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  • 2021-10-26松子为什么如此昂贵?Narrator: In the remote forests of Northeastern China,旁白:在中国东北偏僻的森林中 local harvesters climb trees as high as 100 feet当地的采集者会爬上百尺高的树 to reach this region’s most valuable product.以获取本地最珍贵的产品 Pine nuts.松子 The job is dangerous, but the reward is high这是一个高危职业 for people willing to risk their lives.但对于愿意拿生命冒险的人来说 收益可观 In the US, pine nuts, which are actually seeds,在美国 松子实际上被当做种子售卖 can sell for upwards of $117 a kilogram.其销售单价超过每公斤117美元 Compare that to the price of pistachios,相比于松子的价格 which can sell for about $39 a kilogram.开心果的销售单价大约是39美元 So what makes pine nuts so special,所以是什么让松子如此与众不同 and why are they so expensive?松子的价格又为何如此高昂 Around the world, there are 30 species世界各地分布着30种 of pine trees that produce edible seeds.产生可食用种子的松树 Yet only a handful are sold commercially,但只有少部分能被用于商业销售 like Korean pine, which grows here in Northeastern China.例如生长在中国东北的红松 It needs specific conditions to grow,它需要特殊的生长条件 and unlike almonds and pecans,不像可以在果园和种植园 which can be commercially grown进行商业化种植的 on orchards and plantations,杏仁和山核桃 most pine nuts come from natural forests.大部分松子都取自天然森林 The trees need to grow for at least 25 to 50 years松树至少需要生长25到50年的时间 before they bear cones and seeds.才能结出松果和种子 Even after all this time,即使经历了如此漫长的生长期 individual trees will only be ripe for picking一棵树也要每隔两年才适宜 once every two years.采摘果实 When the time comes, local harvesters当时机到来时 make their way into the forest当地的采集者们一到森林 to do the most dangerous part of the job就会开始做这份工作中 the moment they arrive:最危险的部分: scaling those 100-foot trees为获取松果和种子 to reach the cones and seeds.而攀爬那些百尺高的树木 Narrator: Those who are willing旁白:那些愿意的人 climb 20 to 30 trees each day,每天攀爬20到30颗树 armed with long poles将靴子上绑上长杆和尖刺 and spikes attached to their boots,用它们把松果敲落到 which they use to knock the cones to the forest floor.森林的地面上 Narrator: Because of the risk,因为这项工作风险很大 and because this job can’t be done by machines,并且无法由机器替代 processors must also pay for accident insurance.加工者还必须支付 It costs about 900 yuan, or $139,大约每人每月900元 per worker each month.也就是139美元的意外险 And insurance costs get even more expensive对于采伐公司来说 for harvesting companies when paying for workers by the day.如果按日结算工人工资 保险费用会更昂贵 Narrator: Another unpredictable element采集松子时 of harvesting pine nuts另一个不可测的因素是 is just how much time harvesters have每个季节 to collect the pine cones each season.采集者们能够收集松果的时长 For example, the Korean pine season例如 红松的收获季 typically starts on September 1通常开始于九月一日 and can last as long as two months或可持续长达两个月 or be as short as 20 days.或可短至二十天 This brief window of time means laborers如此短暂的时间意味着 have to collect as many cones as possible工人们必须尽可能多地收集松果 into their large burlap sacks.装进大粗麻袋里 On average, they can fill four to six bags a day,平均下来 他们一天可以装满四到六个麻袋 with a single sack often weighing as much as 142 pounds.每个袋子一般重达142磅 They get paid by processors in two ways.工人们有两种方式可获得加工方的报酬 First, they earn a day rate,第一种 他们按日结算工资 which is around $123 a day.每天大概是123美元 And second, they get paid by how much they harvest.第二种 他们按采集量计算酬劳 As of September 2021, a processor will pay $720自2021年9月起 整整四袋松果 for four full bags of cones.可以换取加工方720美元的酬劳 These bags then go to a processing facility,接下来这些麻袋会被运送到加工厂里 where the cones are opened and crushed为了露出松果里的松子壳 to reveal the pine nut shells inside.松果会被撬开 碾压 Cones that are sold to processors销售给加工者的松果 often come in green and unripened通常呈绿色 而且未成熟 and need additional processing.还需进行额外加工 Narrator: Knowing exactly when a pine cone旁白:精确地了解松果 needs to be threshed需要何时脱粒 is an important part of the process,是加工过程的重要组成部分 as it can determine the quality of the seeds inside因为它可以决定种子内部的质量 and ultimately the final price they can be sold for.和它们的最终售价 Narrator: It’s only after the pine cone scales are opened旁白:只有当松果的鳞片打开时 that the pine nuts can be extracted,松子才能被提取出来 and even then, the cones don’t yield many seeds.即使那样 松果也不会产出很多种子 Narrator: This means that 250 kilograms of pine cones旁白:这意味着250公斤的松果 yields only 50 kilograms of pine nuts.只能产出50公斤的松子 Because a majority of pine trees grow in natural forests,大部分松树都生长在天然森林里 there are large variations in the yield from year to year.因此每年的产量都有巨大的变化 This causes demand to often outweigh supply,这导致需求经常大于供给 driving the overall price of pine nuts up.抬高了松子的总价 But the price of each pine nut also depends on its size.但每颗松子的价格也取决于它的大小 Narrator: Once processed, some seeds are sold旁白:加工过后 as they are now, in their shells.一些种子就像现在这样被带壳销售 Others are sold as the white nuts另一些则以你在香蒜酱等菜品里 you see in dishes like pesto.见到的白色坚果的形式出售 They’re the same nuts,这些白色坚果就是松子 just with the outer shell removed.只是它们去掉了外壳 The two largest producers of pine nuts最大的两个松子产地 are East Asia and the Mediterranean.是东亚和地中海 Korean pine, which is the most common species中国最常见的品种 to grow in China,红松 makes up 59% of the world’s global supply.占全球松子供应量的百分之五十九 By 2025, the pine nut market到2025年 is expected to grow by $332 million.松子市场预计将增长3.32亿美元 And with a growing demand并且随着对香蒜酱和鹰嘴豆泥等食物 for foods like pesto and hummus,需求的增长 it’s likely that the price you pay for pine nuts松子的价格很有可能 will only continue to rise.只会与日俱增
  • 2021-09-14世界上的每件事都离不开创造力Welcome to Generation Flux. I’m Casey Gerald, your host.欢迎来到《流动世代》 我是主持人Casey Gerald Here with Shauna Mei, founder and CEO of Ahalife,这是Ahalife的创始人兼CEO 梅雪 one of the world’s leading market placesAhalife是具有全球 for the most unique artists and products on the globe.最独特的艺术家和产品的领先市场之一 Shauna, thank you so much for being here.梅雪 非常感谢你的到来 It’s great to be here. Thanks for having me.很高兴来到这里 谢谢你们的邀请 We are gonna talk about Ahalife, but I wanna actually start with young Shauna.我们要谈谈Ahalife 但我想先聊聊你年轻的时候 There’s this line I found in a book in 1990,我发现在1990年出版的一本书中说到 “Shanua arrived in the United States alone.”“梅雪独自一人来到美国” “A seven-year-old girl with a hole in her heart.”“她是一个七岁的女孩 心脏上还有一个洞” Yeah, I mean it’s kind of a crazy story.是的 这是个疯狂的故事 I grew up in a little, tiny town called Hohhot in Inner Mongolia我在内蒙古一个叫呼和浩特的小镇长大 which is on the border of Mongolia and China.呼和浩特位于蒙古和中国的边界 The hole in my heart was that I was born with a birth defect in my heart.心脏上有洞是指我的心脏生来就有缺陷 So when I came to America,因此当我来美国时 it became something that my parents became very concerned about这成了我父母非常担心的一件事 cuz, you know, we didn’t really have medical insurance at the time因为 你知道我们当时没有医疗保险 and they had no idea what was gonna happen to me.他们也不知道我会发生什么事 But a small miracle happened and the hole actually sealed by itself in my heart但发生了个小奇迹 我心脏上的洞竟然自己愈合了 which people have never seen before.人们从没见过这种事 I really felt like, wow, now that I’ve been given this chance,我真的觉得 哇 既然得到了这次机会 I’m gonna make the most of it,我就要好好利用它 and I live my life with urgency.从此我的生活就充满了紧迫感 The 15, 16-year-old Shauna was very intentional about getting into MIT梅雪你十五六岁时非常想进麻省理工学院 and you succeeded at that.然后你做到了 And then you go to Goldman Sachs, a very, you know, uh之后就进入了高盛集团 一个非常…你知道的 as a former Lehman Brothers’ intern, I totally get it.作为雷曼兄弟公司曾经的实习生 我完全明白 But you stayed there for a while and then this idea came但你在那待了一段时间后就产生了一个想法 – that you were gonna take a leap. – Yep.-你要实现一次飞跃 -是的 Talk a bit about the preparation谈谈自己在面临巨大风险时 that is required to put yourself in a place to take a really profound risk.所需要做的准备吧 First of all, I do believe首先 我相信 that you should always have multiple paths.你应该有多项准备 And I always came up with business ideas and thought about the viability of them即使非常专注于一件事情 我也会有很多商业想法 Even if you are very focused on one thing,并思考它们的可行性 I always, in the back of my mind, knew在我的内心深处 我一直知道 I could really build a life for here Goldman, and go all the way.我可以在高盛拥有自己的生活并一路走下去 But my second path was to be an entrepreneur.但我的第二条路是成为一名企业家 I want you to talk a bit about我想你可以谈谈 consciousness and conscious consumption意识和自觉消费 – because I feel that you’ve got a different perspective on it. – Yeah.-因为我觉得你在这上面有不同的见解 -是的 Than the typical… if you go and read a business school case on conscious consumption,比起典型的…比如你去读一个关于自觉消费的商学院案例 – it’s about where was the environmental footprint of this. – Yeah, yeah, yeah.-是关于它对环境的影响 -是的 是的 是的 – But you’re talking about something bigger.但你说的是比环境影响更重要的事 -Yes. -than environmental impact, which matters,-是的 -这很重要 but you’re talking about almost something at the core.你谈论的是核心问题 Everything we do on earth is about creativity.我们在地球上做的一切都是有关创造力的 And I think that we live here, and oftentimes我认为我们生活在这里 people fall into these patterns and they end up being人们经常陷入这些模式中 他们觉得自己最终会 recyclers, if you will, of somebody else’s life or a model.成为别人生活或一种模式的重复者 And that’s not your mission. Your mission in life is to break the mode,那不是你的使命 你的人生使命是打破常规 and do things independently that are very unique to you独立完成对你来说非常独特的事情 Just like an artist就像艺术家一样 So my mission is to create a network所以我的使命是建立一个网络 the infrastructure, if you will, the highway, if you will一种基础设施 一种高速公路 to support all kinds of artists来支持所有的艺术家 and if these artists can all actually make a living如果这些艺术家真的能够谋生 like a thriving business, rather than be像繁荣的商业一样 而不是一种被回避的职业 kind of a shunned career, then creativity will now be something that we, as a society,那么创造力会成为这个社会上 actually endorse and take pride in.我们真正认可和引以为傲的东西 -Next question. -Sure.-下一个问题 -好 – What does the world look like当你的迭代成功后 when this iteration of Shaunna has succeeded, not Ahalife,不是指Ahalife 而是你自己成功后 but when you’ve done what you’ve put it there.世界会是什么样子 I think that hopefully I don’t know if I’ll see this in my lifetime, but I want to get to a place where我不知道这一生中是否会看到 但我想看到有这样一种地方 we are all really one collective community在全世界每一种文化中 across the entire world, every culture.我们都是一个真正团结的集体 We’re solving world’s problems collectivelly. 我们共同解决世界的问题 There is no more concept of elitism – who is better, who is not. 不再有精英——谁更好 谁不好 的概念 We are all kind of contributing.而是我们都在作出贡献 That could be amazing.那将会很棒 It will be amazing. I am betting on you.一定会很棒的 我相信你能做到 – [chuckles] – Because you haven’t felt this yet.-[轻声笑] -因为你还没有感受到 – Thank you so much. This has been extrordinary. – Thank you.-非常感谢你 这次访谈很精彩 -谢谢 Generation Flux. I’m Casey Gerald. Thank you for joining us today.这里是《流动世代》 我是Casey Gerald 感谢您今天的收看 here with Shauna Mei – guru, CEO and founder of Ahalife.今天的嘉宾是梅雪——Ahalife的领袖 CEO和创始人
  • 2021-09-09猫头鹰航空的兴衰– [Announcer] Hooters Air puts the fun back into flying.【播音员】猫头鹰航空让飞行的乐趣又回来了 – [Narrator] Wait a minute.【旁白】等一下 – [Announcer] Hooters girls on every flight.【播音员】每个航班都有猫头鹰女郎 – [Narrator] Hooters had an airline?【旁白】猫头鹰餐厅有航班? – [Announcer] All leather seats with extra leg room.【播音员】所有都是真皮座椅 且有额外的腿部空间 Call 1-888-FLY-HOOT.名为1-888-FLY-HOOT – [Narrator] You might not have known about Hooters Air【旁白】你可能不知道猫头鹰航空 because it didn’t last long.因为它并没有经营太久 – Fly Hooters Air!猫头鹰航班起飞! – There you go.这边请 – [Narrator] It started in 2003,【旁白】它始于2003年 and initially the airline was successful,最初航空公司很成功 but it shut down just three years later.但仅仅三年就倒闭了 – We’re at the Gary Chicago International Airport我们现在在加里芝加哥国际机场 where Hooters Air is about to make their maiden flight在这里 猫头鹰航空即将进行 to Myrtle Beach.飞往默特尔比奇的首航 – [Narrator] Based in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina,【旁白】这家位于南加州默尔特比奇的航空公司 it offered low-price direct flights to more than 15 destinations in the U.S.提供飞往美国15个以上目的地的低价直飞航班 Air fares were a flat rate of $129 dollars each way.单程机票统一价格是129美元 So why did Hooters think it was a good idea那么为什么猫头鹰餐厅认为创办一家航空公司是个好主意 to start an airline, and why did it fail?它又为什么失败呢? – If you like what you see here on the outside,如果你喜欢这外面的样子 you’re gonna love what you’ll see on the inside.你也会喜欢它里面的样子 – [Narrator] Hooters was founded by six business men【旁白】1983年 六个商人在弗洛里达的克利尔沃特 in Clearwater, Florida in 1983.创建了猫头鹰餐厅 A year later, an Atlanta-based group led by Bob Brooks一年后 一个由Bob Brooks领导的总部位于亚特兰大的团体 saw the company’s potential and bought it outright.看到了该公司的潜力并将其全盘收购 – It was the first “Breastaurant” chain.这是第一家“Breastaurant”连锁店 So basically they pioneered the idea that所以基本上 他们开创了一个想法 they’re going to have all their waiters wear short shorts and really tight tank tops.让所有的服务员都穿超短裤和紧身上衣 – Do you know why our beer is so cold here at Hooters?你知道为什么我们猫头鹰餐厅的啤酒如此冰爽吗? Because we keep it in the refrigerator.因为我们把啤酒储存在冰箱里 – From kind of the ’80s until the early 2000s从80年代到21世纪初 it was a very successful kind of growing business.这是一项非常成功且在不断发展的事业 – [Narrator] By 2003, Hooters was flushed with cash【旁白】到2003年 猫头鹰餐厅资金充裕 and Bob Brooks wanted to expand the brand,Bob Brooks想要扩大他的品牌 so he bought a small North Carolina-based charter airline called Pace Airlines.他买下了一家位于北卡罗来纳州名为佩斯航空的小型包机航空公司 He repainted the airplanes with the company logo他给飞机漆上了公司的标志 and Hooters Air took off.猫头鹰航空就此诞生 – What would you tell people out there watching the show你会告诉那些正在看节目的人 about flying Hooters Air?关于乘坐猫头鹰航空的事情吗? – You should definitely do it.你一定要来坐一坐猫头鹰航班 It’s an experience like no other.这是一个与众不同的体验 – How about yourself?你自己感觉怎么样? – It’s gonna be the most exciting time of your life.这将是你一生中最激动人心的时刻 – [Pilot] I’m probably one of the few pilots who can say【飞行员】我可能是少数几个可以说 I actually went to “pilot heaven.”真的进入“飞行员天堂”的飞行员之一 – [Narrator] This is the voice of a former Hooters Air pilot.【旁白】这是一位前猫头鹰航空公司飞行员的心声 He asked to remain anonymous.他要求匿名 – There was a lot of intrigue about this airline关于这家航空公司有很多计谋 not because of necessarily what was going on on the inside并不一定是因为内部发生了什么 but more so what people perceived from the outside.而是人们从外部感知到了什么 – It’s gonna be a nice change from the restaurant.和餐厅相比 这会是一个很好的改变 Instead of serving food and all that stuff不是提供食物和处理垃圾 and picking up trash, we get to just basically entertain,我们就是只是带来娱乐 ask trivia questions and all that.问一些琐碎的问题之类的 – [Narrator] A common misconception about Hooters Air【旁白】人们对猫头鹰航空一个常见的误解是 was that the flight attendants on the flights were Hooters girls.航班上的空乘人员是猫头鹰女郎 Not exactly.不全是这样 In addition to the two Hooters girls on every flight,每趟航班除了有两名猫头鹰女郎外 there were three FAA-certified flight attendants.还有三名FAA认证的空乘人员 – [Flight Attendant] The flight attendants are the ones who【空乘人员】空乘人员是照例提供 serve all the food and the drinks, per usual.所有食物和饮料的人 I had a professional uniform.我有专业的制服 I had like a navy blue dress.我穿一件深蓝色的裙子 You know, it was very professional.你知道 这是非常专业的 It had the little owl embroidered emblem on it.上面绣着小猫头鹰 – [Flight Attendant] We just did the safety procedures and stuff like that.【空乘人员】我们只是完成了安全程序之类的 And then we had two Hooters girls然后我们有来自当地不同餐厅的 from different restaurants in the area两个猫头鹰女郎 but they had no training whatsoever.并且没有接受过任何培训 They were just there just for passenger fun.她们只是为了让乘客开心 – What is it all gonna include?你们的工作都包括什么? You guys are gonna be up there serving customers?你们要在上面服务顾客吗? – No wings. – No wings.虽然没有翅膀 – But great food. – But great food.但是有好吃的食物 – Yeah, we got some soft pretzels我们有软椒盐卷饼 and we got some like pigs in a blanket还有毯包猪肉 and you know, maybe some …fruit, you know.也许还有水果 – [Flight Attendant] The two Hooters girls would get up during the flight【空乘人员】两位猫头鹰女郎会在飞行途中走动 and do trivia or little games or sing a song.做一些琐事 玩玩小游戏或者唱歌 I think they just sat in their seats the whole time我想她们只是一直坐在座位上 until it was their five minutes to get up, and that was it.直到轮到她们站起来的五分钟 就这样 The rest of the time us flight attendants are working.剩下的时间 我们的空乘人员都在工作 – [Interviewer] Were there ever any incidents【记者】你有没有目睹过 that you witnessed of harassment or customers getting a little too inebriated?