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  • 2021-10-26自由意志的错觉Here is an apple and here’s a banana.这儿有个苹果 还有香蕉 Pick one.请选一个 Whichever one you picked, it was your decision, completely.无论你选了什么 那都完全是你的决定 This is what we call free will.我们称之为自由意志 It’s the idea that we are the sole authors of our destiny.它意味着我们是自己命运的唯一创造者 That in the face of multiple choices,在面临多重选择时 whatever decision we make is completely down to us.我们作出什么决定完全取决于我们自己 We have the power of free choice.我们有自由选择的权力 But what if I told you that free will is a myth?但如果我告诉你自由意志是虚构的呢? That we are all just a group of atoms如果说 我们都只是一组原子 who will react to a particular stimulus in a way that can be predetermined?对特定刺激的反应是可以预先确定的呢 If you picked a banana at the beginning of the video and we go back in time,如果你在视频开始时选择了香蕉 我们回到开头 if free will truly exists,假设自由意志真的存在 you should be able to change your mind and pick the apple instead.那么你应该可以改变主意选择苹果 But what if I told you但要是我告诉你 that if we go back in time under the exact same circumstances,如果我们回到过去 在同样的情况下 you’ll pick the banana again?你还是会选择香蕉呢? What if I told you要是我说 that I can actually tell which of these two options you’re going to pick你在这两个选择中作出实际决定的300毫秒前 300 milliseconds before you actually pick it with 100% accuracy?我就能百分之百准确地说出你的选择呢? In the 1980s, Benjamin Libet, a physiologist,上世纪80年代 名叫本杰明·利伯特的生理学家 used an EEG, an electroencephalogram,通过脑电图(EEG) to show that you can read and tell that somebody is about to move,展示了在人们有意识地作出实际行动的300毫秒前 300 milliseconds before they decide in their conscious mind to actually move.就能从脑电图看出他即将行动 This means that before we decide that we want to move our bodies,这意味着 在我们决定要移动身体前 it’s already been decided for us in our subconscious,这个行为就已经在我们的潜意识里决定好了 and we only think that we made the decision ourselves after it’s already been made.而我们只会认为那是我们自己作出的决定 In a similar study,在一个类似的研究中 participants were asked to press one of two buttons测试者被要求按下两个按钮中的一个 while looking at a clock with a random sequence of letters on a screen.同时看着屏幕上随机排列着数字的时钟 With the use of fMRI,借助fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging,功能磁共振成像技术 they discovered that two of the participants’ brain regions showed他们发现 在两名测试者有意识地作出决定的7到10秒前 what button they would press seven to ten seconds before they consciously made that decision.他们大脑的两个区域会显示出他们会按下哪个按钮 The results of this research only proves one thing.这个研究的结果只证实了一件事 A few seconds before you pick the banana or the apple,在你选择香蕉或苹果的前几秒 your brain makes that decision for you.你的大脑已经为你作出了决定 It is after this decision has been made deep in your subconscious在你的潜意识作出这个决定之后 that your brain becomes aware of it你的大脑才会意识到它 and we become convinced that we are in the process of making that decision.而且我们会确信自己正处于作出决定的过程中 Because the brain is like the heart,因为大脑就像心脏一样 we don’t tell it what to do, it just does.无需我们下指令 它自会运转 So in reality,所以 在现实中 consciously making a decision, the experience we call “free will”,通过意志作出决定 这种我们称之为“自由意志”的体验 is actually an illusion.实际上是一种幻觉 It’s simply a visualization of events that the brain has already set in motion.它只是大脑中已经发生的事件的显现 It tells you what the brain has decided to do.让你知道大脑决定了要做什么 For as long as society has existed,自社会形成时 we’ve understood the role of surrounding influences on our decision-making.我们就明白环境因素对我们决策的作用 With idioms like “It takes a village to raise a child”正如习语所说“一方水土养一方人” and “You are the product of your environment,”“人是其所处环境的产物” we understand that to a great extent our upbringing,我们明白了在很大程度上我们的教育 our parents, the society we grew up in,父母 我们成长其中的社会 all of these influence our decision making process.所有这些都会影响我们的决策过程 If someone is born religious,要是有人生于宗教环境 it’s not crazy to think that they’ll be religious throughout their lives.那不难想象他们会一生都笃信宗教 Taking it a step further, things like genetics also play a huge role in our choices.更进一步说 基因等因素在我们的选择中也扮演着重要的角色 Charles Darwin and the theory of evolution brought forward the idea that,查尔斯·达尔文在其进化论中提出一个观点 if species do indeed evolve,如果物种确实存在进化这一过程 then things like intelligence must be hereditary.那么像智力这样的东西一定是遗传的 Intelligence is a trait that helps us make better decisions.智力能帮助我们作出更好的决策 And while you can study hard to know more than the average person,虽然你可以努力学习 比一般人了解更多知识 for the most part, how intelligent you are is entirely not up to you.但大多数情况下 你有多聪明完全不取决于你自己 So, some people cannot make certain intelligent choices.所以 有些人无法作出某些明智的选择 Not because they don’t want to, but because their genes are limited.并不是他们不想 而是基因限制了他们 In that instance,在那样的情况下 would you say the person has the freedom to make those intelligent choices?你还会说这个人有作出明智选择的自由吗 Because in reality, they do not.实际上 他们并没有这个自由 Their fates are predetermined by their genes.他们的命运早已被自己的基因决定了 How can we all truly have the freedom to decide our fate如果一开始卡牌就不是平等发放的 when we’re not dealt equal cards from the start?我们怎么能真正拥有决定命运的自由呢? And it’s not just the cards we’re dealt,而这不仅是我们被发到的牌 it’s also the ability to play those cards.这还在于我们玩牌的能力 Some are simply born better bluffers than others.有些人天生就是老千 When you look at the concept of free will critically,当你辩证地看待自由意志这个概念时 the whole idea seems to crumble pretty quickly.关于它的所有观念仿佛瞬间崩塌 In fact, researchers have come to the conclusion事实上 已有研究人员得出结论 that believing in free will is like believing in religion,相信自由意志无异于相信宗教 neither of them agree with the laws of physics.它们都不承认物理规律 Think about it, if free will truly exists想想看 如果自由意志真的存在 and if choice is not just a chemical process,且抉择不仅仅是一个化学过程 then why can things like alcohol and antipsychotics那为什么像酒精和抗精神病药这样的东西 completely change a person’s behavior?可以完全改变一个人的行为? Even worse,更糟的是 we’ve seen brain tumors turn people from pediatricians to pedophiles.有过脑肿瘤使一名儿科医生变成恋童癖的案例 Domenico Mattiello was once a respected pediatrician.多梅尼科·马蒂略曾经是一位受人尊敬的儿科医生 For 30 years, he was loved by his patients and adored by their parents and everyone in the society.30年来 他深受患者的喜爱及患者父母及社会的尊重 In a shocking turn of events, however, in 2012,2012年 一个令人震惊的转变出现了 he began facing trial after他被指控侵犯女童患者 being accused of making pedophilic advances towards his female patients.并面临审判 Neuroscientific research showed that神经科学研究显示 Mattielo had a 4-inch tumor growing at the base of his brain马蒂略大脑底部长了一个4英寸的肿瘤 that changed his behavior.改变了他的行为 In 2002, a similar thing happened2002年 类似的事情发生在 to an American school teacher一名美国老师身上 He suddenly started having pedophilic urges towards his step-daughter and was arrested.他突然开始对自己继女有强烈的恋童欲望 并因此被逮捕 Then it was discovered that he had an egg-sized tumor growing in the part of his brain后来发现一个鸡蛋大小的肿瘤长在 that was supposed to be responsible for decision-making.他大脑负责决策的那部分 After the tumor got removed,在肿瘤切除后 the man’s pedophilic urges stopped completely,该男子的恋童欲望突然彻底消失 and he was able to return to his family.他也得以回归家庭 If free will exists,如果自由意志真的存在 why can removing a tumor change a person’s choice?为什么去除肿瘤会改变人的选择呢 Is it then possible that那么是否存在这样的可能 by altering brain chemistry or physical composition,通过改变大脑的化学或物理成分 we can completely change a person’s beliefs,我们可以完全改变一个人的信仰 ideologies, and choices意识形态和选择 without the person being able to do anything about it?而这个人对此无能为力 In more recent years,近年来 Lawyers have started using MRI scans to help plead the case of their clients.律师开始用核共振成像扫描来为他们的委托人辩护 With neuroscientific research proving随着神经科学研究不断证明 that brain tumors and malfunction caused them to commit their crimes,脑肿瘤及脑机能失常能造成人们犯罪 it’s difficult to argue against it.图像很难被反驳 Because if they did not have the freedom to choose something else,因为如果他们确实没有选择的自由 then why would you give them the heaviest punishment那为何还要因 for actions they could do nothing about?自己无法左右的事被施以重罚呢 Brian Dugan was facing execution in the state of Illinois在伊利诺斯州 布莱恩·杜根承认 after he pleaded guilty to murdering a 10 year old girl.谋杀一名十岁女孩后被判死刑 However, MRI scans revealed that he had mental malfunctions然而 核共振成像扫描显示 他患有精神障碍 that affected his decision-making process.影响了他的决策过程 His lawyers pleaded with the court to spare him the capital punishment他的律师请求法庭免除他的死刑 because in reality,因为就现实而言 can we really say it was his fault?我们真的能说是他的错吗 If malfunctions in his brain caused him to do what he did,如果大脑机能失常导致他犯罪 then he didn’t have the free will to make a better decision.那他不会有作出更好决策的自由意志 While he was on death row,被关押在死囚牢房时 his case continued to get argued and他的案子一直被争论不休 as a result,the state of Illinois abolished capital punishment.最后 伊利诺伊州废除了死刑 Some scientists who still want to cling on to the idea of free will argue that,一些仍然坚持自由意志的科学家认为 while it’s true that the subconscious makes decisions for the conscious即使真的是潜意识为意识作出抉择 we still have the free will to shape the unconscious world.我们仍拥有塑造无意识世界的自由意志 And on first glance, this makes a lot of sense.乍一看 貌似很有道理 You can read a book and an idea gets into your subconscious.你读书 然后想法 知识进入你的潜意识 Then in the face of a choice,然后当你面临抉择时 the idea you’ve read floats back out of your subconscious,你曾读到过的想法浮现于你的潜意识里 forming your conscious decision.形成你有意识的决定 However, there’s a flaw in that idea.然而 这个观点有一点瑕疵 It’s much like a paradox,它更像一条悖论 because where then does the desire to change your subconscious by reading a book come from?因为通过读书来改变你潜意识的欲望是从何而来的? Desire,是欲望 much like choice, comes from the subconscious.或者说选择 它来源于潜意识 So a conscious effort to shape your subconscious所以试图去塑造你的潜意识的意识 is actually a subconscious effort to change your subconscious.实际上是去塑造潜意识的潜意识 The biggest obstacle the idea of free will (or lack thereof) faces is morality.自由意志存在与否这个问题面临的最大障碍是道德 If morality is based on free will and如果道德是基于自由意志的 free will doesn’t exist,而自由意志并不存在 then what happens to morality?那么道德该何去何从? What happens to every other man-made institution人们围绕自由意志制定的 that has been designed around the idea of free will?所有的制度会如何? When faced with questions like these,一面临这样的问题 many people immediately fall into a trap of fatalism.许多人就陷入了宿命论的陷阱 Fatalism is the idea that we are completely powerless in the universe’s game.宿命论认为 人们在宇宙的游戏里完全无能为力 People who think like this believe这样想的人认为 that since we aren’t completely in charge of our destiny,既然我们无力操控自己的命运 we are completely at its mercy,一切都是命中注定 it’s random and not up to us.命运是随机的它不取决于我们 Then they become a lot less happy然后他们开始变得不那么快乐 and start slacking in their relationships.甚至在社会关系里表现的堕落 They stop trying to be good people or uphold any moral standards,他们不再试图做个好人或遵守任何道德准则 and overall they start to have a lower sense of fulfillment in life.总体而言 生活中他们会开始有较少的满足感 But we don’t have to fall into that trap.但我们没必要陷入这样的陷阱 The scientists who champion the idea of the absence of free will主张自由意志不存在的科学家 would rather explain it philosophically as “determinism” rather than fatalism.宁愿将它解释为哲学上“决定论” 而非宿命论 Determinism is the idea that all events are predetermined by existing causes.决定论是指 所有事件都是有原因的 That everything that will happen can be explained through the clockwork laws of cause and effect.将要发生的一切都可以通过因果规律来解释 It doesn’t mean that we are completely powerless and simply at the mercy of what’s to come.这并不意味着我们完全无能为力 任由事情发生 It simply gives us a different way to look at everything that happens around us.它只是给了我们一种看待周围一切事物的不同方式 According to the government of the United Kingdom,据英国政府称 more than half of the people in prison have a brain injury.半数以上的囚犯脑部有伤 Doesn’t that tell a scary story?这不是一个恐怖故事吗? Understanding the true concept of free will理解自由意志的概念 will help us realize that those people are no different from us.有助于我们明白 囚犯和我们并无差别 They’re not worse humans他们并不比我们更坏 and many times,they’re just there很多时候 他们坐牢 because of a combination of bad events that were totally out of their control.只是因为一系列完全不受他们控制的坏事 In the same way, with deterministic thinking,同样的 以决定论的想法 we would also show more humility when talking about our achievements在谈论我们的成就时 我们也会表现出更多的谦逊 because now we understand that we are simply a product of our past experiences.因为现在我们明白 我们只不过是过去经验的产物 It helps us to have empathy for people who are not in a similar position as we are,这能帮助我们同那些与我们处境不同的人产生共情 and it helps us to reduce our sense of entitlement.这有助于我们减少我们的优越感 If the people in higher positions in society如果身处社会高位的人 do not attribute all of their success to their personal efforts alone,不把自己的成功全归因于个人的努力 they are more likely to do more for others.他们更可能为更多人做更多事 They are more likely to help and give back to others,他们更有可能帮助他人 回馈社会 hoping they might be able to recreate the factors that helped them succeed.希望能重新创造让他们成功的因素 If you’re getting scared or confused right now, I totally get it.如果你现在感到害怕或迷惑 我完全理解 Even the scientists who have been studying this for decades have found it very disturbing.即使是研究了几十年的科学家也觉得这一点非常令人不安 It’s a difficult thing to wrap your head around这是一件难以理解的事 because it goes against everything society is built around.因为它违背了社会建立的一切基础 Free will is the basis of our society.自由意志是我们人类社会的基础 It’s what determines who is right and who is wrong,它规范了谁对谁错 who gets the praise and who deserves to be punished.谁得到奖励 谁得到惩罚 It tells us that a man who killed another man deserves to spend the rest of his life in prison,它告诉人们谁杀了人 谁余生就该在牢狱里度过 and that someone who works hard deserves to live a good life.谁努力工作谁就应当拥有美好生活 And that’s the fear of spreading the absence of free will message.而传播自由意志不存在的恐怖在于下面所说的 Many scientists believe that if enough people are aware of this idea,许多科学家认为 如果有足够多的人意识到这一点 it could literally end society as we know it.那真的会终结我们熟知的社会 Because why would someone risk his life to save another person if after he’s done it毕竟有谁会愿意在舍身救了一人后 people will only say那人仅仅说一句 “well, he didn’t decide himself to do it, so he doesn’t deserve any praise.”“他不是自己决定做这件事的 所以他不值得任何赞美 ” The reality is praise and punishment are two huge factors that help influence our decisions.现实就是 奖惩是影响我们决策的两大因素 So if we remove them from our society, we pave the way for fewer good deeds and much worse ones.所以如果我们将奖惩从社会剔除 那将迎来更多恶行 更少的善举 It’s a strange dilemma to be in.这是令人难受的两难境地 Because although the truth is that we do not have free will,因为尽管真相是 我们没有自由意志 believing that we do is actually a lot better for us.但相信我们所做的实际上是为我们自己好 This is the concept of illusionism.这就是迷妄论的概念 That although free will is an illusion,尽管自由意志是一种幻觉 it’s one that we must keep up with.但我们也必须相信它 Because faced with the choice between truth and good,因为面对真理与利益的抉择时 it benefits the most of us to always choose good.选择后者对我们大多数人总是有利的 So next time you see a homeless person down the street,所以下次你在街边看到一个流浪汉 don’t just roll your eyes and judge the person.别只是翻着白眼评判这个人 Understand that there are a multitude of factors,要理解是很多他们无法控制的因素 many of which they might not have been able to control that have caused them to be where they are.致使他们流落街头 Be humble about what you have and what you’ve achieved,谦虚地对待你所拥有的和你所取得的成就 because just a tiny less intelligence in your DNA因为你DNA中有一点点智慧 and you might not have made that one decision that changed your life.不然你可能不会作出改变生活的决定 Know that you do not have free will,要明白你其实没有自由意志 at least how you imagine it,至少不如你想象的那样 and you’re just lucky your mixture of atoms makes the right decisions.你该庆幸你的原子混合体作出了正确的决定 But immediately forget that,但是请马上忘记这些 forget everything I said for the past 10 minutes忘记我在过去10分钟里说的一切 and act like every decision is yours completely.表现得就像每个决定都完全是你作出的 Because only then will you be able to make the decisions that can truly change a life.因为只有那样 你才能作出真正改变生活的决定 Free will is an interesting topic.自由意志是个有趣的话题 It’s almost like a mix question everything what you do in your life.它几乎是你生活中所有问题的混合体 We all have things we like doing.我们都有自己喜欢做的事 But do we really like doing those things?但我们真的喜欢做这些吗? Or it’s just your brain convincing you又或者是大脑让你这么觉得的 it’s kind of like your brain is a computer就像你的大脑是台电脑 and it’s fitting algorithms to make you do what it wants you to do输出它想让你做的 regardless,much like reality itself无论如何 这都更像现实 free will is a illusion that we’ve can not believe with自由意志是我们不能详述的假象 but it doesn’t mean we’re helpless但这不意味着我们没有希望 with BRILLIANT,you can learn about something用BRILLIANT 你可以学习 about some of the most pressing an interesting topic since then一些你迫切需要 有趣的课程 You’ve heard me talk about BRILLIANTmany times over the years你已经听我谈到过很多次BRILLIANT了 They just keep getting better and better它在变得越来越好 Speaking of algorithms说到算法 BRILLIANT has interactive course on the fundamentalsBRILLIANT关于基础知识的互动课程 Recently brings up the interactivity on the platform to a brand new level最近平台上又推出了新等级的课程 It teaches you how the algorithms work它会告诉你算法是怎么运行的 and gives you blocks of code to move around to get things working together as opposed to还会交给你可以让程序正常运行的一堆代码 we all learn differently每个人的学习习惯都不一样 But I think we can all agree但是我们都同意 that the best way to truly learn and retain something is by doing it.学习并记住某个技能的最好办法就是运用它 With BRILLIANT interactive courses.在BRILLIANT互动课程上 You can learn a new skill or topic in as little as 10 minutes10分钟你就可以学习一个新技巧或一个主题 BRILLIANT has courses enough:BRILLIANT丰富的课程 science and computer science for learners of every skill level为每一等级的学习者提供科学和计算机科学课 begineer or expert从新手到专家 If you are interested and want to become stmarter person of all,如果你感兴趣并想成为一个更聪明的人 visit just start learning for free访问brilliant.org/Aperture 网站 开始免费学习吧 You’ll also get 20% off a premium subscription,另外你还可以享受20%的订阅费折扣 which will unlock every single course BRILLIANT has offered可以用于BRILLIANT提供的每一门课 As always, you’ll be supporting yourself and my channel at the same time像以前一样 你可以在支持我的频道的同时得到自我提升
