going to help. 但是实际上 医疗实践用那种方法是行不通的But actually, medical practicedoesn’t work that way. 这并不是医生的错 如果要是某人的错 也是像我一样的科学家的错And it’s not the doctor’s fault, if it’s anybody’s fault,it’s the fault of scientists like me. 我们还没有搞清楚潜在的足够好的医疗机制We haven’t figured outthe underlying mechanisms well enough. 但是葛兰素史克推测But GlaxoSmithKline estimates 90%的药的作用只能在30%到50%的人身上发挥作用that 90 percent of the drugs workin only 30 to 50 percent of the people. 所以被广泛应用的抑制素用在了多少需要治疗的人身上了呢So the number needed to treatfor the most widely prescribed statin, 你认为是多少呢?what do you suppose it is? 被救助之前有多少人必须吃这个药呢?How many people have to take itbefore one person is helped? 300300. 这个结果是根据杰罗姆和帕梅拉经过实践研究出来的This is according to research by research practitionersJerome Groopman and Pamela Hartzband, 而且是经过彭博社独立认证的independently confirmed by Bloomberg.com. 我自己浏览了一下这些数字I ran through the numbers myself. 在心脏病 中风或者其他不好的事情发生之前300 people have totake the drug for a year 一年中 有300人要吃这个药预防before one heart attack, strokeor other adverse event is prevented. 现在你可能在想 “好吧 那降低我的胆固醇的几率就是三百分之一 “Now you’re probably thinking, “Well, OK, one in 300 chanceof lowering my cholesterol. 为什么不吃呢 医生?给我药方吧”Why not, doc? Give methe prescription anyway.” 但是在某种意义上你应该问另一个数据But you should ask at this pointfor another statistic, 也就是 “告诉我对这个药产生副作用的人数”对吗?and that is, “Tell meabout the side effects.” Right? 所以对于这种特殊的药 副作用会在5%的病人身上发生So for this particular drug, the side effects occurin five percent of the patients. 这些药的副作用有的特别厉害-使肌肉和关节酸痛 使胃肠不舒服 –但是现在你在想 “5%And they include terrible things — debilitating muscle and joint pain,gastrointestinal distress — but now you’re thinking, “Five percent, 不太可能发生在我身上 我继续吃我的药”not very likelyit’s going to happen to me, I’ll still take the drug.” 但是等一分钟But wait a minute. 记住在压力之下你的思维并不清晰Remember under stressyou’re not thinking clearly. 所以思考一下你要如何提前预防吧So think about how you’re goingto work through this ahead of time, 这样到那时候才不至于过于慌乱so you don’t have to manufacturethe chain of reasoning on the spot. 300个人吃这个药 对吗?救助了一个人300 people take the drug, right?One person’s helped, 300个人中的5%有副作用 也就是15个人five percent of those 300have side effects, that’s 15 people. 被这种药伤害的几率You’re 15 times more likelyto be harmed by the drug 是你被救助的几率的15倍than you are to be helped by the drug. 现在 我不说你是否应该吃抑制素Now, I’m not saying whether youshould take the statin or not. 我只是说你应该和你的医生谈谈I’m just saying you should havethis conversation with your doctor. 医德上要求 你有部分知情权Medical ethics requires it, it’s part of the principleof informed consent. 你有权利了解这种信息You have the right to have accessto this kind of information 和医生讨论你是否想承担这种风险to begin the conversation about whetheryou want to take the risks or not. 现在你可能在想我并不在这个被伤害的数字之内Now you might be thinking I’ve pulled this numberout of the air for shock value, 但是事实上这是很典型的 需要治疗的人的数字but in fact it’s rather typical,this number needed to treat. 对大部分50岁以上做外科手术的男人来说For the most widely performed surgeryon men over the age of 50, 排除前列腺癌removal of the prostate for cancer, 有49个人需要接受治疗the number needed to treat is 49. 这是对的 49个人每个人都接受了治疗That’s right, 49 surgeries are donefor every one person who’s helped. 这些病例中 副作用会发生在50%的人身上And the side effects in that caseoccur in 50 percent of the patients. 这些副作用包括阳痿 勃起功能障碍They include impotence,erectile dysfunction, 尿失禁 直肠痛 大便失禁urinary incontinence, rectal tearing, fecal incontinence. 如果你比较幸运 你会是这50%的人其中之一And if you’re lucky, and you’re oneof the 50 percent who has these, 他们只会持续一两年they’ll only last for a year or two. 所以提前预防是指So the idea of the pre-mortemis to think ahead of time 对你可能会遇到的问题提前做出思考to the questionsthat you might be able to ask 这样遇事处理会更高效that will push the conversation forward. 也不需要在麻烦之中临时发挥You don’t want to have to manufactureall of this on the spot. 你也想像平时一样思考And you also want to thinkabout things like quality of life. 你时常会面临一个选择 你是想要无痛苦的更短的生命Because you have a choice oftentimes, do you I want a shorter lifethat’s pain-free, 还是会伴随着痛苦而结束的生命?or a longer life that might havea great deal of pain towards the end? 这些是现在需要和你的家人和你爱的人讨论和思考的东西These are things to talk aboutand think about now, with your family and your loved ones. 遇到压力时 你可能会改变你的想法You might change your mindin the heat of the moment, 但是至少你用这种思想练习了but at least you’re practicedwith this kind of thinking. 记住 我们的大脑在压力之下会释放皮质醇Remember, our brain under stressreleases cortisol, 在那一刻会发生的事情之一就是一整套系统会关闭and one of the thingsthat happens at that moment is a whole bunch on systems shut down. 因为这需要有一个渐进的过程There’s an evolutionary reason for this. 和捕食者面对面 你不需要消化系统Face-to-face with a predator,you don’t need your digestive system, 不需要生命力 不需要你的免疫系统or your libido, or your immune system, 因为如果你在那些事情上消耗能量 那么你的反应就会变慢because if you’re body is expendingmetabolism on those things and you don’t react quickly, 你可能会变成狮子的午餐 那都是无关紧要的you might become the lion’s lunch,and then none of those things matter. 不幸的是 在那么多次压力之下你要理智地 进行 逻辑思考 而爬出窗户只是其中一件事Unfortunately, one of the things that goes out the windowduring those times of stress is rational, logical thinking, 就像丹尼 ·卡内曼和他的同事展示的那样as Danny Kahnemanand his colleagues have shown. 所以我们需要训练自己提前思考的能力So we need to train ourselvesto think ahead 对于这些状况to these kinds of situations. 我认为这里最重要的点是我门必须承认我们所有人都是不完美的I think the important point hereis recognizing that all of us are flawed. 我们时不时地会失败We all are going to fail now and then. 这个想法是指我们提前对那些可能出现的失败做出思考The idea is to think aheadto what those failures might be, 把某些东西系统化 将帮助我们最小化损失to put systems in placethat will help minimize the damage, 第一时间阻止坏事情的发生or to prevent the bad thingsfrom happening in the first place. 回到蒙特利尔那个雪夜 当我从旅途中回来的时候Getting back to thatsnowy night in Montreal, when I got back from my trip, 我让我的房东在门旁边安装了一个密码锁I had my contractor installa combination lock next to the door, 在里面放了一把钥匙一个很容易记住的密码with a key to the front door in it,an easy to remember combination. 我必须承认 我仍然有很多没有分类的邮件And I have to admit, I still have piles of mailthat haven’t been sorted, 还有许多没有完成的邮件and piles of emailsthat I haven’t gone through. 所以我现在的思想并不是特别的有条理 但是我把条理性作为一个循序渐进的过程 最后我一定可以做到So I’m not completely organized, but I see organizationas a gradual process, and I’m getting there. 非常感谢Thank you very much. 鼓掌(Applause)
  • 2021-10-17理解离婚对婚姻的帮助“Till death do us part.”“直到死亡将我们分开” When we get married, we make vows.结婚的时候 我们许下誓言 To love, to honor,爱他/她 尊重他/她 to forsake all others. 忠贞不渝 Or as a friend of mine put it,或者就像我一个朋友说的 “Not to leave dirty socks all over the house.”“不要把脏袜子扔得满屋子都是” (Laughter)[笑声] We may fall short of some of our promises some of the time,有的时候 我们可能做不到某些承诺 but one that will always hold true is that first one:但有一点是永远成立的 那就是第一点: “Till death do us part.”“直到死亡将我们分开” Because spouses are bound together因为无论是结婚还是离婚 by their decisions, in marriage and in divorce.夫妻双方都被他们的决定捆绑在一起 So, a mentor of mine once told me,所以 我的一位导师曾经告诉我 “You should always marry your second husband first.”“你应该先嫁给第二任丈夫” (Laughter)[笑声] What did that mean?什么意思呢? It didn’t mean that这并不意味着 Mr. Right is somehow waiting behind door number two.你的真命天子无缘无故就在二号门后等着你 It meant that if you want to而是意味着 understand what makes a marriage work,如果你想知道如何维持婚姻 you should think about how a marriage ends.你应该想想一段婚姻是怎么结束的 Divorce makes extremely explicit离婚让婚姻的潜规则 what the tacit rules of marriage are.变得非常明确 And everyone should understand those rules,每个人都应该了解这些潜规则 because doing so can help us build因为这样做可以帮助我们 better marriages from the beginning.从一开始就建立起良好的婚姻 I know, it doesn’t sound very romantic,我知道 这听起来不怎么浪漫 but sometimes the things we do out of love can be the very things但有时候我们出于爱而做的事 that make it hard for that love to last.恰恰让这份爱难以持久 I am a family-law professor.我是一名家庭法教授 I have taught students,我当过老师 I’ve been an attorney,当过律师 I’m a mediator现在是调解员 and I’ve also been divorced.