任何骚扰或顾客喝得酩酊大醉的事件 – [Flight Attendant] I never saw any kind of harassment.【空乘人员】我从没见过任何骚扰行为 There was definitely flirtiness.那绝对只是调情 Any flight, you’re always gonna come across some people任何一次飞行中 你总会遇到一些喝得太多的人 that have drank too much, but nothing bad.但是没有什么不好的 It was fun, we did our job right.这很有趣 我们也做得很好 It was just very happy memories.那是非常愉快的回忆 – [Announcer] Fares from $99.【播音员】票价99美元起 Convenient morning departures and evening returns.方便的早程和晚程 – [Narrator] Hooters Air helped out smaller airports【旁白】猫头鹰航空帮助了一些小型机场走出困境 like the one in Gary, Indiana,just 25 miles southeast of Chicago.比如位于芝加哥25英里的印第安纳州加里的机场 – It’s good news, more airline service, more activity,这是一件好事 更多的航空服务 更多的活动 more economic development, more jobs,更多的经济发展 更多的就业机会 more people spending money in northwest Indiana and …更多的人在印第安纳州西北部和芝加哥南部花钱 – Good news.好消息 – Southern Chicago, and so it’s very good news, yeah.所以这是个很好的消息 – [Narrator] And it was a major economic boon【旁白】这给城市带来了巨大的经济好处 to one city in particular: Myrtle Beach.特别是默特尔比奇 – In its heyday Hooters Air was bringing between 3,000在它全盛时期 猫头鹰航空每周运送 and 5,000 people a week into the Myrtle Beach area.3000到5000的人到默特尔比奇地区 Hooters Air was more than just an airline.猫头鹰航空不仅仅是一家航空公司 It was a huge philanthropic contribution这是Brooks先生对默特尔比奇地区 to the Myrtle Beach area by Mr. Brooks,巨大的慈善贡献 who had a vision that Myrtle Beach area could grow and expand and evolve他认为默特尔比奇地区可以发展壮大 as a tourism destination and a business community.并发展成一个旅游目的地和商业社区 – [Narrator] Hooters Air was big for Myrtle Beach【旁白】猫头鹰航空公司对默特尔比奇来说规模很大 but it wasn’t enough to keep it airborne,但这不足以维持它的运行 so Hooters shut it down in 2006, citing a $40 million loss.所以猫头鹰餐厅在2006年关门歇业 理由是损失了4000万美元 – It was compounded by a couple of factors.这由几个因素造成的 They started the airline still as the airline industry他们开始进入航空领域时 was recovering from the 9/11 attacks.航空工业正在从911袭击事件中恢复 People were still scared of getting on airplanes.人们仍然害怕上飞机 There was growing low-fare competition in the market随着西南航空和其他航空公司开始扩张 as Southwest and other airlines had begun to expand.市场上的低票价竞争日益激烈 And jet fuel prices were trending upward.航空燃油价格呈上升趋势 So it just wasn’t an economically viable business.所以这不是一个经济上可行的生意 – [Narrator] Hooters chairman Bob Brooks passed away【旁白】2006年 猫头鹰主席Bob Brooks去世 in 2006, the same year that Hooters Air shut down.同年猫头鹰航空公司倒闭 – There are people at work and people enjoying如果没有Bob Brooks the Myrtle Beach area that might never have had the opportunity to do so if it weren’t for Bob Brooks,我们可能永远不会有机会在默特尔比奇地区工作和享受生活 so we remain very grateful for his investment in his airline and our community.所以我们仍然非常感谢他对航空公司和我们社区的投资 – [Narrator] Despite the failure of Hooters Air,【旁白】尽管猫头鹰航空失败了 the Hooters brand continue to thrive.猫头鹰品牌仍在继续蓬勃发展 – They’ve opened hundreds of locations in the U.S. and outside of the U.S.它们以经在美国及国外开设了数百家分店 They are more than a $250 million business,带了超过两亿五千万的营业额 basically, at this point, and they kind of took over the U.S. and then the world.他们在美国 以及世界各地都占有一席之地 – [Pilot] Often times, going into cities,【飞行员】很多时候 我们要去城市 we’d be on an approach and我们在进场的时候 we’d hear the air traffic controller say,会听到空中交通管制员说 “Do you have the Hooters airplane in sight?“你们能看到猫头鹰飞机吗?” “And if you do, follow that aircraft.”“如果可以 跟着那架飞机” Well, other pilots would often say things like,其他飞行员可能经常会说 “You mean the airplane with the big hooters?“你是说那架有大猫头鹰的飞机?” “We have it in sight.”“我们看到它了” So, um … (chuckles)所以 嗯(笑)
  • 2021-08-24为什么Ernest Wright剪刀卖这么贵These handmade scissors这些手工剪刀 have been produced in Sheffield, England,for over 100 years.已经在英国谢菲尔德生产了上百年 But compared to a $2 mass-produced pair,但与两美元一把的批量生产的剪刀相比 the kitchen scissors will cost you over $100,购买这儿的厨用剪刀要花一百多美元 and a pair of professional tailor’s shears cost $315.买一把专用裁缝剪则要花315美元 So just what is it that makes them so expensive?那么 它们如此昂贵的原因是什么呢? 如此昂贵 Cliff Denton is one of just two master putter-togethers left.Cliff Denton是仅存的两位组装大师之一 Both in their 70s他们都七十多岁了 the masters are the only ones skilled enough只有大师们有能力 to undertake the final delicate part of the process:完成制作流程最后的精细部分 the assembly of these scissors, or putting together.那就是剪刀的装配或是组装 Cliff Denton: When I were young, every street corner在我年轻时 每个街角 had a little shop with masters in and working.都有大师工作的小店 They’ve gone.它们都已经不在了 You know, at one stage, we were doing,要知道 有段时期 我们制造 like 85, 90 different types of scissor.大约85或90种不同类型的剪刀 Narrator: In the 1970s, there were 150在20世纪70年代 small-scale scissor workshops in Sheffield.在谢尔菲德有150个小型剪刀车间 Now there are just two.现在却只有两个 And keeping this craft alive relies on为了让这门手艺继续传承 training the next generation of apprentices.就必须去训练培养下一代学徒 Denton: You know, it’s just got that light, magic touch.制作剪刀时要有那种轻盈 不可思议的手感 How to hold them, how to stroke them,怎么握住它们 怎样敲打它们 how to edge them.如何开刃 And this, to instill on young lads, is hard.而要把这些慢慢传授给年轻人 是很困难的 Because it’s not something you can write down因为这些你无法写下来 and let them read.让他们看 They’ve got to actually do it.他们必须动手去操作 Narrator: Unlike cheaper mass-manufactured scissors,与批量生产的廉价剪刀不同 almost all of the work is done by hand.这里制作剪刀的全部工序都是手工的 The starting outline of the scissor剪刀的起始轮廓 is hot drop forged of site是高温锻造而成的 This is called a blank,这被称为毛坯 and while it may already have the shape虽然它可能已经具有 of a very rough pair of scissors,粗糙的剪刀的轮廓 the process has only just begun.但这个过程才刚刚开始 The blanks first need to be drilled,首先要在毛坯钻孔 counterbored, and tapped.沉孔和攻丝 This puts in a hole in the center of each half在每一个半成品中心钻个孔 and adds a thread to that hole.并给这个孔加上螺纹 Once that work is done,一旦工作完成 the blades have to be ground down.就得开始磨刀片 The blank has no blade on it whatsoever,毛坯没有任何刃口 so initial grinding has to be done所以必须先在 on a 50-year-old Viotto machine有50年历史的Viotto机器上 before further refinements are done by hand.进行初步研磨 再手动精加工 Jonathan: So, if you were to look at a如果你去看 cheap pair of scissors, you’d quickly notice一副廉价的剪刀 你会很快注意到 that it’s actually a stamped-out piece of metal它实际上是一块 that have just been bolted together用螺栓固定在一起冲压好的金属 and a blade’s edge put on them.并把开刃的刀片组装在上面 So, when we grind the inside of the blade,当我们研磨刀片的内侧时 we’ll say there are three angles to it.要从三个角度去研磨它 You’ve got to have a curve你得研磨出 from the pinch of the scissor to the point,从剪刀的绞合点到尖端的弧线 which means that when the blades are together,这意味当刀片贴合在一起时 you should be able to see你应该能够看到 a gap through the middle.在它们中间有条缝隙 We’ll also want to grind in a twist,我们还需要绞合处研磨 and then finally, we want to最后 我们也得 hollow the blade as well.把刀身磨薄一点 And what that’ll give us is a scissor这将研磨出一把 that only have a touch at the cutting edge.只在刀刃处贴合的剪刀 Once the blade is on刀片弄好后 the rough edges need to be sanded off就需要打磨剪刀的粗糙边缘 from the bow, the shanks, and the nail holes.从弯柄 直柄到钉孔处 After everything’s sanded down,在所有地方打磨完之后 the scissors are sent off to be hardened,剪刀要被加工硬化 turning the soft, workable metal让较为柔软 初成型的金属 into a hard final product.最终变成坚硬的成品 Then they’re put into the rumbler for a few hours然后把它们放进滚筒中几个小时 to be acid-treated before being dried.在干燥前进行酸处理 Rumbling takes off any grind marks在滚动中 剪刀表面 on the surface of the metal所有的磨痕都被去掉 and prepares them for polishing.接着准备将他们抛光 Jonathan: We do different types of scissors.我们做不同种类的剪刀 If it was our embroidery stalk,如果是制作绣花剪刀 then we could work on我们两周到一个月内可以 maybe 500 embroidery stalks制作大概500个 over two weeks to a month.绣花剪刀 However, if we were doing same-size batch,但是 如果我们做一批 500 13-inch scissors,500把13英寸的剪刀 then we probably wouldn’t even see that within a year.那可能一年内都看不到成品 Narrator: The blades are polished by hand刀刃需要手工打磨至 to a mirror finish镜面般的成品 Then comes the hardest part:接下来是最难的部分: Putting together组装拼凑 Traditionally, you would undertake一般来说 在你坐在 a five-year apprenticeship组装者工作台之前 before you could even sit at the putter’s table.你要经历五年的学徒期 Jonathan: I’ve never had a background like this before.我以前从未有过这样的经历 I went straight into an office刚从大学毕业后 right out of university,我直接进了办公室工作 and I was walking down this street,当我走在这条街上 and I saw a chalkboard that said,看到黑板上写着 “Scissor makers wanted.”“招聘剪刀工匠” And I thought I’ve always wanted我一直认为自己想要 to work with my hands靠手艺来吃饭 but I’ve had no training in working with my hands.但我从没有学过什么手艺活儿 My training began eight months ago,我从八个月前开始练习 and it doesn’t look like it’s gonna stop看起来在至少未来几年内 for at least another few years.我都不能停止练习 Narrator: And despite the intricacy,组装拼凑似乎相当简单 the most important tool isn’t anything最重要的工具不是别的 small and delicate,只是一把小巧精致的 but a hammer.锤子 Denton: And I’m only gonna need to tap.我只需要轻轻地敲 Narrator: The hammer is crucial要精确对齐刀片 to aligning the blades correctly.锤子尤为关键 Denton: So….[tapping]这样……[敲击声] Oh, that’s better.哦 这样更好 Narrator: The two scissor parts are screwed into place,这两个半边剪刀被拧到恰到好处 and then a perfect curve is hammered onto each blade.每一个刀刃被敲出完美的曲线 This part of the process制作流程中 is the hardest to get right这部分是最难做好的 and also the hardest skill to pass on.同时也是最难传授的技能 Jonathan: If he hits that with the wrong tension如果他没掌握好力度 or the wrong angle or in the wrong spot,敲错角度或敲错位置 he will ruin those scissors.他就会毁掉这些剪刀 So, I’ve put a scissor blade down,有次我放好剪刀刀片 and I’ve taken a swing at it,然后挥锤敲击 and I’ve just snapped the blade in half.却把刀片劈成了两半 Narrator: Once the two halves are married together,当两块半边剪刀贴合在一起后 a final blade will be put on the scissor.剪刀只要最后再打磨一次 Denton: Well, I started in 1959.我是从1959年开始做剪刀的 Roughly the same. Steady, hammers.大致情况和现在一样 有固定支架 锤子 Other than we had lights hanging over另外我们挂了几盏灯 to get more light.让这儿更亮堂 You’ll learn. You’ll never forget.我坚持这门手艺且永远不会忘 It’s up here in a diary.它像日志一样记在脑海里 Somebody’ll say a scissor,如果有人说起一把剪刀 and it just comes up on a projection in me head.我的脑海里会立刻出现它的制作方法 Manicure, dissecting, thread clip.指甲剪 解剖刀 纱剪 All different scissors.各种不同的剪刀 Sheffield has been home to England’s blade-making industry早在14世纪 谢菲尔德就成为了 since as far back as the 14th century.英国制刀工业的发源地 It’s where stainless steel was originally invented,不锈钢就是在这个城市发明的 and it’s a city that’s famed for its cutlery production.并且这个城市也因刀具出名 Cliff started making scissors when he was just 15.Cliff刚15岁时就开始做剪刀 Denton: When I pick a pair of scissors up,当我拿起一把剪刀 it tells me a story.就知道它是什么状况 I can open and shut it. It’s tight, it’s slack.开一下合一下 我就知道它紧了还是松了 You can virtually just shove it with the weight of your finger,实际上我可以只用手指的力量 and it does the job.调整好它 That’s what you’re after.这就是我现在的水平 Week after week, year after year if need be.日复一日 年复一年地练习才有今天 That’s it.大功告成
  • 2021-08-24如何在大脑超负荷时保持效率如何在大脑超负荷时保持效率? 在压力下保持效率 往往看似是一件不可能的任务 当你面临许多 可控或不可控的事 待办事项越来越多 你的压力就越来越大 以下5个方法可以让你 打破这个恶性循环 恢复效率 1 单项任务练习 研究表明多重任务会降低40%的效率 不要同时做太多 而要一次只做一项任务 把大项目细分成小目标 能降低压力 提高注意力 2 优化睡眠 睡眠不足会扰乱情绪 使你容易暴躁 充足的睡眠会让你次日精神饱满 3 产生内啡肽 内啡肽是运动时释放的一种能改善情绪 减少压力的化学物质 每周抽出时间锻炼 每天20分钟即可带来大改变 4 找到情绪触发点 虽然消极思想不可避免 但你可以学着管理它们 关键要完全接纳消极情绪 并努力识别引发消极情绪的事情 研究表明接受而不是压抑消极情绪 能够改善心理健康 找到情绪触发点 你就可以预知自己的反应 并做出相应的准备 5 设立实际的目标 承认效率在面临压力时会下降 和团队讨论 评估优先事项并制定目标
  • 2021-08-24解读黄金市场的波动性Over the past few months,在过去几个月里 the price of gold has been going haywire.黄金价格此起彼伏 乱作一团 You can see it on this chart.您能从这张表格看出来 As the coronavirus pandemic took hold in March,继三月爆发的新冠疫情 the price crashed, alongside stocks,黄金价格和股票同时崩盘 and then quickly regained.然后又迅速回升 Then, a frenzy of investment drove up the price to all-time highs.而后 一轮新投资让金价创下新高 On August 4th, it shot past $2,000 a troy ounce四月四日 黄金价格首次超过 for the first time ever,每金衡盎司两千美元 before another week of big swings.接下来一周 价格又开始猛跌 This volatility is drawing both main street这种波动不仅吸引了普通大众 and Wall Street investors seeking fast gains还吸引了华尔街投资者来“赚快钱” and leading some analysts to call it a modern-day gold rush.一些分析家称之为现代“淘金热” But these big moves而这一阵“淘金热” call into question gold’s reputation让人们开始怀疑 as a safe-haven asset.黄金还是安全资产吗? Prices can move at a moment’s notice黄金价格每分每秒都在波动 without fundamental reason.且毫无理论可言 More volatility means more risk,金价波动性越大 风险越高 and that means gold isn’t the haven这也就意味着 necessarily, that some people think it is.黄金并不一定是人们认为的“安全资产” To you, understand why the price of gold is so volatile,要想理解为何黄金价格如此不稳定 first you need to understand how gold trading works.你首先需要明白 黄金交易如何运作 黄金交易 华尔街收录词汇 Like other precious metals,和其他贵金属一样 the price of gold is tied to physical assets.黄金价格和实体资产相关 The physical gold market involves mining,整个实体黄金市场包括开采 refining, travel and sale.提纯 运输 出售 Gold mining happens on every continent except Antarctica.除了南极洲 每块大陆都在开采黄金 And the top-producing countries而黄金产出最多的国家包括 are China, Russia, and Australia.中国 俄罗斯 澳大利亚 This work adds up to about 2,500每年黄金开采总量 to 3000 metric tons of gold each year.高达2500至3000公吨 This metal is then smelted and refined接下来将黄金融化 提纯 before being turned into bars, coins,然后再做成金条 金币 and other products like jewelry.以及如珠宝之类的产品 The gold is then shipped around the world,然后通过商用飞机 often stashed in the cargo of commercial aircrafts.将成品运往全球各地 Much of it is sent to London.其中的大多数运往伦敦 Mostly hidden beneath the streets of the city.绝大部分储藏在城市地下 The Bank of England’s vaults在英格兰银行的金库里 hold around 400,000 bars of gold 储存了将近40万块金条 worth over $260 billion dollars.其价值逾2600亿美元 The physical trading of gold in London伦敦的实体黄金交易 is done behind closed doors and in secret by a few banks.都是几个银行在背地里操作的 So, these banks work with the London Bullion Market Association这些银行和伦敦金银协会合作 to set the physical price of a troy ounce of gold,并规定了一金盎司的黄金价格 and that price determines how much gold is worth everywhere.而价格就决定了所有黄金的价值 The gold stashed in London is rivaled世界上 只有黄金持有量最多的银行 only by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York,即纽约联邦储备银行 which holds the world’s largest hoard of physical gold.才能和伦敦的黄金储备匹敌 In other places around the world,在世界上的其他地方 gold is a common investment as well.黄金投资也很常见 In a lot of cultures in Asia,在亚洲很多文化里 people see gold as something that’s having prestige人们认为 黄金象征的权威 and intrinsic value that can be以及黄金的内在价值 passed down from generation to generation.能够代代相传 That can be a big source of physical demand可能这也是人们购入实体黄金首饰 for jewelry and bars and coins.买入金条 金币的一大原因 When individual investors want to buy in,散户意欲买进黄金时 they generally have a few options.通常会有几项选择 They can purchase physical gold in person from dealers他们能从经销商手里亲自选购 or on websites like APMEX.或在网上购买 如APMEX交易所 They can bid on thousands of dollars worth of gold through eBay.也能在eBay上拍卖价值上千美元的黄金 And they can buy exchange-traded funds that hold physical metal.也可以购入黄金ETFs The biggest of these is SPDR gold shares,但最多的还是黄金股票 which is traded on the New York Stock Exchange.这些股票在纽约股票交易所买进卖出 But this is just the physical market.这不过是黄金实体市场 Gold is also traded on a whole different market黄金也能在与期货有关的 that is tied to commodity futures.完全不同的市场里交易 This takes us back to New York,这还要从纽约说起 where gold futures trade on the COMEX division of the New York mercantile Exchange.在纽约商品交易所COMEX分部交易黄金期货 Futures are contracts which lock the price of a commodity期货是规定某商品价格的合约 that will change hands at a specific future date.未来某天 该商品会被转手卖给他人 A standard futures contract is tied to 100 ounces of gold黄金期货合约中 一个标准手为100盎司黄金 worth over $200,000, depending on the market.其价值超过20万美元(据市场而定) The most actively traded month for gold futures right now is December目前 十二月的黄金交易最为活跃 because that’s a month people expect因为人们预期在十二月 the pandemics issues to maybe be resolved by,疫情可能得到解决 and it’s a month around the November’s presidential election.