  • 2021-10-17为什么城市里到处都是不舒服的长椅Why are cities full of uncomfortable benches?为什么城市里到处都是令人不舒服的长椅? This one has armrests to prevent you from dozing off. 这个椅子有扶手 以防你打瞌睡时摔倒 Here’s another — again with the arms, the stiff metal.这是另一种有扶手的硬金属材质的长椅 And this one — it’s brand new.还有这种 全新的 The MTA in New York began installing them纽约交管局最初安装这种长凳 as part of a subway enhancement plan.是作为地铁设施升级计划的一部分 And they don’t call it a bench.他们也不把这叫做长凳 They prefer the term “leaning bars.”他们更喜欢另一个说法:靠台 So what if i told you it was designed with discomfort in mind?如果我说 这个设计的理念就是要让人不舒服呢? New York City is filled with some of the most innovative architecture纽约城有全世界上最有新意的建筑 and urban planning in the world.和城市规划 Today, nearly every kind of public space here如今 这里的每一种公共空间几乎 has been developed with close attention to detail.都体现出对细节的重视 So these benches are no mistake.因此这些长椅的设计并非失误 They are designed to allow you to sit but not get too cozy.设计成这样 是让你坐下来但别坐得太舒服 And that is intentional.这是有意图的 The concept stems from a school of thought that goes by many names,这一概念来源于一个学派 它有很多别称 but today we’ll use “defensive design.”今天 我们叫“防护性设计” Defensive design is about moderating behavior.防护性设计的理念是关于调节我们的行为 The goal is to limit the ways an object can be misused.目的在于防止物品被错误使用 These benches have armrests because that will prevent anyone from lying down.这些长椅有扶手因为扶手可以防止人们躺下来 Their short back is another nod to say, “This bench isn’t yours forever.”低矮的椅背也仿佛在说:“不能一直占着呦” This trend is worldwide.全世界都有这样的趋势 And it’s not just in the benches.不止长椅是这样 When you start looking for defensive designs in New York City,当你在纽约寻找防护性设计 you’ll find examples everywhere.你会发现比比皆是 It’s the presence of security cameras in subway turnstiles or Times Square.比如地铁闸机口或时代广场的监控摄像机 It’s these spikes on this column, meant to deter birds.还有这个石柱上 这些用来阻挡鸟的钉子 It’s the knobs on these ledges,这些台阶上的凸起 may to discourage skateboarders.可能是为了防止滑滑板的人进入 And there were once sprinklers underneath the awning of this bookstore,还有这家书店的遮阳篷下曾装有喷水器 to prevent people from sleeping there.是为了不让人们睡在那里 It’s sidewalk barriers.人行道上的路障 It’s even these regular streetlights.甚至这些日常的路灯 Yeah, streetlights are probably some of the most recognizable defensive designs.路灯可能是最容易认出的防护性设计之一 When they surfaced in the 19th-century Western cities,当路灯出现在19世纪的西部城市 the dynamic of urban life changed.都市生活的动态发生了改变 More people spent time outside at night,更多人把时间花在户外夜生活上 which drove economic development and a reduction in crime.这促使了经济的发展同时减少了犯罪的发生 Most hostile architecture tries to influence behavior in a similar way.大多数不亲民的建筑设计试图用相似的方式影响人们的行为 The designs attempt to make public space a bit more hospitable, more ideal.这些设计企图把公共空间变得更周到 更理想化 Defensive designs can deter crime.防护性设计能防止犯罪 It can prevent the destruction of public property.也能避免公共财产的破坏 And it can prevent loitering.还能防止人们游手好闲 But there is a reason why defensive design is characterized as “hostile.”但有一个原因能解释为什么防护性设计的特点是“不亲民” Take the example of the leaning bar.再以靠台为例 Disability advocates have a problem with that appearing in the MTA.残疾事业工作者对纽约交通系统设置的靠台存疑 One advocate pointed out that “People who travel一名工作者指出 路途中的行人 who have disabilities or just get tired患残疾的人 或者只是刚好累了 sometimes need a bench to sit on, not a wall to lean against.”他们需要一个可以坐着的长椅 不是一堵可以靠着的墙 And while no one likes an uncomfortable bench,尽管没有人喜欢不舒服的长椅 these additions mean something more但这些看似多此一举的设施 for people who are experiencing homelessness.对于流浪者来说意义非凡 The United States is currently experiencing a decline in the overall homeless population.美国当前流浪者的总数量正在下降 But in New York, the number of homeless people is growing.但在纽约 流浪者人数在增加 About 1800 people were found to have been sleeping in the subway.据发现 有大约1800人睡在地铁里 That’s because emergency shelter isn’t always a viable option.那是因为 紧急避难所不总是一个可行的选择 There are several examples of hostile architecture that target people who are homeless.有一些不亲民建筑 其目标人群就是流浪者 These designs imply that public space is not where homeless people should be.这些设计暗示着 公共场所不是流浪者应该驻足的地方 As it goes, city planners have a dilemma随之 城市规划者陷入困境 how do they design inclusive cities?如何设计包容的城市? As for the enhanced subway initiative,关于改进后的地铁设计方案 the MTA’s mock designs highlight new USB ports纽约交管局的模拟设计突出了新的USB接口 and electronic signage in stations.和车站的电子指示牌 But you won’t find any press materials highlighting this uncomfortable bench.但没有任何新闻稿指出这个不舒服的长椅 Excuse me, the “leaning bar.”说错了 是“靠台” That’s because it makes for an uncomfortable discussion因为它引起了一场令人不适的讨论 about who we design public space for and who gets left out.关于公共设施是为了谁而建的 谁又被遗漏了呢
  • 2021-10-17伞兵养成日记 空降学校的三周[screaming][尖叫] Narrator: When this Airborne student旁白:这名伞兵学员 collided with a Humvee parked in the drop zone,与一辆停在降落区的悍马相撞时 our camera crew feared she was seriously injured,我们的摄制组担心她受了重伤 if not worse.可能更糟 Producer: Damn!制作人:糟糕! Instructor: Hey, sir, what are you doing?教官:先生 干啥呢? –Producer: Me? –Instructor: Yeah.–制作人:我吗? –教官:对 Producer: Filming.制作人:我在拍摄 Instructor: You can’t. Uh-uh, no.教官:你不能这么做 啊啊 不行 Narrator: An instructor ordered us to stop recording旁白:一名教官在医生照料那名学员时 while the medics tended to her.让我们暂停拍摄 A few minutes later,几分钟后 she was back on her feet她重新站了起来 and walking without assistance.自己就可以行走 When we caught up to her, she was all smiles,当我们赶来采访她时 她满脸微笑 getting ready for her next jump.准备下一次跳伞 The medic checked me out.医生给我做了检查 I didn’t pull anything.没有拉伤 I didn’t tear anything.也没有划伤 I didn’t break anything.没有骨折 I was very grateful我很庆幸 and also very conscious of the fact that也很清楚我确实 I didn’t hear a pop.没有听到骨头折断的声音 Narrator: That may be due to the fact旁白:那也许是因为 that Davis listened to this instructor’s advice戴维丝在事故发生前 right before she crashed.听从了教官的建议 Keep your feet together!双脚并拢! Narrator: Keeping the feet and knees together旁白:紧紧并拢双脚和双腿 is an essential component of executing是跳伞之后 a safe landing after a jump.安全落地的重要因素 Feet and knees together.双腿双脚并拢 Feet and knees together.双腿双脚并拢 Feet and knees together.双腿双脚并拢 Feet and knees together.双腿双脚并拢 Feet and knees together.双腿双脚并拢 Keep your feet and knees together.双腿双脚并拢 Instructor: Feet and knees together!教官:双腿双脚并拢! Narrator: It’s a phrase heard ad nauseam旁白:这是一个在空降学校 at Airborne School,老生常谈的一句话 a three-week course where the Army trains students学生们经过军队为期三周的训练后 to become paratroopers.将成为一名合格的伞兵 Mark Krafcky: Throwing yourself out of an aircraft马克·克拉奇:从飞机上跳下来 is not a natural thing,可不是件易事 especially at an altitude of 1,250 feet.尤其从1250英尺的高空往下跳 It is a feeling like nothing you have ever felt before.这将是一种你前所未有的体验 Narrator: Insider spent five days at Airborne School,旁白:我们的记者在空降学校体验了五天的生活 where we observed different classes我们观察记录了培训的三个阶段 in the three phases of training.不同的课程 Isaac Lee Henderson: Ground week is pretty much an introduction.艾萨克·李·亨德森:地面训练周算是入门 When they land on the ground,他们要学会着陆时 what procedures they need to take.应采取的操作 And it’s just building that confidence也正好可以建立 in their equipment.对装备的信心 [soldiers yelling][猛男咆哮] Tower week is the second week.第二周是高塔训练周 Overcoming your fears of jumping.旨在克服你对高空跳跃的恐惧 Jump week is the culminating event.最后是跳伞训练周 You jumping out of aircraft.你要跳出飞机 You successfully make five jumps,只要你跳伞有五次成功 and you graduate Airborne School.那你就毕业了 Overall objective is to provide a capability最终目标是为了达到在72小时内 to put a battalion-size-plus element可以将一个营级以上的兵力 in a location within 72 hours.空降到一个地点的能力 Narrator: On day one, students have to pass旁白:在第一天 学员们需要通过 two physical assessments.两次体质测试 Instructor: First group, get ready.教官:第一组 准备 –Narrator: First … –Instructor: Up!–旁白:第一组…… –教官:上! Narrator: The flex arm hang.旁白:引体向上 Instructor: Uncross your feet.教官:把你们的脚分开 Narrator: Where students must perform a pull-up学员们必须引体向上 and remain in place for 10 seconds.并保持姿势十秒 Instructor: Up!教官:向上! Narrator: This exercise requires the same technique旁白:这项训练不仅需要技巧 and amount of upper-body strength还需要强大的上肢力量 to perform what’s known as a slip,才能做“滑”的动作 where a paratrooper grabs handles它指一名伞兵抓住 on the harness called risers安全绳上被唤作竖板的手柄 and pulls down to adjust the parachute’s direction.并向下拉动以调整降落伞的方向 Jacob Vantonder: To really pull good slip,雅各布·万通达:要想拉好方向 you’re pulling, I think, 60% of your body weight.我觉得在拉的时候你起码要用你自身体重六成的力 Instructor: If you cannot hook up教官:如果你无法将开伞拉绳 to the anchor line cable,挂在锚链上 you are a reach assessment failure.你考核就失败了 Do you understand?明白吗? Narrator: The second physical test第二个体能训练 assesses a student’s ability to reach the cable考查的是学员挂开伞绳的能力 they must connect to before jumping.跳伞之前他们必须要把开伞绳挂在锚链上 Instructor: Extend your arm. Straighten up.教官:举起手来 举高 Spread your fingers.五指伸展 Brianna Kostecka: Being a smaller human,布丽安娜 科斯特卡:因为我长得比较矮 I was definitely nervous about that,我肯定会担心够不到绳子 but when I got there,但是我到现场之后 I stretched my arm out as high as I could我使劲举起我的胳膊 and realized, all right, I qualify.然后发现 嘿 我还真够着了 And that was a good feeling,然后当时就挺爽的 ’cause I was a little bit nervous.因为之前一直都挺紧张的 Narrator: While most pass with ease,旁边:大多数学员都能轻松过关 for some students, a failed reach assessment但一些学员还是挂了 brings an end to their training他们的训练也只好以失败告终 before it officially begins.还没有正式开始他们就要离开了 About 15,000 students enroll每年大概有一万五千人 in Airborne School each year,报名空降学校 and roughly 13,000 graduate.结果大概只有一万三千学员最终毕业 About 10% of students are female.其中大概有10%女性学员 I’m 17, and so I joined right out of high school.我今年17岁 刚高中毕业我就报名了空降学校 My friends now, they’re just graduating.我的朋友们都毕业没事了 They’re just going to college.他们都在准备上大学 That’s the new things that they’re starting.但是那是他们要经历的新生活 And the things I wanted to start right out of high school我高中毕业后想要的尝试的 is, you know, saving people’s lives就是 你懂吧 去救死扶伤 and jumping out of planes.然后当空降兵 [trumpets blaring][战歌起] Newsreel: The Army wants still more volunteers新闻片:美军还在招募更多志愿者 from its ranks for parachute duty.做空降兵 Narrator: Since 1940, paratroopers have been trained旁白:1940年开始 at the Fort Benning Army installation,福特本尼军校就一直在培养空降兵 which straddles the Alabama-Georgia border这个军校在阿拉巴马州和乔治亚州交界 about 100 miles southwest of Atlanta.亚特兰大西南部100英里处 Newsreel: Stand by for the jump light.新闻:站在起跳灯旁边 That’s it!就是现在 More and more trips like this one,越来越多的人加入伞兵队伍 and the fledgling paratrooper gets his wings.新空降兵得到了象征伞兵荣誉的翅膀胸章 His pay will be $50 a month他们每月的工资 more than regular soldiers of his rank.也比同军衔士兵的工资多50美刀 Narrator: Today, paratroopers still get extra pay.旁白:如今空降兵依然享受特殊补贴 Students who graduate from Airborne School学员从空降学校毕业后 get $150 per month added to their paycheck,每月会有150刀的额外补贴 classified as Hazardous Duty Incentive Pay.这笔钱被叫做危险任务鼓励津贴 Instructor: All right, you’re going to grab one parachute教官:好了 现在大家每人拿一个伞包 and one reserve.和一个备用包 Narrator: Students use mock parachutes旁白:学员们用教练包 to learn how to safely don and rig them before a jump.来练习跳伞前怎样装备伞包 Instructor: Airborne, walk all the way to the end.教官:空降兵 排队往前走到最后 Narrator: Marking the beginning of ground week.旁白:地面模拟训练周开始了 Instructor: Slap, step, kick, count.教官:拍 迈步 跳 落 Davis: The ground-week phase大卫:地面周这个阶段 gives you confidence in your competency.可以帮你树立对能力的信心 Instructor: If you’re on the left door,教官:如果你是从左边的门跳伞的 your static line is in the left hand.固定拉绳是在你左手边的 Davis: You don’t have to be the strongest大卫:你不一定要是最强壮的 or the smartest.或是最聪明的 Instructor: Recover!教官:恢复 Davis: If you can remember to do very specific things大卫:你能在最好的时机 at very specific times, you’ll be fine.做最正确的选择 你成功了 Instructor: These are your equipment rings.教官:这是你们的拉环 Below that, you have your saddle.像这样背在身上 Paul Fisher: We teach them how to properly put on保罗·费舍尔:我们教他们正确穿戴 what’s called a harness.所谓的保险绳 Teach them how to rig it,教他们如何使用 the different components of the harness.保险绳的不同部件 Airborne, once you are finished一旦你空降后 and you’re ready for inspection, come to me.需要身体检查 来找我 Narrator: After donning and rigging the harness,在戴好保险绳后 an instructor inspects the students’ work.会有一名教官检查学员的工作 Fisher: Hold.费舍尔:握紧 Squat.蹲下 Turn.转身 Bend.弯腰 Recover.复原 Recover.复原 Recover.复原 制片人:长官 这一下爱的拍拍是什么意思 Fisher: That’s basically called the seal of approval.费舍尔:我们都把这个叫通关文牒 [laughing][笑声] Recover.复原 Basically, they have what’s called基本上 他们都要拍所谓的 five points of contact.五个地方 The balls of the feet, the calves, the thigh,脚前掌 小腿 大腿 the buttocks, and the pull-up muscle.屁股 还有肱二头肌 Recover.复原 The fourth point of contact is the easier,第四点也就是屁股 accessible part of the body是最容易检查的 that doesn’t have anything to interfere基本上不会出现什么干扰因素 as far as the harness itself.除了绳子本身的质量 Recover.复原吧 That fourth point of contact is their seal of approval所以拍屁屁就是他们的通关文牒 that your equipment is good,意思是你没问题了 I’ve checked it, and you’re good to go.我查完了 你能跳了 Green light. Go!绿灯 走起! Step. Kick. Count.跨步 前踢 落地 Then they’ll move to what’s called the mock doors.然后他们将进入所谓的模拟门 So the mock doors is where they’ll learn模拟门是他们将学习 how to properly do individual exits from the aircraft.如何正确地从飞机单独跳出的地方 Kick,前踢 count.落地 Which is basically keeping those elbows tight,基本上就是保持肘部紧绷 feet and knees together,双腿和膝盖并拢 knees slightly bent,膝盖微微弯曲 and so on and so forth.等等等等 Green light. Go!绿灯 走起! Narrator: The mock door prepares students旁白:模拟门让学员准备 for what it’s like to jump,该怎么跳 but not to land.但学不到怎样落地 Paratroopers land at speeds of about 13 miles per hour伞兵以约十三英里的时速着陆 with a force comparable to jumping其力量相当于从 from a 9- to 12-foot wall.九到十二英尺的高墙上跳下 Which is why they practice这就是他们练习 the parachute landing fall, or PLF,降落伞着陆 或者说PLF from a height of roughly 3 feet从一个三英寸高的平台跳下 to develop a safe technique for landing.来练习安全降落的技巧 Essentially, it is a choreographed movement降落时的脚步很重要 是经过精心设计的 of them creating a banana shape他们要呈一个香蕉状的姿势 or a rocking-chair shape.或以摇椅形状 They do a small bunny hop off the wall,他们向前走跳很小的一步跳下墙 they hit the ground,然后落地 they tuck their chin down in their chest下巴贴紧胸部 with their elbows high in front of their face.胳膊肘护在面前 I like to concentrate on keeping their feet together,我喜欢强调他们并拢双脚 so that there’s more surface area for the impact这样可以增大落地面积 of jumping out of the aircraft to absorb into,从而减小从飞机上降落时的巨大冲力 so that they can roll,以便于他们可以翻滚 getting them to bleed off the momentum通过翻滚来转化冲力 so that they do not get injured.这样他们就不会受伤 Fernando Ramirez: It hurts费尔南多·拉米雷兹:训练很疼的 It was annoying falling over and over and over摔了一次又一次真的很烦人 until you get it right.摔到你做对为止 And even then, you have to fall more and more.就算如此 你也要一次又一次摔 Instructor: Land.教官:着陆 Ramirez: This is my life that’s on the line,拉米雷斯:这可是人命关天 so I appreciate that. So.所以我觉得应该严格训练 Instructor: Land.教官:着陆 Narrator: After PLFs …旁白:在PLF后 Instructor: Good.教官:很好 Narrator: They move to the lateral drift apparatus.旁白:他们来到横向漂移装置训练 Instructor: Land.教官:着陆 Narrator: A zip line they slide across旁白:他们要在一条滑索上滑行 until they’re ordered to let go and land.听到落地的指令才可以放手 Jacob Taylor: It simulates the lateral drift雅各布 泰勒:它模拟了降落的时候受风的影响 that will happen in the air due to wind.降落的速度会加快的情形 So then they’ll have more momentum所以真正的跳伞落地时 to actually complete the parachute-landing fall会有更大的冲力 and kick it up and over.对身体造成冲击 Instructor: All right, everyone, remember,教官:好了 大家记住 you are slipping to the right.你们要往右滑 Narrator: Students use the suspended harness旁白:学员们用吊带 to practice pulling a slip.来练习拉降落伞的方向 Vantonder: So, you would pull a slip教官:如果你要改变方向 in the direction that you want to go.