而且 我也离过婚 And I’m now happily married to my actual second husband.现在 我和我真正的第二任丈夫婚姻幸福 (Laughter)[笑声] The reason that I think this is so important is that我认为这很重要的原因是 I think everyone should be having some of these每个人都应该进行一些 very painful conversations that divorced people experience.离婚人士所经历的痛苦的对话 These are painful conversations about what we contributed,这些痛苦的对话涉及到我们对婚姻的贡献 what we owe,对婚姻的亏欠 what we are willing to give我们愿意为婚姻付出什么 and what we give up.以及放弃什么 And also, what’s important to us.还有对我们来说什么才是重要的 Those conversations should be happening in a good marriage,我们应该在美满的婚姻中谈论这些事 not after it is broken.而不是在婚姻破裂之后 Because when you wait until it’s broken,因为当你等到婚姻破裂后再谈论这些问题 it’s too late.就太晚了 But if you have them early on,但如果你早一点做这件事 they can actually help build a better marriage.对建立更美好的婚姻是很有帮助的 Three ideas that I want to put on the table我有三个观点想告诉大家 for you to consider.供大家参考 One, sacrifice should be thought of as a fair exchange.第一 你们应该把牺牲看成一种公平的交换 Two, there’s no such thing as free childcare.第二 天下没有免费的育儿服务 And three, what’s yours probably becomes ours.第三 一个人的东西可能会变成两人共有的 So let me talk about each of these ideas.我来逐个讲讲这些观点 The first one,第一个 sacrifice should be a fair exchange.牺牲应该是一种公平交换 Take the example of Lisa and Andy.以Lisa和Andy为例 Lisa decides to go to medical school early in the marriage,Lisa决定在婚后就去医学院读书 and Andy works to support them.由Andy上班来支撑这个家 And Andy works night shifts in order to do that,为此Andy上起了夜班 and he also gives up a great job in another city.他还放弃了在另一个城市的好工作 He does this out of love.他这么做是因为爱 But of course, he also understands当然他也知道 that Lisa’s degree will benefit them both in the end.Lisa获得学位最终对他们俩都有好处 But after a few years, Andy becomes neglected and resentful.但几年后 Andy感到自己被忽视 变得愤愤不平 And he starts drinking heavily.他开始酗酒 And Lisa looks at her life and she looks at Andy and she thinks,Lisa看了看自己的生活和Andy的状况 她心想 “This is not the bargain I wanted to make.”“这不是我想要的交换” A couple of years go by,几年过去了 she graduates from medical school,她从医学院毕业了 and she files for a divorce.然后她申请离婚 So in my perfect world,理想状态下 some kind of marriage mediator would have been able在Lisa去医学院之前 to talk to them before Lisa went to medical school.应该有某个婚姻调解员和他们俩谈谈 And at that point, that mediator might have asked,那时候 这个调解员可能会问 “How exactly does fair exchange work?“公平交换究竟是如何进行的? What does it look like in your marriage?这种交换在你们的婚姻里是什么样的? What are you willing to give你愿意给对方什么? and what are you willing to owe?”你愿意欠对方什么?” So in a divorce,所以 离婚的时候 Lisa now probably is going to owe Andy financial support for years.Lisa现在可能会欠Andy多年来的经济支持 And Andy …对Andy来说 no amount of financial support is going to make him feel compensated for what he gave up,再多的钱也无法弥补他所放弃的东西 and the lost traction in his career.以及他失去的事业前景 If the two of them had thought about their split early on,如果他们很早就考虑到了离婚这一点 what might have gone differently?事情会有什么不一样呢? Well, it’s possible that Lisa would have decided that she would take loans or work a part-time jobLisa有可能会决定贷款读书或是找一份兼职 in order to support her own tuition来支付她的学费 so that Andy wouldn’t have had to bear the entire burden for that.那么Andy就不必一个人扛起所有的重担 And Andy might have decided to take that job in that other cityAndy可能会决定接受在另一个城市的工作 and maybe the two of them would have commuted for a couple of years也许在Lisa完成学业的几年时间里 while Lisa finished her degree.他们会往返于两地 So let’s take another couple, Emily and Deb.我们再来看另一对夫妻 Emily和Deb They live in a big city,她们住在大城市 they have two children, they both work.她们都有工作 还有两个孩子 Emily gets a job in a small town,Emily在一个小镇上找了一份工作 and they decide to move there together.她们决定一起搬到那里 And Deb quits her job to look after the children full-time.Deb辞掉了工作 全职带孩子 Deb leaves behind an extended family,她离开了自己的大家庭 her friends她的朋友 and a job that she really liked.还放弃了她真正喜欢的工作 And in that small town, Deb starts to feel isolated and lonely.在那个小镇上 Deb开始感到孤单和寂寞 And 10 years later, Deb has an affair,10年后 Deb有了婚外情 and things fall apart.一切分崩离析 Now, the marriage mediator who would have come in before they moved那么 如果在她们搬家以及Deb辞职之前 and before Deb quit her job有婚姻调解员的介入 might have asked them,他可能会问这对夫妻 “What do your choices about childcare do“你们在育儿方面的选择 to the obligations you have to each other?如何影响你们对彼此的责任? How do they affect your relationship?又会如何影响你们的关系? Because you have to remember因为你们要记住 that there is no such thing as free childcare.”天下没有免费的育儿服务” If the two of them had thought about their split beforehand,如果她们事先考虑过离婚的事 what would have gone differently?会有什么不一样呢? Well, maybe Deb would have realized a little better how much也许Deb在决定全职带孩子的时候 her family and her friends were important to her会更清楚地意识到 precisely in what she was taking on, which is full-time parenthood.她的家人和朋友对她来说有多么重要 Perhaps Emily, in weighing the excitement of the new job offer也许 Emily沉醉于新工作带来的兴奋时 might have also thought about 也会想想 对Deb来说 what that would mean for the cost to Deb她付出的代价意味着什么 and what would be owed to Deb还有Deb全职带孩子之后 as a result of her taking on full-time parenthood. 她对Deb的亏欠 So, let’s go back to Lisa and Andy.我们回到Lisa和Andy的例子上 Lisa had an inheritance from her grandmother before the marriage.婚前 Lisa从祖母那里继承了一笔遗产 And when they got married, they bought a home,他们结婚后买了一套房子 and Lisa put that inheritance toward a down payment on that home.Lisa把这笔遗产用来支付房子的首付 And then Andy of course worked to make the mortgage payments.当然 后来由Andy挣钱支付房贷 And all of their premarital and他们所有的婚前和婚后财产 marital property became joined.都变成了共同财产 That inheritance is now marital property.那笔遗产现在是夫妻共同财产 So, in a split, what’s going to happen?那么 离婚的时候会怎样呢? They’re going to have to sell the house and split the proceeds,他们不得不卖掉房子平分收益 or one of them can buy the other out.或其中一人把这房子买下来 So this marriage mediator,如果这些事情发生之前 if they had talked to them before all of this happened,有婚姻调解员跟他们谈谈 that person would have asked,问他们 “What do you want to keep separate“有哪些东西你们想分开持有? and what do you want to keep together?有哪些东西你们想共同拥有? And how does that choice actually support the security of the marriage?你们的选择又如何保障婚姻的稳定? Because you have to remember因为你们要记住 that what’s yours, probably, will become ours,一个人的东西可能会变成两人共有的 unless you actually are mindful and take steps to do otherwise.”除非你心中有数 并且有其他办法” So if they had thought about their split,那么 如果他们考虑到了离婚这一步 maybe they would have decided differently,也许他们的选择会有所不同 maybe Lisa would have thought,也许Lisa会想到 “Maybe the inheritance can stay separate,”“遗产也许不必变成共同财产” and saved for a day when they might actually need it.可以把它留到真正需要的那一天 And maybe the mortgage that they took on wouldn’t have been as onerous,也许他们承担的房贷就不会那么繁重 and maybe Andy wouldn’t have had to work so hard也许Andy就不需要这么辛苦地工作 to make those payments.来支付房贷了 And maybe he would have become less resentful.也许他就不会这么愤愤不平 Maybe they would have lived in a smaller house and been content to do that.也许他们会满足于住在小一点的房子里 The point is,重要的是 if they had had a divorce-conscious如果他们在有离婚意识的情况下 discussion about what to keep separate,讨论过哪些东西应该分开持有 their marriage might have been more connected and more together.他们的婚姻可能会更亲密 更融洽 Too often in marriage, we make sacrifices,在婚姻中 我们经常做出牺牲 and we demand them, without reckoning their cost.我们需要有人做出牺牲 却没有考虑代价 But there is wisdom in looking at the price tags但是 用离婚法教给我们的方式 attached to our marital decisions in just the way that divorce law来看待我们在婚姻中的决定所附带的价格标签 teaches us to do.是明智的 What I want is for people to think about我想让大家从离婚的角度 their marital bargains through the lens of divorce.来思考你们的“婚姻交易” And to ask,问一问 “How is marriage a sacrifice,“为什么婚姻是一种牺牲 but an exchange of sacrifice?而这种牺牲不可交换呢? How do we think about our exchange?”我们怎么来看待这种交换?” Second:第二 “How do we think about childcare“在育儿方面我们是怎么打算的? and deal with the fact that there is no such thing as free childcare?”如何看待天下没有免费育儿这个事实?” “How do we deal with the fact that some things can be separate “我们怎么看待有的东西是可以分开持有的 and if we don’t think about it,如果我们不考虑这些 then it will all be part of the joint enterprise.”那所有东西都会成为共同财产的一部分” So basically,总的来说 what I want to leave you with is that in marriage or divorce,我想要告诉大家的是 不论结婚还是离婚 people should think about the way that大家应该想想那“至死不渝”的婚姻 “till death do us part” marriage is forever.怎样才能永恒 Thank you.谢谢大家 (Applause)[掌声]