并且在十一月总统选举后 A lot of people are very nervous about the outcome许多人对竞选结果心存顾虑 of that election and that it might be delayed,或担心选举会推迟 so they’re using these December gold futures所以他们选择十二月的黄金期货 to give themselves options以期获得更多选择 and protect against market turmoil.同时防止市场崩盘 But gold has slipped lately after a long run-up,但金价在长期上涨后 最近又下跌些许 a reminder that momentum in this market can change quickly.这提醒了我们 黄金市场瞬息万变 Still, this hasn’t stopped gold bugs.但“金虫”可不会就此作罢 And there are a few reasons why people现下人们继续向黄金大笔投资 continue to pile money into the metal right now.有如下几个原因 For a lot of investors, it started in March,对许多投资人来说 自三月起 when mines, refineries and airlines shut down across the world,全球都终止了黄金开采 提纯 空运 upended the system usually used to move gold也不再横跨大西洋运输黄金 across the Atlantic and stabilized prices.运输方式彻底改变 金价也稳定下来 But when the pandemic hit,疫情席卷全球时 investors feared there wouldn’t be a way投资人害怕市场之间 to physically move gold between the markets.实体黄金不能流通 This caused physical gold purchases to soar,这就造成了黄金购入量飞涨 leading to a severe shortage从而导致黄金严重短缺 that drove up the price of futures.继而拔高期货价格 But there are other reasons too.同时其中也有其他原因 There are a lot of people who are very bullish on gold有许多人都看好黄金市场 and think it’s an alternative currency他们认为黄金是另一种货币 that provides a hedge against inflation这种货币不仅能预防通货膨胀 and is very attractive在利率低迷时 when interest rates are low.对投资人来说也很有吸引力 Many bulls are piling into the sector很多卖空者涌入市场 because they think the Federal Reserve因为卖空者们认为美联储 and other central banks以及其他中央银行 are eroding the value of paper money向全球金融市场注入大量现金 by pumping a ton of cash into the global financial system维持经济发展 to support the economy.导致纸币不断贬值 The increased activity is contributing to momentum trading,更活跃的市场促成了惯性交易 driving a frenzy for gold, similar to stocks.和股票潮相似 掀起一阵黄金热 But if inflation doesn’t materialize,但若是通货膨胀没有发生 the momentum that gold is seeing could unravel.黄金市场现在的势头可能会消失 Analysts say the current trading environment is extremely risky.分析家表示 当今的交易环境极具风险 People say all of the economic and political instability人们说 所有经济政治不稳定的局面 could last for a lot longer than we think.会比我们估计的持续更久 At the same time, if the economic recovery goes better than expected,同时 若经济复苏超过预期 if there’s a coronavirus vaccine more quickly than we think,如果新冠疫苗比预计更早问世 the gold could have some issues.黄金市场可能就麻烦了 This means that gold could face也就是说在未来 more volatility moving forward.黄金市场波动会更加剧烈
  • 2021-08-24赢得奥斯卡金像奖与金钱有什么关系1999年 所有人都认为《拯救大兵瑞恩》 会获得奥斯卡最佳影片奖 当颁奖典礼终于到来时 结果却出人意料 奥斯卡金像奖获得者是 《莎翁情史》 《莎翁情史》最终获得了梦寐以求的奥斯卡奖 这个文艺爱情片 是如何打败投资超7千万美元的 斯皮尔伯格导演的震撼战争电影的呢? 这次意外成功主要归功于哈维·韦恩斯坦 直到现在 营销电影更多的是为了吸引广大观众 而韦恩斯坦采取了不同的方法 他积极争取评委会成员的选票 而且成功了 他的行为从根本上改变了 电影公司与奥斯卡的相处模式 至今依然影响着我们 仅靠电影本身的优秀是不足以赢得奥斯卡奖的 在《美国社会学评论》上发表的一篇论文显示 在对奥斯卡获奖影片的观察中 我们可以清楚地发现一些共同模式 这项由加州大学洛杉矶分校两位教授进行的研究 分析了3000多部IMDB库中的影片 找到了奥斯卡提名影片的共同特点 电影上映时间 演员声望 电影主题 都可能被策略性选择 以增加获奖的可能性 战争 娱乐业 残疾人生活 是提名电影最常见的主题 然而仅仅选对主题并不能确保得奖 如今 要想赢得奥斯卡奖 开展好竞选活动是必要的 据《Vulture》杂志报道 韦恩斯坦的米拉麦克斯公司花了500万美元 以确保《莎翁情史》获奖 在那时 这一数额是天文数字 一般的电影公司仅投入约200万美元 用于奥斯卡宣传 他电影的获奖迫使其他电影公司纷纷效仿 并投入了大笔资金 《Variety》杂志估计 在2016年 每部电影要花300万到1000万美元 用于游说评委投票 在2019年 一份新的报告指出 奖项角逐者如《一个明星的诞生》《罗马》 《登月第一人》花了两千万到三千万美元 这些包括了所有开销 从商业杂志中的电影参考广告费 到演员为宣传电影飞来飞去的各种费用 电影公司不断向评委提供 被称为screener的免费电影拷贝 明星发布会的门票等等东西 同时他们也高价聘请策略顾问和营销公司 来为他们获取竞争优势 在接下来的几年里 韦恩斯坦继续积极宣传他的电影 使用的策略包括给评委打电话 举办有评委会成员出席的豪华新闻发布会 甚至造谣攻击其他电影的弱点 今天 奥斯卡评审出台了严格的规定 其中一些主要是为了回应韦恩斯坦干扰评审的报道 这些政策限制了很多事情 从电影公司多久可以给评委发一封邮件 到免费电影票的图案设计 有些规则明确规定了 不能打电话给评委会成员 来宣传电影或电影成就 如演技或者技术成就 不能做广告攻击竞争对手 为评委举办的每项活动都必须与电影展映相关 不能纯粹是喝酒吃饭 提名公布后 放映会不得包含任何酒会环节 当然 更不能直接向评委索要投票 即使有了这些规则 也远远不是公平的竞争 为了投票 评委需要考虑真正具备竞争力的电影 但要想具有竞争力是需要花钱的 而只有大电影公司才有这么多钱 想看更多视频 请点击订阅 别忘记订阅噢
  • 2021-08-24为什么劳力士手表如此昂贵– There is a rumor有传言说 that in order for a Rolex to actually leave the factory or be a Rolex design为了凸显劳力士设计的大牌效应 it has to be to recognizable from 20 feet away.必须保证人们在20英尺外就认出它 为什么劳力士手表如此昂贵 Hi, I’m Cara Barrett, editor at Hodinkee,我叫卡拉·贝瑞特 是《Hodinkee》的一名编辑 the leading online watch publication.Hodinkee是一流的线上手表刊物 Rolex is one of the few brands,在独特审美上 if not the only brand that has a very specific aesthetic.劳力士即使不是唯一 也是其中翘楚 They are sporty, they are active, they are tool watches兼具运动 活力 工具性 that’s kind of their main DNA.这是劳力士的设计理念 In the 50’s they came out with the Submariner,60年代他们推出了“潜航者” the Explorer, the Milgauss, the GMT“探险家”“闪电针”“绿针” and they were all watches that were designed and made to be used as tools.这些手表的设计契合工具性理念 And so that’s their bread and butter and it still is today.这也是劳力士经久不衰的原因 It kind of evolved into a luxury brand later in life后期劳力士逐渐演变成奢侈品牌 which now is what they’re known for.并以此闻名世界 So that’s kind of the interesting thing about them这听起来很有趣 is they initially were tool watches劳力士最初只是作为工具手表 which have now become luxury.而现在变成了奢侈品 Rolex is kind of one of those brands 在奢侈手表谱系上 that sits on the lower end of the spectrum as far as luxury watches are concerned.劳力士算不上高端品牌 The Submariner’s $8,000.潜航者售价8000美元 The entry-level watch at Rolex is $5,000 with the Oyster Perpetual.经典款“蚝式恒动”的价位是5000美元 Their three qualities are self-winding, waterproof and precision.劳力士的三个特质是自动上发条 防水且精确 And they really focus on quality.劳力士设计师十分注重品质 It takes one year to make a Rolex.制作一只劳力士需要一年 They go through extensive testing.其间要经过大量测试 The accuracy, the chronometer, the timing,精密度测试 计时器测试 定时测试 it’s all about telling the right time,这些测试都是为了显示准确的时间 keeping the right time.并保持 They also have extensive service work after,他们的售后服务也很好 so if you ever have a problem with your Rolex,如果你的劳力士出现了问题 you can take it to them and they’ll fix it.你可以拿给售后人员 他们会帮你修好 The clasp is opened and closed a thousand times before it leaves出厂前表扣经过上千次检测 so you know that when you get it,所以你放心购买 it’s not gonna break.它不会坏的 The whole point of a Rolex is you buy one now,最关键的是 如果你现在买了一块劳力士 it will last you for 20 years if you take care of it.好好爱护的话 可以使用20年 It will last you for 100 if you really take care of it.精心爱护它 可以使用100年 That’s ultimately why they’re so expensive这就是劳力士手表昂贵的根本原因 because you’re buying something that will last you a lifetime presumably.因为它差不多可以用一辈子 And something that you can pass down to other generations as well.你还能把它传给下一代 In the collectors’ world, there’s the vintage Rolex market.在收藏家眼里 劳力士是有收藏价值的 And there’s a whole underground of different nuances每只劳力士都有些微差别 and you know there’s a GMT with a matte dial,有哑光表盘的“绿针” a GMT with a gilt dial有镀金表盘的“绿针” and there are all these tiny little details这些微小的细节 that change and they make a watch more or less valuable.决定着手表价格的高低 There’s the Paul Newman Daytona which sold for $17.8 million last fall去年秋天保罗·纽曼迪通拿以1780万美元的高价卖出 and that’s the most expensive Rolex that’s ever sold at auction.这是迄今为止拍卖会上出售的最贵的劳力士 The Paul Newman Daytona is a really good example以保罗·纽曼迪通拿为例 where they came out with a Daytona back in the 70s70年代 劳力士设计师推出了这款迪通拿 and they put these exotic dials on them 他们把这些具有异国情调的表盘装上去 and they couldn’t sell them.销量不佳 And now they’re the most collectible watches on the vintage market.如今迪通拿是市面上最有收藏价值的手表 No one knows how many Rolexes are produced per year,没人知道每年生产多少只劳力士 no one knows how many Rolexes are produced per model.也没人知道每款劳力士会生产多少只 But there are specific ones,但是每一只劳力士都是独一无二的 like the Rainbow Daytona that came out this year,就像今年推出的彩虹圈迪通拿 rumored to have X amount made, but very small quantities.传闻不实 但数量确实很少 You don’t ever know exactly what the number is,你永远不会知道确切数字 but you do know that there aren’t that many.只知道没有那么多 And they’re hard to get.而且很难买到 One of the best things about Rolex劳力士最棒的一点就是 is anyone can wear any of them.任何人都能戴上任意一块劳力士 They’re very unisex and I think that that’s refreshing它们是男女通用的 我觉得这让人耳目一新 ’cause a lot of times brands put a lot of diamonds on watches因为大多数品牌产品会在手表上镶钻 and kind of brand it as a woman’s watch.并将其认定为女士手表 Whereas Rolex does the same thing, 劳力士的款式也分男女 but it’s kind of unisex.但其性别特质不那么明显 I wear a lot of men’s Rolex.我戴过很多劳力士男表 But the ladies Datejust is actually, in two-tone,但事实上在所有男女款式中 女士Datejust系列 is actually the most sold Rolex model of all time.一直都是最畅销的 Which is a really fun fact.这真的很有趣
  • 2021-08-24维密兴衰史This is the 2018这是2018年 Victoria Secret Fashion Show.维多利亚的秘密时尚内衣秀 The hour-long nationally-televised event自2001年起 这场为时一小时 has served as a showcase全国播放的维密秀被视为 for the brand’s bras and lingerie since 2001.品牌方展示宣传文胸和内衣产品的途径 But 2018 was the fashion show’s last broadcast.但2018年播出的维密秀却成为了绝唱 The show had suffered several years of declining ratings,维密的收视率在近几年内持续走低 that coincided with the drastic rise这与其母公司L Brands的股价 then fall of the stock price of Victoria’s Secret parent company, L Brands.在飙涨后又骤降的趋势一致 Here’s how the lingerie retailer,下面会讲维密零售商 Angels and all,维密天使和其他工作人员 rose to the top of women’s fashion,登上女性时尚顶峰 and how its fall from grace转而又跌落神坛一事 has created an uncertain future for the company.是如何使得公司未来前途未卜 In 1982, L Brands owner Leslie Wexner1982年 L Brands老板莱斯利·维克斯纳 acquired Victoria’s Secret,以100万美元收购维密 a small retailer consisting of six stores这个只有六家连锁店 and a catalog for $1 million.和一份产品目录的小品牌 Wexner developed many successful retail businesses维克斯纳在20世纪八九十年代 in the 1980s and ’90s.发展了很多成功的零售业生意 He popularized the specialty mall retailer,他将专业零售这一模式推广 which had tightly-focused product lines专业零售有高度集中的产品线 and carefully-designed stores,以及精心打造的门店 and he took those stores他收购这些店铺 and rolled them out to malls across the country.改造后推向全国的商场 That model really upended the department store model.这颠覆了以往百货商店的模式 In the mid 1990s,在90年代中期 Victoria’s Secret’s heavily-padded Miracle Bra,维密的奇迹内衣带有厚厚的垫子 designed to create cleavage,能挤出乳沟 was vying for market share with its competitor,这款文胸与其竞争对手WonderBra the WonderBra.争夺市场份额 Only Victoria’s Secret has the Miracle Bra.只有维密拥有奇迹内衣 Get a Miracle Bra.买他 Victoria’s Secret doubled down on ads维密加大广告宣传力度 with provocative TV commercials如 挑逗性质的电视广告 and launched its first fashion show in 1995.和1995年首次举办的维密秀 Victoria’s Secret tried to define what sexy was维密试着定义何为性感 and what a sexy woman should look like,何为一个性感的女人 and you can really see by the ads你能从广告中看到 that they were pushing a very specific beauty ideal.维密推出了一个非常具体的美人形象 That image was executed这个形象是由L brands的 by L Brands Chief Marketing Officer Edward Razek,首席营销官爱德华·拉扎克打造的 who was put in charge of casting models for the fashion show.他负责为维密秀挑选模特 Throughout the 2000s,整个00年代 Leslie Wexner sold many of his apparel brands莱斯利售出了许多自己的服装品牌 and focused more and more on his lingerie and beauty lines.更加注重他内衣线和美妆线的发展 This included launching PINK in 2004,其中包括于2004年推出的 a Victoria’s Secret spinoff for teens.维密青少年衍生剧PINK Unlike many other retailers,与其他零售商不同 Victoria’s Secret continued to grow维密在08年金融危机后 after the 2008 recession.仍持续扩张 The retailer opened more stores and sales expanded,更多的门店 更高的销售额 and L Brands stock price rose until 2016.L Brands的股价也保持增长趋势 That’s when you really started to see trouble直到2016年 消费者品味开始转变 for the company as consumer tastes started to shift .维密公司才开始意识到大事不妙 Athleisure began to dominate fashion运动休闲成为时尚主流 and growth began to slow in Victoria’s Secret’s bra business.维密内衣产业的增速开始放缓 This was driven in part by consumers preferring bralettes,这一定程度上是因为消费者 bras with no underwire or padding.更偏爱无钢圈的文胸或衬垫文胸 There was a shift in what female consumers wanted女性消费者对内衣的需求 from their underwear and what they were willing to pay.和她们愿意支付的价格都在改变 Many younger women didn’t wanna pay $60 anymore许多年轻女性不再愿意支付60美元 for a padded bra that they saw on a supermodel.来购买一件超模身上的衬垫胸罩 Many of them preferred stuff大部分年轻女性喜欢这样的东西 like more authentic marketing,比如说 更真实的营销 natural looks, and bras built for comfort.更自然的穿着和更舒适的文胸 In 2016, Leslie Wexner assumed2016年莱斯利·维克斯纳取得了 direct control of Victoria’s Secret维密的直接控制权 He eliminated swimwear, stopped mailing out catalogs,他不再做泳装产品 不再邮寄产品目录 and doubled down on sports bras.而是加倍地投入在运动文胸上 By 2018, L Brands share price had fallen 50%,2018年 L Brands的股价仍下跌50% erasing about $14 billion in investor’s wealth.投资者的财富蒸发了约140亿美元 Victoria’s Secret started to appear out of touch维密品牌开始显露和 with female consumers around the same time.当代女性消费群体偏好脱节的迹象 A major stumbling block for Victoria’s Secret维秘在此后又遭遇极大危机 was when Ed Razek told Vogue爱德华·拉扎克告诉Vogue杂志 that he didn’t think transgender models他认为跨性别模特 should be cast in the fashion show.不应该参加时装表演 He was forced to apologize for those remarks,他被迫为此言论道歉 and a lot of people called for his resignation immediately.很多人要求他立即离职 He actually stayed on a while after that实际上 他还继续任职 and eventually resigned in 2019.直至2019年才最终辞职 Victoria’s Secret’s internal culture and management维秘的内部文化和管理 has come under scrutiny as well.也受到了审查 Ed Razek, after he left Victoria’s Secret,爱德华·拉扎克离开维密后 has faced allegations of harassing models and employees,他被指控骚扰模特和员工 and Les Wexner has come under fire莱斯利·维克斯纳也因和 for his ties to Jeffrey Epstein,其投资经理杰弗里·艾波斯坦的关系 who was his longtime money manager.而受到了舆论攻击 – [Narrator] Leslie Wexner has said that he cut ties莱斯利·维克斯纳宣称他和艾伯斯坦 with Epstein more than a decade ago在十几年前其被指控儿童色情非法买卖时 after Epstein was charged with child sex trafficking.就已经断了联系 Independent directors on the L Brands BoardL Brands董事会的独立董事 responded to the sexual harassment allegations in a statement在一份声明中对性骚扰的指控进行了回复 that said the company had instituted robust anti-harassment policies in recent years称该公司近年来实施强有力的反性骚扰政策 and the company regrets any instance并对还未实现构建一个安全 温馨 where we did not achieve this objective相互尊重的工作场所这一目标 of a safe, welcoming, and empowering workplace.表示抱歉 Razek told the New York Times拉扎克告诉纽约时报 that the allegations were, quote, “categorically untrue,按他的原话说这些指控 misconstrued, or taking out of context.”是“绝对不真实 存在误解和断章取义的” Consumers have a very particular idea of维密的特有印象在消费者心中 what Victoria’s Secret is.已经根深蒂固 It’ll be interesting to see whether a brand一个与如此特殊营销方式相捆绑的的品牌 that’s married to such a particular type of marketing能否成功转变自己的形象 can transform itself into anything else.这是一个值得关注的问题 [pleasant orchestral music][愉快的管弦音乐]
  • 2021-08-24高效远程办公秘诀Anton has joined the meeting.安东加入了会议 While it may be astounding尽管这可能有些让人惊奇 that we can have a virtual meeting with people on different continents,我们能同世界各地的人开虚拟会议 it can also be frustrating.但有时这也会让人失望 And these frustrations can affect morale, engagement, productivity, and innovation.这些沮丧可能影响士气 参与度 生产力和创新性 When changes in the ways we communicate如果我们沟通方式的改变 lead to changes that how others perceive our communications引起他人信息接收方式的改变 this calls for a new set of protocols and behaviors.这时就需要采取一系列新协议和行为规范 Authors Erica Dhawan and Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic作家Erica Dhawan和Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic have a few rules of thumb for communicating with remote teams.制定了一些关于远程交流的经验法则 First, since clarity and consistency are key,首先 鉴于明确性和一致性是关键 sticking to a set of agreed upon norms can help avoid confusion.坚持一组公认准则能避免混淆 This could range from a set of acronyms about expected response times准则范围可以涵盖从预期响应时间的一组缩略词 to standardizing use of particular communication platforms.到特定交流平台的标准化使用 Next, remember that you can never be too clear.第二 记得要尽可能表述清晰 Unless you’ve established a shorthand protocol ahead of time,除非你们提前达成了一套速记协议 don’t assume others understand your brevity.否则别指望别人理解你的简略词 Take the extra time to be extra clear, regardless of the medium.不管以何种媒介 多花点时间让内容更明晰 Third, don’t bombard your team with messages.第三 不要信息轰炸你的团队 Each time you email, text, or call每次发邮件 短信 或者打电话时 imagine that you are physically walking into your colleagues workspace.想象你正走进你同事的办公室 If you followed up an email by text and phone,假如你在发邮件后又发短信打电话跟进 it would be like opening their office door three times in a row.这就像连着三次打开他们办公室的门 Minimize your digital volume,发信息尽可能简明扼要 and think wisely before hitting send.并且想好了再点击发送 Forth, notice that team members who are more introverted in person第四 考虑到内向型的团队成员 can really benefit from written communications.更能从书面交流中受益 Physical barriers can actually level the playing field物理隔离能为那些不太适应团体讨论的成员 for those who may be less inclined to speak in group settings.提供更公平的竞争环境 Lastly, find ways to celebrate and socialize remotely最后 尝试一些远程庆祝和社交的方式 to strengthen relationships between team members and improve collaboration.来加强团队联系 提高协作能力 Even a simple switch from conference calls to video, for instance,例如 即使只是从电话会议转成视频会议 can boost rapport and create empathy.也能让关系更融洽 激发共情 The challenges of remote teams will not disappear,远程团队面临的挑战不会消失 but creating consistent rules, rituals, and protocols但创立一致的规则 规矩和协议 will go a long way in building a new communication skill set.会对建立一套新的沟通技能大有帮助 [BEEPING][铃声]