你就要拉那个方向的绳子 So if you want to go to your front and to your left,所以如果你想往你左前方飞 you’re going to pull a front left slip,你就得拉你左前方的绳子 as it would be all the way around all four risers.就是你周围的四个绳子 Narrator: The T-11 parachute is not technically steerable,旁白:T-11号降落伞不是很容易操作 but executing a slip但是你必须要控制方向 is the only option for avoiding a collision.才能避免碰撞 Vantonder: Whether it’s avoiding trees, other jumpers,教官:不管是树还是你其他的空降兵战友 they do work, and that’s why we teach them here.都需要躲避 这就是要学会控制方向的原因 Ramirez: Doing it constantly, knowing which way to slip,拉米雷斯:不停的练习 学会选择降落的方向 so in the air I’m confident之后跳伞的时候我就很有信心 which direction I’m going to go.知道自己选的是合适的方向 Narrator: Everything taught during ground week旁白:地面模拟训练周教的知识 is taken to a new height the following week.为他们之后几周出成绩打下了基础 Davis: Tower week. You’re 34 feet off the ground.大卫:高塔周 你将站上34英尺高的高塔 What are you going to do?你会怎么办 You know, nobody knows how they’re going to react你懂吧 谁知道自己是什么反应呢 when they’re staring that door in the face.当你看着面前高台的门的时候 And I think everyone had that我觉得大家都会有那种感觉 gut check, if you will,都会不自觉想检查一下 肯定会有 when they were up there.等你站到上面准备跳的时候 But once you send it,但是当你真的站在那儿了 once you’re jumping off, you’re good.你只要跳出去 你就成功了 Instructor: Go.教官:跳 Krafcky: The height of the tower is typically卡拉福克:高台才是典型的 where a lot of people are going to show很多人开始有 the panic and the fear of heights,恐高反应的地方 and the tower is used to help them control that fear.高台训练就是要帮他们克制对于高度的恐惧 Henderson: When you get up in that tower,亨德森:当大家站在高台上的时候 everybody’s excited.每个人都很兴奋 You walking up the stairs, just like anybody else,大家都一起上楼 but then, now reality sets in但是等一下真正到你了 when I’m standing up here,站在跳台 34 foot in the air.34英尺高 And now you asking me to jump out.有人告诉你 跳 Instructor: Green light, go.教官:绿灯了 跳 Student: 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000.学员:1000 2000 3000 4000 Krafcky: They’re going to kick out,卡拉福克:他们要跳出去 creating the explosive power required练习身上的爆发力 for them to exit the aircraft,这样才能跳出机舱 getting a good up-6-, out-36-inch exit起码要以6英寸的起跳高度和36英寸的起跳距离 far away from the aircraft.这样才可以安全出舱 As soon as their foot leaves the platform,脚一离开平台 they begin to count to 6,000.他们要数到6000 Student: 1,000, 2,000, 3,000.学员:1000 2000 3000 Krafcky: At the end of your 6,000 count,卡拉福克:数完6000的时候 your main canopy will have fully deployed你的主伞才可以完全打开 and has begun its inflation process然后伞才能正常充气 and begun its descent to the ground.帮你减速下落 Instructor: You did everything right.教官:你做的不错 Narrator: Students are observed and evaluated旁白:教官在旁边看学员们的表现 by instructors, who critique them给他们打分 帮他们挑毛病 until they have developed直到他们都做对了 an exit worthy of a live jump.每一次出舱都是一次生命之跳 Instructor: All right, do it again.教官:好了 再来一次 Rausch: I actually jumped the mock tower 22 times,劳施:我实实在在跳了22次训练塔 just ’cause I just had to perfect it and get it right.就是为了把动作都练对并且做到极致 You got to kick out a certain amount你要保证有一定的训练量 to get far enough away.才能跳的足够远 And that was probably the thing I struggled with the most.可能这也是我最头疼的事 Narrator: The final exercise during tower week旁白:高塔训练周的期末测试 is the improved swing landing trainer,就是加强版的秋千落地 an opportunity to practice a parachute-landing fall这可以练习空降兵的落地 in a more realistic way.这种训练更加真实 Nathan Huston: It simulates the oscillation内森·休斯顿:它模拟了 and downward movement that you would experience你在正常跳伞时会经历的 on a normal parachute jump.振荡与下落运动 They will swing until they get into他们要一直摇摆直到调整出 a good parachute-landing-fall position.良好的跳伞着陆姿势 In a true parachute-landing fall,在真实的跳伞场景里 you are not looking at the ground,你是拿不准地面离你有多远的 so you don’t know when you’re going to hit.所以你不知道何时会着地 We don’t tell them, “I’m dropping you now.”我们不会告诉学员 “我要放了” We just say, “Hold what you got; prepare to land.”只会告诉他们“抓紧 准备着陆” That way, they know the ground will be coming soon.这样的话他们只知道马上要落地了 They just won’t know when.却不会清楚是什么时候 Narrator: The instructor pulls a cable旁白:教官会拉起一根 that causes the student to fall.会绊倒学员的电缆 Huston: This is also the most dangerous course休斯顿:这也是在实际训练中 when it comes to the actual training.最危险的课程 We’ve seen broken bones.出现过骨折 We’ve seen concussions result from this training这个训练比其他的训练 more so than any other training.都容易造成脑震荡 Narrator: Training culminates with jump week,旁白:训练以跳伞周告终 where students apply everything they’ve learned学员会将在距地面1250英尺的飞机上 in five different jumps from a live aircraft将所学知识应用于实战 flying 1,250 feet off the ground.进行五次跳伞 Jump week begins with a jog to the airfield.跳伞周训练以一次实战跳伞开始 Davis: Running down here from the barracks,戴维丝:从兵营跑到这里 it’s a very slow pace.全程速度都很慢 I found out the purpose of that我知道目的是为了 was to check to see if anyone had any injuries.检查是否有人带伤训练 And then it’s a waiting game然后就是一个等待游戏 until you finally get to jump.等到轮到你跳伞 Narrator: Students pick up their main旁白:学员们提起他们的主降落伞 and reserve parachutes,和备用降落伞 which have been meticulously packed and inspected by riggers.它们经过了装配工的精心包装和检查 The team uses a 13-step process伞包队的工作有13个程序 to pack about 75,000 parachutes a year每年要打包七万五千个伞包 for Airborne students.提供给空降学校的学员们 If the riggers discover any deficiencies in a parachute,如果伞包师傅发现降落伞上有任何毛病 it is removed from circulation.这个降落伞就不会再用了 他伞包有什么问题 顶上有个洞 Officer: A hole in the apex?军官:顶端有个洞吗? Rigger: Yeah.装配工:对 Narrator: Students head to the harness shed,旁白:学员们排队进入装配室 where instructors inspect their parachutes.在这里教官们检查学员们的伞包 Cecily Lozano: So, they go through five,塞西莉·洛扎诺:所以 一共有五轮 five rounds of inspections by the time they exit the aircraft,跳伞之前一共有五轮装备检查 just to verify, reverify,就是为了确认 再次确认 triple verify,三次确认 make sure that everything is in order.从而确保一切正常 Marcus Lucas: Everything from checking the helmet马库斯·卢卡斯:所有装备都需要检查 从他们的头盔 and the actual T-11 harnessT-11安全绳 and the parachute for any deficiencies.到降落伞的缺陷 Any cuts, frays, any twists,再到对任何切口 破边 缠绕 anything that could injure the jumper等任何可能伤害伞兵 or cause a malfunction.或导致故障的东西 Narrator: After the inspections, students wait,旁白:检查结束后 学员们开始等待 and wait,等待 and wait,一等再等 their jumps often delayed for hours他们的跳伞演习常会延误数小时 by weather and air traffic control.因为天气原因与空中交通管制 Kostecka: I will say, the harness shed is not fun.科斯特卡:讲真 在飞机棚里待着可不好玩 You can’t talk. You can’t go to the bathroom.你不能说话 也不能去洗手间 You just have to sit there in our nice comfy harnesses你只能戴着我们舒适的安全绳坐好 until you get to jump.直到该你上去跳伞了 Narrator: Finally, the students get the signal旁白:最后 学员们收到登机信号 that it’s time to board the C-130 Hercules可以登上C-130“大力神”运输机了 that will fly them to the drop zone.飞机将载学员们到空投区 Instructor: Say hi to your mom!教官:跟妈妈打个招呼! Narrator: The C-130 flies toward Fryar Drop Zone,旁白:C-130飞向亚拉巴马州 on the Alabama side of the Chattahoochee River.查塔胡奇河一侧的弗莱尔空投区 Tristan Arnold: When you’re sitting there waiting,特里斯坦·阿诺德:当你坐着等候时 it’s like it’s not real yet.会感觉像梦一样 When they open the door, it’s just like, “Oh.”当他们打开门时 你“噢”一下反应过来 You know, if your heart’s not already beating,你懂吧 心都不跳了 that’s when it starts,就是要开始了 ’cause you’re just about to go.你就要跳下去了 Narrator: Before the students jump,旁白:在学员跳伞前 two instructors go to assess wind conditions.会有两名教官去评估风力状况 Lucas: So, they’ll jump out, not pull a slip,卢卡斯:测试的教官先跳 然后完全不控制方向 see where the wind’s taking them.看看他们会被风吹到哪儿 And then we’ll send that wind data up to the aircraft.然后我们会把风的数据发送到飞机上 Narrator: On the ground,旁白:地面上 a smoke bomb ignited in a barrel一枚装在桶里的烟雾弹 provides an additional sense提供了额外的关于 of wind direction and speed.风向与风速的信息 The students hook their static lines学员们将他们的强制开伞拉绳 to the anchor line cable.挂在锚链上 This connection will open the chute upon jumping.这种连接将在跳离时打开降落伞 Henderson: It’s one of those things that,亨德森:跳伞是那种 you don’t know that much about it until you do it.只有你亲身经历后才能深入了解的事情之一 And it’s not as scary as people think it is.它没有人们想象中的那么可怕 [wind gusting][阵风] Student: 4,000, 5,000, 6,000.学员:四千 五千 六千 Henderson: We all have fears.亨德森:我们都有恐惧的时候 A lot of folks are scared of heights.很多人患有恐高症 You know, you hear the stories, possible fatalities,你懂的 你听说了有关跳伞可能死人的传闻 and you allow that to get in your head,然后你就会有点相信 but once you get here to the school,然而你来空降学校后 you will see that it’s就会发现跳伞 nothing like you ever thought it would be.与想象的截然不同 That 18 to 20-something seconds you have falling out of the sky,在你从天上掉下来的18到20秒里 you’re in your happy place.你会处在极乐之境 Davis: The most surprising thing that I experienced was戴维丝:我经历的最令人惊讶的事是 when I exited the aircraft当我出机舱时 was the calm.感受到的是平静 It’s like slipping into the void,这就像滑入虚空 and there’s absolute silence.而那里是绝对的寂静 And it’s such a cool feeling.而且那是一种很爽的感受 Instructor: Keep your feet together!教官:双腿并拢! Narrator: But accidents can occur.旁白:然而有时也会发生事故 Davis: I knew I was coming for the Humvee.我知道我当时快撞上那车了 I tried to calm down as much as I could,我尽力保持冷静 keep my slip, cover my face,继续控制方向 捂住脸 and just wait for what happened next.然后等着看会发生什么 Narrator: Had 1st Lt. Davis旁白:如果戴维丝中尉 landed just a few inches to the left,降落的地点再偏左侧几英寸 her face and head could have collided她的面部和脸部很可能会与 with a metal handle on the side of the Humvee.悍马侧面的金属把手相撞 Davis: Mentally, I was back in戴维丝:当时我脑海中回想起来 my plebe combative class at West Point.我在西点军校的一年级格斗课上 There’s a point in the class where这门课内容里有可能 you are going to get hit in the face,你的脸可能会被击中 and you have to prepare for it.那你就必须做好准备 And I thought, “I’m going to get hit,而我当时想“反正会被打 and I have to prepare.”那我准备等着吧 ” Lucas: When you jump, you can’t have a clear drop zone.当你跳伞时 你也不知道到底会落在哪儿 We have to have vehicles out there for emergency purposes.我们必须有以应对紧急情况的车 And the best you can do is你能做的最多就是 pull a one-riser slip opposite the direction of the hazard,拉危险方向反方向的背带 feet and knees together, try to land.双腿和膝盖并拢 努力着陆 Davis: Our next jump was the night jump,大卫:我们下次训练的时候要夜跳 so you can imagine你敢想象吗 a somewhat traumatizing experience occurring,很可能会受伤 and then I was really, really trying to然后我只能一直不停的努力 just remind myself that I’m good at this暗示自己可以搞得定夜训 and just have faith in the equipment.要相信装备没问题 制片人:夜训怎么样 It went flawlessly. Flawlessly. It was great.结果很完美 真的很棒 Instructor: Feet and knees together!教官:双腿与膝盖并拢! Narrator: Flawless landings are rare旁白:完美的落地 during the final jump,在最后一跳就很难出现了 when students jump with about 35 pounds学员们背着差不多三十斤的 of combat gear added to their load.武器装备 Kostecka: It was really nice to get it over with科斯特卡:全副武装的情况下我还能跳好真的很棒 on a combat jump, which, that isn’t fun,那并不容易 ’cause you’re carrying all the equipment.因为你身上全是武器装备很重 But once you get out of the aircraft但你一跳出机舱 and you realize that being a smaller person想想这么弱小的我 kind of aids in bringing you down背着重重的装备 to the ground a little bit slower,但它能让我平稳落地 it all pays off.也算是值了 Announcer: All right, comes in for a nice target landing!主持人:好的 一次精准的落地 Narrator: Friends and family gather旁白:亲朋好友都来 to see the newest class看看空降学校毕业班 of Airborne-qualified soldiers graduate合格伞兵毕业展示 after three weeks of training.经历了三周的训练后 Students: Airborne!学员:空降兵! Henderson: What you see is a student that comes here,亨德森:你看到这些学生 they don’t know what to expect.他们什么也不图 They chose to do something that probably毅然选择了空降兵 over one-third of the Army won’t do.这种超过三分之一军人都不愿意做的工作 It’s something to have this wing on your chest.这对翅膀胸章代表了一种特别的荣耀 You have proven that,是你实至名归得来的 hey, you jumped out of a moving aircraft.嘿 你竟然敢从飞机上往下跳 So their confidence just get greater and greater所以之后他们会越来越有自信 at each phase of the course.在之后的课程中 Ramirez: I was afraid of heights我过去恐高 but managed to step up to the plate,但我做到了 我可以站在飞机舱门上 jump out the plane.从飞机上跳下 And now I can say that I’m Airborne-qualified.而现在我可以说自己是个合格的空降兵 Davis: I’ve definitely grown in confidence in myself.大卫:我的自信心涨了一大截 I’m a signal officer, so I work on computers,我是一名信号员 所以我通过电脑工作 and it’s very different having a trust熟练的启动电脑程序 that a modem will function变成熟练的打开降落伞 versus a parachute opening. [laughs]还是很不同的体验 I’m the last military member in my immediate family我是直系亲属里最后一个 to become Airborne-qualified.成为合格空降兵的军队成员 So, as my mom would say it,所以 就像我妈妈说的 I’m no longer a dirty, nasty leg.我再也不是个又脏又懒的渡渡鸟了 So that’s fun. [laughs]挺有意思的 渡渡鸟是啥意思 So, a leg is someone who don’t have Airborne wings.渡渡鸟就是说那些没有伞兵胸章的人 You can have everything.就算你拥有全世界 You ain’t got Airborne wings, you a leg.你没有伞兵胸章 你就是渡渡鸟 So that’s what we call you, a leg.所以你也是 渡渡鸟 376 Airborne students that just graduated,这376名刚刚毕业的空降兵 no longer legs.以后就不是渡渡鸟了
  • 2021-10-17一位97岁哲学家的生死观Being 97 has been an interesting experience.活到97岁是一件有趣的经历 I’ll say that.我会说 It’s very difficult for people who have not reached对于那些尚未达到 a state of old age, whatever that is.老年状态的人而言 无论他们多大都会觉得 Very difficult for them to understand the psychology of it,理解老年人的心理很困难 what is going on in the person.以及他们所经受的一切 How are you feeling?你现在感觉怎样? Oh feeling okay, thank you. Pretty good.噢 我感觉还好 谢谢你 非常好 That’s good. No grogginess?那就好 没有头晕吧? No grogginess.完全不晕 I think I’d woken up for all this excitement!我觉得我起床后精神状态极佳! It’s a loss of ability that you have had all your life.随着年龄渐长 我做很多事都力不从心 And there’s a tendency to act而人们倾向于表现出 as if you still had it and then fail.好像自己还行的样子然后事与愿违 Or be embarrassed.或是感到尴尬 Or you have to accept that finally或是不得不接受自己终究 that you can’t do that anymore.不能再那样做的事实 That’s the rational thing to do.那是种理性的做法 And it would be very nice if we just all did the rational thing to do,而如果我们能一直理性行事就好了 but we don’t.但我们并非如此 You can’t just decide rationally.你不可能始终做到理性决策 Well, this is the way it’s got to be now,嗯 这就是现在的情况 even though it was the other way then.尽管之前是另一种 You can say that to yourself,你可以告诉自己要理性 but that doesn’t mean you can do it.但这不意味着你能言行一致 These are lifelong habits.这些是我的终身习惯 I could do a lot of the usual things of life.我曾可以做很多日常生活的事 But now they are, most of them done,而现在 很多事情都要 with effort and special care.很费力很操心才能做好 And often enough with help of somebody else.并且 我常常需要他人的帮助 And that’s one of the challenges I have had对我的挑战之一便是 is to come to terms with the need for help.接受自己需要他人帮助的现实 I was born in Brooklyn in 1921.1921年 我出生在布鲁克林 -Here’s your coffee -Thank you.–咖啡来了 –谢谢 I am 97 which is a big surprise to me.我97岁了 这对我来说是一大惊喜 At this age, naturally I think about death.处在这年纪 我自然会想到死亡 I taught philosophy in the University of California,我曾在加利福尼亚大学教授哲学 about 40 years, I guess.大概有四十年了 As a young philosopher,作为一位年轻的哲学家 I started out going deeply into psychoanalysis.我开始深入研究精神分析 I have published books on self-deception and Chinese philosophy.我出版过关于自我欺骗和中国哲学的书 And I also was working in the theory of ethics and the law,另外 我也研究伦理与法律理论 problems of responsibility,责任问题 in particular in connection with alcoholism and drug addiction.尤其是与酗酒和吸毒有关的责任问题 and I also wrote a book about death.我也写了本关于死亡的书 That was about 20 years ago.那大概是二十年前了 Breakfast!早餐来了! -Thank you! -You’re welcome.–谢谢你! –不客气 –Looks beautiful. –Thanks.–这看上去很美味 –谢谢夸奖 In the book about death在那本关于死亡的书里 What I said was, in a nutshell, is当时我的核心论点是 there’s no reason to be afraid or concerned or anything about death没有理由为死亡而产生恐惧忧虑之类的情感 because when you die, there’s nothing.因为当你死去时 什么也不会发生 You’re not going to suffer.你不会感到痛苦 You’re not going to be unhappy.你不会感到沮丧 You’re not going to…你不会…… Well, you just… you are not going to be.呃 你只是……不会有任何感受 -The bacon is good. -Hm?–培根不错 –嗯? -The bacon. -It is good.–我说培根 –确实不错 -I like this kind… -That’s your favorite, right?–我喜欢这种…… –这是你最爱的一种 对吧? -Yeah! -It’s good.–是啊! –真不错 I mean, at a certain point, there’s nothing.我是说 在某种程度上 一切都是虚无 So it’s not rational to be afraid of death.所以害怕死亡是非理性的 I now think that is not a good statement.但我现在觉得这个说法并不好 Because…因为…… I think it’s important to figure out我认为找出 why it is then that people are afraid of death.人们害怕死亡的原因很重要 Why am I concerned about it?为什么我会担忧死亡呢 My argument was there’s no good reason for it.过去 我认为人们没有理由去担心死亡 My sense of realism tells me well, no good reason or not,我的现实主义思想告诉我不管有没有好的理由 it is something that haunts me, the idea of dying soon.行将就木的想法一直困扰着我 I often walk around the house我常在家中走来走去 and I ask myself, often out loud,也常大声问自己 What is the point of it all?这一切的意义何在? There must be something I’m missing in this argument.在这个论点上 我一定遗漏了什么 I wish I knew.我希望能知道答案 So here I am,所以我 trying to work out where I am.试图弄清楚自己究竟是怎么想的 I still find that I am in many ways a puzzle to myself.我发现 在很多方面上 我仍然不了解自己 I do find it very interesting to try to figure it out.我发现探究问题的过程很有意思 What’s going on?这到底是怎么回事? And I’ve spent a lot of my life thinking about such issues.我花了许多时间来思考这些问题 But it’s hard.但这很难想明白 I don’t know.我不知道 I just, usually, just drop the subject.