  • 2021-10-17过程的力量The power of yet.过程的力量 I heard about a high school in Chicago我听说芝加哥的一所高中里 where students had to pass a certain number of courses to graduate,学生毕业前要通过规定量的一系列课程 and if they didn’t pass a course,如果某一门课没有通过 they got the grade”Not Yet.”成绩就会显示“暂未通过” And I thought that was fantastic,我想 这真是绝妙的方法 because if you get a failing grade,因为如果你某门课不及格 you think, I’m nothing, I’m nowhere.你会觉得自己一无是处 But if you get the grade”Not Yet”,但如果你的成绩是“暂未通过” you understand that you’re on a learning curve.你就会明白学习的步伐并没有停下 It gives you a path into the future.它指给你通向未来的路 “Not Yet” also gave me insight “暂未通过”也让我想起我早期职业生涯中 into a critical event early in my career,发生的一件非常重要的事 a real turning point.那是一个转折点 I wanted to see 当时我想探究 how children coped with challenge and difficulty, 孩子们是怎么面对挑战和困难的 so I gave 10-year-olds problems于是 我让一些10岁的孩子 that were slightly too hard for them.尝试解决一些对他们而言偏难的问题 Some of them reacted in a shockingly positive way.一些孩子积极应对的方式让我震惊 They said things like,”I love a challenge,”他们会这样说:我喜欢挑战 or,”You know, I was hoping this would be informative.”或说:你知道 我希望能有所收获 They understood that their abilities could be developed.他们明白自己的能力是可以提高的 They had what I call a growth mindset.他们有我所说的成长型思维模式 But other students felt it was tragic, catastrophic.但另一些孩子觉得这太困难了 宛如灾难 From their more fixed mindset perspective,从他们更加固定的思维模式来看 their intelligence had been up for judgment,这意味着他们的才能已有评定 and they failed.而他们失败了 Instead of luxuriating in the power of yet,他们不懂得享受学习的过程 they were gripped in the tyranny of now.而只盯住眼前的成与败 So what do they do next?他们接下来表现如何呢? I’ll tell you what they do next.我来告诉你们他们的表现 In one study,在一项研究中 they told us they would probably cheat the next time他们告诉我们如果某次考试不及格 instead of studying more他们很可能会在补考作弊 if they failed a test.而不是更努力学习 In another study, after a failure,在另一项研究中 考试不及格后 they looked for someone who did worse than they did他们会找出谁考得还不如他们 so they could feel really good about themselves.以此获得心理安慰 And in study after study, they have run from difficulty.后续的研究陆续表明 他们会逃避困难 Scientists measured the electrical activity科学家监测了学生们面对困难时的 from the brain as students confronted an error.脑电活动图像 On the left, you see the fixed-mindset students.左边是固定型思维模式的学生 There’s hardly any activity.几乎没有什么活动 They run from the error.他们选择了逃避困难 They don’t engage with it.而不是积极应对 But on the right, you have the students with the growth mindset,但请看右边 这是成长型思维模式的学生 the idea that abilities can be developed.这些学生相信能力能够得到提升 They engage deeply.他们积极地应对问题 Their brain is on fire with yet.他们的大脑高速运转 They engage deeply.他们积极地应对难题 They process the error.他们分析错误 They learn from it and they correct it.从中吸取教训并改正 How are we raising our children?我们应该如何培养孩子呢? Are we raising them for now instead of yet?是教育他们注重一时的结果 而不注重过程? Are we raising kids who are obsessed with getting As?是教育他们每门课要得到A吗? Are we raising kids who don’t know how to dream big dreams?我们在培养没有远大理想的孩子吗? Their biggest goal is getting the next A,他们最远大的目标就是再得一个A or the next test score?或者下次考试的分数吗? And are they carrying this need for constant validation他们在今后的生活中 with them into their future lives? 都要通过分数来获得认可吗? Maybe, because employers are coming to me and saying,也许是的 因为雇主们来找我说: “We have already raised a generation of young workers我们培养的这新一代走上工作岗位的人 who can’t get through the day如果没有奖励 without an award.”他们一天也熬不下去 So what can we do?我们能做什么呢? How can we build that bridge to yet? 如何让孩子专注过程而不是结果呢? Here are some things we can do.我们可以做这样几件事 First of all, we can praise wisely,首先 我们可以有技巧地去表扬 not praising intelligence or talent.不要表扬天分或才智 That has failed.那是行不通的 Don’t do that anymore.不要再那样做了 But praising the process that kids engage in,相反我们要表扬孩子们积极参与的过程 their effort, their strategies, their focus, their perseverance, their improvement.他们的努力 策略 专注 坚持 和进步 This process praise 这种对过程的表扬 creates kids who are hardy and resilient.能塑造孩子的毅力和适应力 There are other ways to reward yet.还有其它方法能对过程给予奖励 We recently teamed up with game scientists最近 我们和来自华盛顿大学的 from the University of Washington游戏研究者合作 to create a new online math game that rewarded yet.开发了一款奖励过程的在线数学游戏 In this game, students were rewarded在这款游戏中 学生因他们的 for effort, strategy and progress.努力 策略和进步而受到奖励 The usual math game通常的数学游戏里 rewards you for getting answers right, right now,玩家只有解答正确后才能获得奖励 but this game rewarded process.但是这款游戏奖励过程 And we got more effort,在游戏中孩子们付出更多努力 more strategies, 想出更多策略 more engagement over longer periods of time,更长久而忘我地投入其中 and more perseverance when they hit really, really hard problems.遇到尤为困难的问题时 他们也更有毅力 Just the words”yet” or”not yet,” we’re finding,我们发现 只是“暂且”或“暂未”这样的用词改变 give kids greater confidence,就能让孩子变得更自信 give them a path into the future引导他们不断向前 that creates greater persistence.越发坚持不懈 And we can actually change students’ mindsets.我们的确能够改变学生的思维模式 In one study, we taught them在一项研究中 我们告诉学生 that every time they push out of their comfort zone每当他们迫使自己踏出舒适区 to learn something new and difficult,学习新知识 迎接新挑战 the neurons in their brain can form new, stronger connections,大脑中的神经元就会形成更强大的新连接 and over time, they can get smarter.久而久之 他们就能越来越聪明 Look what happened: In this study,看看发生了什么:在这项研究中 students who were not taught this growth mindset没有接受成长型思维模式训练的学生 continued to show declining grades over this difficult school transition,在这一困难的过渡阶段 成绩持续下滑 but those who were taught this lesson 但是受过这种思维训练的学生 showed a sharp rebound in their grades.成绩有明显的反弹 We have shown this now, this kind of improvement,如今 我们已经证实这一结论 with thousands and thousands of kids,通过成千上万个学生的实例 especially struggling students.尤其是那些在学业上挣扎的孩子 So let’s talk about equality.那现在我们就来说一说教育平等 In our country, there are groups of students在我们国家 有些特定区域的孩子 who chronically underperform,学习一直以来都处于下游 for example, children in inner cities,比如说 内城区的孩子 or children on Native American reservations.或印第安人居留地的孩子 And they’ve done so poorly for so long长期以来这些孩子都没什么起色 that many people think it’s inevitable.以致于很多人觉得不可挽回了 But when educators create growth mindset classrooms但当教育家把孩子的思维 steeped in yet,转变为成长型思维模式后 equality happens.教育平等实现了 And here are just a few examples.这有一些例子 In one year, a kindergarten class in Harlem, New York 纽约哈莱姆区一所幼儿园的学生 scored in the 95th percentile仅一年内 就在国家水平测试中 on the national achievement test.获得了前百分之五的成绩 Many of those kids could not hold a pencil其中的许多孩子在刚入学时 when they arrived at school.甚至还不会握笔 In one year,一年之内 fourth-grade students in the South Bronx, way behind,远远落后的南布朗克斯区的四年级学生 became the number one fourth-grade class其标准数学测试成绩攀升到 in the state of New York on the state math test.纽约州所有四年级学生中的第一名 In a year, to a year and a half,在一年到一年半时间内 Native American students in a school on a reservation某印第安居留地一所学校的学生 went from the bottom of their district to the top,成绩从全区倒数变成名列前茅 and that district included affluent sections of Seattle.该区还包括了西雅图的富裕地段 So the Native kids所以那些印第安孩子 outdid the Microsoft kids.战胜了“微软孩子” This happened 这得以实现 because the meaning of effort and difficulty were transformed. 是因为努力与困难的含义已发生了改变 Before, effort and difficulty在此之前 努力和困难 made them feel dumb, made them feel like giving up,让他们感觉自己很笨 让他们想放弃 but now, effort and difficulty,但是现在 正是困难和努力 that’s when their neurons are making new connections,让他们大脑中的神经元产生新的连接 stronger connections.更强大的连接 That’s when they’re getting smarter.正是在这个过程中 他们变得越来越聪明 I received a letter recently from a 13-year-old boy.最近我收到了一个13岁男孩的来信 He said,”Dear Professor Dweck,他说:“亲爱的德韦克教授 I appreciate that your writing is based on 我欣赏您的著作 因为它们都基于 solid scientific research,可靠的科学试验 and that’s why I decided to put it into practice.因此 我决定将您的方法付诸实践 I put more effort into my schoolwork,我更加努力学习 into my relationship with my family,更用心处理好与家人的关系 and into my relationship with kids at school,与学校同学的友谊 and I experienced great improvement结果我在这些方面上都获得了 in all of those areas.巨大的进步 I now realize I’ve wasted most of my life.”现在我才意识到 过去浪费了太多生命” Let’s not waste any more lives,让我们不要再浪费生命 because once we know因为既然我们知道 that abilities are capable of such growth,能力是能够提升的 it becomes a basic human right那么 生活在一个 for children, all children,能促进孩子成长 to live in places that create that growth,一个处处以过程为重的地方 to live in places filled with”yet”.就是每个孩子的权利 Thank you.谢谢 [Applause][掌声]