  • 2021-08-24如何精炼黄金这是精炼黄金的过程 我们参观了英国唯一的黄金精炼厂 这家厂子每年冶炼超过10吨的黄金 贝雅公司 伦敦 贝雅公司生产99.99%的纯金 这家公司生产浇铸金条 压铸金条和金币 谁买黄金呢?我认为很多人买 小到爷爷奶奶们来我们这买一个小金币 作为孙子女18岁或21岁的生日礼物 大到坐拥三千万英镑资产的家族企业 也会决定拿出2%的资产投资实物金条和金币 所以黄金的购买群体很广泛 这是黄金在这里被精炼的过程 精炼厂通过两个途径得到黄金原料 第一个:金矿里纯度为90%的生金 第二个:典当铺里纯度为37%的金首饰 在化学物里清洗黄金提纯至99.99% 纯度越低的金料需要清洗次数越多 第一种化学物洗掉金料里的普通金属 第二种化学物洗掉金料里的银 最后只留下黄金 破碎的金首饰熔化后被做成碎金块 熔炉里的温度达到1400摄氏度 十个这样的金条放一起熔化并用氯清洗它们 这个过程可以提炼出纯度为90%的黄金 为提高纯度 金料被进一步精炼成“玉米片” 然后用叫做“王水”的化学物洗它们 黄金被溶解为液体 后干燥成金沙 金沙是你能得到纯度最高的黄金形态 就这一桶金沙大概值25万英镑(32.8万美元) 当金沙在熔炉里熔化 金沙变成金粒 金粒是精炼阶段最后的产品 然后他们开始加工制造 我们说到的所有形态的黄金 都得再次熔化金粒然后铸成型 把金沙铸成条带状 就是一种被叫做压铸的加工方法 加工出一条黄金然后把它切成不同形状 可以把它切割成金条或金币等 切割成不同的大小 另一种加工方法是熔铸 把金粒放入一个模具里 然后把模具两次通过一个机器 然后打开盖子你就得到了小金条和熔铸金条 通过这些步骤 实验室会给黄金做杂质检测 我们做的最小的金条只有一克重 它只有你的SIM卡那么大 以今日的黄金价 是31英镑(40美元) 人们买它作为礼物 人们买它是因为想小规模地投资黄金 看看买黄金有多简单 我们这里制作的最大的金条重5千克 大约价值16万英镑(21万美元) 贝雅公司也制作婚戒 精炼银制品 也加工铂金 钯金和铑金 在加工制造过程中 因为打磨金条和金币 有许多金粉四处飞扬 而且金粉有重量 它们会掉落到地上 然后沾到人们的鞋子上 所以我们在所有空气系统和水系统 都安装了过滤器 每到年末 为了盘点期末库存 我们烧掉所有的过滤器 也烧掉工厂与办公室之间所有的脚垫 每年通过这些过滤器和垫子回收黄金 挽回的损失有3-4千英镑 (3.933-5.245千美元) 工人们也要穿特定颜色的工作服 我们每天在这洗工作服 然后工作服上的金粉就会进入水过滤系统
  • 2021-08-24油画颜料为什么那么贵[Narrator] Oil paint is simple.油画颜料很简单 At its most basic, it’s just a mixture of oil and pigment.本质上 它就是油和色素的混合物 But depending on the color and quality,但是根据颜色和质量 A liter of this paint could cost you between $ 285 and $ 1,000.一公升颜料的价格一般在285美元到1000美元之间 So what is it that makes this paint so special?是什么让它如此特殊? And why is it so expensive?为什么它如此昂贵? Oil paint has been used for hundreds of years.人们使用油画颜料已有数百年历史 It’s made from a drying oil, like flaxseed, and pigment,它是由亚麻仁油等干性油和色料制成的 Sometimes with fillers and thickeners added.有时添加一些填充剂和增稠剂 When mixed and crushed,调和碾碎后 These ingredients bind and thicken这些成分会粘合并变稠 To form a permanent paint形成永久的颜料 While the rise of oil paint is associated with the Renaissance,虽然人们把油画的兴起与文艺复兴关联 Paintings using poppy-seed oil have been dated但使用罂粟油颜料的画作可追溯到 As far back as seventh-century Afghanistan.早在公元七世纪的阿富汗 But there’s one key reason this paint hasn’t ever been cheap:但是 究其主要原因 这种颜料从未便宜过是因为 Pigments cost a lot of money.色料太贵了 So in a good oil paint,在好的油料里 You’re gonna be looking for a high pigment loading需要有高含量的色料 and a good-quality pigment in that high pigment loading.以及高质量的色料 So it doesn’t matter if you have loads of pigment if it’s a bad-quality pigment.所以要是色料的质量不好 用再多也没用 You’re looking for lightfastness so it doesn’t fade,色料要求耐光力好 这样就不会褪色 and tests on lightfastness that have been going on事实上 有些色料的耐光力测试 For generations in fact, for some pigments,已经持续了几百年 So you’re not gonna create a masterpiece当然不会用50年后就会完全褪色的色料 and then 50 years down the line it’s completely washed out.来创作出一幅杰作 [Narrator] The highest quality oil paint最优质的油画颜料 Can be up to 75% pigment,其中的色料含量可达75% and throughout history, the most sought-after pigments历史上最受欢迎的色料 have been worth far more than their weight in gold.经常远贵于相同重量的金子 And that’s because they take a lot of work to discover and to make.这是因为它们的发现和制造都不容易 The favorite imperial color in Roman times, 罗马时期的皇家贵族热衷于 Tyrian purple,泰尔紫 was a bright pigment made from the glands of sea snails,是一种由海蜗牛的腺体分泌的明亮色料 and it could take 12,000 snails to make just 2 grams of the color.大约1万2千只蜗牛才能制作出2克色料 Indian yellow was originally made from印度黄是最初从 the urine of cows fed only on mango leaves.只吃芒果叶的牛的尿液中提取的 And in the 16th to 19th centuries,在16世纪到19世纪间 Mummy brown was actually made with“木乃伊棕”这种色料 The ground-up remains of Egyptian mummies,正是用埃及木乃伊的遗体研磨而成 and while the color was perfect for some flesh tones,尽管这种颜色很适合来描摹一些自然肌肤色 we quickly ran out of mummies to use.但木乃伊很快就供不应求了 Pigments do dramatically change the cost,色料对生产成本的变化影响显著 and in professional levels, you’ll have series,从专业角度来看 它们有各种系列 So you’ll have probably a series one, well, up to series seven.可能会有系列一一直到系列七 The higher the number, the more expensive it is.系列数越高 价格越贵 And that’s due to the pigments, how difficult they are to obtain,因为这与获得这些色料的难易程度 where they come from,它们的产地 and also how in-demand they are as a product in the real world.以及实际作为商品的需求量有关 [Narrator] Possibly the most valuable, though, was ultramarine最有价值的色料可能是群青蓝 literally meaning “beyond the sea,”字面意思为“海的另一边” As it had to be mined in Afghanistan.它必须在阿富汗开采 It was made from lapis lazuli,群青蓝是由青金石制成的 Which in its purest pigment form can still cost up to $ 30,000 per kilo.其纯度最高的部分可达每公斤3万美元 The gemstone was used to make the pigment先前人们使用这种宝石来制作色料 Until a synthetic version was created in 1826,直到1826年 人工合成的群青蓝问世 and the vibrant blue was valued so highly in the Renaissance因为这种鲜艳的蓝色在文艺复兴时期非常昂贵 that it was generally reserved for painting the robes of the Virgin Mary.所以通常使用在绘制圣母玛利亚的长袍上 Synthetic versions of many of these pigments have now been created,许多色料的合成版本已经被制造出来了 and while this means many are cheaper,这意味着有些色料会变得便宜些 some can still be difficult to produce.但是有些还是很难制作 Cobalt blue, for example,例如 制造钴蓝色 has to be made by heating its components to 1,200 degrees Celsius.需把原料加热到摄氏1200度 And once you have these pigments, they’re tricky to work with.就算有了这些色料也会发现它们很难处理 Winsor & Newton has been making oil paints for almost 200 years温莎牛顿公司生产油画颜料已近200年了 and its factory in France produces仅其在法国的工厂 over 5 million liters of paint each year.每年生产的油画颜料就超过500万公升 Dominique Murzeau: In fact, produce paint is like cooking.实际上 生产油画颜料就好比做饭 So here you have mixing, so we are mixing components我们熔合成分 like pigments and other additives like oil.像色料和其他助剂 比如油 We are then milling.然后再进行研磨 So it depends. We’re using different type of machines根据使用的材料不同 如花岗岩 陶瓷 或是钢铁 So we’re using granite, ceramic, or steel.来选择不同类型的机器 Then we are testing, OK,然后测试 so testing the viscosity of the grain and,测试颜料颗粒的粘度 of course, the color.当然 还有颜色 Hager-Suart:The whole process is so select.全程都是非常精确严格的 So for every single pigment,对于每一种色料 you need to handle it in a particular way.都需要采用特定的方式去处理 So it will need a particular amount of oil with it,加入一定量的油 and that ratio changes for every pigment.不同的色料所需要的比例不同 And you’re going to need to grind it to a particular fineness,将它们研磨到特定细度 and actually even with the same pigment即使相同色料 the milling and the grinding will affect the color you have.在经过不同程度的研磨後 会对最终的颜色产生影响 So if you overgrind you might end up with something duller,所以如果过度研磨 可能会导致颜色变阴暗 or with another color if you grind it very fine;再好比另一种色料 如果研磨的太细 you might end up with a purple rather than a blue.可能最后出来是紫色而不是蓝色 [Narrator] The research and testing for these colors这些颜色的研究和测试 can take months or even years to get right.可能要花费数月甚至数年才能完成 Small samples of each color are made in a lab每种颜色的样品由实验室制作 to measure consistency and lightfastness.测量其稠度和耐光力 Above all else, the quality of oil paint needs to be reliable,最重要的是 油画颜料的质量要足够可靠 as professional artists need to guarantee that因为专业的艺术家需要保证 what they’re working on now will last for hundreds of years.他们正在创作的作品可维持数百年 And despite comparatively new paints like acrylic,尽管有像丙烯这样相对较新的颜料 oil still remains an artist favorite.油画颜料仍然是艺术家的最爱 We’ve still got works我们现在仍能欣赏到 that are still beautiful and relevant那些依旧漂亮的 风韵犹存的 from the 15th century.15世纪画作 And it’s also, it’s durable,它们依旧经久不衰 and it has this ability to layer,还能在刮下颜料的地方 where you can scrape back,叠加新层 you can keep working,继续进行创作 you can work on a piece你可以在一件作品上创作好几年 for years and keep on redoing it,并一直重新修改 and it gives every piece this history.颜料赋予每一件作品历史的意义 And, you know, the materials themselves are expensive.另外 这些颜料的材料本身就很昂贵 They’re reliable. They’re gorgeous.它们可靠且华美 I mean, they come out of the painting at you.我是说 他们超越了画作本身
  • 2021-08-24如何与巴菲特共进午餐Warren Buffett is a very unique沃伦·巴菲特是个与众不同的人 and very special guy and he is a charitable person.并且他还是一个热衷于慈善的人 One of the charities that he donates money to is Glide一个叫格莱德的慈善组织曾接受过他的捐赠 And, it is in San Francisco该组织位于在洛杉矶 He offered, going back about 10 years大约10年前 to have lunch with anyone that would pay for it他提出愿意与捐助者共进午餐 so he auctioned himself off and he raised 他不断地拍卖他的午餐 I believe 25 thousand dollars我认为巴菲特通过这种方式筹集了 to have lunch with Warren Buffett.2万5千美元 I head b about it我听说了这件事 Got his phone number并得到他的电话 By the way, that took at least a year顺便一提 花了至少一年 to get his phone number我才得到他的号码 because I didn’t wanna just call up the company因为我不想只是打电话到他的公司 but I did get his phone number and when I called him当我最终得到号码并打电话给他时 he actually answered the phone himself.真的是他本人接的电话 He said, “Hi, this is Warren,”他说 “你好我是沃伦” and I was, sort of, stumped for words.当时我有点讲不出话 I couldn’t quite believe that我不敢相信 I had Warren Buffett on the telephone我和沃伦·巴菲特通话了 and I said, Warren然后我说沃伦 this is Allen Stillman I own some restaurants called, Smith,我是斯蒂尔曼 我有个餐馆叫做史密斯…… and I never got to say the last word.我还没有说完餐厅的名字 He said, and Wollensky. 他说 “……和沃伦斯基餐馆” I said, that’s correct, how do you know? He says, oh, 我说:“是的 你怎么知道的?” I come to a couple of your restaurants他说:“我去过你的餐厅” I said, really? I have an idea. He said, what’s that?我说:“真的吗 我有个想法” 他说:“是什么?” I said, I wanna donate an additional,我说“我想额外捐赠……” and I don’t remember exactly the number,我不记得确切的数目 but I think it was 25 thousand dollars,但应该是2万5千美元 for you to come to New York“……用于邀请你到纽约 and have lunch at Smith & Wollensky在史密斯&沃伦斯基吃午餐 and I’m going to give to your favorite charity, Glide,我还会给你最喜欢的格来德基金会 25 thousand dollars.捐赠2万5千美元” It took him about, maybe five seconds, to say,他沉默了可能大约5秒钟 然后说 You, Mr. Stillman, have a deal.斯蒂尔曼先生 成交 You put it together and I’ll be there.把钱准备好 我会去那 Well, the first time that he did that,然后他首次做了这件事 it went for a million dollars筹集了100万美元 and since that time, it’s gone for然后自从那次以后捐赠金额 two and a half and three million dollars.变成了250到300万美元 So that, currently he does it once a year,因此 目前他会每年一次 he comes to Smith & Wollensky,来到史密斯和沃伦斯基餐厅吃午餐 has lunch and I suspect that this year won’t be any different.我认为今年也不会有任何不同 It’s going to go for two and这次将会筹集到 a half or three million dollars.250到300万元 You can bring six or seven friends你可以带上六七个朋友 and Warren, himself, will absolutely have lunch with you和巴菲特本人 一起共进午餐 and you can ask him anything you want,然后你可以问他任何你想问的 unless it pertains to the stock market.除非问题与股票市场有关 He’s not interested on giving you hints on the stock market.因为他没有兴趣给你关于股票的信息 But, anything else that you’d like to know,但如果你还想知道些别的 come to Smith & Wollensky, have lunch with Warren,来史密斯&沃伦斯基与他共进午餐 and lay your check on the table for把你250万或300万美金的 two and a half or three million bucks and he’s there.支票放在桌上 之后他就会来 And, he shows up in a Yellow Cab,他会坐黄色出租车来 and he gets out of a Yellow Cab,然后坐着黄色出租车离开 and what you see with Warren Buffett is what you get.你将会从沃伦·巴菲特身上收获许多 Warren, when he comes to lunch, orders a steak,当沃伦来吃午餐时他会点一份牛排 but always with Diet Coke,但是总和无糖可乐一起 and Diet Coke is his drink of choice and健怡可乐是他的首选饮品 he drinks lots of them.他总喝可乐 He, I think he drinks, three, four, five Diet Cokes a day.我觉得他一天会喝三四瓶甚至五瓶 And, he can finish a good steak他喜欢 and he likes a good steak.上等牛排 He is one of the most phenomenal people you’d ever meet他会是你所见的最杰出的人之一 and whatever he is saying is what he honestly believes.无论他说的什么都是他自己深信不疑的 He is not anybody that他不是一个 will tell any stories out of line信口雌黄的人 and he has been one of而且他成为了史密斯&沃伦斯基 Smith & Wollensky’s great supporters.最忠实的支持者之一
  • 2021-08-24现实交流中,如何提升自我存在感When I joined Coca-Cola a little十多年前 我加入可口可乐公司 over a decade ago, I was located in Dallas,在达拉斯分部上班 and our corporate headquarters is in Atlanta.公司总部在亚特兰大 And so it was you know one of those opportunities所以 这就是我提到过的那种机会 well, I had to be very agile and learn myself.当然 我必须机灵一点自己好好学 And it was interesting because everybody has a different style有趣的是 每个人的做事风格和适应能力 and a different adaptation.都不尽相同 And so I have you know one associate that really我有一个同事 likes formal one-on-one calendar time他喜欢按日程一对一与人交流 where it’s set aside 他要专门抽出时间 and it’s dedicated for us to have the opportunity to connect.特意安排才能有机会与我们沟通 I have another associate that likes very informal我另外一位同事比较随意 and very frequent, and I check in with them我们经常联系 meet them several times during the week.一周能见好几次面 Also, I think one of the things that I learned right away所以那时候 我突然就明白了 was that when you’re physically together,当你们面对面在一起时 you’re able to see the body language.你可以观察对方的肢体语言 You’re able to read facial expressions,注意对方的面部表情 and you can connect in a different way.你可以用不同的方式进行交流 One of the things that I learned was我从中学到一件事 那就是 to be able to be very present when you’re connecting virtually在现实社会的交流中 要尽可能去提高你的存在感 and what I mean by being present所谓的存在感 is asking a lot of questions, seeking to understand,就是要不断地提问 试图去理解对方的意思 umm,doing the pause, which sometimes can be very uncomfortable嗯 用好停顿 有时会令人非常不自在 but it allows the space for但是这也使你们有 each of you to think but then also足够的时间去思考 to react to each other.然后做出回应 So one of the things that所以 有一件事 I definitely do is to我必须去做 have that opportunity where I create the space那就是 抓住机会去创建一个 where we can reflect and connect.我们的交流能得到反馈并且互动起来的空间
  • 2021-08-24不得不提的市场逆向创新There’s really no way to take a product created for, say,没什么办法能让针对特定市场设计的产品 the American mass market, make a few changes,——如为美国大众市场设计的产品——只进行少许修改 and make it work for the Indian mass market.就直接推向印度市场 But that hasn’t stopped multinationals from trying.但那并不妨碍跨国公司进行尝试 That’s the model global companies have followed for decades,跨国公司几十年来一直遵循这样的模式 to appeal to customers in emerging markets,为了吸引新兴市场的客户 they water down products designed for developed markets.他们会直接调整那些为发达市场设计的产品 However, a better way is for global companies然而 对跨国公司来说更好的方式是 to develop brand new cost effective products在商品市场所在国家 inside the countries where they’ll actually be used.开发性价比高的新产品 For example, General Electric developed比如 通用电气公司开发了 several medical devices in emerging markets若干适合新兴市场的医疗器械 that were a little simpler and a lot less expensive.这些器械结构更简单 价格也低很多 In China, they developed a compact portable ultrasound machine from scratch.在中国 他们重新开发了一款小巧便携式超声波设备 It cost just $15,000 compared with它的售价仅为一万五千美元 over $100,000 for their high end model.相比之下高端设备售价则超过十万美元 Although it didn’t have all the bells and whistles,虽然并无任何的花哨功能 it was a hit in China’s rural clinics.但其一度在中国农村诊所很受欢迎 That’s when G.E. realized that American doctors could use it too.正是在那时 通用电气意识到美国的医生也可以用它 Not to compete with the more expensive product,不和更昂贵的产品竞争 but for new uses.而是着眼于拓展新用途 In situations where portability was important or space was tight.用于便携需求突出或是空间狭小的情况 This is what Vijay Govindarajan and Chris Trimble这就是维杰•戈文达拉扬和克里斯•特林布尔 call reverse innovation.所说的逆向创新 Not only does it result in products它不仅能使产品 that address market needs in emerging economies,满足新兴经济体的市场需求 it also creates new sales opportunities in developed ones.也能在发达国家创造新的销售机会 Reverse innovation can be tough to pull off逆向创新可能很难实现 but there are two reasons to try.但有两个值得尝试的理由 First, because emerging markets have larger populations and首先 因为新兴市场人口较多 lower per capita GDP’s,人均国内生产总值较低 they’re especially sensitive to many of它们尤其(在价格上)对那些 the forces affecting competition in global markets today.能在全球市场指点江山的大公司非常敏感 Products built for emerging markets为新兴市场开发的产品 are more likely to be well suited to则可能更好地适应 issues that ultimately affect every market.这些市场的需求事项 Second, as emerging market companies grow,其次 随着新兴市场企业逐渐成长 they’ll be looking to export their own products often at much lower prices,他们通常会试图以更低的价格出口自己的产品 which incumbent firms will find tough to beat.在位企业将会发现很难与之竞争 Practicing reverse innovation today如今实行逆向创新 will help protect incumbent firms from将会帮助在位企业 being disrupted by low cost competitors tomorrow.保护他们在未来免受低成本竞争对手的冲击