我通常只会放弃思考这个问题 What is the point of it all?这一切的意义何在? I think I ask the question with the sense that我想我问这个问题时会感觉 there isn’t any good answer.不会有什么好的答案 It’s a kind of ironic question.这是一种具有讽刺意味的问题 I think the answer may be…我想答案可能是…… The silent answer may be无声的答案可能 there is no point.这毫无意义 It’s a foolish question.这是个愚蠢的问题 If I had to say…如果我非得说…… if I had to say something…如果我非得说什么的话…… I would say that loneliness and absence我会说孤独与残缺 is an absolute part of my life.注定是我生命中的一部分 And that has to do with my wife.这和我的妻子有关 We were very close.我们曾无比亲密 We were married for probably around 70 years.我们结婚大概有七十年了 And that is another dimension of this whole situation而那是我有时会全神贯注思考的 that I am preoccupied with at times.现状的另一维度 Because she’s gone因为她逝世了 and she has been for several years.走了好多年了 And I feel that a part of me is gone.我觉得我的一部分也随之而去了 We worked together and traveled together.我们曾在一起工作与旅行 We were happy together.我们在一起很开心 I know how fortunate I have been to have had a happy life.我知道自己曾经有过这样的快乐生活是多么幸运 But half of me is gone.但我的另一半已经不在了 Her absence has been to me她的离开对我而言 for a number of years now,多年以来 has been a presence.已经成为某种存在 An absence which was present to me.这种呈现在我面前的残缺 I don’t know, call it emptiness.我不知道算是什么 就称它为空虚吧 There’s something missing.我总感到若有所失 and of course I realize right away that she is what’s missing.当然我会马上意识到缺少的就是她 That’s a very lonely thing.这是件极其孤独的事 I was with her even when she was dying.即便在她临终前 我也陪在她身边 That was a difficult experience.那是一段艰难的经历 At least we got to embrace at that time.当时我们至少还有过拥抱 That’s something I used to listen to with Leslie,那是我与莱思莉一起听过的音乐 righ here.在这儿 And we held hands.我们手牵手 Death.死亡 it’s a frightening thought.这是个可怕的想法 It’s something I don’t want to happen.这是件我不愿发生的事 Much as I think our life in this world is.尽管我总觉得我们在世间的生活 often a pretty messy affair,常常是件相当混乱的事 I still would like to hang around.我还是想在这个世界闲逛 I don’t know the basic reason why I should want to,我不知道自己渴望活着 or the basic reason why I should be afraid of it.或者害怕死亡的根本原因 What does it means that I’m going to leave?我即将面临的离世到底意味着什么? As I sit out now on my deck of the house.当我坐在家中的露台上 I look at the trees blowing a little in the breeze.我看着在树木在微风中摇曳 And I’ve seen them innumerable times.这风景我已见过无数次了 But somehow seeing the trees this time但不知为何 这次看到这些树 is a transcendent experience.给我带来了超然的体验 I see how marvelous it is and I think to myself我看着这美丽的景象 心里想到 I’ve had these here all along.我一直都拥有着它们 But have I really appreciated them?但我有真正地欣赏过吗? And the fact is that I have not.事实是 我没有 Until now.直到现在 And in a way,而在某种程度上 it makes the fact of death even more difficult to accept.那次体验使死亡的事实更让我难以承受 It just brings tears to my eyes.一想到这我就泪流满面 I’ve written books on a number of other topics.我写过许多其他主题的书 And in each case I felt that I had solved the problem.每次我都觉得我解决了问题 But this is not resolvable.但死亡不是一个用来解决的问题 It’s not just a theoretical question for me, which so many things can be.对我而言 它不像其他的理论问题 It’s the one thing that is central to my existence这是我生命中最重要的一件事 that I have tried to come to terms with…我一直试图去接受它…… and have failed.然而我失败了 So I just go on existing,于是我会继续活着 that’s the truth of it is existing.那也是死亡存在的真谛 And waiting.并且会一直等待 Waiting until I have to say goodbye.直到我不得不与这个世界告别
  • 2021-10-17美国最炎热的城市正在试图降温I’m looking at a map of surface temperatures in the Phoenix metro area.我现在看的是一张凤凰城城区地表温度图 So this is in Arizona, in the southwest US凤凰城位于美国西南部的亚利桑那州 and it shows how hot the ground is in June.这张图显示了该地六月份的地表温度 And this is a map of child poverty rates.这一张是儿童贫穷率分布图 Darker blue means more poverty.深蓝色表示贫穷率更高 So this is heat.这是高温情况 And this is poverty.这是贫穷情况 Heat.高温 Poverty.贫穷 Heat, Poverty.高温 贫穷 The correlation is pretty obvious.两者的关联显而易见 This is where it becomes clear that climate change and wealth inequality are not really从这里可以清楚地看出 气候变化和贫富差距 separate issues.是不可分割的两个问题 And you can probably find examples of that wherever you go in the world, but for this全世界都能找到这样的例子 story, I went… there.但在今天的故事里 我去了…这里 “An excessive heat warning is in effect.”高温警告已启用 “Warmer is the new normal in Phoenix.”变暖是凤凰城新的常态 “The city’s grappling with an increase in heat related deaths.”全市正努力应对高温致死人数的增加 “Phoenix, last year, hitting 100 degrees or higher for more than 144 days.”去年 凤凰城有超过144天温度达到或超过100华氏度 “Climate change is one factor causing rising temperature.气候变化是温度升高的一个原因 “Urban development is the other.”城市发展是另一个原因 The forecasted high that day was 112 degrees Fahrenheit.那天预报的最高温度是112华氏度 That’s 44 degrees Celsius.也就是44摄氏度 But in reality, some areas can feel warmer or cooler than that.但实际上 一些地区的体感温度更高或者更低 So here I am in a neighborhood with some of the hottest surface temperatures, but when现在我来到了一个局部地表温度达到最高的社区 I drove 8 miles north of there但当我向北开了8英里后 I was in one of the coolest parts of Phoenix.我又到了凤凰城最凉爽的地方 And it was in the hot neighborhood where I met up with Eva Olivas.就在那个温度较高的社区 我遇到了Eva Olivas She’s a local community advocate and Phoenix native.她是当地的社区工作者 是凤凰城本地人 It’s nice to meet you.你好 OLIVAS: It’s nice to meet you.你好 Can you tell me a little bit about this neighborhood and who lives here?能给我讲讲这个社区和住在这里的居民吗? OLIVAS: So the community of Central City South is located just south of the downtown business district.南城中心社区位于市中心商业区南部 OLIVAS: The average income level for a family of four is about $19,000.四口之家的平均收入约19 000美元 OLIVAS: The vehicle ownership rate is between 23-28% of the population.拥有机动车的人口数量占比23%-28% Oh wow.哇 OLIVAS: Yes, very low.是的 非常低 So they’re very dependent on public transportation.因此他们很依赖公共交通 This zip code has the highest rate of heat-related illnesses in the city,该地区的高温致病率是全市最高 what makes people here vulnerable to extreme heat?是什么让当地人容易遭受到极端炎热天气的伤害? Well, I think it’s a combination of things.我觉得是很多因素共同导致的 We have the freeway.我们有高速公路 OLIVAS: We have the railroad tracks on the north.北边有铁路 OLIVAS: We have the airport on the east.机场在东边 OLIVAS: So we’re like a little pocket.因此我们就像一个小口袋围在中间 That’s a lot of pavement.有很多条公路 OLIVAS: A lot of concrete, a lot of industry here.还有很多建筑 很多工业 A lot of our streets, as you can see, don’t have sidewalks.正如你看到的 我们的许多公路没有人行道 You’re having to walk in the street, like we are.行人只能像我们这样 走在大道上 And there’s not a lot of shade.没有多少树荫 If you can look around, you don’t see a lot of trees.你四处看看会发现 没有多少树 This is the Sonoran Desert, so of course the summers are hot.这里是索诺兰沙漠 夏天必然炎热 But it also seems like this entire city was almost designed to capture heat.但这座城市就像是专为收集热量而建 The streets are so wide.道路太宽了 This isn’t a highway, this is just the Phoenix grid.这不是公路 这就是凤凰城内的街道而已 And the buildings are so flat and set back from the sidewalk, so they don’t create建筑都是扁平的 且距离道路远 much shade at all.因此根本无法形成遮挡 And then there’s the parking lots.还有就是停车场 I read one estimate that there are more than 4 parking spots for every car in Phoenix.我看过一个估算:在凤凰城 每辆车至少拥有4个停车位 The sun just beams into all that pavement.阳光直射在道路上 And it doesn’t just roast anyone who happens to walk across it,不仅 炙烤着正好路过的人们 it’s also transferring heat to the air, day and night.而且 持续不断地把热量扩散到空气中 Wow I really … did that poorly.哇 我停车技术真差劲 Also, I promise this is not a Chevy ad, I just borrowed my dad’s car.我可不是给雪佛兰打广告 我只是借了我爸的车 So what do you do to try to mitigate heat in a city like this?所以 在这样的城市 可以做些什么缓解炎热呢 Well, reflective roofs can help a bit.反射屋顶有些用 The thermal image shows the surface temperature of the dark roof is hotter than the white ones.热影像显示 黑色屋顶的表面温度比白色屋顶的高 And the city has also tried painting some roads with a more reflective coating.市政府也试着把一些道路涂上反射力更强的涂层 But if you compare the hottest and coolest neighborhoods, it’s pretty clear that the但如果对比最热和最凉爽的街区 big difference between them isn’t the black or white surfaces.很明显 最大的不同并不是黑色或白色的表面 It’s the green ones.而是两地绿色植物的数量有所不同 Plants are the variable that connects this map of heat to this map of poverty.植物是联系热影像图和贫穷分布图的变量 And studies have confirmed that the cooling effect of cool roofs and cool pavements is已有研究表明 隔热屋顶和防热路面的降温效果 smaller than the cooling effect of trees.小于树木 “One of the best ways to beat the urban heat.”树是抵抗城市炎热最好的方式 “The more trees you plant, the more benefits.”树种得越多 好处越多 “It’s cleansing for the air.”树木可以清洁空气 “Reduce carbon footprint.”减少碳足迹 “Lower levels of stress.”缓解压力 “Decrease energy costs.”降低能源消耗 “Storm water management.”有利于降水管理 “It’s a very important engine of cooling.”是非常重要的降温手段 If you take an area that’s just parking lots and buildings, and cover at least a quarter如果在一个只有停车场和建筑的区域 使树木覆盖率至少达到四分之一 of the space with trees, you can lower air temperatures there by around 8 degrees Fahrenheit那么该区域可以降低空气温度约8华氏度 or 4.4 degrees Celsius.也就是4.4摄氏度 That’s according to a study from Arizona State University.该研究结论来自亚利桑那州立大学 For those who are used to humid summers, it can be hard to understand just how much relief对于习惯了湿热夏季的人来说 他们很难理解 shade provides in a dry heat.在干燥而暴晒的天气里 树荫有多么沁人心脾 You can easily see the temperature difference on my arms and on the concrete there.你们可以明显看到我的手臂和地面的温度差异 So the city of Phoenix has committed funds to planting more trees.因此凤凰城已经投入资金种植树木 They want all neighborhoods to reach a minimal level of canopy cover by 2030.他们希望所有社区到2030年达到最低林冠覆盖水平 And I love the idea我喜欢这个构想 of recruiting an army of trees to protect the vulnerable from extreme heat.征召树木兵来守护遭受酷热攻击的人们 But there’s a problem.但是有一个问题 Outside of parks and along major streets, the urban forest currently depends not on当前 停车场外和主路两边的树木城市绿化无法依靠公共资源 public resources, but on private ones.而是依靠归个人资源 What would it take for a street like this one to become one of those shady tree-lined像这样的街道想成为市郊那样绿树成荫 streets that they have uptown.需要怎样做呢? OLIVAS: Well, any tree that’s planted in this neighborhood in front of someone’s home,在这个社区 任何种在某户人家房前的树木 they would have to maintain.都由这户人家负责养护 OLIVAS: The city does not maintain them in these residential areas.政府不负责养护居民区的树木 I see, okay.我明白了 So there are some utility companies here that will give you a couple of free trees if you因此有一些公用事业公司会免费提供两棵树 agree to plant them on the west side or south side of your home, because eventually that前提是你同意把这两棵树种在你房子的西面或南面 can end up saving something like 30% on your air conditioning bill.理由是这能节省比如30%的空调费用 But it sounds like that doesn’t really solve the maintenance issue.但这似乎不能真正解决树木的养护问题 OLIVAS: Correct.的确是 OLIVAS: Because there’s that tradeoff between shade or increased water bill.因为人们纠结的是 要乘凉则要多付水费 But it’s the cost of maintaining the trees that is challenging, obviously in a very low尤其在我们这样的低收入社区 income neighborhood like ours.养护树木的费用是一个挑战 And it’s not a priority for them in their family, in their home.养护树木不是这些家庭的当务之急 Are there no programs that are actually going to take on the watering cost?没有承包水费的方案吗? OLIVAS: Zero.没有 That is the responsibility of the homeowner and you have to remember, what did I say?那是房主的责任 还记得我之前和你说过的吗 These are mostly renters.这些大部分是房东 I walked with Eva along Buckeye Road where there’s a big triangular lot, it’s owned我和Eva沿着七叶树路走 那里有一块很大的三角形空地 by the city, and has been left unplanted.这块地归政府所有 至今没有种绿植 She said that would probably change with the city’s new tree equity plans.她说 随着政府新的树木产权计划 情况可能会转变 But she also hoped for some more basic things: like sidewalks但她也希望人行道 公交车站的树荫遮挡等 and shade shelters for all the bus stops.这些更基本的问题得到解决 It was a reminder that wealth already affects access to infrastructure, even infrastructure这提醒我们 资金问题已经影响到基础设施的建设 that doesn’t have to be watered and pruned.即使是不需要灌溉和修剪的设施也是如此 And that’s what will have to change if cities like Phoenix want to make sure that像凤凰城这样的城市想要确保 the heaviest burdens of climate warming don’t fall on those气候变暖最沉重的负担不会落在最无力与之对抗的人身上 who are least prepared to withstand them.那么就必须做出改变
  • 2021-10-17最快乐的死刑犯A 23-year old man sits in a prison cell一个二十三岁男人坐在监狱里 with the widest smile painted across his face.脸上挂着最灿烂的笑容 Clasped in his right hand is a toy train.他右手紧握的是辆玩具火车 He pushes it right up to his eyes,他把玩具火车拿到眼睛旁边 saying hi to the little people he imagines are in the carriages.向他想象中待在车厢里的小人打招呼 He winds it up and sets it off down the landing,他把火车拧上发条然后放在地上让它启动 giggling with excitement as he does so.玩的时候会兴奋到咯咯直笑 A few seconds later, another prisoner sends the train back to his cell.几秒后 另一个犯人把火车送回他的牢房 It’s hard to believe he’s about to face the gas chamber.很难相信他即将面临毒气室死刑 It’s even harder to believe he’s been convicted of an extremely grisly ax murder.更难以置信的是他被判定是一名用斧头杀人的恐怖罪犯 He might be guilty as charged, but he’s liked by all the guards and the warden.他也许有罪 但警卫和狱长都很喜欢他 That warden in fact calls this man “the happiest prisoner on death row.”此外 狱长称他为“最快乐的死刑犯” This is the story of a man named Joe Arridy.这是一个名字叫乔·阿瑞迪的男人的故事 He was born in 1915 in Pueblo, Colorado, to parents Henry and Mary.他于1915年出生在科罗拉多州普埃布洛 父母为亨利和玛丽 Both were immigrants from Syria who’d gone to the USA to make a better life for themselves.他们都是叙利亚移民 为追求美好生活来到美国 It was tough at first, but Henry’s job at a steel mill最初处境艰难 但亨利在钢铁厂的工作 afforded the family certain luxuries they hadn’t had before.撑起家庭未曾享有的富足生活 There was a problem, though, with their young son.然而 他们年幼的儿子有一些问题 They knew very well that Joe wasn’t like a lot of the other kids,他们非常清楚地知道 乔不像普通的孩子 a conviction which was substantiated when his elementary school principal one day这个想法有一天被证实了 approached Henry and Mary and told them that乔的校长把他们请到学校 Joe wasn’t able to learn with the other kids.告诉他们乔无法跟上大部分孩子的进度 He could barely string a sentence together,他几乎无法说出一个完整的句子 never mind wrestle with difficult spelling and arithmetic.从不把困难的拼写与算数放在心上 His parents thought the best thing for Joe was sending him他们认为乔最好可以就读于 to a school that could deal with his learning difficulties.一所能应对他学习障碍的学校 so off he was packed to于是他被送去 the “State Home and Training School for Mental Defectives.”“州立精神缺陷者培训之家” Only this place was not salubrious in the least for young Joe.只有此处对乔的身心最有益了 Being short and having prominent ears, Joe was the target of由于矮个子与招风耳 bullying from other kids in the home.乔成为培训之家里其他孩子霸凌的对象 He suffered beatings at the bully’s hands,他被恶霸欺负 just as he did when he returned to his neighborhood.回家后邻居也这样对待他 Even the adults were unkind,甚至有些大人也不友好 some of them laughing when “Slow Joe” walked down the street.当“迟钝乔”沿街散步时 有些人就嘲笑他 Such were the times.这种情况屡屡发生 When he was 21, he just picked up and left, jumping on a freight rail car,21岁时 他收拾行李离开 跳上一辆货运火车 not knowing where it would take him.不知会被带往何方 He ended up in the railyards of Cheyenne in the state of Wyoming, wandering around,他在怀俄明州的夏延市下车 四处晃悠 trying his best to find food and shelter努力寻找食物和睡觉的地方 That’s when the cops picked him up and his life went from bad to worse.那时巡警抓住了他 他的生活从此每况愈下 Those cops had been looking for someone, a man presumably, who’d committed horrendous他们正在寻找一起杀人案的嫌疑犯 crimes about 200 miles away in Pueblo, Colorado.案件发生在距此地200英里的科罗拉多州普埃布洛 They found out soon that Joe came from Pueblo, and what’s more,他们很快发现乔来自普埃布洛 a railcar ran from there to Cheyenne.并且坐火车逃往夏延 That was enough to put Joe in handcuffs.那足以给乔带上手铐 The crimes had indeed been extreme,这起罪行确实十分恶劣 and certainly enough for the public to put pressure on the authorities.且足以让公众对当局施加压力 No one in Pueblo went to bed feeling safe.在普埃布洛 没有人能安心入睡 That was because someone had entered a house owned by the Drain family.因为有人曾闯入德雷恩家的房子 It was nighttime and the parents were at a dance.当时是深夜 德雷恩夫妇正参加舞会 Their two daughters, Dorothy and Barbara, were sound asleep at home.他们的两个女儿 桃乐丝和芭芭拉在家熟睡 A mad man entered the house and bludgeoned them with an ax,一个疯狂的男人潜入房内 用斧头袭击了她们 killing Dorothy and severely injuring Barbara.杀死了桃乐丝 重伤了芭芭拉 Cheyenne Sheriff, George Carroll, looking at Joe, thought he was a misfit.夏延市警长乔治·卡罗尔 看着乔 认为他很反常 Not only was he disheveled in appearance,不仅因为他外观不雅 but the young tearaway wasn’t exactly descriptive这个不懂事的年轻人 when talking about what he’d been doing the past few weeks.也无法详细说明他过去几周的行踪 With some grilling, Joe confessed to the crime,在拷问下乔供认了罪行 although the tactic of intense police “persuasion” was embraced.虽然审讯中使用了极端的诱导式提问策略 On August 27, 1936, people picked up the Reading Eagle newspaper1936年8月27日 人们拿起《里丁鹰报》 and on the first page in他们看到首页上的 bold capital letters they saw the headline, “YOUTH CONFESSES ATTACKING GIRLS.”粗体大写标题 “青年供认袭击了女孩” The second paragraph of the story read: Joe Arridy, 21, arrested here last night as a vagrant,报道的第二段写道 乔·阿瑞迪 21岁 昨晚在此地流浪时被捕 confessed, Sheriff George Carroll said, to the murder.