  • 2021-10-17蜻蜓的大脑生来就是杀戮 | DIY神经科学系列翻译:约瑟夫·杰尼 评论:乔安娜·皮埃储勒维科兹Translator: Joseph GeniReviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz 格雷格·盖奇:Greg Gage: 如果我要你想一个夺命猛兽If I asked you to think of a ferocious killer animal, 你可能会想起狮子you’d probably think of a lion, 尽管狮子有所有令人惊奇的捕食技能and for all the wonderful predatory skills that a lion has, 它只有20%抓住猎物饱餐一顿的成功率it still only has about a 20 percent success rate at catching a meal. Now, 现在 令人惊讶的是one of the most successful hunters 整个动物王国里最成功的捕猎者是蜻蜓in the entire animal kingdom is surprising: the dragonfly. 蜻蜓是夺命两翼昆虫 看到较小的两翼昆虫时Dragonflies are killer flies, and when they see a smaller fly, 它们有97%抓住猎物饱餐一顿的机会they have about a 97 percent chance of catching it for a meal. 这只正在飞行中And this is in mid-flight. 但这么小的昆虫如何做到如此精准呢?But how can such a small insect be so precise? 在这一集 我们会看到In this episode, we’re going to see 蜻蜓的大脑是如何专门成为致命杀手的how the dragonfly’s brain is highly specialized to be a deadly killer. (神经系统科学)[DIY Neuroscience] 那么 是什么使蜻蜓So what makes the dragonfly 成为动物王国最成功的捕猎者的?one of the most successful predators in the animal kingdom? 第一是它们的眼睛One, it’s the eyes. 有将近360度的视野It has near 360-degree vision. 第二是翅膀Two, the wings. 蜻蜓能控制单个翅膀With individual control of its wings, 可以精准地向任一方向移动the dragonfly can move precisely in any direction. 但是 蜻蜓成功的真正秘诀是But the real secret to the dragonfly’s success 它的大脑如何协调眼睛和翅膀之间的is how its brain coordinates this complex information 复杂信息以及把捕猎变为简单的本能反应between the eyes and the wings and turns hunting into a simple reflex. 为了研究这些 杰米花费了大量的时间To study this, Jaimie’s been spending a lot of time 与蜻蜓交流socializing with dragonflies. 做你的实验都需要什么?What do you need to do your experiments? 首先 你需要蜻蜓First of all, you need dragonflies. 我用一个网兜去捕捉蜻蜓I have a mesh cage to catch the dragonflies. 我对着它们工作越久 越害怕它们The more I worked to them, the more terrified I got of them. 它们实际上很可怕 尤其在显微镜下They’re actually very scary, especially under a microscope. 它们有非常锋利的上颚 通常很具攻击性They have really sharp mandibles,are generally pretty aggressive, 我觉得这会帮助它们成为好的捕猎者which I guess also helps them to be really good predators. 格雷格·盖奇:为了了解In order to learn what’s going on 蜻蜓看到猎物时 其大脑的内部变化inside the dragonfly’s brain when it sees a prey, 我们将会偷听蜻蜓眼睛和翅膀之间we’re going to eavesdrop in on a conversation 的一段交流between the eyes and the wings, 要那样做的话and to do that, 我们需要把蜻蜓麻痹在冰块上we need to anesthetize the dragonfly on ice 并确保保护好它的翅膀 以便之后放飞and make sure we protect its wings so that we can release it afterwards. 蜻蜓大脑由名为“神经元”的专门细胞组成Now, the dragonfly’s brain is made up of specialized cells called neurons 这些神经元能让蜻蜓and these neurons are what allow the dragonfly 迅速地看见并移动to see and move so quickly. 个体的神经元通过细长线状的轴突The individual neurons form circuitsby connecting to each other 连接彼此 形成线路via long, tiny threads called axons 神经元用电 通过这些轴突交流and the neurons communicateover these axons using electricity. 我们要在蜻蜓体内顺着轴突放置In the dragonfly, we’re going to place little metal wires, or electrodes, 小的金属线或电极 这才是真正酷的地方along the axon tracks, and this is what’s really cool. 蜻蜓体内只有16个神经元In the dragonfly, there’s only 16 neurons; 每只眼有8个 告诉翅膀目标的确切位置that’s eight per eye that tell the wings exactly where the target is. 我们已放入了电极We’ve placed the electrodes so 这样就可以从这些连接that we can record from these neurons 眼睛和翅膀的神经元把其记录下来that connect the eyes to the wings. 每当一条信息从眼睛被传至翅膀时Whenever a message is being passed from the eye to the wing, 电极就会截获以电流形式出现的对话our electrode intercepts that conversation in the form of an electrical current, 并将其放大and it amplifies it. 我们能同时听到并看到它以Now we can both hear it and see it 骤增的形式出现in the form of a spike, 它也可以被称为动作电位which we also call an action potential. 现在 我们来听听看Now let’s listen in. 现在 我们把蜻蜓倒过来Right now, we have the dragonflyflipped upside down, 让它朝向地面so he’s looking down towards the ground. 我们将会取出一个猎物We’re going to take a prey, 或者 有时我们所说的目标or what we sometimes call a target. 在这种情况下 目标是一只假苍蝇In this case, the target’s going to be a fake fly. 我们会把目标移至蜻蜓的视野内We’re going to move it into the dragonfly’s sights. [嗡嗡声](Buzzing) 天啊Oh! Oh, 看那个look at that. 看呐 但它只是朝一个方向Look at that, but it’s only in one direction. 真酷Oh, yes! 目标往前移动时 你看不到任何骤增You don’t see any spikes when I go forward, 但往回移动时就出现了but they’re all when I come back. 在我们的实验里In our experiments, 我们能看到 向一个方向移动目标时we were able to see that the neurons of the dragonfly 蜻蜓的神经元就会躁动 反方向则不然fired when we moved the target in one direction but not the other. Now, 那是为什么?why is that? 还记得我之前说 蜻蜓有近360度视野Remember when I said that the dragonfly had near 360-degree vision. Well, 眼睛的一个叫做小凹的部分there’s a section of the eye called the fovea 有最敏锐的视敏度and this is the part that has the sharpest visual acuity, 你可以把这部分看作蜻蜓的瞄准器and you can think of it as its crosshairs. 记得我说过 蜻蜓有精准的单翅控制吗?Remember when I told you the dragonfly had individual precise control of its wings? 蜻蜓看到猎物时When a dragonfly sees its prey, 会用它的瞄准器对准猎物it trains its crosshairs on it 并沿着轴突只给控制翅膀的神经元发送and along its axons it sends messages only to the neurons that control the parts of the wings 瞄准目标所需的信息that are needed to keep that dragonfly on target. 所以如果猎物在蜻蜓的左侧So if the prey is on the left of the dragonfly, 那么只有牵引左翅膀的神经元被发出only the neurons that are tugging the wings to the left are fired. 如果猎物移至蜻蜓的右侧And if the prey moves to the right of the dragonfly, 这些同样的神经元不会被激活 将继续保持平静those same neurons are not needed, so they’re going to remain quiet. 蜻蜓从一个固定的And the dragonfly speeds toward the prey 由瞄准器带领翅膀的角度at a fixed angle that’s communicated 朝猎物的方向加速by this crosshairs to the wings, 然后 嘣的一声 享受晚餐and then boom, dinner. Now, 这一切都发生在一刹那all this happens in a split second, 对蜻蜓来说毫不费力and it’s effortless for the dragonfly. 几乎像一种本能反应It’s almost like a reflex. 整个非常有效的过程被称为固定And this whole incredibly efficient process is called fixation. 但整个过程还有一个故事But there’s one more story to this process. 我们看到神经元是如何对动作做出反应We saw how the neurons respond to movements, 但蜻蜓怎么知道那东西就是猎物呢?but how does the dragonfly know that something really is prey? 这就是尺寸的重要之处This is where size matters. 我们给蜻蜓看一系列的点点Let’s show the dragonfly a series of dots. Oh, 快看!yeah! JS: 杰米·斯巴赫:是的 蜻蜓更喜欢那个点Yeah, it prefers that one. GG: 使用所有尺寸后Out of all the sizes, 我们发现蜻蜓对较小目标有反应 而非较大的we found that the dragonfly responded to smaller targets over larger ones. 换句话说In other words, 蜻蜓天生捕猎较小的两翼昆虫the dragonfly was programmed to go after smaller flies 而不是较大的 比如鸟类versus something much larger, like a bird. 一旦蜻蜓把那只可怜的小虫认做猎物And as soon as it recognizes something as prey, 它便命不久矣that poor little fly only has seconds to live. 今天 我们看到了蜻蜓的大脑如何工作Today we got to see how the dragonfly’s brain works 使其成为非常有效率的杀手to make it a very efficient killer. 我们应该庆幸And let’s be thankful 自己没有生活在3亿年前that we didn’t live 300 million years ago 当时的蜻蜓有猫咪那么大when dragonflies were the size of cats.