  • 2021-08-24我们购买钻石的真正原因Synonymous with love, commitment and devotion,作为爱情 承诺和忠诚的象征 precious diamonds are set on top of over three quarters of all engagement rings.超过75%的订婚戒指上都镶有珍贵的钻石 Americans alone spend eleven billion dollars on wedding jewelry every year.仅美国人每年在婚礼珠宝上就要花费110亿美元 But it’s actually a pretty recent phenomenon.但这其实是一个近代才出现的现象 Here’s The Real Reason We Buy DIamonds这是我们买钻石的真实原因 “She’s the girl I’m going to marry. Get a load of this diamond ring!”“她是我要娶的人 看看这枚钻戒” Once a very rare gem,钻石曾是一种非常稀有的宝石 vast diamond reserves were found in South Africa in the late 19th century.直到19世纪末 在南非发现丰富的钻石储备 “Diamond diggers line up ready for the word ‘go’在最新的南非钻石热中 in the latest South African diamond rush”采钻工人们整装待发 One of many prospectors seeking to make their fortune was Englishman Cecil Rhodes英国人塞西尔•罗兹是渴望发财的众多采矿者之一 he formed the De Beers company in 1888,1888年 他成立了戴比尔斯公司 and eventually took charge of much of the diamond trade,并最终掌控了大部分钻石贸易 including mining, supply and distribution.包括钻石的开采 供应和分销 But diamond sales dropped off during the Great Depression of the 1930s.但在20世纪30年代的大萧条时期 钻石销量减少 So De Beers turned to another burgeoning industry for help.于是戴比尔斯求助于另一个蓬勃发展的行业 In 1938 De Beers commissioned Ad Agency N.W. Ayer & Son1938年 戴比尔斯委托艾尔父子广告公司 with making diamonds a necessary luxury in American lives.把钻石变成美国人生活中必不可少的奢侈品 De Beers’ grip on the supply meant that whoever sold a diamond戴比尔斯对钻石供应的控制意味着无论谁卖出一颗钻石 was likely selling one of theirs.都可能是戴比尔斯供应的 The agency decided they had to convey the idea广告公司决定要传达一个想法 that diamonds were a gift of love:即钻石是爱情的礼物 Men had to be convinced the larger and more beautiful the diamond,必须说服男人:钻石越大越美 the greater the show of love.表达的爱意才越强烈 And women had to view diamonds as an integral part of courtship.而女人必须把钻石看成是求爱必不可少的一部分 “But before every wedding must come a prelude…“每个婚礼前都必须有一个前奏 that diamond is symbolic of a pledge”即钻石代表着誓言” The agency went to Hollywood,艾尔父子广告公司进军好莱坞 tasking producer Margaret Essen Joe was reinforcing the image安排制片人玛格丽特•埃森•乔 of the diamond as integral to love –强化钻石在爱情中不可或缺的印象 she influenced changing the movie title在她的影响下有的电影改了名 “Diamonds are Dangerous” to “Adventure in Diamonds”《危险的钻石》改名为《钻石奇缘》 and she supplied jewelry for stars like Merle Oberon and同时 她为明星们如梅尔•奥伯伦 Claudette Colbert to wear on screen.克劳黛•考尔白提供荧幕上佩戴的珠宝 Essen Joe’s cousin, Louella Parsons,埃森•乔的堂妹卢埃拉•帕森斯 was a powerful gossip columnist and also on the payroll是一位有影响力的八卦专栏作家 也受聘于艾尔父子广告公司 her articles started paying particular attention to the love lives of the stars,她的文章开始着重关注明星的感情生活 featuring well-staged pictures of engagement rings,重点介绍婚戒的精美照片 or focusing on lavish and aspirational jewels或聚焦于奢华且富有魅力的珠宝 like Grace Kelly’s “twelve-karat square cut diamond engagement ring.”如格蕾丝•凯丽的“十二克拉方形切割订婚钻戒” They became symbols of upward mobility –钻石成为进入上流社会的象征 anyone could aspire to become like a movie star每个人都向往成为电影明星或公主 or a princess with their own diamond.能够拥有属于自己的钻石 De Beers even managed to get into schools and churches to discuss the history of diamonds戴比尔斯甚至成功进入学校和教堂讲授钻石的历史 -their true intention: sowing the seed with children他们的真正目的是:在孩子们心中埋下种子 that diamond engagement rings were a part of marriage and that it was a tradition.即钻石婚戒是婚姻的一部分 是一个传统 By the 1940s, as America’s men went off to war,到了20世纪40年代 随着美国男人奔赴战场 the number of marriages started to rise.结婚的人数开始增长 between 1938 and 1941在1938年到1941年间 diamond sales went up 55%钻石的销量上涨了55% Ayer also used work by great painters艾尔公司还在海报中使用 like Picasso and Dali in their posters毕加索和达利等著名画家的作品 to associate the diamond with a piece of classic art.将钻石与经典艺术品联系在一起 But it was a simple ad line that was to make the biggest impact但这只是一句简单的广告词却能产生最大的影响 In 1947, Ayer copywriter Frances Gerety1947年 艾尔的广告文案编写人弗朗西丝·盖瑞提 came up with the slogan想出了一个广告语 ‘A Diamond is Forever’“钻石恒久远 一颗永留传” and the association with eternal love was solidified.钻石和永恒爱情的联系更加紧密 It’s appeared in every De Beers advert since 1948.从1948年以来 戴比尔斯每一条广告中都出现过它 It’s been heralded as the ‘advertising slogan of the century’.这句话被誉为“世纪广告语” It was so successful Gerety worked on every De Beers campaign until 1970.在1970年之前 盖瑞提在戴比尔斯如鱼得水 Shortly after it was immortalised很快 这句话成为了永恒 in the Bond film of the same name.在邦德的同名电影《金刚钻》上映后 #Diamonds are forever forever forever##钻石是永恒的 永恒的 永恒的# What the slogan did was create the concept这个广告语创造了这样一种观念 that a diamond ring would be kept by the betrothed for eternity,即钻戒可以被订婚对象保存直到永恒 creating a special sentiment but also meaning fewer would be re-sold,不仅营造了一种特殊的情感 而且意味着更不大可能被二次出售 therefore increasing the chance for De Beers to sell more, freshly mined stones.因此 戴比尔斯有了越来越多卖出更多新钻的机会 Ayer’s copywriters were also skilled in directing consumer spending habits艾尔的撰稿人还擅长引导消费者的消费习惯 suggesting a month’s salary was a good amount to spend on a ring,暗示用一个月的薪水花在戒指上是值得的 then upping it to two by the 1980s.并在20世纪80年代上升到买两个月的薪水 Before the second world war 10% of engagement rings contained diamonds二战之前 10%的婚戒上有钻石 By the 1980s the number was up to 80%到20世纪80年代 这个数目高达80% Over the same period diamond sales in the United States同期相比 美国的钻石销量 grew from $23 million to $2.1 billion.从2300万美元增长至21亿美元 De Beers and N.W. Ayer & Son’s marketing masterpiece戴比尔斯和艾尔父子广告公司的营销杰作 played on our emotions so powerfully充分利用了我们的情感 that not only were they able to sell us a product we didn’t need他们不仅能售出我们本不需要的产品 but they influenced the culture of marriage.而且影响了婚姻文化
  • 2021-08-24设计自己的生活I’m Casey Gerald. This is Generation Flux.我是凯西·杰拉尔德 这里是《流动的一代》 And we’re here today with Ayse Birsel,今天我们邀请到了艾斯·波赛尔 an award-winning product designer,她是一个获奖的产品设计师 and a genius of many mediums.也是一个材料方面的天才 She is a mama and she is with us today.她是一个妈妈 她今天来到了我们节目 – Thank you so much for being here, Ayse. – My pleasure.—感谢你的到来 艾斯 —很荣幸 When we think about generation flux,提起流动的一代 one of the things that continues to strike me is that其中一件让我印象深刻的事就是 there seems to be a moment or a series of moments似乎有那么一个时刻或者一连串的时刻 where a person realizes that they were put on the earth to do something.人们意识到自己来到地球上是应该做点什么的 Walk me through that moment or that time in your life,跟我讲讲对你来说 这样的时刻或时间段是怎样的 when you said, you know I was born to do this.就是那个你说“我就是为此而生的”的时刻 You know, I come from a family of lawyers.你知道 我出身律师世家 And I was going to do law but I love drawing.我本来打算学习法律 但是我热爱绘画 And I thought maybe I could be an architect.我当时以为也许我会成为一名建筑师 And there’s a family friend came over one day for tea and then一天 有个家族朋友来喝茶 然后 I talked to him, you know, I want to become an architect.我和他说 那个 我想成为一名建筑师 He said, do you know anything about industrial design?他说 你对工业设计有什么了解吗? I was like no.我说没有 So he took his tea cup,于是他端起茶杯 and show me how that was designed,给我展示了它的设计过程 how the rim was kind of curling,边缘是如何卷曲 so it could fit in your lips and then it had a handle.以使它适合你的嘴唇 并且它有个把手 So you could hold hot liquid in your hands and the saucer so that…所以你能用手拿着热水 还有茶托能够…… if I spilled I would be ruining my mother’s tablecloth.如果我弄洒了 就不至于毁掉我妈妈的桌布 And I at that moment I fell in love with the scale,那一刻 我爱上了这种体系 the human scale of product design.就是产品设计的这种人性化的体系 So I mean you go on from there to design some of the most remarkable things.那么 从那时候起 你设计了一些了不起的东西 And then the financial crisis hits, what was that like?后来金融危机袭来 那时候的情况是怎样的 We didn’t feel it right away, so I thought,我们没有马上感觉到它 所以我想 you know, this is not so bad.你懂的 还不算太糟 But then we had six clients.但当时我们有六个客户 -And they all took their projects in house. -Wow.– 他们都把项目收回去了 – 哇 I found myself with a lot of time in my hands.我发现自己手上有很多空闲时间 And I work with this woman, Leia Captain.我跟一个叫莱雅·卡普顿的女人合作 Then she said, you know,然后她说 I should want you to use this time to think about how you think.我觉得你应该利用这些时间来思考你的想法 Because there is a system to how you think.因为你的想法自成一派 So I started kind of doing about that.于是我开始做这件事 And I called it deconstruction, reconstruction.我称之为解构 重建 And then at one point I feel like,后来 有那么一个时刻 我感觉 OK, I think I have this done.好了 我做好了 So I started showing it to my friends,于是我开始把它展示给我的朋友们 and they were like, this is so complicated.他们都说这太复杂了 It’s very clear to me, but very complicated to a lot of people.对我来说是很显而易见的东西 但对大多数人来说很复杂 So I had to kind of, clean it up, work on it,所以我不得不把它清晰化 继续钻研 and show it to people, and refine it.把它展示给人们 不断优化 And if it hadn’t been for that moment,如果不是因为那一刻 of like nothingness, I wouldn’t have done it.一切就是虚无 我不会去做的 You have this idea,你有一个想法 which is one of the best phrases I’ve seen in the past year.是我去年看到的最好表达之一 At least is “Our lives are our biggest projects”.简而言之就是“我们的生活是我们最大的企划” That literally just you said, it just came to you.你刚刚说 就是突然想到的 – I don’t know, I don’t know, it’s too good. – I think– 我不知道 我不知道 那太棒了 – 我觉得 here is what happened. I was a part of事情是这样的 我是 the Women President Organization, so WPO.女性主席组织的一部分 就是WPO I was the only designer in this group.我是组里唯一的设计师 And one day we did a seminar or workshop among ourselves.有一天 我们自己搞了个研讨会 And the person who did the workshop asked us to write one sentence.组织者让我们写一句话 One sentence our strategic intent. I wanted to do something funny.一句话总结我们的战略目标 我想做些有趣的事 I didn’t take it seriously.我没认真对待它 And so I said my strategic intent is “To design the life I love”.所以我说我的战略目标是“设计我喜欢的生活” One that looks like you, feels like you, and that is这种生活一看就是你的样子 你的感觉 – is coherent with who you are, – Not physically.– 和你的内在相符 – 不是说身体层面 which to me is that’s design.对我来说这就是设计 So wrapping up, this is great Maya Angelou quote says,最后 引用玛雅·安德鲁的名言 “When you get, give. When you learn, teach.”当你得到时 记得去给予 当你学习时 要去传道 What you hope people learn from you?你希望人们能从你这学到什么? I hope that people learn from me is that life is a design project.我希望人们能从我这学到的是“生活是一个设计项目” It’s risky, you don’t always know how it’s going to turn out,很冒险 你并不总能提前知道结果 but why not create your own original life.那么为什么不去创造你独一无二的生活呢? Well you have definitely done that,你显然已经成功做到了这一点 and I will be hopefully at one of your workshops very soon.我希望不久的将来能参加你们的研讨会 Thanks so much for joining us today on Generation Flux.感谢收看《流动的一代》 I’m Casey Gerald. Here with Ayse Birsel.我是凯西·杰拉尔德 这是艾斯·波赛尔 Go design the life you love. See you next time.去设计你热爱的生活吧 下次见
  • 2021-08-24为什么音乐节门票这么贵?I’ve never been to a music festival…until today今天是我第一次参加音乐节 Surprising I know我知道这挺不可思议的 because in the past 20 years…因为在过去的20年里 …they’ve become increasingly popular音乐节越来越流行 Let’s take California’s Coachella以加利福尼亚的Coachella音乐节为例 It’s been running since 1999 when it had 25,000 attendees1999年举办了第一届 当时就有25000人参加 In 2017 there were almost 250,000 of them到了2017年 观众数达到近25万 And as festivals have grown…随着音乐节市场越来越大 …so have ticket prices门票价格也水涨船高 In 1979 a ticket for Glastonbury,在1979年 英国最大的音乐节Glastonbury的门票 the UK’s biggest festival, cost £5一张只要5英镑 In 2019 it was £248到了2019年 售价则达到了248英镑 To put things in perspective让我们客观地分析一下 if ticket prices rose with inflation如果门票价格是跟着通货膨胀上涨的 …it would be five times more expensive today那么今天的票价应该是过去的五倍 In reality they’re 50 times more但事实上 是50倍 So why are festivals so expensive?那么为什么音乐节的门票价格这么贵呢? Running a festival takes a huge amount of work举办一次音乐节是一项巨大的工程 This is Jennie Jordan, she’s a festival expert这是Jennie Jordan 对音乐节颇有研究 We never imagined the level of detail you need to go into我们之前从未想过办一个音乐节要考虑那么多细节 Lak Mitchell is a festival producerLak Mitchell 是一位音乐节制作人 He runs Boomtown…他运营着Boomtown音乐节 …one of the biggest independent music festivals in the UK英国最大的独立音乐节之一 It’s like setting up a small town这就像建立一座小镇 We’ve got hundreds of lines of budgets有太多事情需要花钱 You’ve got to make sure that you’ve got water…你需要确保音乐节场地有水 …to make sure you’ve got Wi-Fi…有wifi …internal traffic management, external traffic management…场内交通管理 场外交通管理 …toilets…还有厕所 …four different security companies…四个不同的安保公司 …food…食物 …stewarding…服务人员 …drink…饮料 …artist internal transport音乐人的场内交通 The list is just bonkers详细的清单真的让人抓狂 At Boomtown it also takes 12,000 crew…Boomtown音乐节需要12000名工作人员 …1,596 tonnes of scaffolding…1596吨脚手架 …3m litres of water and 2,000 bins…300万公升水 2000个垃圾桶 …and all that costs所有这些都要花钱 But then there’s one more thing that makes festivals much more expensive…但是还有一件事让音乐节变得更费钱 …the music And actually it all comes down to this那就是音乐 实际上这也是一场音乐节的根本所在 It’s much more difficult now to make money selling recorded music现在通过售卖唱片来赚钱已经越来越难了 The rise of streaming has basically flipped the economics of the music industry on its head流媒体的兴起颠覆了音乐产业的经济现状 This is Tom Standage He’s the head这是Tom Standage of all things digital at The Economist他是《经济学人》数字化板块的总负责人 And…与此同时 …a drummer in his spare time闲暇时间他还是一名鼓手 It used to be that you made your money…在以前你可以通过 …from selling records, selling CDs, selling LPs…卖唱片 卖CD 卖LP来赚钱 …and you promoted them by going on tour通过举办巡回演唱会来推销唱片 …and now you make your money by going on tour…然而现在 你需要通过巡演来赚钱 …and releasing an album is just really an excuse for another tour然后再发行一张专辑为下次巡演预热 And as the importance of touring has increased…随着巡演的重要性不断提升 …so have artists’ fees音乐人的费用也不断提升 At Woodstock in 1969在1969年的Woodstock音乐节 …Jimi Hendrix got today’s equivalent of $125,000Jimi Hendrix的收入相当于今天的125000美元 In 2019 at Coachella…在2019年的Coachella音乐节上 …Ariana Grande was paid $8mAriana Grande的报酬是八百万美元 That’s 64 times more是1969年的64倍 People out there really think that we’re making millions…外行人真的以为我们办音乐节赚了几百万 …but we barely broke even last year…但实际上我们去年差一点就破产了 …even though the festival completely sold out…尽管音乐节的门票都售空了 …because it’s so expensive to put on因为要运营一次音乐节真的花费巨大 Artists are really, really tricky…艺人们也真的很狡猾 …because they will get offers from the big corporate festivals…因为在大型的联合音乐节上 …that are like five times what we can afford他们能收到的报酬是我们能提供的五倍 Here’s the deal事情是这样的 Over the past decade two companies Live Nation and AEG Live…在过去的十年里Live Nation和AEG Live两家公司 …have become a dominant force in the festival market已经成为了音乐节市场上的主导力量 They’ve been pushing prices up…他们一直在哄抬价格 …and buying smaller festivals out然后收购小型的举办音乐节的公司 Now they own close to a third单就英国市场 of the British market alone这两家就占据了近三分之一 Live Nation’s net worth in 2019 was estimated at $15.6bn2019年Live Nation的资本净值约为156亿美元 And they’re scaling their business models…而且他们还在扩大业务模式 …turning the likes of the Lollapalooza festival into a franchise…把像Lolllapalooza这样的音乐节变成特许经营性质 …and exporting it to countries across the globe然后将其输出到全球各个国家 Companies control the risk by running a number of different festivals这些公司通过举办数个不同的音乐节来分摊风险 That allows you to have mitigating factors…这就使得你有机会削弱那些不利因素的影响 …if the weather’s awful one weekend…如果这个周末的天气特别糟糕 …you’ve