并承认罪行 警长乔治·卡罗尔说 He said also, according to the sheriff, that he killed Dorothy Drain, 12.据警长称 他还供认他杀了12岁的桃乐丝·德雷恩 The younger, however, was not killed, but is still unconscious in a Pueblo hospital,而年幼的女孩没被杀死 但仍在普埃布洛医院昏迷不醒 her skull crushed.她的头盖骨碎了 The report went on to say that Joe had confessed to planning the murder, waiting for the parents报道继续写道乔已承认策划过谋杀 to leave the house and then going inside and hacking the girls with his ax.等父母离家后再进房 并用斧头袭击女孩们 This came as quite a shock to a man named Arthur Grady.这个消息让亚瑟·格雷迪相当震惊 He was the Pueblo police chief and he already had a guy in a jail cell for the brutal slaying.他是普埃布洛的警长 他已经抓到了一个此案件的嫌疑人 That guy was Frank Aguilar, an employee of Mr. Drain.那家伙叫弗兰克·阿圭勒 是德雷恩先生的雇员 When cops searched Aguilar’s home, guess what they found?当警察搜查他家时 猜猜他们发现了啥 An ax that looked like it could have been the weapon used in the crime.一把疑似涉案工具的斧头 Now we will look at another newspaper headline, this time in the Greely Daily Tribune.现在我们看看另一家报纸《格里利每日论坛报》的头条 The headline read: “Aguilar says he murdered Drain child.”头条写道“阿圭勒说是他谋杀了德雷恩的孩子” The article explained that Aguilar confessed to the crime文章解释说阿圭勒 by marking an X next to two five-page confessions.通过在两份五页纸的文件旁画“X” 来供认罪行 The other confession was also marked with an X, but an X written by Joe Arridy.另一份供认也是用X来标记 但它是乔·阿瑞迪写的 The story goes on to say that Arridy had escaped from a home for the mentally defective and报道接着说阿瑞迪因为心智障碍离家出走 that later the two men had met the night of the murders and plotted to do the awful deed.后来两个男人在谋杀之夜碰面 密谋去做坏事 Another part of the story read,报道的另一部分写道 “The confessions were made under the questioning of warden Roy Best.“供述是在狱长罗伊·贝斯特的审讯下完成的” Don’t forget that name.不要忘记那个名字 The article failed to mention a few very important things,这篇文章没能提到一些非常重要的 matters you could say were of mortal importance.可以说是关乎性命的内容 At first, Aguilar had said he had never seen Joe Arridy before in his life, only after最初 阿圭勒说他此前从未见过乔 some of that infamous persuasive police questioning,仅在某些卑鄙又善于劝诱的警察的提问后 he changed that statement to being with Joe when the girls were killed.他改称案发时 自己与乔都在现场 Another giant omission was the fact that另一个巨大的遗漏是 Joe hadn’t said a word in the transcript of the confession.乔招供的笔录上一个字也没有 All the talk came from Aguilar.整个叙述都来自阿圭勒 In 1937, Aguilar was convicted of the crime and was subsequently executed,1937年 阿圭勒被判有罪随后被处死 but at least some people knew但至少有人知道 something wasn’t quite right with Joe’s signing of the confession.乔在供述上的标记有些不对劲 Even so, his lawyer tried to argue that he wasn’t guilty by reason of insanity, rather即使如此 他的律师尽力以精神病为由替他做无罪辩护 than fight the case for his absolute innocence.而不是争取他的绝对无罪 Think about it.想一想 There wasn’t an actual transcript of Joe’s confession, which is a big deal.乔的供述没有文字记录 这是个大问题 Also, there was no evidence that put Joe close to the Drain house on the night of the crime.也没有证据表明乔在谋杀之夜出现在德雷恩的房子 It also came to light that Joe had said he killed the girl with a club, not an ax,被曝光的还有乔说过他用球棒而非斧头杀死女孩 像是在他第一次与警长Carror谈话后被误导 Still, the lawyer went for the insanity defense. It didn’t work,律师依然主张精神障碍辩护 但失败了 which is not surprising because it very rarely does, then and now. 这在意料之中 因为这样的辩护从古至今就很少成功 But when three state psychiatrists testified in the case但当三个州的精神科医师出庭作证时 something else came up.还是出了一些状况 That was the fact they all said that Joe had the mental age of a six-year-old.他们都作证乔仅有六岁小孩的心智 His IQ was 46, which back then made him an “imbecile.”他的智商为46 这意味着他是“低能儿” Such a word was just formal medical lexicon in those days, just as “retard” was.这样的话语在之前的医学词典中很常见 就像“呆子”一样 Joe wasn’t quite an “idiot” in the now obsolete classifications,乔在现在老式的分类里不算“痴呆” but he also didn’t qualify as a “moron.”但也不能被归为“弱智” Still, the psychiatrists said he was “incapable of distinguishing between right and wrong,然而 精神科医生说他“无法区分对与错 and therefore, would be unable to perform any action with a criminal intent.”因此 也无法做出任何有犯罪意图的行为” But what about his spoken confession to Sheriff Carroll?那么他对卡罗尔警长的口供是怎么回事 Was it right that a man with the brain capacity of a little kid should be convicted of murder警方通过逼迫让这位仅有小孩智商的男人 for something he said under police duress?说出了可被定罪的话的做法对不对呢 Of course it wasn’t, but the police could get away with more venality back then 这当然不对 但那个时候的警察 that they currently get away with.与现在相比更唯利是图 When Barbara Drain recovered from her injuries she wasn’t suffering from amnesia and so芭芭拉·德雷恩康复后并未记忆缺损 could talk about what happened on the night.因此能讨论那天晚上发生的事 Things looked good for Joe because she said局势对乔有利因为她说 the guy in her bedroom was the man that worked for her father, Frank Aguilar.那个在卧室的家伙是她爸爸的雇员 弗兰克·阿圭勒 She also said she didn’t recall Joe being there on the night of the attack.她还提到她记得乔没有出现在那个攻击之夜 It didn’t seem to matter.这似乎无济于事 Joe was convicted of murder and sentenced to die in the gas chamber.乔被判为谋杀罪并被判处毒气室死刑 He wasn’t alone, however, and there were numerous appeals.然而他并不孤单 有大量的人为他请愿 Attorney Gail L. Ireland got behind him and said the evidence stated that Aguilar had盖尔·L·爱尔兰律师支持他 声称证据表明 first said he committed the crime alone.阿圭勒曾在最初承认独立作案 Furthermore, said Ireland, this other guy you’ve got locked is so mentally challenged而且 爱尔兰说道 被关押的乔有严重的心智障碍 that he doesn’t even know what execution means.以至他甚至不知道死刑的意思 “Believe me when I say that if he is gassed,爱尔兰在法庭上说 “请相信我 如果他被执行死刑 it will take a long time for the state of Colorado Colorado 那么科罗拉多州将会花很长时间 to live down the disgrace!” said Ireland in court.才能洗刷这样的耻辱!” The appeals seemed to work for a while, as did all the other petitions flooding in.这个恳求在一段时间内起到作用 其他请愿也争相涌入 Just as the execution was around the corner, a stay was granted.就在处决即将到来时 对他的暂缓令被批准了 In fact, nine stays were granted in all, but those are just temporary delays.事实上 总共有九个暂缓令被批准 但都是短暂的延后 What Ireland and all of Joe’s supporters wanted was an exoneration,爱尔兰与所有乔的支持者想要的是免罪决定 and that was looking possible the more support that Joe received.而那在越来越多对乔的支持下有望实现 Meanwhile, Joe was in his cell on death row playing with his toy trucks and sending his同时 乔在死囚区的牢房里玩着玩具卡车 wind-up train past the cells of all the other prisoners’ cells.将上发条的火车开过其他牢房 He actually seemed to be enjoying himself, probably because for the first time in a while实际上他似乎过得愉快 可能因为这段时间以来 he had a place to sleep and was getting warm meals on a regular basis.他第一次有了住处且能准点吃到温暖的饭菜 Warden Roy Best, who was there when Aguila and Joe wrote those “X’s” was the one that罗伊·贝斯特狱长 是当阿圭勒与乔画“X”时在场 gave Joe the toys.而且给乔提供玩具的人 Why hadn’t he said anything about Joe’s mental state你可能想知道 为何他之前不对乔的心理状态 before if he felt so sorry for him, you might be wondering.发表意见 如果他真的同情乔 That’s not an easy question to answer.这不是一个可以轻松回答的问题 Best became known as the “most notorious” warden in Colorado history.贝斯特以科罗拉多州史上“最臭名昭著”的狱长扬名 He flogged prisoners, and he tortured them with other terrible punishments, and when他鞭打犯人 并用其他残酷的手段折磨他们 he thought someone was homosexual, he made them wear a dress当他发现某人是同性恋 便让他穿裙子 and push a wheelbarrow full of bricks around all day.同时整天四处推着装满砖头的独轮车 Nevertheless, he had a progressive side, too.然而 他也有进步的一面 He developed educational programs so that prisoners might get a job once released.他开展教育项目以让出狱后的犯人实现再就业 He ensured women prisoners were kept safe from dangerous male prisoners and he even他确保女犯人不会受可怕的男犯人的伤害 introduced a dental care program in the prison.甚至将牙科护理项目引进监狱 It seems he also stood by prisoners who were mentally disabled.看上去他也关照那些心智障碍的犯人 Still, Joe didn’t need more toys or caring words from the warden, what he needed was然而 乔不需要狱长提供更多的玩具或慰藉 the state to do something unusual and admit mistakes had happened.而需要这个州做些特殊的事并承认错误 This never comes easy.这个愿望很难实现 Like many people who criticize the justice system say就像许多批判司法系统的人说 it’s often winning that counts, not justice.胜诉常常比坚守正义重要 And as time passed, even with all the petitions, and support from Best himself, the state was随着时间推移 即使有全部的请愿和贝斯特的支持 starting to look like a winner.州法院开始像个胜利者 January 5, 1939.1939年1月5日 The Reading Eagle published another article about Joe.《里丁鹰报》刊登了另一篇有关乔的文章 The headline read: “Condemned prisoner to give train to another slayer.”标题是“被判死刑的囚犯要送另一位杀手火车” The story called Joe “weak-witted”, and said he had the intelligence of a six-year-old,报导指出乔的“低能” 说他只有六岁孩子的智商 but it didn’t question that injustice might have occurred, and instead called him a “slayer”.但它并未质疑可能已发生的不公正 反而称他为“杀手” The article said that when the Warden went to Joe’s cell to tell him that his death文章说当狱长进入乔的牢房并告诉他死亡即将来临时 was impending, the only thing Joe said was give my train to the guy in the other cell.乔所说的唯一一句话便是把他的火车送给另一牢房的狱友 The newspaper described this other guy, Angelo Agnes,报纸把那个家伙安格鲁·阿格尼斯 as a “Denver negro condemned for slaying his wife.”描述为“因杀妻而被判刑的丹佛黑鬼” Best told the paper that Joe had told him, “If I go, yes,贝斯特把乔的话透露给报纸 “是的 如果我走了 give my train to Agnes.”就把火车留给阿格尼斯” He actually didn’t really know what the gas chamber was,实际上乔不理解毒气室的含义 although he did have some understanding of dying.尽管他确实对死亡有一定的认识 He had said to Best, “No, no.他告诉过贝斯特 “不 不 Joe won’t die.”乔不会死的” January 6, 1939.1939年1月6日 Prison chaplain Father Albert Schaller walked into Joe’s cell.监狱的神父阿尔伯特·沙勒走进了乔的牢房 As soon as he looked at Joe again he knew a travesty of justice was about to happen.他一见到乔便知道一场对正义的扭曲要发生了 The chaplain watched Joe eat the ice cream, 牧师看着乔吃着冰淇淋 the food he’d asked for when asked what he wanted for his last meal.那是他被询问最后一餐想吃什么时要的 He couldn’t actually comprehend what that meant, of course.当然 事实上他不能理解那意味着什么 When the chaplain read Joe his last rites, he had to do it very slowly and only two words当牧师为乔做临终祈祷时 他必须念的很慢 at a time so Joe could repeat the words.慢到一次只有两个词时乔才能复述 The chaplain tried to hold back his emotions, but his eyes filled with tears.牧师尝试压抑自己的情感 但眼里还是饱含泪水 When the chaplin explained to Joe what’s about to happen,当牧师向乔解释即将来临的事时 Joe just looked at him with blank bewilderment.乔只是看着他 眼神茫然而困惑 When led out of his cell the last thing he did 他所做的最后一件事便是兑现承诺 was hand over the train as he’d promised. 把火车送给狱友 He started to get nervous when being walked towards the execution room with与其他50多人一起走向行刑室的时候 about 50 other people. 他开始感到紧张 He might not have known what the gas chamber was,他也许从未了解毒气室 but he could sense something unusual was happening.但他能察觉到一些反常的事正在发生 He started to shake on the way, only to be calmed down when warden Best held his hand.一路上他开始颤抖 仅在贝斯特握住他的手时才能冷静 “Do you understand, Joe?” asked Best.“乔 你明白吗” 贝斯特问道 “They are killing me,” Joe replied, still looking like a confused child.“他们将杀死我”乔回答 依旧像个困惑的孩子 When he entered the room, he was strapped into the chair.进入房间后 他被绑在了椅子上 At that point, he was grinning nervously.在那时 他正紧张地咧嘴笑 When a blindfold was put over his eyes, for the first time in a long time,当他被眼罩蒙上双眼时 长久以来的第一次 he wasn’t smiling at all. smiling at all. He was petrified.他不再微笑了 他被吓呆了 The warden and the chaplain said goodbye.狱长和牧师向他告别 Joe muttered “bye”, trembling as he did so.乔喃喃低语“再见” 全身颤栗 Then all he heard was the clanging of the steel door closing.然后他所能听到的只有铁门关闭的铿锵声 The airtight chamber filled with cyanide as Joe waited, wondering密封的金属罐正充满氰化物 what they were doing to him.乔一直在等待 想知道他们要对他做什么 January 7, 1939.1939年1月7日 A headline in the St. Petersburg Times read, “Happiest man in death cell dies.”《圣彼得斯堡时报》的头条写到 “最快乐的死刑犯逝世” The story went on, “The 23-year old youth, d报道写到 “这个23岁的年轻人 escribed as having a mental age of six, was被诊断为仅有六岁的心理年龄 pronounced dead six and one-fourth minutes after cyanide pellets were dropped into an在他椅子下投放含有氰化物金属酸罐 acid jar beneath the chair to which he was strapped.”6分15秒之后被宣布死亡 The warden said after, “He probably didn’t even know he was about to die.”狱长后来说“他甚至可能不知道他将面临死亡” It should have been big news. It should have upset a nation,它本应成为大新闻 它本应让整个国家难过 but then newspaper headlines in bigger print than Joe’s had the names Hitler and Mussolini in them.但报纸让希特勒与墨索里尼上了头条 而不是乔 People had other concerns.人们有其他的忧虑 In the decades to come, though, people still talked about this massive injustice,然而在后面的几十年 人们继续讨论这巨大的不公正 a crime committed by those supposed to protect us.这是一场由本应保护我们的人犯下的罪行 Finally, in 2011, Colorado Governor Bill Ritter issued a pardon for Joe,终于 科罗拉多州长比尔·里特在2011年为乔发布了赦免令 saying there had been, a “tragic conviction说这是一个针对心智障碍者的 based on a false and coerced confession” of a mentally disabled man.“基于伪证的悲惨定罪” He added, “Pardoning Arridy cannot undo this tragic event in Colorado history.他补充道 “对阿瑞迪的赦免并不能消除这件科罗拉多史上的悲剧 It is in the interests of justice and simple decency, however, to restore his good name.”但是是出于正义和歉意 我们需要恢复他的名誉” Now you need to watch, “Innocent on Death Row,现在你需要看看“无辜的死刑犯 Here’s What You Actually Get When You’re Released.”当你被释放时 你会得到什么” Or, have a look at, “Why Prisoner Proven Innocent Can’t Be Released.”或者看看“为什么被证明无辜的犯人不能获释”
  • 2021-10-17是我,马里奥!It’s-a me, Mario!是我 马里奥! It’s-a me, Mario!是我 马里奥! Woo-hoo, let’s-a go!呜呼 让我们一起出发吧! Okey dokey!好的! Ow ow ow ow ow ow ow ow ow!嗷嗷嗷嗷嗷嗷嗷! I’ve been the voice of Mario for 26 years.我为马里奥配音已经26年了 – [Interviewer] Now moving on to Luigi.– [采访者] 现在变成路易吉 – Now moving on to Luigi, oh.– 欧 现在变成路易吉 (laughing)(大笑) (“Super Mario Overworld Theme” by Koji Kondo)(“超级马里奥主题音乐”由近藤浩治作曲) Hi, I’m Charles Martinet.嗨 我是查尔斯·马尔蒂内 I do the voice of Super Mario, here we go, woo hoo!我为超级马里奥配音 我们走 呜呼! And Luigi too, Luigi number one, ho ho!也为路易吉配音 路易吉第一 呵呵! And Wario, have a rotten day.还有瓦里奥 倒霉的一天 Yah-ho!呀嗬! You gonna eat that garlic?你要吃大蒜吗 (laughs)(大笑) and I was even Donkey Kong at one point.某次 我甚至为金刚配音 Oh hoo hoo!哦呼呼! I am an actor and voice actor.我是个演员和配音演员 I did gosh, 25 years of theatre.天啦 我做了25年的戏剧 Run along to your party!快去参加你的聚会吧! Corporate videos.企业宣传片 Circuitry and semi-conductor processes.电路系统和半导体工艺 A few film and television products.一些电影电视作品 Now beat it all of ya, now!现在所有人都走 现在! And then I had the marvelous beginning of becoming a voice actor 然后我有了成为一个配音演员的美妙开端 and that’s how I started with it’s-a me, Mario!就是从“是我 马里奥”开始的 Mario was first created in 1981马里奥最初是在1981年的游戏 in a game called Donkey Kong.《大金刚》中诞生的 As it got refined through the years,通过这些年的改进 it became Mario and Princess Peach.它变成了马里奥和碧琪公主 Ah, the Princess!啊 公主! And I came along in 1990.我在1990年来到这里 I actually crashed an audition实际上我碰到一场试镜 because I was catching them as I walked in 因为那天我来的时候 they were walking out finished for the day 正赶上他们那天结束 and I said, “can I read for this?”我说 “我能试试吗?” And the guy looked at his watch and he goes,那个男人看着他的表 然后说 “ugh, alright, come on in.“啊 好吧 进来吧” “You’re an Italian plumber from Brooklyn,“你是个来自布鲁克林的意大利管道工” “a character in a video game for Nintendo called Mario“任天堂公司电子游戏中叫马里奥的角色” “so make up a voice, make up a video game, start talking.”“就是塑造一种声音 做一款电子游戏 开始说话” And I thought to myself, video game?我心里想 电子游戏? I don’t know anything about video games我一点都不了解电子游戏 and all of a sudden I hear action,这是我突然听到“开始” I go “hello, I’m-a Mario, let’s make a pizza pie together.我就说“嗨 我是马里奥 让我们一起做披萨派吧” “You go get some-a sausage, I’m-a go get some spaghetti,“你去买香肠 我去买意大利面” “we put spaghetti and-a sausage in the pizza.”“我们把意大利面和香肠放在披萨里” And he said, “cut, stop talking, there’s no more tape,他说 “停 别说了 没有更多磁带了 “alright thanks, we’ll be in touch.”“好的 谢谢 我们保持联系” And I thought that was, you know,我以为那意思是 okay there’s the door, we’ll see ya later.好的 门在那 我们下次再会 And he calls Nintendo,然而他打电话给任天堂公司 “I found a Mario, I got him.”“我找到了马里奥 找到他了” And that was 26 amazing fantastic years ago.那都在奇妙梦幻的26年前了 Hello!你好! Hello!你好! (laughs)(大笑) Whoo-pee!喔哔 Oh, look at this world.哦 看看这个世界 The character for me brings out the best in me对我来说 这个角色展现了我最好的一面 and so I love that.我很喜欢它 Bing bing bing, (laughs)砰砰砰 (大笑) I love sharing things too.我也喜欢分享事情 I go to meet Mario fans and I hear the most wonderful things.我去见马里奥粉丝并且听到了最棒的事 You know, you’re the voice of my childhood比如说你是我童年的声音 or I used to play with my dad,或者我过去常常和我父亲玩马里奥 now I’m playing with my kids.现在我正陪着我的孩子玩 It’s a way our family comes together.这是我们家团结在一起的方式 Ya ya ya ya ya, ha!耶耶耶耶哈! Ah, pretty good!啊 非常好! Ah, this brings back the memories.啊 这勾起了我的回忆 Mama mia!妈妈咪呀! You just have fun, you know?玩的开心就好 知道吗? That’s my mantra for life.那是我的口头禅 Come on, let’s-a go!来吧 我们走! Let’s have more fun!让我们玩的更愉快! Bye bye, see you in my gameses.再见 游戏里见了 Woo-hoo!喔吼!