  • 2021-10-17通过搜索贴近每一个艺术品这个世界充满了了不起的事物The world is filled with incredible objects 和丰富的文化遗产and rich cultural heritage. 当我们开始了解它们And when we get access to them, 我们被它们所震撼并爱上它们we are blown away, we fall in love. 但是大多数时候But most of the time, 大多数人没有机会真正接触艺术和文化the world’s population is living without real access to arts and culture. 当我们开始探索我们的遗产What might the connections be when we start exploring our heritage, 欣赏世界上美丽的地区和艺术时 什么可以将它们联系起来the beautiful locations and the art in this world? 在我开始演讲之前Before we get started in this presentation, 我想先做一些常规说明I just want to take care of a few housekeeping points. 首先,我不是文化或艺术的专家First, I am no expert in art or culture. 我偶然开始了这份工作 但是我深爱着它I fell into this by mistake, but I’m loving it. 其次 所有我展示的内容Secondly, all of what I’m going to show you 属于与我们合作的各个伟大的博物馆belongs to the amazing museums, archives and foundations 档案室和基金会that we partner with. 这些都不属于谷歌None of this belongs to Google. 最后 你们看到的我背后的屏幕上And finally, what you see behind me 现在在各位的手机和电脑上is available right now on your mobile phones, 也可以看到on your laptops. 这是我们现在的平台 通过这个平台This is our current platform, where you can explore 上千个博物馆里的展品供您选择 只要动动手指thousands of museums and objects at your fingertips, 所有细节一览无余in extremely high-definition detail. 内容的多样性令人赞叹The diversity of the content is what’s amazing. 如果我们只有欧洲画作If we just had European paintings, 或者只有现代艺术if we just had modern art, 我觉得那就有点无聊了I think it gets a bit boring. 比如这个月 我们开启了“黑人历史”频道For example, this month, we launched the “Black History” channel 策划了82个展览with 82 curated exhibitions, 都是相关内容的文化和艺术which talk about arts and culture in that community. 我们还有一些来自日本的精美展品We also have some amazing objects from Japan, 围绕匠人之心 取名为“日本制造”centered around craftsmanship, called “Made in Japan.” 我最喜欢的展览之一And one of my favorite exhibitions, 也是我演讲的源泉which actually is the idea of my talk, 我没想过会成为一个日本玩偶的爱好者is — I didn’t expect to become a fan of Japanese dolls. 但因为这个展览 我成功地被圈粉了But I am, thanks to this exhibition, 我真正懂得了这些日本玩偶背后的that has really taught me about the craftsmanship 匠人之心的含义behind the soul of a Japanese doll. 相信我 非常令人兴奋Trust me, it’s very exciting. 我敢保证Take my word for it. 让我们继续谈So, moving on swiftly. 在这个平台上我想要快速演示的One quick thing I wanted to showcase in this platform, 同时你也可以和孩子们或朋友们分享which you can share with your kids and your friends right now, 是你可以真正地穿梭于这些精美的展品之中is you can travel to all these amazing institutions virtually, as well. 我们最近的一个想法之一 是和纽约的古根海姆博物馆合作One of our recent ideas was with The Guggenheim Museum in New York, 你会有where you can get a taste of what it might feel like 身临其境的感觉to actually be there. 你可以走进它们的大厅You can go to the ground floor 而且显然 我想你们中的大部分已经去过那里了and obviously, most of you, I assume, have been there. 你可以亲眼目睹这个建筑巨作And you can see the architectural masterpiece that it is. 但是想想一个在孟买But imagine this accessibility for a kid in Bombay 学习建筑却没有去古根海姆博物馆的孩子who’s studying architecture, 也能够在这里体验到who hasn’t had a chance to go to The Guggenheim as yet. 你可以仔细浏览古根海姆博物馆的所有展品You can obviously look at objects in the Guggenheim Museum, 你可以进去一个一个地看you can obviously get into them and so on and so forth. 这里包罗万象There’s a lot of information here. 但是这不是我今天演讲的目的But this is not the purpose of my talk today. 这是已经存在的This exists right now. 我们正在构建一些其他的板块让平台更为丰富What we now have are the building blocks to a very exciting future, 让文化艺术更好地when it comes to arts and culture 被接受和被研究and accessibility to arts and culture. 所以今天我和巴黎驻地艺术家 我的好朋友So I am joined today onstage by my good friend and artist in residence 西里尔·迪亚涅同台为您展示at our office in Paris, Cyril Diagne, 西里尔·迪亚涅是瑞士洛桑who is the professor of interactive design ECAL大学交互设计系的教授at ECAL University in Lausanne, Switzerland. 西里尔和我们的团队的工程师一直致力于What Cyril and our team of engineers have been doing 寻找其中的关联然后把它们做出来is trying to find these connections and visualize a few of these. 我现在会讲的快一点So I’m going to go quite quick now. 大家可以看到我背后的展品 对了 我澄清一下:This object you see behind me — oh, just clarification: 亲自去看真品总是更好Always, seeing the real thing is better. 以防大家觉得 我在试图复制真迹In case people think I’m trying to replicate the real thing. 我们继续So, moving on. 这个展品是 色列贝列卡特拉姆的维纳斯This object you see behind me is the Venus of Berekhat Ram. 这是世界上最古老的艺术品之一It’s one of the oldest objects in the world, 发现于23万年前的戈兰高地found in the Golan Heights around 233,000 years ago, 现在保存在耶路撒冷的以色列博物馆中and currently residing at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. 这也是我们平台最古老的文物之一It is also one of the oldest objects on our platform. 让我们放大来看So let’s zoom. 我们从这个展品开始We start from this one object. 如果我们把它缩放成一点What if we zoomed out 然后来个文化的大爆炸and actually tried to experience our own cultural big bang? 会是什么样的体验呢?What might that look like? 这就是我们每天在文化中心所做的事情This is what we deal with on a daily basis at the Cultural Institute — 我们让超过六百万 来自世界各地的文化艺术品over six million cultural artifacts curated and given to us by institutions, 彼此产生联系to actually make these connections. 你可以穿梭时空You can travel through time, 你可以通过这些 更好地了解我们社会you can understand more about our society through these. 你可以从地球的角度看待展品You can look at it from the perspective of our planet, 尝试去在没有界限的限制下 感受文化和艺术and try to see how it might look without borders, 如果我们仅仅是把艺术和文化组织起来if we just organized art and culture. 我们也可以依照时间来探索We can also then plot it by time, 显然作为一个数据专家 我对此非常着迷which obviously, for the data geek in me, is very fascinating. 你可以花数小时浏览 不同时代的You can spend hours looking at every decade 每一个十年之间艺术 历史和文化and the contributions in that decade and in those years 所做出的贡献for art, history and cultures. 我们很想用几个小时 为各位展示每一个十年We would love to spend hours showing you each and every decade, 不过此时此刻我们没有时间but we don’t have the time right now. 各位可以在手机上自行查看So you can go on your phone and actually do it yourself. (掌声)(Applause) 但是如果你们不介意的话 请把掌声留到最后But if you don’t mind and can hold your applause till later, 我们时间紧迫I don’t want to run out of time, 因为我有很多很酷的东西想要展示给你们看because I want to show you a lot of cool stuff. 所以 继续快速介绍:So, just very quickly: 从这里你可以继续 另一个很有趣的想法you can move on from here to another very interesting idea. 在漂亮的图片Beyond the pretty picture, 和精美的可视化方案背后beyond the nice visualization, 我们想要达到什么目的 怎样让这个平台更有实用性what is the purpose, how is this useful? 下一个想法来源于我们在博物馆时This next idea comes from discussions with curators 与博物馆策展人们的对话that we’ve been having at museums, 顺便说一句 我也很爱他们who, by the way, I’ve fallen in love with, 因为他们的一生都致力于讲述这些故事because they dedicate their whole life to try to tell these stories. 其中一位博物馆策展人告诉我:“阿米特One of the curators told me, “Amit, what would it be like 能不能做个策展人的虚拟桌面if you could create a virtual curator’s table 把以我们的角度将这六百万件展品之间的联系where all these six million objects 展现给大家那该多好啊”are displayed in a way for us to look at the connections between them?” 你可以花上很长时间观赏不同的展品You can spend a lot of time, trust me, looking at different objects 并了解它们来自于何处and understanding where they come from. 就像《黑客帝国》里的经历一样It’s a crazy Matrix experience. (笑声)(Laughter) 我们继续Just moving on, 我们使用世界级著名的文森特·梵高为例let’s take the world-famous Vincent Van Gogh, 他的作品是这个平台上的优秀代表who is very well-represented on this platform. 感谢与我们合作的机构的多样性Thanks to the diversity of the institutions we have, 我们有超过211幅这位画家高清的珍贵作品we have over 211 high-definition, amazing artworks by this artist, 我把它们排成一幅美丽景观now organized in one beautiful view. 