got another festival with income potentially…那么几个星期之后 …a couple of weeks later你还有可能从另一个音乐节上得到弥补 It allows them to get some economies of scale…这使他们可以获得一些规模经济 …and it allows them to get the top artists’ tours…而且这些收入可以用来邀请到顶级明星加入音乐节 …so that they can offer them more than one date over the summer period…一个夏天可以邀请好几次 …and that’s very effective这个模式非常有效 And this means that the most popular acts…同时这也意味着最受欢迎的艺人 …headline many of the big festivals会成为许多大型音乐节的噱头 While these economies of scale may be cost effective for the big companies…这种规模经济对大公司来说是有成本效益的 …the risk is that festivals feel more samey所带来的风险就是音乐节同质化 And perhaps that’s one of the reasons why overall festival attendance…或许这就是自2016年以来 …has declined since 2016音乐节的整体上座率下降的原因之一 In Europe 18 % of surveyed festivals在欧洲 参与调查的音乐节中 …reported a downturn in ticket sales有18%都存在门票售出率下降的现象 As the market gets more challenging…随着市场越来越有挑战性 …some independent festivals have turned economic necessity…一些独立音乐节已经把能否赚钱 …into an opportunity看成是运气了 When we launched Boomtown…当我们开始策划Boomtown时 …we had no chance of competing on big acts as well…我们也没有可能与那些大型演出竞争 …so we had to kind of create this model and this experience…所以我们就自己创造了一种 …that was unique and had its own sort of identity…独特的 有自己风格的模式和体验 …that set itself out away from other festivals让Boomtown与其他的音乐节区分开来 This is where it gets interesting这就是它变得有意思的地方 A ten-year, British-audience survey一项为期十年的英国观众调查显示 …headline acts are a deciding factor for only 8% of festival-goers只有8%的观众会为了参演艺人而去音乐节 But 53% said the overall experience… …而53%的受访者表示 is the reason they bought their ticket整体的体验感才是他们买票的原因 We asked these festival-goers why they’re here我们问了一些观众为什么来参加音乐节 A line-up will drag me in…当我在这看到有人排队时我会被吸引 …but when I’m here, sometimes I don’t even see any music但我在这里有时甚至都听不到音乐 I’ll be honest I don’t know any of the friggen music老实说我对音乐一窍不通 It’s nothing to do with the music…来这儿不是为了音乐 …it’s all atmosphere就是为了这种氛围 And that’s part of a much bigger picture…他们只是庞大观众中的一小部分 In the past 20 years the Western world…在过去二十年里 …has shifted from buying things…西方世界已经从买物品 …to buying these kinds of things转变到买 “这种”东西 In other words, experiences换句话说就是买 体验 My name is Joe Pine…我是 Joe Pine …and I’m going to tell you all about the experience economy我来告诉你关于体验经济的一切 Joe has written a book called… …well,Joe写了一本书 “The Experience Economy”叫《体验经济》 Well what’s happened is we’ve gone from…现在的状况是 …an agrarian economy based off commodities…我们已经从以农产品为基础的农业经济 …through an industrial economy based off goods, through a service economy转变到以商品为主的工业经济 再到服务经济 And today we’re in an experience economy如今我们正处于体验经济的时代 What experiences really do is that they engage everyone inside of them真正的体验就是让每个人都参与其中 It’s this engagement that the likes of Boomtown are banking on…正是这种参与让Boomtown之类的项目 …to pull in the punters能够以此吸引顾客 Do I know you friends?我认识你吗 朋友 In 2019 Boomtown hired 2,000 actors…2019年 Boomtown雇佣了2000名演员 …to draw festival-goers into a variety of immersive experiences…在音乐节的110个场馆里 …spread across 110 venues throughout the festival将参加音乐节的观众引入各种沉浸式体验之中 I have a question I would like to ask…我想问一个问题 …can you tell me…你能告诉我 …who really was the man behind the mask?到底谁才是幕后主使? And it’s all designed to create this unique communal experience所有这些都是为了创造这种独特的公众体验 Living in the digital age that we are now…生活在现如今的数字时代 …there’s more need than ever for people to connect…人们比以往任何时候都更需要连接感 …and that’s what festivals do the best这也就是音乐节最棒的地方 And the digital age also means we can document these experiences身处数字时代也意味着我们可以记录下这些体验 And of course show them off online当然也可以把这些体验晒到网上 We take selfies not because…我们自拍不是因为 …we think we’re going to get the perfect picture…我们想要拍出最完美的照片 …but because we were there and it proves that we were there而是因为我们当时在那里 而自拍证明了这件事 These are similar to that souvenir 这就像纪念品 that you picked up on your seaside holiday你假期在海边捡回的纪念品 …that means absolutely nothing to anybody else…对其他人没有任何意义 …but is so important to you但对你自己十分重要 That is if you like the kind of evolution of what happened before这就是过去时代的进化版本 If you went round to someone’s house…如果你去别人家串门 …you could see what records they had, what CDs they had…你就能看到他有哪些唱片 有哪些CD …and that was a kind of social media 这就是一种社交媒体 Really posting stuff on Instagram is just the kind of updated version of that在Instagram上发布东西其实就是这种形式的升级版本 And in the spirit of keeping up to date…本着与时俱进的态度 …pretty much every music festival is now selling the experience现在几乎每一个音乐节都在兜售体验 Gather round the future围绕未来 So what else will convince festival-goers…还有什么其他东西让音乐节观众相信 …that their tickets offer value for money?他们的票能值回那个钱呢 What’s the future of this incredible city?这座伟大的城市的未来如何? In other words…换句话说 …what’s more experiential than experience?还有什么比亲身经历更能有体验感呢 There is an experience that changes us in some way…有一种体验在某种程度上改变了我们 …and that we call a transformation…我们称之为转化 …and a transformation is the fifth and final economic offering…转化是第五种 也是最后一种 …this progression of economic value提供经济价值进化的经济模式 We’re using experiences as the raw material to guide people to change…我们以体验作为素材去引导人们改变 …to help them achieve their aspirations去帮助人们实现自己的愿望 So expect to hear that a ticket to a festival in the future…因此我们很期待未来的音乐节门票 …will be an investment in a truly transformative experience… …能成为一项对逼真的转化体验的投资 one that will offer an opportunity to help you discover your better self…一项提供机会让你发现更好的自己的投资 …and one that might even be worth it一项物有所值的投资
  • 2021-08-24从布雷顿森林体系到英国脱欧:展望国际经济合作的未来Harold 你可否谈一谈 战后 国际机构发展的几个重要阶段 以国际货币基金组织为例 我认为 它实际上始于1944年 二战后期最后一年 当时 战后秩序的建立是 伴随着IMF 世界银行一起建立起来的 我认为1970年代是另一个重要时期 当时 石油价格高涨 市场弥漫绝望情绪 挑战十分艰巨 人们想知道西方模式是否仍发挥作用 人们呼吁建立新的国际经济秩序 第三个阶段2008—2009年 当时国际秩序在全球金融危机的影响下 得到真正重建 G20领导人公开呼吁并成立新的合作机构 这是一个非常密切的合作形式 但是现在局势己然发生改变 因为民粹主义的兴起 国际经济合作己经非常脆弱 这对战后的经济秩序意味着什么? 我认为经过了一段时间的紧密合作 人们已经厌倦了 人们认为没有达到他们预想的结果 如今我们看到国际形势确实发生了一些变化 人们从贸易问题转向其他问题 特别是质疑外来移民 移民问题是己成为国际体系 一体化的问题之一 这两个因素导致了人们的抵制情绪 工业发达国家尤其如此 特别是国际合作活动中积极的国家 如美国 英国 所有这些情形对国际机构意味着什么? 你在文章中问道 国际机构是否更应该 扮演法官 牧师 还是说客的角色 当今国际格局己然发生变化 国际机构所扮演的角色是什么? 我认为在必要的条件方面 如某种公正的裁决功能上 国际机构是很难做到的 较好的方法是国际机构如何组织各国政府 以及各国民众 做出何种选择 面临何种后果 国际机构提供数据 提供分析报告及其后果 并为未来的可能性提供指导 告诉他们什么是好的选择 全球经济合作的未来会是什么样? 只要对这些问题进行充分讨论 我认为民众会明白世界是相互联系的 我们不是在玩零和游戏 我们的利益不是来自他人的损失 未来要携手合作 国际机构在这过程中扮演关键的角色 谢谢
  • 2021-08-24为什么美国的器官移植手术如此昂贵?In 1954, doctors successfully transplanted在1954年 医生们成功地移植了 the first human organ: a kidney,第一个人类器官:肾脏 taken from a patient’s identical twin.那是从患者的同卵双胞胎中取出的 Today, around 20,000 kidneys are transplanted every year现在 每年有大约两万个肾被移植 And based on estimates from one report基于一篇报告的估测 those transplants cost a total of more than $8 billion这些移植手术总共花费超过80亿美元 And that’s just for kidneys这仅仅只是肾脏移植 Factor in the 15,000 other organs transplanted each year,考虑到每年还有15000例其他器官移植手术 and you’ve got yourself a booming business.所以这是一个繁荣的产业 为什么美国的器官移植手术如此昂贵? Hospitals are in the business of saving lives医院的生意是拯救生命 Keyword here being “business”在这里的关键词是“生意” And organ transplants, well,而器官移植 they’re a pretty great way to add to your bottom line是一个非常好的增加收入的方式 Katrina A. Bramstedt: Transplant centers are a good revenue center for hospitals.器官移植中心是一个很好的收入来源 There are some departments in hospitals that don’t make a lot of money.医院里的一些科室实际上 并不怎么赚钱 That’s absolutely true.这是完全真实的 I’d be lying if I said, “Nah.”如果我说不是那我就在撒谎 It’s true,这是真的 and then there’s other departments in hospitals including transplant不过医院里其他一些科室 包括器官移植科 that do tend to, yeah, be profitable for hospitals, absolutely.是更容易赚钱的 没错 Narrator: According to a report published by the consulting firm Milliman,根据一份Milliman咨询公司发布的报告 the average billed cost for a heart transplant心脏移植的平均费用 before insurance is an estimated $1.38 million,在保险赔付前预估是138万美元 and other organs, well, they’re not much cheaper.其他器官的移植也没有便宜很多 Around half of those costs come from what’s called其中大约一半的费用都来自于 hospital transplant admission.所谓医院器官移植的住院费 That includes room and board in the hospital这里面包括病房和餐食的费用 along with things like nursing care还有看护的费用 and medication during your stay.还有住院期间药物治疗的费用 Now, for a heart transplant, which might require something like two weeks of inpatient care,心脏移植需要大概两周的住院治疗 hospital transplant admission adds up那住院费加起来 to an average of nearly $900,000 a transplant.大约平均有90万美元 Some doctors say these prices are so high有些医生说这些价格太高了 in part because the hospital’s trying to make money.有一部分是因为医院想要赚钱 Here’s the dichotomy between hospital interests这就是医院的利益与我们作为医生 and our interests as doctors and patient advocates.作为患者利益维护者之间的利益分歧 Narrator: That’s Dr. Preben Brandenhoff.以上是Preben Brandenhoff医生 He’s a cardiothoracic surgeon他是一名心胸外科医生 who specializes in heart and lung transplants.擅长心脏和肺的移植 Brandenhoff: The hospital, they just want to make money to run the hospital.医院只想要赚钱来运营医院 If you want to be really stone-cold,如果你想要听更冷血的话 they’re not into taking care of patients.他们并不关心病人 Narrator: But Dr. Brandenhoff says there’s a reason但是Brandenhoff医生说 why transplants are so much more expensive than other procedures.移植器官的费用比其他手术高很多是有原因的 Take heart bypass surgery for example.用心脏搭桥手术举例来说 It can cost up to $130,000,它需要花费13万美金 but that’s just a fraction of the cost of a heart transplant.但这只是心脏移植手术费用的一小部分 To understand why,如果要理解背后的原因 just consider what it takes to transplant an organ.想一想移植器官需要花费什么 If the organ donor is deceased,如果器官捐赠者死亡了 there’s the expensive medication to keep the organs healthy,那需要昂贵的药物让器官保持健康状态 then there’s the charted flights然后还需要包机 to get the organs where they need to go.送器官到需要的地方 Brandenhoff: If it is one of these where I go to Hawaii and get the lungs如果情况是 我在夏威夷拿到的肺 because from the time I have the lungs out and ready to go,那么从我拿出肺并且把它准备好 it’ll be five hours going back to the mainland.到把它送到北美大陆上需要五个小时 Narrator: And then there’s all the trained personnel.还需要很多训练有素的员工 Bramstedt: So you may have 10 surgeons in an operating room working, 可能会有十个外科医生在手术室工作 so it’s huge.是庞大的团队 Narrator: And each of those surgeons is making a lot of money.每一个外科医生的工资都很高 According to Salary.com,根据Sarary.com the average base salary for a heart transplant surgeon is心脏移植手术外科医生的平均底薪 over $600,000 a year compared to, say,是60万美金一年 相对比而言 a trauma surgeon who makes under $400,000 a year.创伤外科医生的工资是不到40万美金一年 And finally, there’s even more expensive medication to help the body accept the new organ.最后 患者接受新器官所需的药物费用更高 Bramstedt: It can cost somebody a couple thousand dollars a month if they don’t have insurance.如果没有保险的话 那一个月会花费上千美金 Narrator: So by the time it’s all tallied up,所以当计算费用的时候 a seven-figure transplant isn’t all that surprising,七位数的移植账单也不是那么让人惊讶 even though the organ might come for free.即使器官可能是免费捐赠的 And when you consider what you get for it, you know, life,但考虑到你得到的是什么 是生命 it might even be a pretty good deal.所以这可能也是一个不错的交易
  • 2021-08-24能供电的足球这个插座是一个发电足球 这个球其实是利用了玩耍时产生的动能 并将电储存在球内 所以它可以用作离网电源 在发展中国家 有很多地方 一旦太阳下山 就一片漆黑了 人们要么用煤油灯 要么用柴油发电机 这些燃料都很可怕 而这个球可以提供清洁 可再生能源 充电过程也颇为有趣 玩30分钟就能给LED灯供电三个多小时 最难的是怎么做出一个优质的足球 问题不在于做出一个滚动发电产品 而在于如何保证其质地柔软 耐头顶脚踢而不散架 如果我只是想提供一个发电产品 那我可以直接给别人一个太阳能电池板 或是手摇杆 这些产品都很棒 但问题是人们一般不会问 太阳能电池板怎么工作 只当它会发电 他们也不会问手摇杆怎么工作 只知道它能用 而我们的产品就会引人发问:“等等 这个球是怎么…… 是这样 那样?” 因为足球很贴近生活 看起来非常简单 他们会恍然大悟“哦 懂了 我明白它的工作原理了” 这样就打破了这一现象 除了踢球时产能 它本身就是体育用品 会带来即时乐趣 尽管只是短期解决供电问题 却关乎全球 这一有趣的产品切实 向世人展示了未来的无限可能
  • 2021-08-24达沃斯是什么?This is Davos, Switzerland.这里是瑞士的达沃斯 For 51weeks of the year, it’s a traditional resort town in the Alps.一年51周都是阿尔卑斯山的休闲圣地 But for one week,但有一周 it turns into the meeting place of some of the world’s most powerful leaders它会变成一些重要国家领导人的会面地点 达沃斯是什么? Every January, some of the biggest names in business and government每年一月 一些商界及政界的名人 come here for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum.来到这里参加年度世界经济论坛 Think presidents and prime ministers.比如各国总统 总理 And business heavyweights.以及商业巨头等 It’s popular among celebrities, too.还包括各界名流 So why do all of these people come to the snowy Alps 他们为何要到多雪的阿尔卑斯山 for a conference about the economy?来参加一个经济会议呢? Let me take you back nearly five decades to understand.让我来带你们了解下过去五十年的情况 It was 1971, 一九七一年的时候 when 450 participants from 31 countries来自三十一国的450名参与者 gathered in Davos for the inaugural European Management Symposium.聚集在达沃斯参加首届欧洲管理研讨会 The meeting was called by this guy, a German professor named Klaus Schwab.该会议由德国专家克劳斯·施瓦布发起 Schwab wanted business leaders to brainstorm how Europe’s major firms施瓦布希望商业领袖们集思广益共同探讨 could be more competitive with their American counterparts.如何让欧洲公司比美国同类公司更胜一筹 He said, Davos,他说 达沃斯 which was already a top holiday destination for Europe’s elite,本就是欧洲精英人士首选的休假胜地 had “all of the elements for hosting a productive working retreat for top CEOs.”具备接待顶级领导人高效工作的一切要素 By 1974,到1974年 the world was facing an oil crisis, the collapse of a fixed exchange rate system,全球石油危机 固定汇率制度崩塌 and fallout from the Arab-Israeli War.以及阿以战争爆发 The line between economics and politics was getting blurrier.使得经济与政治间的界线更加模糊 So, political leaders were invited to Davos for the first time.因此 政治领袖们首次受邀来到达沃斯 And by 1987, the institution had become so global 到1987年 该机构越来越全球化 that it changed its name to the World Economic Forum. 因此更名为世界经济论坛 Today, the World Economic Forum is an international non-profit organization 如今 世界经济论坛属于国际非盈利组织 with about 600 employees.拥有近六百名工作人员 It’s funded by some of biggest companies in the world.它是由部分全球最大的公司给予资助 And the price for membership isn’t cheap,会员费较高 ranging from roughly $60,000 to $600,000.约在六万至六十万美元之间 On top of that,更重要的是 some company CEOs have to pay an additional fee to participate in Davos.部分公司总裁为参加论坛必须支付附加费 So it’s not surprising the gathering has gotten a reputation因此 毫不奇怪 该论坛被誉为 as a place where rich, middle-aged, mostly, men hang out.中年高富帅们的聚会 Among Davos’ 3,000 participants in 2017,2017年 达沃斯三千名与会者中 only a fifth were women.女性仅占五分之一 99 countries were represented,虽有九十九个国家派代表出席 but two-thirds of participants came from Western Europe and North America.但有三分之二的人员来自西欧和北美地区 Every year’s meeting has a theme,每年会议都有个主题 highlighting topics like technological change, 强调一些话题 如技术变革 globalization, or economic prosperity.全球化或经济繁荣 Badges are different colors, and since security is super tight,由于治安十分严格 证件有颜色区分 each color gives you access to a different part of the conference.每种颜色的证件能让你出入相对应的会议 But what everyone really wants is the white badge,但是每个人真正想得到的是白色证件 which is your ticket to some of the most exclusive panels and events.靠它能进入一些最高级的座谈会及活动 And for many at Davos, the action doesn’t happen on stage.达沃斯中大部分活动都不会大肆宣传 It’s about meetings behind closed doors and invite-only parties away from the main event.主要是远离主场的闭门会议及限邀派对 The World Economic Forum says it aims to address global challenges世界经济论坛旨在为处理全球性挑战 by bringing together the influential people who have the ability to make change.聚集有能力做出改变的风云人物 But lately, 但最近 Davos has been a frequent target of populist anger on the left and right.左右两派民粹主义人士猛烈抨击达沃斯 Critics say Davos is all about champagne and cocktails.批评者称 达沃斯充斥着香槟美酒 They say the Davos elites put on a show about fixing inequality, 称达沃斯精英们在上演解决全球差异化的真人秀 when it’s really all talk and no action.而实际上都是空谈 So maybe it’s no surprise the World Economic Forum made its 2018 theme, 也难怪2018年世界经济论坛主题会是 “Creating a Shared Future in a Fractured World.”“在破碎的世界中创造共享的未来” Hey everyone it’s Elizabeth.我是伊丽莎白 Thanks so much for watching our video from snowy Davos here. 非常感谢观看来自雪中达沃斯的视频 You can check out more of our videos over here, 右手边能看到更多我们的视频 and be sure to leave any of your ideas for future CNBC Explains in our comments section.评论区留下观点 用于CNBC解读频道 See you later!再会!