  • 2021-10-17发生在日本的令人难以置信的越狱– I’m Kento Bento.我是Kento Bento This video is made possible by Dashlane.本视频由Dashlane制作 Download Dashlane for free如果你不想再忘记密码 if you never want to forget another password again可以点击简介中的链接 at the link in the description.免费下载Dashlane应用 Aomori, Japan, 1936.1936年 日本 青森县 Prisoner Yoshie Shiratori had had enough.囚犯白鸟由荣已经在监狱待够了 He was forced to confess to a murder he did not commit.因为一起被迫承认的谋杀案 Falsely imprisoned in Aomori Prison,他含冤被判入青森监狱 beaten and tortured every night by prison guards,每晚都要遭受狱警的毒打和折磨 and now worse, prosecutors were seeking the death penalty.更糟糕的是 检察官要求判处他死刑 In his mind, it was time to go.他想到了越狱 But Aomori Prison wasn’t the easiest to escape.但是想从青森县监狱逃脱可不容易 Regardless, Yoshie Shiratori had nothing to lose.不过白鸟由荣已经没有什么可失去的了 And so at 5:30 a.m. he made his move.凌晨五点三十分 他行动了 He knew there would be a 15 minute gap in the patrol time,在研究狱警的例行巡视几个月后 as he had studied the guards’ routine for months.他发现狱警巡视之间有15分钟的空档可以利用 And when the coast was clear, he pulled out a metal wire确认四下无人后 他掏出一根 which he had smuggled in from the bathhouse从浴室偷带回来的铁丝 and started to pick the lock.开始撬锁 This was originally the metal support ring that was wrapped around这原本是囚犯澡盆上 the bathing buckets inmates use to wash themselves.用来箍住木板的铁丝 His hands were stiff from the wintry cold.冬天的寒冷让他的手被冻得僵硬 But after a few minutes of picking, he had success,但是几分钟后 他成功了 and his cell door swung open.他竟然真的撬开了牢门 But he wasn’t out of the woods yet但此时他还没有脱离险境 because there were more locked doors ahead.外面还有更多上锁的门等着他 He knew he only had a few minutes left此时离狱警回来 before the guards would return,只剩几分钟了 and so he wasted no time于是他抓紧时间 attempting to pick his way through the remaining security doors.试图撬开剩下的牢门 Now fortunately for him he was able to make it out of the facility.好消息是 他最终搞定了这些门锁 But, the bad news was但不幸的是 that he was only halfway to freedom.他距离成功越狱还有一半的路要走 You see, he was still well within the search perimeter,你看 他还在搜索范围内 which meant at any moment the alarm could go off这意味着警报随时可能响起 and he’d still be caught.他还是会被抓到 At 5:45 a.m. the guards returned, peering into his cell.凌晨五点四十五分 狱警回来巡视他的牢房 And this is what they saw,他们看到的是 Shiratori sound asleep in his futon bed.白鸟在他的床垫上熟睡 But of course, what they didn’t realize狱警们并没有意识到 was that they were looking at something else,被窝里睡的不是白鸟由荣 a pile of loose floorboards underneath his duvet designed to trick them.而是用来欺骗他们的一堆木板 It wasn’t until the next morning that they finally discovered the truth,直到天亮他们才发现真相 and the alarm was sounded.并拉响了警报 But by then Shiratori was long gone.而此时的白鸟早已远走高飞 Now he had escaped.现在白鸟由荣自由了 But if you’ve watched any of our previous videos,但如果你看过我们之前发布的视频 you’ll know that things aren’t always as they seem.就会知道事情总是没有表面那么简单 In fact, for Yoshie Shiratori, aka the Prison Break Magician,事实上 对于“越狱魔术师”白鸟由荣来说 this was only the beginning.这仅仅是个开始 Three days later, he was caught trying to steal supplies from a hospital.三天后 他在医院偷窃医疗用品时被捕 And just like that, he was back in the slammer.就这样 他又进了监狱 But this time for his escape attempt而这次 他因为之前的越狱 he was sentenced to life in prison.被判处终生监禁 He would never be with his family again – his wife and his daughter.他再也见不到他的妻子和女儿 And all the months of planning had led to just three days of freedom,数月的计划只换来了三天自由 and now it seemed he’d be locked up for a very long time.而现在他似乎要被关很长一段时间了 Six years later, in 1942, in the midst of the Second World War,6年后的1942年 正值二战 Shiratori found himself transferred to Akita Prison in Akita City.白鸟由荣被转移到位于秋田市的秋田监狱 There the guards treated him even worse than in Aomori.这里的狱警比青森县狱警更过分 They had heard about Shiratori’s previous escape他们听说过白鸟由荣之前越狱的事迹 and were determined to make an example out of him.决心拿他杀鸡儆猴 They wanted to make sure he would never escape again.以确保白鸟由荣不会再次越狱 Along with the usual beatings,除了日常遭受毒打外 he was forced to partake in extreme manual labor,白鸟由荣还被迫从事极端体力劳动 made to sleep on the hard concrete floor in the severe winter cold,在严寒的冬天睡在硬水泥地上 and placed into solitary confinement for extended periods of time.并被长期单独监禁 Now this was a specially-made solitary confinement cell关押白鸟的囚室是特制的单人囚室 which was very small and had a very high ceiling,囚室狭小 天花板却很高 with the walls covered with copper sheets so smooth墙上覆盖着光滑的铜板 that it was impossible to grip.无法攀爬 In addition, there was almost no sunlight even in the daytime,更惨的是 即使在白天囚室里也几乎没有阳光 with the only window light coming from a small sealed skylight high above.唯一的光线来自一个远离地面的密闭天窗 This was a room designed to keep escape artists from escaping.这是专门用来安置有逃狱前科的犯人的房间 And if that wasn’t enough,除此之外 the guards also made sure that Shiratori was handcuffed at all times.白鸟一直都戴着手铐 Now despite the constant abuse,在不间断被虐待期间 one of the guards, Kobayashi, in fact the head guard, took pity on him.一位叫小林的狱警队长 对他产生了怜悯 Kobayashi never laid a finger,小林从未动过他一根手指 and even seemed to check up on him from time to time,甚至时不时会去看看他 concerned for his wellbeing.担心他的健康状况 Perhaps this made life a little more bearable for Shiratori.也许这让白鸟的生活更容易忍受一些 And it might have even been what kept his will alive也许正是这点善意 all the way to the night of June 15th.让他一直坚持到6月15号晚上 It was a stormy night, and Shiratori was in the middle那是一个风雨交加的夜晚 of one of his extended stays in solitary confinement.白鸟正处于长期单独监禁的状态 At around midnight one of the guards peered into his cell午夜时分 一名狱警朝白鸟的囚室看了一眼 and couldn’t believe his eyes.简直不敢相信自己的眼睛 He opened the cell door and looked around in astonishment,他打开囚室的门 惊讶地环顾四周 as Yoshie Shiratori had vanished into thin air.白鸟由荣早已消失得无影无踪 All that was left was his handcuffs.只留下一双被解开了的手铐 So how did he do it?他是怎么做到的呢? Well, there were a few assumptions the guards made事实上 狱警做的那些预防措施 that did not apply to Shiratori.并不适用于白鸟 For one, handcuffs simply didn’t work on him.首先 手铐对他根本不起作用 Shiratori was actually a master of getting out of handcuffs.其实白鸟是个开手铐的高手 And in fact, had several methods to choose from.他有好几种能解开手铐的办法 Here he decided to go with the familiar lock picking method.他决定在这里用老方法 But he really could have gone with any of them.但事实上他的选择很多 He had thoroughly scoured his surroundings他仔细搜查了囚室周围 to find anything that could be of use in an escape.寻找任何可能对逃跑有用的东西 And just like in Aomori Prison,和在青森监狱时一样 he was able to uncover a loose bit of wire.他发现了一根松动的金属丝 Perhaps it was from one of the items Kobayashi brought him.也许是小林带给他的东西上的 But this wasn’t clear.但是没人知道正确答案 After freeing himself from the cuffs,解开手铐后 he placed his palms and soles of his feet on the smooth copper sheets他把手掌和脚掌撑在光滑的铜壁上 and started climbing the unclimbable wall.开始爬那道无法攀爬的墙 It turned out Shiratori was also an expert climber原来白鸟还是位攀岩专家 with an uncanny ability to scale like a lizard.拥有像蜥蜴一样攀爬的神奇能力 Once he reached the skylight above,爬到天窗那里后 he noticed that, yes, the window was sealed.他发现窗户是密封的 But the wooden framing around it was starting to rot.但四周的木质框架已经开始腐朽了 And so thereafter night after night于是从那以后 每天晚上 when the guards weren’t looking,白鸟都会趁狱警不注意 he climbed the copper walls爬上铜墙 and loosened the framing bit by bit.一点一点地把窗框弄松 Afterwards he’d climb back down然后爬回去 and place the handcuffs back on as to not rouse suspicion.重新戴上手铐 以免引起怀疑 After a couple of months, the window finally came loose.几个月后 窗户终于松脱了 And from there it was just about choosing the right day.接下来就是要等待最适合逃走的一天 He waited until a particular stormy night他一直等到一个暴风雨夜晚 so the guards wouldn’t hear the footsteps on the roof.这样狱警就不会听到屋顶上的脚步声 And that was it.就这样 He had escaped from prison again.他再一次越狱成功 Now this time he wouldn’t be caught.这次他不会被抓到了 Or at least, not in the way you’d expect.至少 不是以你想象中的方式 Three months later, on September 18th,三个月后的9月18日 the head guard, Kobayashi was at home狱警队长小林正在家中 when he heard a knock on the door.他听到了敲门声 To his surprise,意想不到的是 it was the fugitive Yoshie Shiratori, unkempt and disheveled,来人正是蓬头垢面的白鸟 and he needed a favor.他向小林寻求帮助 A stunned Kobayashi took him in and fed him,大吃一惊的小林把他带了进来并给了他吃的 all the while listening to what he had to say.也想听听他想说些什么 Shiratori explained that he didn’t actually mind being in prison白鸟表示 他其实并不介意坐牢 and that the only reason he escaped twice now他之所以两次越狱 was due to the tremendous abuse he suffered完全是因为他在残暴的狱警手中 at the hands of the sadistic guards.遭受了严重的虐待 Kobayashi, however, was the only one而小林是唯一一个 who treated him with any amount of respect.尊重他的人 And so he felt he owed it to him to let him in on his grand plan.所以他想让小林参与他的计划 Now this plan involved Shiratori willingly, yes,这个计划就是 handing himself over to the Justice Department白鸟向司法部自首 where he could then personally make a case他要在那自诉 for how corrupt and barbaric the Japanese prison system was,日本监狱系统是多么的腐败和野蛮 and there needed to be reform.监狱制度需要进行改革 He wanted to campaign for change,他想争取变革 and in the process gain his legal freedom through a civil lawsuit.并在此过程中通过民事诉讼获得法律上的自由 He felt this was the only way he could realistically end up with his family.他觉得这是唯一能让他和家人团聚的方法 This, of course, was a super ambitious plan.当然 这是一个雄心勃勃的计划 And as a fugitive on the run, he was well aware of that.作为一名逃犯 他很清楚这一点 Which is why he needed Kobayashi,这就是为什么他需要一个像小林这样 the well-respected head guard of Akita Prison, to vouch for him在秋田监狱备受尊敬的狱警领队 为他做担保 to strengthen his credibility.提高他的可信度 As the only guard who ever treated him right,作为唯一一个善待他的狱警 he had a feeling Kobayashi would do the right thing.白鸟认为小林会选择做正确的事 Minutes later, while Shiratori was in the toilet,然而几分钟后 趁着白鸟上厕所 Kobayashi called the police.小林报了警 Maybe not a great plan.白鸟失算了 Just like that, Shiratori was back in prison,就这样 白鸟又回到了监狱 and this time he vowed never to trust an officer of the law again.这次他发誓再也不相信警察了 For the second escape,他的第二次越狱 the courthouse added three more years to his life sentence.法庭在他的终身监禁上又加了三年 Now Shiratori requested to be sent to a Tokyo prison白鸟要求被关到东京的监狱 where the weather was warmer,那里天气更暖和 as he couldn’t stand the cold in the northern prisons.因为他受不了北方监狱的寒冷 His previous stints had weakened him severely,因为之前两次坐牢已经变得极度虚弱 but he was denied his request.但是他的请求被驳回了 Instead the judge sentenced him法官反而判他在日本最北端的 to the infamous Abashiri Prison in Hokkaido,北海道的网走监狱服刑 the northernmost prison in Japan.那是个臭名昭著的监狱 No man had ever escaped from this wintry hellhole of a prison.没有人能从那个寒冷的地狱里逃脱 It was now 1943, and the cold was unbearable in Abashiri时间来到1943年 网走市冻得人吃不消 as the temperature in the cells was below freezing point.牢房里的温度低于冰点 Whenever inmates received their prison food,作为饭食的味噌汤和酱油 the miso soup and soy sauce would often freeze up.在送到囚牢时就已经结冰了 In this temperature a handcuffed Shiratori在这种温度下 戴着手铐 was thrown into an open cell in summer clothing,穿着夏装的白鸟被扔进一间露天囚室 and he immediately felt the paralyzing sting of cold air.他立刻感到了空气中刺骨的寒冷 Perhaps in a fit of desperation, he tried to force himself past the guards.或许是出于绝望 他试图强行越过狱警 But they were able to push him back and beat him down.但是被狱警推了回来 打倒在地 An enraged and defiant Shiratori stood back up白鸟怒不可遏地爬起来 and vowed that he would escape from Abashiri Prison,发誓要从网走监狱逃走 like he’s always done,就像之前一样 and that there was nothing they could do about it.让他们干瞪眼 In fact, he claimed there was little point even putting handcuffs on him,他声称即使给他戴上手铐也没用 as he’d always find a way to break free,因为他总能找到逃脱的方法 if not by lock picking, then well, this.就算不撬锁 这样也行 He the proceeded to rip apart the chain of his handcuffs说着他当场扯断手铐的锁链 to the horror of the guards.令狱警惊骇不已 It turned out Shiratori had another special ability.原来白鸟还有另一个技能 Aside from his outstanding climbing abilities,除了出色的攀爬能力 he also possessed incredible strength, almost superhuman strength.他还拥有近乎超人般不可思议的力量 Back in Akita Prison,在秋田监狱时 he could have broken free of the cuffs the physical way要不是需要重新戴上手铐 if he didn’t have to put them back on.他大可以徒手挣脱手铐 Now this was impressive, but it wasn’t so smart他的举动确实让人印象深刻 to lay his cards on the table like that,但像这样摊牌并不明智 as the guards were starting to build an escape profile on him.因为监狱已经开始为他量身定做防越狱计划 They knew he had lock picking abilities,他们知道他有开锁的能力 lizard-like climbing abilities,像蜥蜴一样的攀爬能力 and now almost superhuman strength.还有现在得知的近乎超人般的力量 And so they set out to devise the ultimate escape-proof cell,于是他们着手设计一个绝对能困住白鸟的 one that was sure to be Shiratori proof.终极防越狱囚室 And they came up with this.然后他们就想出了这个囚室 The new cell had steel fixtures with a low chance of rot.新囚室由不易腐烂的钢铁打造 Any openings, even the bars removed, were made smaller than his body,所有开口 即使移除铁条之后 都比白鸟的身体小 meaning there was no way he could physically fit through.这样白鸟就没法钻出去了 He had specially made solid iron handcuffs他还被戴上一副实心铁制手铐 that tied his hands behind his back,双手被拷在身后 and leg cuffs that made him barely able to stand.脚镣使他寸步难行 These cuffs weighed 20 kgs each这些镣铐每个重达20公斤 and had no keyhole,而且没有钥匙孔 which meant they could not be lock picked.这意味着想撬都没处撬 And the only way they could be removed was by two metalwork specialists只能由两名金属加工专家 who would come once every few weeks to remove them每隔几周来一次取下 in an arduous two hour process.整个过程耗时两个小时 It was at this point, and only this point,这时 也只有在这个时候 that he could even take a bath.他才可以洗个澡 And he certainly needed one as weeks of being shackled up因为连续几周戴着镣铐 无法行动 with no movement meant his cuff wounds他被镣铐磨出的伤口爬满了蛆虫 were infested with maggots.他也确实需要洗个澡 On top of that, and as cold as it had already been,雪上加霜的是 尽管天气已经很冷了 it wasn’t even peak winter yet.但是最冷的时候还未来临 Any strength he would have left would surely be nullified by the upcoming freeze.他的力量肯定会被即将到来的寒冷大大削弱 Though just in case,不过为了以防万一 they still made sure to cut his already meager food portions in half.他们还是把他本就不多的伙食减半 And so that was it.就是这么绝 Even for Shiratori, this was too much.即使为了对付白鸟 这也太过分了 As winter came he succumbed to his fate.冬天来了 白鸟向命运低头了 Every day the guards would slide his meal through the opening每天狱警都会把他的食物从洞口滑进去 and he’d be forced to grovel like a dog.他被迫像狗一样匍匐着 His hand and leg cuffs made every action awkward and uncomfortable,手铐脚镣让他的每一个动作都很笨拙和不适 with even sleeping being a pain.甚至连睡觉都很痛苦 There was no doubt life in Abashiri Prison was absolute torture.毫无疑问 网走监狱的生活绝对是酷刑 Now fast forward.时光飞逝 Shiratori was somehow able to survive through the winter, and spring was coming.冬去春来 白鸟熬了过来 This meant he was starting to get his strength back.这意味着他的力量也逐渐开始恢复 But still, what could he really do?但是 他到底能做什么呢? He was literally in a bind.他确实陷入了困境 Months passed and well, nothing seemed to happen.几个月过去了 什么都没有发生 Then one night in August,八月的一个晚上 a guard in his office was doing some paperwork一名在办公室处理文件的狱警 when he heard some shuffling on the roof.听到了屋顶上有些声响 He wasn’t sure what it was,他不确定是什么 but he decided to check on the prisoners.但是决定去看看那些囚犯 As he looked inside Shiratori’s inescapable cell,当他望进白鸟由荣那个无法逃脱的囚室时 he was stunned.他惊呆了 The futon bed and prison garments were neatly folded up.蒲团被和囚服都被叠得整整齐齐 The specially made 20 kg handcuffs and leg cuffs that would have required重达20公斤 需要两名专家花两个小时 two specialists two hours to remove was placed on the side.才能取下来的特制铐镣摆在一旁 And Shiratori was nowhere to be seen.而白鸟却不见踪影 He had finally fulfilled his promise to the guards.他最终兑现了对狱警的威胁 The alarm immediately sounded,警报立即响起 but despite the work of the search party,但是无论搜索队如何竭力寻找 it seemed he had truly disappeared.白鸟都似乎真的消失了 But how on earth did this happen?但这究竟是怎么发生的呢? How did he escape from the fortress that was Abashiri Prison?白鸟是如何从堡垒般严密的网走监狱逃走的呢? Well, preparation had started six months earlier.其实 准备工作早在六个月前就开始了 At the time he didn’t have the strength or stamina to mount any sort of escape,那时他没有力气或体力实施逃跑计划 not to mention the restraints he was in.更别提还有镣铐禁锢着他 The one thing he did have was time and patience.他唯一拥有的就是时间和耐心 Every day the guards would slide his meal through.每天狱警都会把食物滑进洞口 And while he struggled to eat his food off the floor,当他在地上挣扎着吃饭的时候 he always made sure to save a little bit of the miso soup in the corner.总会在角落里存下一点味噌汤 You see, every night he would hobble awkwardly to the inspection window每天晚上他都会蹒跚着来到检查窗前 and splash a little of it on the steel frame.把味噌汤洒在窗框四周 He would also dab some on his handcuffs and leg cuffs.顺便擦点在自己的手铐和脚镣上 Now his intention was for the salt content of the miso soup他想让味噌汤里的盐分 to oxidize the screws and bolts,氧化螺丝和螺栓 eventually corroding and loosening it.使其最终慢慢被腐蚀 松脱 After a month, this technique of rusting through the iron actually worked,一个月后 这种让铁生锈的办法真的奏效了 and the first screw came out.第一颗螺丝出来了 The next few months saw screws and bolts在接下来的几个月里 coming loose assisted by the use of the first screw白鸟把第一颗螺丝用作螺丝刀 as a sort of screwdriver.撬松了其他螺丝和螺栓 By the end of spring,到春天结束时 he was able to fully remove his handcuffs and leg cuffs,他已经能够完全卸下手铐和脚镣 as well as the steel frame of the inspection window.以及检查窗的钢制窗框 But there was a problem.但是有个问题 The size of the opening was smaller than his body,观察窗比白鸟的身体还小 which meant he couldn’t fit through,这也意味着他爬不出去 a contingency thought out by the guards.