随着西里尔深入放大And as it resolves, and as Cyril goes deeper, 你可以看到所有的自画像you can see all the self-portraits, 可以看到静物写生you can see still life. 但是我想快速地举一个例子But I just wanted to highlight one very quick example, 在这里说很合适:which is very timely: 《卧室》“The Bedroom.” 这幅作品有三幅副本-This is an artwork where three copies exist — 一幅在阿姆斯特丹的梵高博物馆one at the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, 一幅在巴黎的奥赛美术馆one at the Orsay in Paris 还有一幅在芝加哥的艺术中心and one at the Art Institute of Chicago, 实际上 芝加哥艺术中心现在把三副作品which, actually, currently is hosting a reunion 重新放在一起展览of all three artworks physically, 这是有史以来的第二次I think only for the second time ever. 但在这里它们以数字化 虚拟化的方式再度重聚But, it is united digitally and virtually for anybody to look at 任何人都可以用这种不同寻常的方式观看in a very different way, 而且你不用担心排队观看时的拥挤and you won’t get pushed in the line in the crowd. 所以让我们一起快速浏览 《卧室》So let’s take you and let’s travel through “The Bedroom” very quickly, 你们可以感受我们在 每一幅作品上所做的努力so you can experience what we are doing for every single object. 我们希望这幅图片 可以在一个数字平台上We want the image to speak as much as it can 尽可能地表现自我on a digital platform. 你需要的只是网络连接和一台电脑And all you need is an internet connection and a computer (掌声)(Applause) 西里尔请你再放大点 快一点And, Cyril, if you can go deeper, quickly. 不好意思 这是现场演示I’m sorry, this is all live, 所以 希望各位给西里尔一些时间so you have to give Cyril a little bit of — 每一个展品都可以这样操作:and this is available for every object: 无论是现代艺术 当代艺术 还是文艺复兴艺术品modern art, contemporary art, Renaissance — you name it, 甚至雕塑也可以even sculpture. 有的时候你不知道什么会吸引你去欣赏一幅艺术作品Sometimes, you don’t know what can attract you 参观一座博物馆 或进行一次文化之旅to an artwork or to a museum or to a cultural discovery. 所以 对于我来说 这确实是一个挑战So for me, personally, it was quite a challenge 因为当我决定在谷歌 全职从事这个工作的时候because when I decided to make this my full-time job at Google, 我妈妈并不是很支持my mother was not very supportive. 我爱我的妈妈I love my mother, 但是她认为我从事博物馆相关的工作是在浪费生命but she thought I was wasting my life with this museum stuff. 对于她来说 参观博物馆是放假时做的事And for her, a museum is what you do when you go on vacation 打一下卡就结束了and you tick-mark and it’s over, right? 我用了大概四年半的时间And it took around four and a half years 说服我可爱的印度妈妈for me to convince my lovely Indian mother 告诉她我所做的是值得的that actually, this is worthwhile. 我用的办法是 有一天我发现她喜欢黄金And the way I did it was, I realized one day that she loves gold. 我开始给她展示 所有有黄金作为材料的作品So I started showing her all objects that have the material gold in them. 我妈妈问我的第一句话是:And the first thing my mom asks me is, “我们怎么买这些东西?”“How can we buy these?” (观众笑声)(Laughter) 显然我的工资没有那么高And obviously, my salary is not that high, 所以 我说:“妈妈我们买不了so I was like, “We can’t actually do that, mom. 但是你可以在网上探索它们”But you can explore them virtually.” 所以现在当我每次遇见妈妈 她都会问我:And so now my mom — every time I meet her, she asks me, “你的项目里还有别的金银做的物品么?能给我看看么?““Any more gold, any more silver in your project? Can you show me?” 这就是我想解释的观点And that’s the idea I’m trying to illustrate. 你怎么接触这些艺术品并不重要It does not matter how you get in, 只要你接触了这些艺术品as long as you get in. 只要你开始了解 你就会被吸引Once you get in, you’re hooked. 说完这个Moving on from here very quickly, 其实我想讲一个很好玩的观点there is kind of a playful idea, actually, 从实用的角度出发to illustrate the point of access, 简明地阐述我的观点and I’m going to go quite quickly on this one. 我们都知道亲自去看这些艺术作品是很棒的We all know that seeing the artwork in person is amazing. 但是我们也知道 我们中的大部分没有办法去But we also know that most of us can’t do it, 我们承担不起费用 这很复杂and the ones that can afford to do it, it’s complicated. 所以-西里尔 我们可不可以加载我们的艺术之旅So — Cyril, can we load up our art trip, what do we call it? 我们还不知道怎么称呼这个We don’t have a good name for this. 但是本质上 我们的平台上有来自68个国家的But essentially, we have around 1,000 amazing institutions, 1000个伟大的机构68 countries. 我们从伦勃朗的作品开始But let’s start with Rembrandt. 我们也许只有举一个例子的时间We might have time for only one example. 感谢组织的多样性But thanks to the diversity, 我们收集了来自17个国家46个组织的we’ve got around 500 amazing Rembrandt object artworks 约500件伟大的伯伦朗的艺术品from 46 institutions and 17 countries. 假如在你的下一个假期Let’s say that on your next vacation, 你想观看每一个艺术品you want to go see every single one of them. 这是你的行程安排That is your itinerary, 你大概要完成53000公里you will probably travel 53,000 kilometers, 穿越46个机构的旅程visit around, I think, 46 institutions, 仅供参考 您可能会释放10吨二氧化碳and just FYI, you might release 10 tons of CO2 emissions. (笑声)(Laughter) 但是请记住 这是艺术But remember, it’s art, 所以从某种角度说 这样做也说得过去so you can justify it, perhaps, in some way. 继续下一个话题Moving on swiftly from here, 这个话题 更专业也更有趣is something a little bit more technical and more interesting. 目前我们展示的是利用元数据产生联系All that we’ve shown you so far uses metadata to make the connections. 但是显然 我们现在有很棒的东西 - 计算机学习能力But obviously we have something cool nowadays 所有人都喜欢讨论这个领域that everyone likes to talk about, which is machine learning. 所以 我们的想法是让我们跳出元数据So what we thought is, let’s strip out all the metadata, 看一看仅仅依靠视觉识别let’s look at what machine learning can do 计算机自主学习可以为这个展览做什么based purely on visual recognition of this entire collection. 最后我们得到这个非常有趣的地图What we ended up with is this very interesting map, 这些合辑没有参考点信息these clusters that have no reference point information, 仅仅依靠外观联系在一起but has just used visuals to cluster things together. 每一个合辑对我们来说 新的艺术Each cluster is an art to us by itself of discovery. 其中我们想展示给大家的But one of the clusters we want to show you very quickly 是来自全世界博物馆is this amazing cluster of portraits 精彩的的肖像集合that we found from museums around the world. 西里尔 如果可以放大一点If you could zoom in a little bit more, Cyril. 如各位所见 你可以在肖像中徜徉Just to show you, you can just travel through portraits. 而且你可以寻找与自然相关 或与马相关的And essentially, you can do nature, you can do horses 这里有大量的合辑and clusters galore. 我们看着这些肖像When we saw all these portraits, 我们在想: “我们可不可以为孩子带来一些快乐?we were like, “Hey, can we do something fun for kids, 或者可不可以做一些好玩的东西or can we do something playful 让人们对画像更有兴趣?”to get people interested in portraits?” 因为我没真正见过Because I haven’t really seen 去肖像美术馆很兴奋的孩子young kids really excited to go to a portrait gallery. 我们想搞点新花样I wanted to try to figure something out. 所以我们开发了肖像比对功能So we created something called the portrait matcher. 这个功能很好理解It’s quite self-explanatory, 我只需要西里尔 展示一下他美丽的脸so I’m just going to let Cyril show his beautiful face. 随着他头部的运动And essentially what’s happening is, with the movement of his head, 世界各地博物馆的画像 可以与之匹配we are matching different portraits around the world from museums. (掌声)(Applause) 我不知道各位感觉如何And I don’t know about you, 当我给我的外甥和妹妹演示的时候but I’ve shown it to my nephew and sister, 他们开心得不行and the reaction is just phenomenal. 他们都在问我:“什么时候我们可以玩这个?”All they ask me is, “When can we go see this?” 顺便提一句 如果我们做个好人And by the way, if we’re nice, 西里尔 你可以笑一下 找一张开心点的图么?maybe, Cyril, you can smile and find a happy one? 完美Oh, perfect. 我们事先没有彩排过By the way, this is not rehearsed. 恭喜你 西里尔 干得不错Congrats, Cyril. Great stuff. Oh wow. 我们继续 不然这个应用可以玩一天OK, let’s move on; otherwise, this will just take the whole time. (掌声)(Applause) 所以艺术和文化都很有意思 是吧So, art and culture can be fun also, right? 最后一个小实验For our last quick experiment — 我们管这些叫做“实验”we call all of these “experiments” — 最后一个实验 回到了计算机学习部分our last quick experiment comes back to machine learning. 我们展示各种合辑 视觉合辑We show you clusters, visual clusters, 如果我们让电脑命名这些集群 会发生什么but what if we could ask the machine to also name these clusters? 