  • 2021-08-24哈利波特迷们如何拯救世界There’s a very specific reaction that you get当你告诉别人你为哈利波特联盟工作时 get when you tell people that you work for the harry potter lines.人们的反应会很特别 First of all, I try to avoid telling people as long as I can.首先我尽可能不告诉别人这事 I’m like, yeah, I work for a non-profit.我会说“对 没错 我在一个非盈利组织工作” 人们会问“啊 好 是什么非盈利组织呢?” “我们是借助流行文化的非盈利组织……” 有时候我就尽量不说 他们的第一反应 就是会笑笑 没把它当回事 觉得大概是个被吹上天的粉丝社团 但只要你告诉他们一些我们做的事情 我们在45个国家有300多个有组织的分会 他们就会忍不住惊叹说“哇” 哈利波特联盟是一个非盈利组织 它让粉丝成为主角 这大概就是说 我们利用粉丝 内在的热情和团体精神 以及故事的力量 来推动社会运动 我们向海地送了三架运输机 我们在世界各地建图书馆 我们通过资助保护了数千名达尔富尔和缅甸的公民 我们在六大洲 45个国家有接近300个分会 我们让本不会成为行动主义者的人 成了行动主义者 在2015年 Andrew Slack 也就是我们现在的会长 他是一个巡回喜剧演员 他会去全国的大学 和他的喜剧班子一起表演 他渐渐觉得有点幻灭 因为他的喜剧班子会吸引巨大的人群 坐满整个学校礼堂 然而隔壁的学生和平联盟 或者国际特赦组织的集会 能来三个孩子就不错了 另外我的祖父母说“你有没有给自己想个退路” 我身无分文 是个破产的人 然后我说“哦 我想到一个 我要让哈利波特成为现实” 这可没让他们太高兴 我们通过理解故事来理解他人 故事能培养同理心 创造社群 通过这些社群我们可以改变社会 比如我们在LGBTQ平权运动中 就利用了书中类似的内容 来进行一些教育 在这些议题上开展讨论 譬如 海格不得不隐藏他一半的巨人血统 卢平为他是个狼人而感到羞耻 甚至是哈利波特 在他人生的头十年中 不得不生活在字面意义的橱柜中 以隐藏他的巫师身份 成员们加入我们 可能只是想和其他人一起玩 和哈利波特同好交流 但他们来了之后会学习如何成为社群领导 能看到我们的工作付诸实施 用我们的话说“irl” 感觉真的很棒 随着事情发展 我想 也许J·K·罗琳会知道我们的存在 《时代周刊》杂志曾将她评为 年度第二大人物 并采访了她 问到了哈利波特联盟 采访原文中提到 当被问及哈利波特联盟时 J·K·罗琳简直从椅子上悬浮起来了 她说她感到荣幸 非常荣幸 人们在以哈利之名做这些事情 我就想 荣幸?你觉得荣幸? 如果我俩参加一个荣幸大赛 肯定是我赢 她对我们最近一次支持 是在40万人寄来签名信 呼吁所有的哈利波特巧克力 不再与童工有关 我能有机会华纳兄弟的执行官们坐下来协商 她发挥了很重要的作用 那年我们收到了他们的来信 说到2015年底 全世界的哈利波特巧克力 会100%得到Utz或公平贸易的认证 接下来让我们听听我们的发言人——哈利波特的话 嗨 我是哈利波特 很多人会问我这是不是我的梦想职业 我想从各方面来说都是的 我只有24岁 不断地看到年轻人 如何在我们的教育帮助下成长蜕变 这实在令人荣幸 我的原计划是利用故事的力量 发起一个社会运动 来改变世界 这是一个即便我像邓布利多一样活到150岁 也没办法实现的计划 重点不在于解决所有问题 而是运用一套新方法 我们可以走到一起 社群在推动改变 而且真的心怀热爱 我们已经干了十年了 这真的很令人激动 但是 你知道 作为哈利波特粉丝 其实11是个更重要的数字 所以我们真的很期待联盟的11岁生日 希望我们会收到霍格沃茨的来信
  • 2021-08-24成为阿联酋航空头等舱乘务员到底需要做什么?Each year, more than 180,000 flights take off for Emirates airline,每年阿酋航空有超过十八万次航班起飞 carrying about 60 million passengers.累计载客六千万人次 And the people in charge of all those travelers onboard?那服务所有乘客的人员又有多少呢? The 21,000 flight attendants and pursers that make up Emirates cabin crew.阿酋航空公司共有两万一千名空乘人员 It’s a pretty sweet gig.这是一份很棒的工作 Free housing in Dubai, discounted tickets,可在迪拜免费住宿 还有折扣机票 and getting paid to travel the world.还能带薪环游世界 But with long hours and busy schedules,但随着长时间工作以及忙碌的行程 the job is not always as glamorous as you’d think.使这份工作并不是想象的那么光鲜亮丽 Here’s what it’s like to be a flight attendant for Emirates.以下是成为一位阿联酋空乘人员的具体条件 Siti Nurazlin: My name is Siti Nurazlin,我是Siti Nurazlin and I am a first-class crew working for Emirates.一名阿酋航空头等舱乘务员 Narrator: Like the 200,000 applicants a year,与每年二十万的申请人一样 Siti had to meet the airline’s qualifications.Siti必须符合以下任职标准 A minimum age of 21 years old,最低年龄21岁 a height of at least 5-foot-2,身高158cm以上 an arm reach of about 7 feet on tiptoes 踮脚时手臂抬高至离地213厘米 to reach those overhead bins,能触及高处的箱子 fluency in English, at least a high-school degree,英文流畅 至少高中文凭以上 and no visible tattoos when in uniform.当穿制服时要无可见纹身 Just like every other new hire,就像其他新人 Siti started her Emirates career at the bottomSiti开始也在阿酋航空基层工作 in economy on short-haul flights.服务于短途航班的经济舱 and through the years, she’s worked her way up to first class.经过一年努力工作 她升到了头等舱 Today, she crews an average of nine long-haul flights a month.如今 她平均每月服务九架长途航班 Her schedule changes every week,她的行程每周都不同 but she’s always on flights that last anywhere from six to 16 hours.但她仍要经常飞六到十六个小时 And for a lot of that time, Siti is on her feet.而且大部分时间 Siti都是站着的 She estimates about 11 hours out of a 16-hour flight.她约十六个小时中十一个小时都是站着的 Siti: The job could be quite challenging physically,这份工作在体力上很考验人 so we need to maintain our physique and also be like…quite fit.所以我们需保持身体健康以及体态良好 Narrator: But, thankfully, she’s not in heels the whole time.但幸好 她不是全程都穿高跟鞋 Siti: We do change our uniform after takeoff,我们会在起飞后换成制服 so we get to put on our flats,然后我们再穿上平底鞋 because the high heels wouldn’t get really comfortable in 16 hours.因为十六个小时都穿高跟鞋会很不适 And we change into our waistcoat.然后我们再穿上马甲 Narrator: Siti is also required to look the part.Siti还必须符合妆容的要求 Siti: Usually we keep to a natural makeup like…通常我们会画淡妆 比如… eyeliner, and mascara, usually is a must,画眼线 涂睫毛膏 这些都是必需做的 and you know the Emirates red lipstick, definitely.你知道的阿联酋红色口红 也是必需的 Narrator: And just like makeup, hairstyles, jewelry, and nails are also pretty strict.像化妆 发型 首饰 指甲都非常严格 As for jewelry, they can wear diamond or pearl stud earrings, but no necklace.首饰可戴钻石 珍珠耳钉 但不能戴项链 And their nails have to be clean, with either a nude or red polish or a French manicure.指甲需干净 可涂裸或红色甲油或法式甲 Now, these requirements are for female flight attendants.现在这些只是女空乘的要求 Males have to be clean-shaven and style their hair with minimal product.男空乘需剃胡须并用少量产品给头发定型 But there’s an added level of responsibility for first-class attendants like Siti.但Siti作为头等舱空乘还有其他责任 For starters, she knows who the regular fliers are于初任者而言 她能知道哪些是常飞旅客 and what they like.还有旅客的喜好 Siti: We do have information on our customers.我们也确实有旅客的一些信息 So, on every flight, we will observe the preferences and the likes and dislikes of the customers我们每趟航班会观察旅客们的偏好与喜恶 so we get to write it down for future flights. For example, like,然后记下方便以后的航班使用 例如 pajama size or their preferred drinks,旅客的睡衣尺寸或者喜爱的饮品 so the more someone flies with Emirates, 乘客乘坐阿酋航空的次数越多 the more we can cater to their personal preference. 我们就越能迎合他们喜好 Narrator: She’s also required to have an expert understanding of the entire first-class menu.她还需专门了解整个头等舱的菜单 She knows options for passengers with dietary restrictions,她能知道哪些菜品适合忌口的乘客 the perfect wine pairing for dishes,哪种红酒与菜搭配最好 and the tasting notes of 60 cheeses.以及六十种奶酪的口味 And since she’s typically serving international travelers,由于她经常服务国际旅客 Siti is a master at communicating across different backgrounds,因此Siti擅长与不同背景的旅客沟通 but she’s not the only one.但不光她一个人这样 Like most of the cabin crew, Siti knows more than one language.和多数机组人一样 Siti会多种语言 For her, it’s English and Malay.对于她来讲 就是英语和马来语 But there are over 60 languages spoken across Emirates cabin crew但阿酋航空机组人说的语言超过六十种 and a staff of 140 nationalities.全体员工由140个民族组成 Now, onboard, Siti’s duties are pretty standard.现在飞机上 Siti的职责非常明确 Do a safety check of the plane before passengers board,乘客登机前需做安全检查 provide food and drink service during the flight,飞行途中需提供食物与饮品 and go through the cabin after everyone de-boards.乘客下机后检查整个机舱 But off the plane, the perks of the job are substantial.但下了飞机 这份工作的福利也很丰富 Flight attendants get a base pay depending on experience, with an hourly rate stacked on top.乘务员根据经验获得基本工资和高时薪 Starting out, that equals about $32,000 a year.加起来 年均相当约32000美元 Plus, they get free housing in Dubai not far from the airport.此外 他们在迪拜机场附近还有免费住宿 They get 30 vacation days, one free flight a year,每年有30天假期和一次免费飞行 and can nominate friends and family for discounted tickets.而且可指定朋友和亲人购买打折机票 Siti: The perks of this job especially would be the concessionary tickets that we get, and这份工作的额外福利就是减价机票 而且 not just for me, but for my family and friends as well.不止我可以用 我的家人朋友都可以用 So I don’t really have to travel on my own or travel with just my crew friends;所以我不用单独或是和同事去旅行 I can travel with my friends who are not flying as well.我还可以和非乘务员的朋友去旅行 Narrator: For the veteran and first-class flight attendants,对于老员工和头等舱乘务员 they even get to staff events like the US Open or make special appearances.他们还参加像美网公开赛和特别嘉宾活动 But the best part?但最棒之处呢? Layovers in 161 cities worldwide with accommodations and meals covered.就是在全球161座城市停留和免费食宿 Siti:The best part of my job is traveling, definitely. I’ve been to…确实我工作最棒的地方就是旅行 我已经… over 100 destinations with Emirates.跟随阿联酋航空去过一百多个地方了 I have never and I don’t think I would ever travel to all these exotic places that we fly.我从未想过能到我们飞抵的这些异域旅行
  • 2021-08-24抗衰老护肤品为何如此昂贵Anti-aging products come in the form of creams and serums.抗衰老护肤品一般有面霜和精华 They claim to make you look younger它们宣称能让你看起来更年轻 by reducing, hiding, or preventing the signs of aging.通过减缓 隐去或预防老化迹象 High-end anti-aging products高端的抗衰老护肤品 are some of the most expensive single-use items in the world.是世界上最昂贵的一次性消费品之一 Just 1 fluid ounce of this rejuvenating serum will cost you $1,800,1盎司的抗衰老精华售价就达1800美元 making it one of the most expensive liquids on the planet.是世界上最昂贵的液体之一 But do anti-aging products actually work?但抗衰老产品真的有用吗? And does this explain why they are so expensive?它真的物有所值吗? Dimitrios Tsivrikos: In all honesty,事实上 a number of these creams are used as placebo effects.大多数抗衰老面霜主要是安慰剂效应 Anjali Mahto: More expensive doesn’t necessarily mean better or more effective.更贵并不一定代表更好或更有效 Narrator: Most anti-aging cosmetics, even budget items,多数抗衰老护肤品 包括相对便宜的产品 tend to include a standard set of ingredients:往往有一套基本的组成成分 water, glycerin, acids, oils, and vitamins.水 甘油 酸类 油脂和维生素 However, the costliest creams contain an array of extravagant additions.而最昂贵的面霜里则添加了大量奢侈成分 For example, Crème de la Mer includes a trademarked “Miracle Broth”例如海蓝之谜的专利“神奇活性精萃” comprised of hand-harvested giant sea kelp,含有手工采撷的深海巨藻精华 which it claims has “self-regenerating” powers.产商宣称有“自我修护”的功效 Commercial: These forests are a source of concentrated energy广告:释放深海森林的强大能量 we unleash for skin’s benefit.为肌肤带来焕变 We call it Miracle Broth.这就是“神奇活性精萃” Narrator: But according to skin experts,但在皮肤专家看来 these expensive ingredients aren’t guaranteed这些昂贵的成分并不能保证有效 or necessarily proven to be more effective.或者说未被证实更有效 Mahto: Often what companies will say is,通常化妆品公司会说 “My product contains this really interesting botanical and natural ingredient.我们的产品含有这种神奇的天然植物成分 It’s therefore 10 times better at moisturizing the skin than something else.”因此保湿效果比其他产品要强10倍 However, they’re under no obligation to prove然而 他们并没有义务证明 that it’s that ingredient itself that is causing the moisturizing properties,是这种成分本身具有保湿效果 or something very basic as glycerin, which is found in most moisturizers.还是甘油这类润肤露中普遍使用的基础成分 Product claims don’t necessarily have to stack up产品宣传并不苛求 in such a necessarily rigorous way.在如此严格意义上站得住脚 Narrator: In the US, for example,比如在美国 anti-aging medications must have approval from the Food and Drug Administration抗衰老药物必须获得食品药品监督管理局的批准 for both safety and effectiveness,以确保其安全性和有效性 whereas anti-aging cosmetics, such as creams and serums,而抗衰老护肤品 如面霜和精华 do not require FDA approval before they go on the market.无需食品药品监督管理局的批准即可进入市场 Tsivrikos: When it comes to anti-aging promises, it’s a very gray area.说到抗衰老护肤品 这是一个灰色地带 A number of these companies promise people很多化妆品公司向消费者保证 that they will actually reverse aging,其产品能逆龄 they will actually make people look youthful again.使人重返年轻 Simply by just allowing a clinical population to test your product,实际只召集了少量临床受试者来测试产品 there’s a great deal of smoke and mirrors at that stage.这个阶段充满了不确定性因素 Because, in reality, we can actually say with confidence事实上 我们可以肯定地说 that most of these clinical studies are not to be trusted.绝大多数这样的临床研究并不可信 Narrator: And the price consumers pay for the most expensive products消费者购买这些昂贵护肤品支付的价格 is significantly higher than the cost of production.远高于产品本身的成本 A 2010 investigation by the Daily Mail2010年《每日邮报》的一项调查发现 found that recreating a 3.4-ounce pot of用现成的原料重制 Crème de la Mer from readily available ingredients一罐3.4盎司的海蓝之谜面霜 is estimated to cost roughly $35.估算成本约为35美元 Whereas Le Mer markets their products at $510.而海蓝之谜的市场售价是510美元 We contacted La Mer about this investigation,关于这个调查 我们联系了海蓝之谜 and they responded, saying:他们回应 “海蓝之谜的价值在于其最优质的成分 复杂而漫长的研究生产过程 以及全世界无数忠实爱好者 所体验到的强大护肤功效” Tsivrikos: When it comes to purchasing a very expensive product,每每提到购买昂贵的面霜时 most likely about 60% to 70% of the price that we might be paying其售价的60%到70%很可能是 is related to the cost of the manufacturer to produce and package the cream,用来支付厂家的加工成本和打包费用 rather than the actual product.而不是产品本身 Narrator: But the desire to retain youthful looks is nothing new.渴望永葆年轻的容颜并不是什么新鲜事 Cleopatra is thought to have taken daily baths传言道埃及艳后每天都要用驴奶洗浴 in donkey milk for its acidic properties,因为驴奶中含有酸性成分 while women of the French court would pour aged wine on their faces而法国宫廷女子会用陈酿葡萄酒涂抹面庞 a process which is now recognized as having exfoliating benefits.这在今天看来有去角质的功效 But a blitz of beauty adverts in mid-20th-century magazines20世纪中的杂志上一则唐突的美容广告 that demonized women for having so-called “middle-aged skin”妖魔化了拥有所谓“中年肌”的女性 was the catalyst for a now booming anti-aging industry.催生了今天蓬勃发展的抗衰老行业 The anti-aging market is expected to exceed $216 billion抗衰老市场规模会超过2160亿美元 by the end of 2021,预计到2021年底 but a large part of that includes cosmetic procedures其中很大一部分包括美容整形 such as Botox and face-lifts,例如瘦脸针和面部提拉 arguably an extreme answer to our natural aging process.这可能是我们抵抗自然衰老的极端方式 Mahto: I feel like I’m seeing a lot of young women我见过许多25岁左右的年轻女孩 in their mid-20s that are worried about skin aging.正在担忧皮肤老化 We are currently living in a society that is so focused on outwards aesthetics.当今社会过分关注外在美 So I think there is also a driving need for people more interested in things like这驱使人们越来越热衷于 laser surgery or injectables like Botox or filler激光手术 瘦脸针和面部填充 from a much, much younger age than we’ve seen before.而且较以前越来越趋于低龄化 Narrator: So despite the lure of magical remedies and luxurious concoctions,撇开神奇疗效和奢侈配方的诱惑 avoiding skin damage and combating the signs of aging避免肌肤受损 对抗老化迹象 don’t need to be so expensive.不一定要这么昂贵 Mahto: Budget products can be equally as effective as their more expensive counterparts.便宜的产品可以和奢侈的竞争品一样有效 The focus shouldn’t be on the cost of the product.关注点不应该放在产品的价格上 Wearing a good-quality sunscreen,第一 全年使用优质的防晒霜 SPF minimum 30, ideally 50, throughout the year.SPF值最低30 最好为50 The reason for that is that 80% to 90% of the signs that we associate with skin aging因为80%到90%皮肤老化迹象 occur directly because of sunlight.都与太阳光照射直接相关 So we’re talking fine lines, wrinkles, pigmentation.指的就是细纹 皱纹和色素沉着 No. 2 is the use of a vitamin-A-based product or a retinoid.第二 使用含有维A酸或维A醇的产品 One doesn’t need to spend a fortune,这不需要你花费一大笔钱 and, probably, once you’re spending beyond more than 25, 30 pounds on a product,当你在一款产品上花超过25到30镑时 it’s probably unnecessary.很可能是没有必要的
  • 2021-08-24什么是蓝海战略?In 1984, Guy Laliberté co-founded Cirque Du Soleil.1984年 盖伊·拉里伯特参与创办了太阳马戏团 Soon, Cirque was bringing in revenues不久 太阳马戏团就实现了 that incumbents, like Ringling Brothers,像润林兄弟这些老牌马戏团 had taken more than a century to attain,经过一个多世纪才能取得的收入 even though the circus business was in long term decline.即使马戏团行业的生意长期处于衰落中 How did Cirque thrive in such a dismal environment?太阳马戏团是怎样在糟糕的市场中成功的呢? The answer can be found in the theoryW·钱·金和勒妮·莫博涅教授最早提出了一个概念 that the business universe consists of two kinds of markets, red oceans and blue oceans,商业世界由红海和蓝海两种市场组成 a concept pioneered by inset professors, W Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne.我们可以在这个理论中找到答案 Red oceans represent existing industries and markets红海指现有的行业和市场 where industry boundaries and the rules of competition are well-defined.行业界限和竞争规则清晰明确 Companies strive to outperform rivals企业努力超越竞争对手 and grab a bigger share of existing demand.并且在现有需求中抢占更大份额 As the space gets crowded,随着空间越来越窄 fierce competition turns the water bloody.激烈的竞争让海水变得血红 Competitive or market competing strategy is市场竞争策略是关于 about how to occupy red oceans.如何占领红海市场 By contrast, blue ocean, or market creating strategy,相反的 蓝海 或者说市场创造策略 is about how to create and capture unknown markets是关于怎样去创造和抓住未知市场 where demand is created rather than fought over.去创造需求而不是争抢需求 In some cases, this spawns entirely new industries,在某些情况下 这催生了全新的产业 but most blue oceans emerge但当一家公司 when a company alters the boundaries of an existing industry改变现有行业的界限时 蓝海才会出现 as when Cirque du Soleil blurred the line between circus and theater.就像太阳马戏团模糊了马戏和戏剧之间的界限 Cirque made the acts more artistic and sophisticated,让表演更富有艺术性且精致成熟 attracting a whole new group of customers,吸引了一批全新顾客 adults who are prepared to pay premium ticket prices这些顾客愿意将花在戏剧和歌剧上的钱 that they would for the theater or the opera.用来购买马戏团的高价门票 Cirque also eliminated several elements of the traditional circus,太阳马戏团也淘汰了一些传统元素 like costly animal acts and star performers.比如高昂的动物表演和明星演员 Cirque invented a new and profitable market space太阳马戏团创造了利润丰厚的新市场 without making the typical trade-off between value and cost.而不是在价值和成本之间进行一贯的利弊权衡 Cirque pursued both differentiation and low cost,太阳马戏团追求差异化和低成本 in what Kim and Mauborgne called value innovation.金和莫博涅称之为价值创新 The simultaneous pursuit of value and cost同时追求价值和成本是 is the logic of Blue Ocean strategy.蓝海战略的逻辑所在 Based on their study of more than 30 industries,基于他们对30多个行业的研究 companies that can create blue oceans可以创造蓝海的公司 usually reap the benefits for 10 to 15 years,能够获利10-15年 because they are hard for rivals to copy.因为竞争对手很难复制他们的战略 To realize blue ocean potential, like Cirque did,为了像太阳马戏团一样实现蓝海潜能 companies should chart a strategic course,企业应该制定好战略计划 past traditional industry boundaries越过传统行业界限 to create new market space.去创造更多的市场空间 [WAVES][海浪声]