这个办法出于狱警的急智 What they didn’t account for though was Shiratori’s fourth ability,但他们万万没想到 白鸟还有第四种能力 which involved being able to dislocate his joints at will.他能够随意让关节脱臼 With this he was now able to slide through the opening like a caterpillar.这样 他就能像毛毛虫一样从洞口溜出去了 This repertoire of skills thus surely making him如此丰富的技能肯定能让他 an honorary member of the X-Men.成为X战警荣誉成员 With that he climbed through a broken window in the roof就这样他从屋顶的破窗爬了出去 and vanished.然后消失了 Impressively, Shiratori had now escaped from three prisons,有目共睹的是 他已经从三处监狱成功逃脱 as well as being the only man to ever escape Abashiri Prison.并且成为唯一一个逃出网走监狱的人 Now good on him for escaping,对他来说逃走是件好事 but this was northern Hokkaido.但这里是北海道北部 And the only direction he could have gone to他唯一能去的方向 was the cold, snowy mountains.只有冰冷的雪山 Actually, the prison guards felt that they had the last laugh事实上 狱警们认为他们才是笑到最后的人 because if the cold didn’t get him因为他就算没被冻死 the mountain bears certainly would.也肯定会被山熊吃掉 Despite this likelihood,虽然存在这种可能 there was one person who stayed hopeful,但有一个人仍然抱有希望 and that was Shiratori’s wife.那就是白鸟的妻子 But she was still worried.但她也很担心 Because even if he was alive,因为她知道 即使他活着 she knew he wouldn’t be able to make it back to his family也回不了家了 as the authorities would be constantly on his tail.因为当局会一直盯着他 Which is why she was desperately and secretly hoping这就是为什么她暗地里迫切地希望 that Japan would lose the war,日本输掉这场战争 as that would enable the US to take over the country,因为那样美国就会占领日本 meaning everyone would likely forget about her husband.这意味着所有人都可能会忘记她的丈夫 Of course, she kept this to herself.当然 她没有把这个想法告诉任何人 But then a year later, in August 1945, she got her wish.但在一年后的1945年8月 她如愿以偿 [bombs exploding][炸弹爆炸声] The Americans had now taken over the country’s penitentiary system,美国人此时已经接管了日本的监狱系统 and sweeping changes were being made.并进行彻底的改革 And it did seem perhaps that the manhunt for Yoshie Shiratori had now taken a back seat.虽然看起来抓捕白鸟由荣似乎已经不重要了 Yet the question remained,但问题依旧存在 where was he and was he even alive?他在哪里?他还活着吗? The answer was yes, he was alive and living a solitary life,答案是肯定的 他还活着 过着孤独的生活 this time self-imposed.这次是他自愿的 It turned out he had discovered an abandoned mine原来 他在北海道荒野的山坡上 on a mountainside in the Hokkaido wilderness发现了一个废弃的矿井 and was able to make a home for himself.并且在那里为自己建了一个家 For food he lived off nuts and berries, wild rabbits and raccoons,他以坚果 野果 野兔和浣熊为食 and was even able to learn to catch crabs甚至通过观察熊的习性 from a stream by observing the habits of bears.学会从小溪里抓螃蟹 Life was steady and safe.生活既稳定又安全 But after a while, curiosity got the better of him.但是过了一段时间 白鸟开始好奇外面的世界 And so after two years of isolation于是在与世隔绝两年之后 he made his way down the mountain to a nearby village.他下山来到了附近的一个村庄 What he saw astounded him.但所见场景让他倍感震惊 The streets were filled with signs written in English.街上到处都是英语标志 The posters and flags emblematic of the war effort had vanished.象征着战争的海报和旗帜都已消失不见 And even more strange, young Japanese girls更奇怪的是 年轻的日本女孩 were holding hands with American soldiers.和美国士兵手牵着手 What on earth was going on?到底是怎么一回事? He grabbed a newspaper that had been set aside,他拿起一旁的报纸 flipped through the pages,从头翻到尾 and it was only then that he found out这时他才发现 about the atomic bombs, Hiroshima and Nagasaki广岛和长崎被原子弹轰炸了 Japan had surrendered the previous year, and he couldn’t believe it.他不敢相信 日本在前一年就投降了 As with his wife, he felt it was now pointless to hide.和妻子一样 他觉得现在没必要再躲下去了 And so bid farewell to his old hunter-gatherer lifestyle.就这样 他告别了曾经靠打猎采集维生的生活 He headed south of Abashiri for the next 50 days在接下来的50天里 他一路南下 until he reached the city of Sapporo.直到到达了札幌市 At this point he was starving.这时的他饿坏了 So he found himself a nice ripe tomato from a nearby field,于是从附近的地里找到一颗成熟的西红柿 which was a huge mistake.并因此铸下大错 A farmer had spotted him有个菜农发现了他 and mistook him for a well-known local thief,将他错认成当地的一个惯偷 which led to a scuffle resulting两人扭打在一起 in the farmer’s abdomen being pierced by a blade.结果菜农的腹部被刀刺穿 Sadly he bled out and died.不幸因失血过多而死 But not before Shiratori was arrested for the crime.然后白鸟就因犯罪被捕入狱 It wasn’t long until police found out没过多久 警方就发现 that they had in fact had the infamous Yoshie Shiratori in their custody.他们拘留的人其实就是臭名昭著的白鸟由荣 For his multiple escapes and having now murdered the farmer,尽管他声称自己是自卫 despite his claims of self-defense, he was sentenced to death但由于多次越狱和谋杀菜农 by the District Court of Sapporo.他被札幌地方法院判处死刑 And in 1947, he was sent to Sapporo Prison to await execution.1947年 他被送到札幌监狱等待处决 Now to ensure he wouldn’t escape this time while on death row,为了防止他这次再从死牢中逃脱 he was placed under 24 hour surveillance监狱派了6名武警 with six armed guards personally assigned to his watch.24小时监视着他 As for the cell itself,至于囚室本身 it was upgraded further from the one in Abashiri Prison也在网走监狱囚室的基础上升级了 with reinforced doors, ceilings, bars, windows.牢门 天花板 栏杆和窗户都加固了 In fact, any openings were made smaller而且所有的开口都做得 than the size of his head, not just his body,比他的头还要小 而不仅仅是他的身体 learning from the Abashiri escape.这是从网走监狱吸取的教训 As while he may be able to dislocate his joints,就算他能让关节脱臼 he certainly can’t dislocate his skull.但总不能把头也掰下来吧 As long as his head can’t fit, they were good.只要比他的头小 就万无一失了 The six guards were so confident in fact事实上 这六名警卫非常自信 that they didn’t even bother cuffing him.他们甚至都懒得给白鸟戴手铐 Now Shiratori was getting old这时的白鸟已经老了 and the odds of escaping by this point were looking slim.在这个时候逃跑的机会看起来很渺茫 As his execution loomed near,行刑日期一天天临近 there was little he could really do, and the guards knew that.白鸟却无能为力 这一点警卫们也知道 They could see the desperation on his face, looking up,他们看到白鸟一脸绝望地看着天花板 searching for an escape plan that they knew would never come.寻找着他们知道永远不会出现的逃跑机会 Though still, just in case, they made sure to search his room every night不过 为了以防万一 他们每晚都会在他洗澡时 while he was taking a bath in the bathhouse,搜查他的房间 inspecting the ceiling, skylight, and any other openings.检查天花板 天窗和其他开口 A month passed and winter was now coming, weakening him further.过了一个月 冬天来了 他的身体更加虚弱 And the realization was starting to dawn on him.白鸟也开始意识到这一点 He grew increasingly despondent, staying in bed,他越来越沮丧 整天躺在床上 refusing to wake up despite the orders of the guards.无论狱警怎么命令都不肯定起来 This went on for a while,这样一段时间后 until one morning, the guards had enough直到有天早晨 狱警们受够了 and entered the cell to discipline him.走进囚室来教训他 They flipped over the duvet and he was gone.他们掀开被子 发现白鸟不见了 This was not possible.这不可能 How did he do it this time?他这次又是怎么做到的? Going back to when he was first placed under 24 hour surveillance时间回到刚开始有6名武装狱警 with the six armed guards personally assigned to his watch.24小时监视他的时候 He had in fact conditioned them to look up and keep up实际上 他从一开始就让狱警习惯他 from the very start,抬头向上看的行为 not just because his previous escape attempts不仅是因为他之前 involved climbing through skylight windows on ceilings,从天花板上的天窗爬出去的经历 but also his suspicious, yet as it turned out very intentional, behavior of还因为他疑似 但后来证明十分刻意 constantly looking up to figure out an escape plan.一直抬头寻找逃跑机会的行为 Little did they know, it was all an act他们丝毫不知道 一切都是演戏 and that he already had one.而且他已经演过一场了 But it would be taking place precisely where they weren’t looking.当然狱警们对此浑然不觉 You see, it turned out the authorities were so concerned狱方太过担心他 with him escaping through a window or skylight会从窗户或者天窗逃走 that they neglected to reinforce the bottom.以至于忽略了加固地底 This ironically ended up being his easiest and simplest escape讽刺的是 这最终成了他最简单的逃脱方式 because all he had to do was remove the bolted floorboards,因为他唯一要做的就是拆掉固定底板 which wasn’t easy but he had experience,虽然不容易 但他有经验 and using random cutlery and a miso soup bowl,他用餐具和味噌汤碗 dig his way to freedom.挖了一条自由之路 This took over a month.用时一个多月 And he was able to hide his activities之所以没人发现他的行动 due to A, the guards not suspecting this approach,一是守卫没有怀疑到这个办法 and B, the floorboard panels being put back in place every night after digging.二是他每晚挖完后都会把地板放回原处 The six guards thought they were keeping a good eye on him even at night.那六名狱警以为他们不分昼夜地看守着他 But with the hole consistently positioned underneath the futon and duvet但是由于地道口一直藏在床垫和被褥下 and it increasingly becoming the norm而他们也习惯了白鸟 to refuse the orders of the guards to wake up,拒绝执行他们叫醒他的命令 nothing seemed out of the ordinary.一切似乎没什么不对劲的 Placing a pile of loose floorboards underneath the duvet to trick them他和第一次从青森监狱越狱时一样 was also a callback to his first prison escape in Aomori.在被子里塞了一堆松动的地板来骗他们 So he had now escaped from prison four times.这已经是他第四次越狱了 And by this point the story is starting to get ridiculous.到这个时候 故事开始变得有些荒谬 But this perpetual cycle of capture and escape, capture and escape,但是这种抓了逃 逃了抓的无休止循环 was about to end.就要结束了 Because a year later, in 1948, Shiratori was exhausted.因为一年后 也就是1948年 白鸟厌倦了 He was in his 40s now.这时的他已经40多岁了 And this was a young man’s game.不想再玩年轻人的游戏了 One day in the Kotoni neighborhood, still in Sapporo,某天在札幌的琴似附近 as he stopped to rest,他停下来休息的时候 a policeman just happened to sit by his side for a smoke.一名警察碰巧坐在他旁边抽烟 He didn’t who Shiratori was, but he struck up a conversation with him.他不知道白鸟是谁 但和他聊了起来 Shiratori, of course, was wary of his presence当然 白鸟对他的出现很警惕 and tried to play it cool,他试图保持冷静 all the while attempting to figure out a way to remove himself同时一直在想办法 from the situation without being suspicious.在不引起怀疑的情况下脱困 Suddenly the policeman did something unexpected, at least to him.突然 这个警察做了一件出乎他意料的事 He pulled out another cigarette and offered it to him.他掏出另一根烟递给他 Shiratori was stunned.白鸟愣住了 You see, cigarettes were expensive luxury items in Japan at the time.要知道 当时香烟在日本可是昂贵的奢侈品 And the fact that someone offered it to him just out of the kindness of his heart居然有人出于好意给了他一根 brought tears to his eyes.这让他热泪盈眶 Not to mention all his life he had been abused and mistreated by officers of the law,更别提他一生都受到警察的虐待了 with even the head guard, Kobayashi, turning his back on him.甚至连狱警队长小林也不愿帮助他 And here was an instance of an officer treating him kindly with respect,而现在有一位军官不带任何偏见地 and with no prejudgment.善待他 尊重他 As he smoked the cigarette,白鸟一边抽着烟 Shiratori couldn’t help but tell the officer his full name, Yoshie Shiratori,一边忍不住告诉警察 他的全名是白鸟由荣 and that he had escaped from Sapporo Prison last year.还说出他去年从札幌监狱越狱 In fact, he had escaped from prison four times in his life.事实上 他一生中曾四次越狱 It was strangely a relief to get it all off his chest,奇怪的是 把一切说出来后 他松了一口气 and he was even ready for the consequences.他甚至准备好了承担后果 After the Kobayashi incident he had vowed小林事件发生后 他曾发誓 never to trust another officer of the law again.再也不相信任何警察了 But the simple act of receiving a cigarette但是从一个陌生人手里接过一支香烟 from a stranger broke him.这个简单的动作让他崩溃了 Of course, he was arrested again, but this time things were different.当然 他再次被捕 但这一次情况不同 Maybe it was the fact that he willingly gave himself up,也许是因为他自首 or that Japan’s justice system was going through a change.也或者是日本的司法制度改变了 But the High Court of Sapporo became sympathetic to Shiratori’s plight.札幌高院对白鸟的困境表示同情 And some of his past claims were recognized,也承认了他过去的一些申诉 such as acknowledging the farmer’s death as a legitimate case of self defense.比如菜农的死是正当的自卫行为 They also made note that throughout all four of his prison escapes他们还注意到 在他的四次越狱中 he didn’t kill or injure a single guard,尽管他遭受了虐待 despite the abuse he may have suffered at the ends.但是他最终没有杀死或伤害一个狱警 At the end of the deliberation,在庭审结束时 the High Court dismissed the murder charge,札幌高院驳回了白鸟的谋杀指控 revoking his death sentence,撤销了对他的死刑判决 and instead sentenced him to just 20 years in prison.只判处他20年监禁 Further, they approved his request to be transferred此外 他们批准了他要求到 to a Tokyo prison where the weather was warmer.天气更暖和的东京监狱服刑的请求 He was getting what he wanted.他得到了他想要的 In Tokyo he was sent to Fuchu Prison where,他被送到了东京的府中监狱 for the first time, the guards actually treated him well.在那里 他第一次受到了狱警的善待 It was a weird feeling.感觉还有点奇怪 There were all these precautions and security measures in place to ensure监狱做足了安全防范措施 that the infamous Prison Break Magician wouldn’t escape.以防这位大名鼎鼎的“越狱之王”再次逃脱 But the truth was Shiratori didn’t really care anymore.而事实上白鸟已经不在乎了 Everything he’d been fighting against,因为所有他一直在抗争的东西 the mistreatment from guards, the death penalty,狱警的虐待 死刑 even the northern climate, was no longer of concern.甚至是北方的气候 都不再是问题 And he was at peace.所以他很平静 There was no need to escape anymore.也没有必要再逃了 He finally accepted his punishment.他最终接受了惩罚 And for the remainder of his sentence acted as a model prisoner.在剩下的服刑期间 变身模范囚犯 Just 14 years later, in 1961, he was released on parole.就在14年后 也就是1961年 他被假释出狱 And for the first time in a long time这么多年来第一次 he was truly a free man.他获得了真正的自由 He decided to head back to Aomori where it all began他决定回到青森县 这个一切开始的地方 and meet up with his daughter,去见他的女儿 who by this point unfortunately was the only family member he had left.不幸的是 此时他的家人只剩下女儿还活着 For his incredible escapes,因为传奇的越狱经历 Yoshie Shiratori became a legend, an antihero in Japan.白鸟由荣成为日本一个反英雄般的传奇人物 But it was very much the opposite for the country’s penitentiary system,但是对于日本监狱系统来说 情况恰恰相反 which had somehow allowed him to escape time and time again.让白鸟一次又一次从监狱逃脱 This was a national embarrassment for Japan.使其在全国人民面前丢脸 But just as preventing criminals from breaking正如防止罪犯越狱 out of the system is vital for the safety of society,对社会的安全至关重要 so is preventing them from breaking into the system,防止黑客入侵你的系统 your system that is.同样至关重要 And for that I’d personally recommend Dashlane.为此 我个人推荐一款软件Dashlane Because Dashlane makes keeping track of all your passwords super duper easy.Dashlane能够非常轻松地记录你所有的密码 It stores all your passwords and personal information将你所有的密码和个人信息 in one extremely secure place存储在一个非常安全的地方 and autofills them on websites you go to,自动填充到你访问的网站上 syncing across all your devices还可以同步到你所有设备上 like iOS, Android, Mac, and Windows.像iOS Android Mac Windows I’ve said this before,我之前说过 but if you have the same password everywhere如果你所有账户都使用同一个密码 and are too lazy to go to each individual website跟我一样 懒得在每个网站 to change your passwords, kind of like me,都用不同的密码 or you just can’t be bothered filling out tedious online forms,或者只是懒得在网上填那些繁琐的表格 also like me, well, it’s not a problem.那么现在这些都不成问题了 Because you can just click one button on the Dashlane app因为只需要在Dashlane上轻轻一点 and it does it all for you.它就能替你完成所有操作 There’s even a built in VPN for every device you use而且所有设备都有内置VPN and dark web monitoring和暗网监控 so you can be alerted instantly一旦你的个人信息泄露或被盗 if your personal information is leaked or stolen.可以立即收到提醒 Okay, but wait.但是等等 What if Dashlane gets hacked?如果Dashlane被黑了怎么办? Well, here’s the thing.情况是这样的 When you create a Dashlane account在你创建一个Dashlane帐户的时候 you create a single master password也创建了一个单一的主密码 which is never transmitted over the internet,这个密码不会通过互联网传输 not even to Dashlane.甚至不会传输到Dashlane Which means Dashlane never, ever has access to it.也就是说Dashlane永远无法访问它 All your data is stored locally,你所有的数据都存储在本地 accessible only on the devices of your choosing.只能在你选择的设备上访问 And even if Dashlane were to be breached,即使Dashlane被入侵 hackers would only be able to access encrypted hidden data黑客也只能访问加密的隐藏数据 that they would have to decode for each individual Dashlane user,他们必须要给每个Dashlane用户解码 which would be like trying to break out这就像试图同时逃出 of a million different prisons simultaneously,一百万座不同的监狱 a feat not even the great Yoshie Shiratori could pull off.这是连伟大的白鸟由荣都无法完成的壮举 By going to dashlane.com/kentobento登录dashlane.com/kentobento you can get a 30 day free trial of Dashlane Premium with all these features and more.可以在30天内免费试用Dashlane高级版的所有功能 And if you like it, please use the promo code KENTOBENTO喜欢的话 付款时使用优惠码KENTOBENTO to get a further 10% off at checkout.可以再享受10%的折扣 Finally, big thanks to Garrett Moriarty from Atlanta, Georgia最后 非常感谢乔治亚州亚特兰大的加勒特·莫里亚蒂 for supporting this channel,和Patreon上所有的赞助人 as well as all our patrons on Patreon.对本频道的大力支持 Cheers.再见