不使用元数据的情况下 电脑可以自动为合辑打上标签么What if it could automatically tag them, using no actual metadata? 所以我们有了这样一个浏览器So what we have is this kind of explorer, 电脑为我们做了4000个标签where we have managed to match, I think, around 4,000 labels. 我们其实没有做什么特别的事And we haven’t really done anything special here, 只是提供了所有的收藏just fed the collection. 我们发现了很多有趣的分类And we found interesting categories. 我们可以从马开始 这是很直接的分类We can start with horses, a very straightforward category. 你可以期待看到电脑放进去的You would expect to see that the machine has put 都是马的照片 对吧images of horses, right? 确实有 但是如果仔细看这边And it has, but you also notice, right over there, 这里有一个非常抽象的图that it has a very abstract image 电脑认定也属于马的分类that it has still managed to recognize and cluster as horses. 这里还有一个从某种意义来说是马头的图片We also have an amazing head in terms of a horse. 每一个图片都有标签 说明为什么它被这样分类And each one has the tags as to why it got categorized in this. 那么我们继续看一个我觉得很有趣的例子So let’s move to another one which I found very funny and interesting, 因为我不知道这个分类怎么来的because I don’t understand how this category came up. 分类叫做“等待的女人”It’s called “Lady in Waiting.” 西里尔请加快速度If, Cyril, you do it very quickly, 你们可以看到这些精彩的图片you will see that we have these amazing images 都是关于在等待 或在摆姿势的女人的of ladies, I guess, in waiting or posing. 我确实无法理解I don’t really understand it. 但是我一直在问我的博物馆联系人But I’ve been trying to ask my museum contacts, “这是什么 这张图里发生了什么”you know, “What is this? What’s going on here?” 这确实让人着迷And it’s fascinating. 回到金子Coming back to gold very quickly, 我想要寻找金子I wanted to search for gold 然后看看电脑如何给金子打上标签and see how the machine tagged all the gold. 但是实际上电脑没有给它标签黄金But, actually, it doesn’t tag it as gold. 我们生活在一个流行的时代We are living in popular times. 它打的标签是“土豪金”It tags it as “bling-bling.” (笑声)(Laughter) 我一直在难为西里尔 因为我讲的太快了I’m being hard on Cyril, because I’m moving too fast. 现在你可以看到Essentially, here you have all the bling-bling 世界上的博物馆为您提供的所有土豪金的物品of the world’s museums organized for you. 最后 希望各位在听完这次演讲后And finally, to end this talk and these experiments, 可以感到开心和感动what I hope you feel after this talk is happiness and emotion. 然后当我们感到高兴的时候 我们会看到什么?And what would we see when we see happiness? 如果我们看完这些If we actually look at all the objects 被打上“快乐”的艺术品that have been tagged under “happiness,” 我想你们会感到快乐you would expect happiness, I guess. 但是有一个作品很吸引人很有趣But there was one that came up that was very fascinating and interesting, 由我们的朋友 也是当地艺术家which was this artwork by Douglas Coupland, 道格拉斯·库普兰所做our friend and artist in residence as well, 叫做 “我怀念有网络前的大脑”called, “I Miss My Pre-Internet Brain.” 我不知道为什么计算机会想念有网络前的大脑I don’t know why the machine feels like it misses its pre-Internet brain 也不知道为什么这部作品被标记在这里and it’s been tagged here, 但是这个想法很有意思but it’s a very interesting thought. 有的时候我确实很怀念 我有网络之前的大脑I sometimes do miss my pre-Internet brain, 但是当我开始在网上探索艺术和文化之后我就不这么想了but not when it comes to exploring arts and culture online. 所以 拿出你的手机和电脑So take out your phones, take out your computers, 去参观博物馆吧go visit museums. 这就像那些坐在博物馆中 保存这些历史的博物馆馆长And just a quick call-out to all the amazing archivists, 策展人或历史学家historians, curators, 为您上门服务who are sitting in museums, preserving all this culture. 至少我们可以让我们和我们的后代And the least we can do is get our daily dose of art and culture 每天增长一点艺术文化知识for ourselves and our kids. 谢谢Thank you. (掌声)(Applause)
  • 2021-09-15成功人士的两个重要习惯Hello, I’m Brian Tracy.大家好 我是博恩·崔西 Your ability to develope good work habits你养成良好工作习惯的能力 for what you do determines how much you earn,决定了你能赚多少钱 how effective you are,你的效率有多高 how much you’re respecting your organization,你对团体有多尊重 and how much real satisfaction you get out of your job.以及你真正从工作中获得的满足感 Unfortunately, most people are poor workers.不幸的是 大多数人都是可怜的工人 They are unorganized, they are unfocused, and easily distracted.他们办事没有条理 不够专注 很容易就会分心 They will get about 50% of capacity.他们只能获得大约50%的生产力 Sadly enough, they don’t even seem to know how to work any differently.悲哀的是 他们看起来并不知道如何工作的更好 And this is a big problem today.这在今天是个大问题 Even if they want to,即使他们想要改变 it’s like speaking in a foreign language.但这就像说一秒门外语 They wouldn’t know how to do it without first been taught.如果不先教他们就不知道怎么做了 How to achieve success in every area of your life?如何在你生活中的每一个领域取得成功 You have to develope the habbits of highly successful and hard-working people.这需要你养成那些极其成功和勤奋的人的习惯 To begin with,首先 the foundations of good work habits can be summarized in two words:好的工作习惯的养成可以被总结为两个词 FOCUS,焦点 and CONCENTRATION.和专注 Now FOCUS requires clarity concerning the desired result,现在 焦点要求我们明确所期望的结果 and the relative priority of each step that you need to take以及实现这些结果的 to achieve those results.每个步骤的相对优先级 When you think of focus,当你想到焦点时 think of a photographor adjusting his lense,想象一个摄影师调整他的镜头 to keep the key subject sharp in the center of the picture.来让中心物体在照片中央变得清晰 To become a truely hard-working, individual at work,要在工作中成为一个真正勤奋、独立的人 you must be continually adjusting your lense,你必须不断的调整自己的镜头 to be sure that what you are working on is the most important thing来确保你所做的事 you could be doing at the moment是在那个时候你能做的 to achieve your most important goal.促使你实现目标的最重要的事 Successful people understand that the worst waste of time成功人士懂得 对时间的浪费莫过于 is doing something very well把某事做的很好 that need not be done at all.而此事却没有任何必要 Now CONCENTRATION requires the ability to stay with the task而专注需要有坚持任务的能力 until it’s 100% complete.直至任务彻底完成 Successful people understand that成功的人都知道 they must work in the straight line to get from where they are他们必须笔直的从起点走到目的 to where they want to go without diversion or distraction.而不能有任何的分心 If you want to accomplish your goals,如果你想达成目标 you must be sure that everything you do is taking you in that direction,你就要确保你做的任何事都朝着那个方向 and then develope good habits to get you there.然后培养一些良好的习惯帮你达成目的 This decision alone will dramaticly increase the quality and quantity这一决定会极大的提高你每天做事的 of what you get done everyday, and soon enough,数量和质量 而且不久以后 you will become one of the most successful people in your field.你也会成为你所在领域的成功人士 Now there are several benefits from learning how to concentrate.学会专注有许多的好处 First, important task completion首先重要任务的完成 is a source of energy, and enthusiasm, and self-esteem.是精力、热情和自尊的源泉 On the other hand,另一方面 failure to complete important tasks未能完成重要任务 or to complete them only partially,或完成部分任务 is not only a major source of stress,不仅仅是压力的主要来源 but it depletes your energy and your enthusiasm还会耗尽你的精力 热情 and your self-esteem.让你的自尊心受伤 When you complete an important task,当你完成了一项重要的任务 you experience a surge of energy and well-being.你会感到汹涌而来的能量和幸福 But when you work on an unimportant task,但当你做的是一项不重要的工作 even if you complete it in a timely fashion,即使你及时完成它 you get no feeling of satisfaction你也不会有满足感 or personal reward at all.不会给自己奖励 There’s no payoff完成不重要的任务 for completing low level tasks.是没有回报的 Disciplining yourself to concentrate on a job until it’s finished,约束自己专注于工作 直到完成为止 gives you a feeling of confidence and competence and mastery.给你一种自信、有能力和精通的感觉 It developes you into a hard-working person它能是你变成一个勤奋的人 and it gives you an experience of self-control,并给你一种自我约束的经验 so that you feel that you’re in charge让你能感到 of your own destiny.命运把握在自己手中 Thank you for viewing this video on developing focusing clarity.感谢您观看这个关于焦点和关注的视频 If you enjoy this video,如果你喜欢这个视频 please press the “like” button below,请按下面的“喜欢”按钮 and click on the link on the screen to subscribe并点击屏幕上的链接订阅 to my YouTube Channel.我的YouTube频道