  • 2021-08-24回收利用真的还值得吗?The idea behind recycling is simple.回收利用背后的理念很简单 By breaking old products down我们通过分解旧物 and converting them into something usable again,将其重塑为可用的物品 we conserve natural resources.保护了自然资源 It saves forests, cuts emissions,这样做保护森林 减少排放 and means less pollution.同时意味着更少的污染 Sadly it’s not that simple.遗憾的是事情没有那么简单 Recycling is deeply entwined with our economic system,回收与我们的经济体系紧密相关 and right now doesn’t make much economic sense.而目前来看并没有多大的经济意义 It often costs more to recycle than it does to just throw things away,回收的成本通常比直接扔掉要高 which is bad news for the environment. 这对环境来说是一个坏消息 This is your Bloomberg QuickTake on the global recycling crisis.彭博QuickTake为您带来全球回收危机的报道 Recycling took off globally mainly thanks to China.回收在全球的兴起主要归功于中国 Back in the nineties,在九十年代 China experienced a manufacturing boom中国进入制造业的繁盛时期 and began exporting more and more goods.开始出口越来越多的商品 The makers of these goods were hungry for metals and plastics to refashion into new products,这些商品的制造商急需金属和塑料改制新产品 and used paper to package them up.并用二手的纸张来打包 So countries like the U.S. were able to load the ships recently emptied of Chinese exports所以像美国这样的国家能够把数吨垃圾装到 with tonnes of their waste.从中国而来 最近刚卸完货的船上 Everybody won,实现双赢 The U.S. found a huge customer willing to pay for rubbish美国遇到了一个愿意为垃圾买单的大客户 which now wasn’t going to landfill.使美国不用再填埋垃圾 And China capitalized on the empty ships returning home,中国利用这些空船在回国时 full of material ready for reprocessing.装满准备再加工的物料 For years the amount of waste China collected grew and grew这样一来 中国收集的垃圾一年比一年多 and the world became reliant.全世界变得依靠它 But all changed in 2017.但2017年一切都变了 “China has introduced new restrictions on the import of foreign waste.”“中国对国外垃圾的进口实行新管制” “The Chinese government now bans the import of 24 types of scrap.”“中国政府现禁止进口24种废弃物” It turns out taking the world’s rubbish wasn’t particularly good for China’s environment.事实证明回收世界垃圾对中国环境不太好 “China is tired of importing our trash.”“中国不愿意进口我们的垃圾了” The decision to ban imports sent prices of waste materials plummeting,禁止进口的决定导致废料价格暴跌 and upended global recycling markets.并且颠覆了全球回收市场 Creating a crisis for communities that had这对倒卖垃圾的群体来说 relied on sales of rubbish to subsidize the cost of collecting it会是一场危机 In the U.S. the average price of used corrugated cardboard fell 85% in two years.在美国 二手瓦楞纸的平均价格在两年内下跌了85% to $28 per ton in August 2019.2019年8月价格降到每吨28美元 Recycled materials are commodities,回收的材料是商品 just like oil, gold or caviar像是石油 黄金或鱼子酱 and their value rises and falls due to market conditions.它们的价值涨跌取决于市场情况 For example, when prices are low,例如 当价格低时 it’s often cheaper to make that water bottle from freshly drilled gas.用新钻的天然气制造水瓶通常更便宜 And careless recycling can add to the cost.粗心大意地回收也会增加成本 Just one pizza box in a pile of cardboard一堆纸板中混入一个披萨盒 can ruin the whole batch就毁了全部 as the oils in it can’t be separated from the paper fiber.因为油渍不能从纸纤维中分离出来 At the same time,同时 big companies like Mars, PepsiCo and Unilever玛氏 百事和联合利华这种大公司 have vowed to cut use of virgin plastic宣布减少使用一次性塑料 and pledged to use more recycled and biodegradable goods,并承诺使用更多可回收和生物降解的产品 a feat that may need the re-invention of some manufacturing practices.这一举措也许需要改进制造工艺 So is it worth paying for?那么付出这个代价值得吗? Recycling saves serious amounts of energy,回收可以节约大量的能源 which in turn means lower greenhouse gas emissions.继而也意味着会减少温室气体的排放 Making cans from recycled aluminium用回收的铝做罐头 uses 95% less energy than mining and using raw materials.与采矿和使用原材料相比会节省95%的能源 Recycling steel saves 60%, as does recycling paper.回收钢铁可以节约60%的能源 回收纸张同样如此 So it boils down to所以就取决于 how quickly we’re able to remake the way we make things.我们能够多快地改善我们的制作工艺 As of 2018, we were on track to generate waste截止2018年 垃圾产生的速度 at more than double the rate of population growth through 2050,会是2050年人口增长率的两倍多 so we can expect plenty more rubbish to pile up.所以我们可以预料到垃圾会越堆越多 Some communities are running out of room to store all their trash一些社区已经没有空间去放置所有的垃圾 and have stopped collecting plastic, paper and glass.并且已经停止收集塑料 纸张和玻璃 Others are just sending material to landfills or burning it.其他人直接把材料送去填埋或焚烧 Such issues have given environmentalists cause to suggest这些问题让环保主义者有理由提出 more radical approach is needed,需要采取更彻底的办法 saying we should rethink our relationship with material我们应该重新思考我们与物品的关系 and be using less stuff in the first place.并在一开始减少原料的使用
  • 2021-08-24苹果专卖店吸引顾客花更多钱的隐藏手段Apple stores were the most profitable2017年 苹果零售店是 retail stores per square foot in 2017,每平方英尺利润最高的零售店 beating out brands like Tiffany and Lululemon.超过了蒂芙尼和露露柠檬等大品牌 Other stores have tried to copy the formula,其他商店曾试图模仿这种营销模式 but these feel like imitation rather than innovation.但总让人感觉像是效仿 而不是创新 Apple stores are a core part of Apple’s brand and of spreading that brand.苹果专卖店是苹果这一品牌及其推广的核心部分 苹果专卖店吸引顾客花更多钱的隐藏手段 他们如何吸引您花更多钱? Our stores are also the best place我们的专卖店也是 to go discover, explore, and experience our new products.发现 探索和体验苹果新产品的最佳场所 Narrator: An Apple store is an Apple paradise,苹果专卖店是苹果产品的天堂 and anyone walking by can see this utopia,所有路过的人都能看到这个乌托邦 because most Apple stores have big glass walls.因为苹果专卖店大多都有大大的玻璃外墙 When they see that other people are inside engaging with the product,当路人看见有人在店里体验或购买产品时 there’s this general social desire to belong.他们会产生想要成为其中一员的从众心理 Narrator: That’s Jim Mourey.这位是吉姆•莫里 He teaches marketing at DePaul University.他在德保罗大学教授市场营销学 Mourey: And so there’s this FOMO, like,这种心理叫做FOMO “fear of missing out” quality of wanting to go inside类似“害怕错过”的心理 and see what the new thing happens to be at the store.想要进去看看店里有什么新产品 Narrator: And once customers get into the store,一旦顾客进入商店 they tend to stick around,他们会在店内逛一逛 because Apple stores are just plain cool.因为苹果专卖店的装修非常酷 Each store’s design is as sleek每个店面的设计都和其产品一样 and modern as Apple’s products.又简洁又时尚 The flagship stores even double as tourist destinations.旗舰店的顾客数甚至是旅游景点游客数的两倍 Each one is like a beacon,每个专卖店都像一个地标 with multiple floors, indoor trees,有多个楼层 内有景观树 and incredible architecture.和精妙绝伦的建筑设计 Apple stores wow customers with more than just the products令顾客惊叹的不仅是店内的产品 and the stores are filled with visual cues店内的各种视觉效果 that get the customer’s attention.也都深深吸引着顾客 You can see every shiny new model on display.你可以在展柜看到每一台闪亮的新机型 After the using the iPhone 11,在试用iPhone11后 you know exactly how much better it is你会确切地感受到 than your old iPhone 7.它比你的旧iPhone7好多少 Mourey: Once people have their hands on something,人们只要试用过某个产品 they’re more likely to purchase it.他们购买的几率就更大 As soon as they feel some sense of ownership of the product,一旦他们对产品产生了占有欲 they actually value it more once it’s in their possession.他们会愈发觉得该产品物有所值 Narrator: And this adds a reason to go to the store.这也成了去专卖店的一个新理由 Even if you’re not planning on buying anything.即使你事先并不想买些什么 You can go just to play with the new products.你也可以只是去玩玩新产品 Mourey: The longer you keep people in the store,让顾客在店里逗留的时间越长 the more likely they are to buy something.顾客就越有可能买东西 They’re carefully curated,苹果公司精心策划 and they change seasonally to always feature采取季节性变化 our newest products and services.为最新的产品和服务增添特色 Mourey: There’s this notion of the pain of paying.有一个概念叫“支付的痛苦” When we know we’re in an expensive store,当我们自知身处一家昂贵的商店时 the more we can sort of mitigate that feeling of pain,如果看不到那么显眼的高价标签 by, like, maybe hiding the price tags and the sticker shock,那就不会感到那么痛苦 the better off we are.体验感会更好 Narrator: Mourey explained that when you feel that a price is unfair,莫里解释了当你感到商品价格不菲时 you actually have more activity in your amygdala,大脑中的杏仁体会变得更活跃 a part of your brain that processes emotional pain.它是大脑处理情感伤痛的部位 Mourey: You can almost imagine it as like a, you know, a plus and a minus,你大概可以把它想象成是加法和减法 and if the plus outweighs the minus,如果加法超过减法 then I’m more likely to purchase it.那么我更有可能会购买 Narrator: In an Apple store,在苹果专卖店 the price tags are very small.价格的标签非常小 So even though the products are expensive,所以即使产品的价格很高 you’re not thinking about the price.也不会影响你 Good for the amygdala.对杏仁体来说是好事 There’s also an aspirational quality to Apple’s products.苹果产品还有一种令人向往的品质 With Apple devices,手握苹果设备 loyal customers feel like they’re getting忠诚顾客群会觉得 the best of the best.他们拿着的是上等中的上等 There are no giant “sale” or “clearance” stickers没有降低产品价值的 that devalue the products,大幅度“打折”或“清仓”的标签 and the staff makes customers feel important员工的个性化服务 by showing individualized attention.让顾客觉得自己很重要 Mourey: We want to make the happy experience我们想尽量放大顾客快乐的购物体验 and the ease, the convenience as great as possible让他们感到舒服便利 and minimize that inconvenience尽可能减少不便之处 or that pain of paying as much as possible.或支付痛苦 Narrator: It turns out Apple is really good at this.而苹果也真正做到了这些 When it’s time to check out,在顾客付款时 there’s no line and no cash register.无需排队 也没有现金收银机 Painless.毫不痛苦 The phone you’ve been playing with过去20分钟里 for the past 20 minutes is now yours.你一直在玩的手机现在是你的了 And you told yourself you weren’t planning on buying anything.你告诉自己之前明明不打算要买些什么 In the last few years,在过去几年里 Apple has created even more reason to go to an Apple store,苹果创造了更多吸引人们去专卖店的理由 adding free classes called Today at Apple推出Today at Apple这一免费课程 on topics like photography and coding.主题包括摄影和编码 These classes are also a part of Apple’s vision这些课程也是苹果想要 for its stores as a part of the community.将其专卖店融入社区的愿景之一 Ahrendts: We call them town squares我们称之为城市广场 because they’re gathering places.因为它们是聚集场所 Narrator: But the Apple store utopia但是苹果专卖店这一乌托邦 might not be as glorious as it looks from the outside.或许并不像从外面看起来的那样光彩夺目 In the past year, there have been reports of customers过去几年 有报道称 facing long wait times and overcrowded stores.顾客面临的是长时间的等待和拥挤的商店 Customers and reporters have lamented the loss of the seamless Apple store.顾客和记者都为苹果商店失去了无缝运营感到惋惜 Apple might have to rethink its retail strategy如果苹果想要维持商店的声誉 if it wants to maintain the store’s reputation.就不得不重新考虑零售策略 Ultimately, Apple wants its stores最终 苹果希望它的商店 to have a positive impact on its customers.能给顾客带来积极影响 When it gets it right, it makes spending money really easy.如果能做到 花钱就变得非常容易了
  • 2021-08-24欧佩克是什么?Oil isn’t just petrol for your car.石油不仅仅是汽车的汽油 It’s an ingredient in a lot of what we use从保持双手干净的塑料手套 from the plastic glove that keeps your hand clean到让你上路的轮胎 to the tires that keep you on the road.都是我们常用物品中的一种成分 Which means these products这意味着这些产品 can be affected by the fluctuating price of oil.会受到油价浮动的影响 That price is largely decided by supply and demand而油价主要是由其供求关系决定的 and the collective actions of an organization that provides 40% of the world’s oil – OPEC.以及提供世界石油40%的欧佩克组织的集体行为 欧佩克是什么? OPEC stands for the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.欧佩克是石油输出国组织的缩写 It was formed in 19601960年由创始成员国 by founding members Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.伊拉克 科威特 伊朗 沙特阿拉伯和委内瑞拉组成 The group was created to monitor the stability and prices of the petroleum market,成立此组织的目的是为了监测石油市场的稳定和价格 which was previously determined by U.S. dominated multinational oil companies.而石油市场此前由美国主导的跨国石油公司决定 Currently OPEC member countries also include Algeria, Angola, Ecuador,目前欧佩克成员国还包括阿尔及利亚 安哥拉 厄瓜多尔 Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates.赤道几内亚 加蓬 利比亚 尼日利亚 卡塔尔以及阿拉伯联合酋长国 Today these oil producing member countries supply over 40% of the world’s crude oil production.如今 这些产油成员国供应的原油占世界原油产量的40%以上 And together they control more than 80% of the world’s proven crude oil reserves.并且控制着全球80%以上的已探明原油储量 OPEC’s oil and energy ministers meet twice a year in Vienna, Austria欧佩克石油和能源部长每年在维也纳和奥地利举行两次会议 where they collectively decide在那里他们集体决定 whether to raise or lower oil output in order to maintain a stable market.是提高还是降低石油产量以维持市场稳定 Critics argue that it’s a way for them to maintain the price they want.批评者认为这是他们维持自己想要的价格的一种方式 But does OPEC actually control world oil?但是欧佩克真的控制着世界石油吗? The biggest consumers of oil are the U.S. and China.最大的石油消费群体是在美国和中国 It was China’s rapid development in the early 2000s这是中国在21世纪初的快速发展 coupled with a lack of growth in the production of oil再加上石油的生产增长缓慢 which sent the price of oil shooting up.导致石油的价格暴涨 In turn, those high prices继而 这些高油价 made it profitable for non-OPEC countries like the U.S. and Canada使得美国和加拿大等非欧佩克国家 to go after and discover harder to extract oil.更努力地寻找并开采石油以获取利润 Because they weren’t bound by the cartel’s decisions因为他们不受卡特尔决定的约束 these countries have grown their levels of supply,这些国家的供应水平有所增加 which meant OPEC’s market influence began to decline.这意味着欧佩克的市场影响力开始下降 A rise in supply and a reduced demand for oil in Europe and Asia欧洲和亚洲石油供应增加及其需求减少 led to the price of oil crashing.导致油价暴跌 This caused political problems in some OPEC countries like Venezuela这使一些欧佩克国家引发了政治问题 如委内瑞拉 where oil is the chief driver of the economy.那里的石油是经济的主要驱动力 It has the largest proven oil reserves in the world它拥有世界最大的探明原油储量 but also the highest inflation rate on the planet.以及地球上最高的通货膨胀率 But for most consumers,但对于大多数消费者来说 the drop in the price of oil has meant cheaper fuel and lower energy costs.油价的下跌意味着更便宜的燃料和更低的能源成本 Since 2016 however, oil prices have been steadily rising.然而自2016年以来 油价一直在稳步增长 Later that year the Saudi-led OPEC members agreed同年随后 以沙特为首的欧佩克成员国同意减产 the first production cuts since 2008, a reduction of around one million barrels a day.这是自2008年以来的首次减产 每天减产约100万桶 Crucially, Russia and 10 other non-members also agreed to pump less oil.关键是俄罗斯和其他十个非成员国也同意减少石油开采量 OPEC and its allies agreed to extend the cuts through to the end of 2018.欧佩克及其盟国一致同意将减产计划延长至2018年底 But in the U.S. there’s a shale oil boom.但在美国 页岩油正蓬勃发展 Production levels recently hit a record high页岩油的产量最近创历史新高 and are predicted to surpass both Saudi Arabia and Russia.并且预计会超过沙特阿拉伯和俄罗斯 But even with higher output levels,即使随着产量水平的提高 the U.S. still imports roughly 300 million barrels of oil a month.美国仍然坚持每月进口约三亿桶石油 For the renewable energy industry, however, keeping oil supply high and steady makes it然而 对于可再生能源行业来说 保持足量和稳定的石油供应 an attractive alternative and might be one of the most powerful tools to grow the sector.使其成为一个有吸引力的替代品 可能是该行业增长的最有力的工具之一 But the price of oil remains volatile.但是油价仍不稳定 Geopolitical factors such as the Iran nuclear deal and President Trump threatening OPEC伊朗核协议和川普总统威胁欧佩克等地缘政治因素 could see the prices go up or down,可能导致油价上下浮动 but in the end the forces of supply and demand would ultimately determine the price.但最终供求力量将最终决定价格 With more than 80% of the world’s proven oil reserves由于世界上80%以上的已探明石油储量 OPEC in the 21century continues to be relevant欧佩克在21世纪继续发挥着重要作用 and their decisions can still affect the price of oil他们的决定即使只是暂时的 if just temporarily.仍然会影响油价 But as new sources of energy gradually replace hydrocarbons,但是随着新能源逐渐取代碳氢化合物 the oil industry faces a race against time.石油工业面临着与时间抗衡的竞争 In the words of an ex-Saudi oil minister,用前沙特石油部长的话来说 “The Stone Age did not end for lack of stone,“石器时代没有因缺乏石头而结束 and the Oil Age will end long before the world runs out of oil.”而石油时代 早在世界石油枯竭前 就将结束” Hi guys, Tom here thanks for watching our explaining.大家好 汤姆在这里感谢您的收看 Check out more of our videos here and whilst you’re at it, don’t forget to subscribe在这里查看更多我们的视频的同时 别忘了订阅哦
  • 2021-08-24为什么迪拜富得流油?This episode is brought to you by AJ+此视频由AJ+制作 Dubai in the United Arab Emirates is home to位于阿联酋的迪拜 the tallest skyscraper in the world.是世界上最高的摩天大楼的所在地 It stands almost 3 thousand feet in the air,这座大楼有近三千英尺高 and cost the city more than 1 billion dollars.城市耗资超过10亿美元 On the ground signs of Dubai’s wealth are apparent,迪拜富有的迹象显而易见 as the police patrol the streets in Ferraris, and Lamborghinis.连警察都开着法拉利和兰博基尼巡逻街道 So how did the Emirates,那么阿联酋 and Dubai in particular, get so rich?尤其是迪拜 为何如此富裕呢? Well, the UAE is a federation of seven emirates,阿联酋是7个酋长国组成的联邦 each ruled in part by its own Islamic monarchy.每个酋长国受各自的伊斯兰君主制统治 Historically the UAE has been a prime location for international trade.历史上阿联酋一直位于国际贸易的重要位置 Situated at the mouth of the Persian Gulf,位于波斯湾入海口 ships sailing around Asia and Africa made frequent stops there.往来亚洲和非洲的船只经常在此停靠 In the late 1950s, large oil deposits were found20世纪50年代末 在阿联酋首都 near the UAE’s capital of Abu Dhabi,阿布扎比附近发现了大量油田 beginning a hugely lucrative oil industry.由此开始了获利丰厚的石油产业 The oil deposits proved to be so vast这些油田储量巨大 that presently they account for a tenth of the world’s total oil reserves.目前占世界石油总储量的1/10 Crude oil exports are responsible for原油出口为阿联酋GDP almost $400 billion dollars of the UAE’s GDP.贡献了近4000亿美元 But Dubai, by itself, isn’t very oil-rich.但迪拜的石油资源并不丰富 Reports indicate that in 2010,据报道称在2010年 only around 1% of Dubai’s economy was from oil sales.迪拜经济总量只有1%左右源于石油销售 So how is Dubai so wealthy?那为什么迪拜如此富裕呢? Well, both Dubai and the entire UAE迪拜和整个阿联酋 have a historically productive relationship with the United Kingdom.都与英国有着历史悠久的合作关系 This relationship granted them access to这种关系使他们获得了 exclusive western investments and partnerships.西方独家投资和合作的机会 In 2000, the international credit boom在2000年 国际信贷热潮 helped the Emirates solidify their place in the Middle East帮助阿联酋巩固了其在中东的地位 as a financial and cosmopolitan hub.使其成为金融和国际中心 Foreign investments poured in for ambitious projects外资涌入一些雄心勃勃的项目 like the world’s tallest skyscraper,比如世界最高的摩天大楼 the largest resort, and even a series of man-made islands.最大的度假村 甚至是一系列人工岛屿 Since then, tourism, trade and retail has flourished,从那时起 旅游 贸易和零售业都蓬勃发展 attracting a large number of visitors and immigrants.吸引了大量的游客和移民 Dubai was reported to be the world’s 5th most popular据报道 迪拜是2014年全球第五大 tourist destination in 2014.最受欢迎的旅游地 Additionally, there are no corporate taxes,另外 除了石油公司和外资银行外 except on oil companies and foreign banks,迪拜并不收取公司税 making them an attractive business destination as well.这也使其成为有吸引力的经商地 However, despite the flow of investments然而 尽管有大量的投资 and a growing tourism industry,和不断发展的旅游业 the late 2000s economic crisis但2000年代后期的金融危机 hit the emirates especially hard.对阿联酋造成了严重打击 Real estate prices collapsed throughout the area,整个地区的房地产价格暴跌 and one study found more than 200 construction projects有研究发现在2009年至2011年间 were cancelled between 2009 and 2011.超过200个建筑项目被取消 It got so bad that eventually,严峻的经济形势最终导致 Abu Dhabi had to bail out Dubai with a 10 billion dollar loan.阿布扎比不得不提供100亿美元贷款援助迪拜 So yeah, Dubai is massively rich,的确 迪拜很富裕 but as we’ve seen in recent years,但正如我们近年来所看到的那样 there’s no guarantee it’ll stay that way.没人能保证迪拜会一直保持现状 Migrant labor abuse is a huge problem in the UAE and some of its neighbors.在阿联酋及一些邻国 移民劳工虐待问题十分突出 To learn about the details of this issue,想要了解该问题的更多细节 take a look at this informative video from our friends at AJ+.可观看由AJ+的朋友提供的信息视频 [MUSIC][音乐] [MUSIC][音乐] [MUSIC][音乐] Thanks for watching TestTube,感谢您收看TestTube Don’t forget to subscribe for all of our latest.记得订阅我们所有的最新视频哦

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