  • 2021-09-15如何从厌倦中恢复过来大家好 我是布莱恩Hello I’m Brian Tracy, 今天 我要告诉你一些摆脱厌倦情绪的技巧Today I want to give you some tips on how to recover from being burned out. 你可能听过希腊神话中伊卡洛斯的故事You may have heard the story of Icarus in Greek mythology, 他是突然着火而不是慢慢燃毁he was more a flame out than a burn out. 在他插上用自制的蜡When he flew into the Sun on wings of wax 粘上羽毛做成的羽翼that he had made himself, 飞向太阳的时候and feathers that he had attached to the wax, 是为了逃离迷宫 也就是他自己构建的牢笼it was to escape a labyrinth a prison of his own invention. 有时候 在我们背着压力的羽翼飞向倦怠时Our lives may sometimes seem like Icarus labyrinth 我们的生活可能会像伊卡洛斯的迷宫一样as we fly on our own wings of stress towards burnout. 随着平衡逐渐消失As balance falls away, 每天变成了又一个糟糕的日子every day becomes another bad day. 由厌倦产生的疲惫和枯燥感The exhaustion and joylessness of burnout 只有在无趣的生活中are surpassed only by a lack of interest in life 注入挑战和满足感时才会被淡化once filled with challenge and satisfaction. 我刚刚结束41天的巡回演出时I just came back from 41 days on the road 感觉疲惫不堪and suffered complete burnout. 回到家后 睡了几乎够3天By the time I got home, I slept for almost three days, 就是为了让我的精神状态恢复正常just to get my energy level back up to normal. 每个人都有感觉糟糕的日子Everyone has bad days but 但是当这些糟糕的日子没完没了地出现时when those bad days stretch on and on, 你可能正趋向于厌倦you may be heading for burnout, 或者你已经厌倦了or you are already there. 那么该如何辨别So how can you tell the difference between 正常 自然且属于健康性质的暂时性紧迫感transitory stress which is normal natural and actually healthy, 和对人不利的习惯性厌倦感之间的区别呢?and chronic burnout which is no good. 厌倦产生于持续不断的紧迫感Burnout results from unrelenting stress, 却又不同于紧迫感but burnout is not the same as stress . 紧迫感是由于压力过多Stress is too many pressures 使你在正常条件下 从生理上和心理上demand far too much of what you can’t physically and psychologically cope with 都难以应对以及处理and deal with on a regular basis. 虽然如此 有紧迫感的人却觉得他们能够熬过去Nevertheless, people who are stressed can imagine that they can get through it 并重新控制自己and regain control. 厌倦感就不一样了Not so with burnout, 厌倦感与压力过多是相反的Burnout is the opposite of too much. 当你感觉厌倦时 你在逐渐变得空虚When you are burned-out, you are running on empty. 你缺乏动力 对什么都漠不关心You lack motivation and art beyond caring. 如果你厌倦了 你就看不到正向转变出现的希望If you are burned-out you see no hope of positive change 而只会放弃and just give up. 那么 如果你正在遭受厌倦情绪的摧残 该怎样对待它呢?So, if you’re suffering from burnout, how do you deal with it? 你可以处理厌倦情绪中的无用感 从而使你的生活恢复平衡You can deal with the helpless feelings of burnout, and get you life back in balance. 你必须首先认识到你确实是厌倦了You must first realize that you are, in fact, burned out. 存在障碍的思维过程和功能不足的问题解决机制Your dysfunctional thought processes and inadequate problem-solving mechanisms 威胁着你的人际关系 工作和健康are threatening your relationships, your job and your health. 这时候该喊停了It’s time to call a time up, 同时要认识到你可以恢复平衡and realize that you can regain your balance 并且能使你的生活重回正轨and get your life back in order. 首先要明白你可以恢复正常First know that you can recover. 你可以从厌倦情绪中恢复过来You can recover from burnout, 但是这种情绪不会自动消失but it does not go away on its own. 它只会使情况变得更糟It will only get worse unless you 除非你能从引起厌倦情绪的内在原因着手处理and get at its underlying causes. 搞清楚你为什么会厌倦Identify why you have experienced burnout 其原因与工作有关还是与个人生活有关 亦或是与两者都有关are the causes related to work, your personal life or perhaps both. 你因为别人对你的期望值有多大或多小而感到不满吗?do you feel resentment over how much or how little is expected of you? 若要恢复以前对工作或个人的What is missing that would restore your former job 满足感和热情 还缺乏什么呢?personal satisfaction and enthusiasm. 其次 关注你的身体Next, listen to your body. 你的身体在当前的倦怠状态中可能需要关注一下Your body in your current state of burnout, probably needs attention. 你倦于关心自己的人生职责以及他人的需求You burn out taking care of your life’s responsibilities and the needs of others. 现在该停一下了It is now time to pause 想一想健康的基础and think about the basics of good health, 以及健康的身体如何有助于产生and how a healthy body contributes to the sense of well-being 你克服厌倦情绪所需的愉悦感that you need to get past burnout. 你可以先增加运动量You can start by getting more exercise, 记住那些叫做脑内啡的物质 它们会在你锻炼时remember those endorphins and how they flooded your body with a sense of 使你的身体充满兴奋感和成就感exhilaration and accomplishment when you use to workout. 回到你的运动中去Get back to your exercising 即使你只是从轻缓的锻炼开始 到空气清新的地方走一走even if you just start slow and take a walk in the fresh air. 保持水分充足 多喝水Stay hydrated, drink lots of water. 据说人每天要用8盎司的杯子喝8杯水They say eight 8-ounce glasses per day, 不要食用来自食品调配机或得来速快餐的And lay off the starch and grease from the 含淀粉和油脂较多的食物food dispensing machine or fast food drive-thru. 这样 你会睡得更好you will sleep better, 不会在深夜里辗转不安 stop tossing and turning over your worries in the middle of the night. 请假或度假Take a leave of absence or vacation. 经过真正意义上的度假 在你从厌倦中恢复过来时You can get a great start on your recovery from burnout 可以拥有一个美好的开端by taking a real vacation. 导致厌倦感产生的时间和距离Time and distance from what is causing the burnout will 会使你缓解压力 重新恢复平衡allow you to decompress and regain your balance. 当你返回工作时 什么都不会改变When you return to work nothing will have changed, 但是你需要空间来针对产生厌倦感的原因but you need the space to come up with long-term solutions 找出长期有效的解决方法to what is causing your burnout. 检验你的个人价值观和目标Examine your personal values and goals. 当你的工作与价值观不协调或与你的长期目标不一致时Burnout can result when your job is out of sync with your values, 厌倦感就会产生or is not aligned with your long-term goals. 你还知道的你的价值观和目标是什么吗?Do you even know what your values and goals are? 进行个人分析会使你对产生厌倦感的内在原因Doing a self analysis will give you that deeper understanding 有着更深的理解get to the underlying causes of burnout. 最后 要在自己身上投资Finally, invest in yourself. 在你从伊卡洛斯转变为凤凰的过程中In your journey from Icarus to Phoenix, (是凤凰这种火鸟 不是凤凰城)the fire bird, not the city, 你会在自己燃烧的灰烬中重生you can rise from the ashes of your burnout. 你只是需要暂停一下You only need to pause, understand that why 想清楚主要是什么耗尽了你的激情and what burns you out in the first place. 要花费时间和精力去恢复And invest the time and effort to recover. 看看你的价值观和目标Look at your values and goals 推断为什么它们的不一致或偏差and understand why their misalignment or blurriness 会导致你进入厌倦的状态have contribute to your burnout state. 在我们结束话题之前Before we wrap up, 我要留给你一个想法来供你与朋友和追随者分享I’d like to leave you with a thought to share with your friends and followers: 要接受Accept that you are 你所处的位置和你所扮演的角色 因为你就是你where you are and what you are because of yourself. 如果不喜欢这样 那就改变一下吧If you don’t like it, change it. 我很想听听你的想法 所以我今天的问题是Now I’d love to hear from you, so my question today is this: 你曾感觉到厌倦吗?Have you ever been burned out? 你采取了什么有助于恢复正常的措施呢?what did you do that helped you to recover. 在下方留言 我一定会根据你的留言来跟进的Leave a comment below and I’ll be sure to follow up with you. 感谢收看Thanks for watching, 还要记住 如果你想改变你的未来And remember if you want to change your future, 那就行动起来take action 现在就行动起来and take action now. 如果你喜欢本视频 而且觉得它If you enjoyed this video and feel it was valuable in 在教你如何从厌倦中恢复这方面很有帮助teaching you about how to recover from being burned out, 订阅我的频道 为本视频点赞subscribe to my channel, like this video 并分享给你的朋友们and share this video with your friends. 别忘了点击屏幕上的按钮 你可以获得一份免费礼品Don’t forget to click the button on the screen for a free gift. 再次感谢您的收看Thanks again for watching.

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