  • 2021-10-17进入世界上最致命的花园(perky music)[轻快的音乐] 英国最致命的花园 Atropa belladonna will kill you.颠茄会让你死掉 Datura will put you to sleep, forever.曼陀罗会让你长眠 Aconitine will kill you.乌头碱会让你死掉 Laurel will produce cyanide and kill you.月桂会产生氰化物并且致命 Every plant here in the Poison Garden is poisonous毒性植物花园里的每种植物都是有毒的 and has the ability to kill you.而且能够致命 My name’s Trevor Jones and I’m the head gardener of Alnwick Garden.我叫Trevor Jones 是阿尼客花园的园丁主管 This plant is giant hogweed.这种植物是巨型猪草 It will get up to around about eight foot high.它会长到大概8英尺高 It’s phototoxic, so it will burn your skin由于它是光毒性植物 所以会灼伤皮肤 and give you blisters for up to seven years.并让你长水疱长达7年 This garden is set in the war garden of the old castle in Northumberland, U.K.这个花园位于英国诺森伯兰郡古城堡的战争花园中 We have around about 95 plants这里约有95种植物 and we’re adding to the collection all the time.而且我们一直在不断增加植物种类 This plant is aconitine, or monkshood.这种植物叫乌头碱 或附子花 Wonderful blue flowers有着美丽的蓝色花朵 but the whole of the plant is poisonous但整个植物都是有毒的 The berries crushed up and fed to you will kill you.浆果压碎后吃掉会让人丧命 The leaves themselves will kill you also,叶子本身也是致命的 as will the root and the stem.根部和茎部也是一样 We have to obviously maintain the garden,我们很显然要养护花园 so we have to tend the plants所以我们必须照料这些植物 and when we do that, we have to be very careful of the way we operate,做这些的时候 我们必须非常小心 时刻注意工作方法 so we have to cover some of our skin因此我们在打理特别危险的植物时 when we deal with particularly dangerous plants.必须遮挡皮肤 This plant is laurel.这是月桂 It produces cyanide, and we all know what that’ll do to you.它会产生氰化物 我们应该都知道其作用是什么 So it was the brainchild of the duchess, the Duchess of Northumberland,这座花园是诺森伯兰郡公爵夫人的智慧结晶 so rather than having a herb garden,她并不打算创建一个草本植物园 she decided to create more interest and have a poison garden.而是决定创造更多利益 然后就有了毒性植物花园 They’re very very common plants.这里的植物都是非常常见的 In fact, a lot of them are what we call cottage garden plants,实际上 很多都是所谓的农舍花园植物 and they’re grown in many people’s gardens许多人的花园里都种植的有 but people don’t know how harmful they actually are.但人们并不知道它们有多致命 This is atropa belladonna.这是颠茄 Four berries are enough to kill a child.四粒浆果就足以杀死一个小孩 People are intrigued by poisonous plants.人们总是对毒性植物很好奇 I’m often very worried when they come out他们来到这里时我经常很担心 because many of them will be growing these plants at home,因为他们大多数都会在家里种植这些植物 and they don’t realize the powerful impact plants can have on us as humans.但却并没有意识到植物对人类的影响有多么巨大 你觉得在这里做园丁有趣吗? Definitely.当然有趣 为什么? It’s a good way to get rid of your wife. (chuckles)这是一种远离妻子的好方法 [轻笑] I don’t know.我也不知道 [咯咯笑]
  • 2021-10-17开放式办公室被高估了Stop!停! 开放式办公室为何被如此高估? Let’s break this down.让我们来分析一下 We all know open offices are bad.我们都知道开放式办公室并不好 There’ve been studies that show that已经有研究显示 private offices “clearly outperformed” open ones.私人办公室“明显优于”开放式办公室 Open offices are about saving money.开放式办公室只是为了省钱 Pricey real estate means that every square foot’s a dollar sign,昂贵的房价意味着寸土寸金 and that’s fine.这也没错 But we don’t like to talk about it that way.但我们不喜欢这么说 We act like it’s about interaction and collaboration,我们装作认为开放式有利于交流协作 even though studies have shown that ease of interaction即使研究已经表明交流在任何种类的办公室 is not an issue in any type of office.都没有问题 To be clear,说得更清楚点 I’m throwing stones from glass office.我不喜欢透明办公室 This is where I work.这是我工作的地方 My desk is incredibly close to my poor neighbors,我的桌子离我可怜的邻桌非常近 I always have to wear headphones to concentrate,为了集中注意 我不得不戴上耳机 and nobody ever…而且从来没有 …talks.和他讲过话 But when you look at really cool companies,但你去看看真正厉害的公司 across the board they all have open offices它们普遍都设有开放式办公室 to “encourage interaction and openness.”来“鼓励交流和开放” Dog vacation website? Open office.狗狗假期网?开发式工作室 Charity website? Open office.慈善网站?开放式办公室 But this is not just penny pinching.但这并不只是抠门 We talk about them like they’re better,我们说得它们好像更厉害 and they used to be.而它们曾经确实是 Open offices were once works of art.开放式办公室曾是艺术品 They were just ruined…它们只是被太多 by too many bad copies.愚蠢的模仿给毁了 This is an open office. It’s a post office from 1872.这是一个开放式办公室 它是一家1982年的邮局 Open offices weren’t invented by hip millennials.开放式办公室不是由时髦的千禧一代发明的 This is not a barista.他不是卖咖啡的 This is not a Feng shui consultant.他也不是一个风水大师 Clerical work was done in big open spaces as early as the 1750’s.早在18世纪50年代 就有行政工作在大型开放式空间进行了 But small rooms were most common.但是小办公室还是最常见的 By the 1900’s,直到二十世纪 more and more people were spending their days in offices.越来越多的人开始在办公室里上班 One genius wanted to make offices more open,一个天才想要让办公室变得更开放 and he wanted open spaces to work better.他还想让开放的空间发挥更大作用 “The Eminent American Architect Frank Lloyd Wright”.杰出的美国建筑师弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特 “Come in lad. Instead of a building being a series of boxes and closets,“进来吧小伙子 新的办公室不再是一连串的隔间 it became more and more open, more and more a sense of space.”它变得越来越开放 越来越有空间感” Wright’s known for his houses, often with open plans,赖特因他开放设计的房屋而出名 but he designed offices too.但他也设计办公室 In 1909, he experimented with open offices in a Buffalo building.1909年 他在布法罗的一栋建筑里试验了开放式办公室 In 1939,1939年 he created a masterpiece in Wisconsin.他在威斯康星州创造了一个杰作 The SC Johnson company needed a new headquarters,庄臣公司要建一个新总部 so they asked Wright to design it.所以他们邀请赖特来进行设计 They make cleaning products like他们生产清洁产品 例如 “RAID!!!!” (bugs screaming)“雷达!!!!” [虫子尖叫声] “Yes Raid, new bug killer discovery from Johnson’s Wax.”“没错 雷达 庄臣公司研发的新型杀虫剂” The administrative building was the highlight.他们的行政楼是一大亮点 It was a stunning open office.那是一个极好的开放式办公室 Wright believed new materials, like steel, enabled bolder designs.赖特认为钢铁等新型材料能支持更大胆的设计 “The box was a fascist symbol“隔间就是法西斯的标志 architecture of freedom and democracy自由民主的建筑需要 needed something beside the box.”隔间之外的东西 Just in case you missed that, he just said boxes are fascist.以免你没注意到 他说隔间就是法西斯 Yeah.行吧 Doesn’t that sound a lot like modern open office hype?听起来很像现代开放式办公室的宣传炒作不是吗? But there were big differences between what Wright made and what we have today.但莱特的作品和如今的办公室之间还是有很大差别的 This thing was incredibly well designed.这个设计很棒 First are these dendriform columns.首先是这些树突状的柱子 Dendriform means tree like.树突状就是像树一样的 They were so elegantly skinny, they worried building inspectors.它们太细了 这让建筑检查员很担忧 The ceiling let in natural light.自然光线能透过天花板进来 Visitors compared it to a cathedral.游客们把这比作一座大教堂 Wright also specially designed each of these desks and chairs.赖特还精心设计了这些桌椅 Just look at all the space between them.看看这些桌椅之间的空间 And managers got private offices on a mezzanine.管理者在夹层有自己的私人办公室 Wright said that it paid off.赖特说这个设计很成功 “One of the first consequences was tea in the afternoon,”“这样一来 下午就可以喝茶 and they didn’t like to go home.”并且他们不喜欢回家” But Wright’s open office was very different但赖特的开放式办公室 from the open drudgery in, say, 1960s “The Apartment.”与上世纪60年代的《公寓》里那种开放式工位大不相同 People eliminated Wright’s careful design work人们淘汰了赖特的精心设计 and made然后设计了 a copy of a copy of a copy.一个又一个复制品 Open, but without Wright’s genius behind it.开放式 但没有了赖特的天资 That’s why people thought a “cubicle”这就是为什么人们认为“隔间” might be the solution.可能更好 The May 1968 issue of Progressive Architecture has a lot of gems.1968年5月的《进步建筑》杂志上有很多精彩的文章 Like this flooring that’s…asbestos tile?就像这个标题……石棉地板? Hindsight 20/20 probably shoulda gone with linoleum.事后看来 或许应该用油毡 Page 174 has a spread about a movement called Bürolandschaft.174页有一篇关于Bürolandschaft运动的文章 It means “office landscape,”Bürolandschaft即“办公室景观” and started in Germany in the 1950’s.起源于20世纪50年代的德国 By the 60’s, it had made its way to America.到了60年代 它又传到了美国 Look at this diagram of DuPont Chemical’s boxy,在Bürolandschaft之前 very organized offices before Bürolandschaft.看看杜邦化学公司四四方方 井井有条的办公室 And now look at the fluid, organic layout they ended up with.现在再看看他们最后的流动有机布局 The idea was to make offices open, but keep them flexible.他们的想法是让办公室开放 但保持灵活性 Herman Miller did the same with their “Action Office.”赫曼米勒公司的“行动办公室”也是如此 “And what exactly is Action Office?”“行动办公室到底是什么?” “Well, I’m walking through it right now.”“嗯 现在 我正从这穿过” Herman Miller’s Robert Propst赫曼米勒公司的罗伯特·普罗普斯特 designed it to break up space,如此设计是为了打破空间 but it allowed for easy interaction and rearrangement.但它可以使人很容易地互动和重新排列 There were even special task groups for each part of the office.甚至办公室的每个部分都有专门的工作组 The idea was constant flexibility这个想法是 with specifically designed furniture.通过特别设计的家具来保持灵活性 But when people copied Bürolandschaft and Action Office,但当人们模仿Bürolandschaft和行动办公室时 they forgot the flexibility and attention to detail.他们忘记了灵活性和对细节的关注 They only saw the walls.他们仅仅只看到了墙壁 So over the decades we got a copy of a copy of a copy.所以几十年以来 我们得到的是一个又一个的复制品 And went from thoughtful design to从深思熟虑的设计 cubicle farm.变成了隔间农场 “We’ll go ahead and get this all fixed up for you.”“我们会为你把一切都安排妥当的” “Great.”“很好” Today’s supposedly hip open offices are, in part, a reaction to cubicle hatred.今天所谓时髦的开放式办公室 有部分是仇恨隔间的产物 But many lack the care and attention of the open offices ofFrank Lloyd Wright,但许多公司缺乏对弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特开放式办公室的关注 or the partitioned privacy of Herman Miller and Bürolandschaft.或者赫曼米勒和Bürolandschaft的分割式私人空间 We’ve kind of got the worst of both worlds.我们可以说拥有世上最糟 The open offices we have are overrated bullpens,我们的开放式办公室就像被高估的牛棚 but the idea is worth executing well.但这个想法值得好好执行 Because it matters too much to stop trying to fix it.因为它太重要了 不能停止寻找解决之道的尝试 “By that we mean the 40 hours a week,“我们指的是每周40个小时 the 87,000 hours,即8.7万个小时 the nearly 10 full years of your life you spend inside the four walls of one room.”用将近整整10年的时间在一个房间的四面墙里度过” So I don’t wanna leave you with the impression that Frank Lloyd Wright’s open office was perfect.我不想让给你们留下弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特的开放式办公室很完美的印象 His custom-designed three legged chairs turned out to be kind of unstable,他定制的三角椅子不太稳定 and they were eventually replaced.最终被替换了
  • 2021-09-14我乘坐了世界上最短的航班,很平常This is the airport on Papa Westray, one of the smallest of the Orkney Islands,这是帕帕韦斯特雷机场 奥克尼群岛中最小的岛屿之一 off the tip of Scotland.位于苏格兰的边缘 It is just a windsock, and a hut, and a gravel runway.只有一个风向袋 一个小屋和一条碎石跑道 I didn’t pick a great day to travel to this tiny little island.虽然我没有选一个好日子来这个小岛旅行 The rain is going to return in just a few minutes, but it’s still been a几分钟后又要下雨了 但这仍是一场 nice little trip out to visit the world’s oldest still standing house.不错的旅行 可以参观到世界上最古老的房子 [wind and rain noise][风和雨的噪声] It’s raining sideways.雨在斜着下 …and also watch some seabirds.还可以看到一些海鸟 From quite a distance.从很远的地方 That’s a bird.那是一只鸟 …that’s a bird.一只鸟 That is also a bird.还是一只鸟 But leaving here, I’m taking the world’s shortest commercial flight但要离开这里时 我要乘坐世上航程最短的商业航班 from this airport to the next island, a mile away.它从这个机场到下一个岛屿 有一英里远 Which sounded like a great video.这听起来像是个很棒的视频 But as I started to write the script, I found some problems.但当我开始写稿的时候 我发现了一些问题 It’s a commercial flight and it’s August 2021 as I record this.正如我记录的 它是一个商业航班 时间是2021年八月 So masks are required, which won’t look great.所以口罩是必须的 尽管不好看 And the planes in use on this route are incredibly loud and rattly.这条航线使用的飞机声音大到难以置信 You wouldn’t hear a thing.你什么也听不见 And I’m not going to be the jackass who’s vlogging on a tiny little plane我不会像个傻瓜一样 在一架有其他乘客的小飞机上拍视频 with other passengers on it, loudly talking and bothering people and大声喧哗 打扰别人 accidentally poking a selfie stick in someone’s face.不小心用自拍杆戳到别人的脸 I’m just going to swap this GoPro out for a 360-camera,我要把这个GoPro换成相机360 and just record voiceover afterwards.然后后期录制画外音 But… a video about commercial aviation logistics, using voiceover?但是……一个关于商业航空物流的视频 使用画外音? Well, that doesn’t sound like me.嗯 那听起来可不像我 That sounds like something that the Wendover Productions channel would do.这听上去像是《文多弗出品》频道会做的事 So, Sam?所以 Sam在吗? – Hey there, Tom! – I’m going to leave this up to you.-嘿我在这儿 Tom! -这事就交给你了 I’m going to go catch my flight.我要去赶航班 Spanning a distance of 1.7 miles or 2.7 km over some 80-or-so seconds,在80秒左右内跨越1.7英里或2.7公里的距离 the flight Tom’s about to takeTom要乘坐的航班 might seem an affront to logic, economics, environmentalism and more.可能看起来冒犯了逻辑 经济学 环保主义等等 But the world’s shortest flight has a very real purpose 但世上最短途的航班对于现实中的人来说 for very real people.有着一个非常实际的目的 You see, the Orkney Islands are a sparsely-populated archipelago.你看 奥克尼群岛是一个人烟稀少的岛 The vast majority of their 22,000-strong population lives on what’s known,他们的2.2万人口中 绝大多数生活在众所周知的“大陆”上 despite its island status, as the “mainland”,尽管它是岛屿 leaving only about 4,000 on the outer islands.只有大约4000人生活在外岛 These outer islanders need ways of getting to the mainland, of course,当然 这些外岛人需要到达大陆的方法 but bridges are expensive,但桥很贵 especially over some of the longer interisland spans in the Orkneys.尤其是奥克尼群岛的部分岛屿间跨度较大 And while ferries do operate throughout the archipelago,尽管渡轮在群岛运作 they’re slow and lack a direct connection to onward travel.但它们还是太慢了 缺乏一个直达的线路 Therefore, the answer is airplanes.因此 解决方法是飞机 Of course, flying is expensive.当然 飞机也贵 And in the world of commercial aviation, it’s typically the case在商业航空的领域 通常情况下 that the lower the demand, the more expensive it is基于每位乘客的基础上 需求越低 for an airline to operate a route on a per passenger basis.航空公司经营每条航线的成本就越高 That’s because smaller destinations lack the economies of scale afforded因为小型目的地缺乏 by operating larger airplanes more frequently at larger airports.大型机场更频繁地驾驶飞机所带来的规模经济 So air service to places with 600 or 90 residents like Westray and Papa Westray因此 在自由市场的基础上 像韦斯特雷和帕帕韦斯特雷这样 is essentially impossible on a free market basis.有600或90名居民的地方提供航空服务基本上是不可能的 The fares would be enormous per passenger, meaning people wouldn’t choose to fly.每个乘客的费用可能是巨大的 这意味着人们不会选择乘飞机 Meaning there wouldn’t be enough passengers to fill a plane.也意味着不会有足够的乘客坐满一架飞机 Therefore, flights to Westray and Papa Westray are subsidized through the UK’s所以 前往韦斯特雷和韦斯特雷帕的航班是通过英国的 public service obligation scheme, 公共服务义务计划获得补贴的 meaning only a small portion of Logan air’s这意味着洛根航空只有一小部分收入 revenue is earned through selling the flight’s £17 or £18 tickets.是由17英镑或18英镑的机票所得 Still, filling a nine-passenger plane to Papa Westray, in particular,然而 坐满一架飞往帕帕韦斯特雷的九人飞机 with its 90-person population would be difficult even at rock bottom prices.尤其是在拥有90名人口的情况下 即使是最低价格也很难做到 Price elasticity only goes so far.价格弹性也只能止步于此 Therefore, Loganair uses a network design referred to as a “milk run”.因此 洛根航空采用了被称为“循环取货”的网络设计 Essentially, it means operating a plane like a bus or train.意思是像驾驶汽车或火车一样驾驶飞机 In this case, the BN-2 Islander aircraft leaves Kirkwall, the largest town这种情况下 BN-2“海岛人”客机载着乘客飞离奥克尼 in the Orkneys, with passengers destined for Papa Westray and Westray.最大的城镇柯克沃尔 前往帕帕韦斯特雷和韦斯特雷 Then it lands in Papa Westray, drops off any passengers destined for然后在帕帕韦斯特雷着陆 到达目的地的乘客下飞机 that island and picks up any passengers traveling to Westray and Kirkwall.然后飞机载着其他乘客前往韦斯特雷和柯克沃尔 Next, it flies those 80 or so seconds to Westray,接下来 它航行80秒左右到达韦斯特雷 drops off its passengers and picks up any final travelers headed for Kirkwall.将乘客送下飞机后载着最后的旅客前往柯克沃尔 This way, it aggregates the cumulative demand of two islands onto one flight,这样 它在一个航班上汇集了两个岛的需求量 allowing for operations to each more regularly than if they both had dedicated flights.考虑到比起开设两个专用的航班 这样每班更有规律 Altogether, this means the only people that might take the flight exclusively总之 这意味着只有那些长途跋涉 between Papa Westray and Westray are aviation enthusiasts and tourists飞这世界上最短商业航班的航空爱好者和旅客 who make the pilgrimage to fly on the world’s shortest commercial flight.才会专门乘坐这个飞往帕帕韦斯特雷与韦斯特雷的航班 Tom, however, is returning to Kirkwall.但是 Tom正返程飞回柯克沃尔 – Sam, thank you so much.Sam 非常感谢 There’s a link to Sam’s channel, Wendover Productions,《Sam的频道》和《文多弗出品》 in the description and on screen. And sure enough,在简介和屏幕上都有链接 果然 the plane spent two minutes on the ground while one passenger disembarked当一名乘客下飞机后 飞机在地面停留了两分钟 and the pilot filled out some paperwork, and then we were off in the air again.飞行员填写了一些文件后我们再次起飞
  • 2021-09-14道歉很重要吗? There’s no doubt that being social, being cooperative,毫无疑问 会社交 易合作 being what some people have called ultra cooperative或是能够实现所谓的超合作 is in many ways our super power.都是我们强大能力的体现 When those relationships are ruptured in some way当一个人因为某些事伤害了另一个人时 due to perhaps one person causing harm to another, 就会导致他们的关系破裂 it’s really important that we are able to repair those relationships.我们能修复这些关系是很重要的 Forgiveness is a really critical part of that repair.原谅是这种修复中的关键一环 Social ties are the basis of every community on earth.社会关系是地球上每个社会团体的基本 But those relationships are also fragile.不过这些关系也很脆弱 So how do we repair them when they’re strained or broken?当社会关系紧张或受损时 我们该如何修复? 原谅的技巧 Philosophy and religion have espoused the virtues of forgiveness for millennia.几千年来 哲学和宗教都在宣传原谅的美德 But the scientific study of forgiveness is fairly new.但是关于原谅的研究却还是门新科学 My name is Amrisha Vaish and I study我叫Amrisha Vaish 我正研究 how children behave cooperatively towards others孩子们是如何与他人合作的 and learn to be moral individuals.如何学习成为一个有道德的人 Causing harm, apologizing, showing remorse造成伤害 学会道歉 表示后悔 feeling concerned for someone who’s been harmed,并关心受伤害的人 all of those are things that children pay attention to所有这些 早在孩子们一岁时 very early on, really in the first year already.就已经意识到了 And I think that tells us something about who we are as a species.这也告诉了我们 作为人类的一些特点 Amrisha’s research involves observing different interactions between a transgressor, Amrisha的研究包括观察 在不同的侵犯者 someone who does something hurtful,即实施侵害行为的人 and a victim, the person hurt by the transgressor.和各种受侵者即受到伤害的人 之间的互动 By observing these interactions,通过观察这些互动 she has been able to see what actually matters她能看到 孩子们在择友和合作时 to children when they choose their friends and collaborators什么才是他们选择的重要依据 and how we as adults could re-examine our priorities以及我们成年人 在维系社交关系时 when it comes to maintaining these social ties.是如何重新界定优先级的 In one study, two experimenters and one child, all drew pictures有这样一个实验 让两个实验者和一个小孩画画 then the experimenters ripped the child’s drawing.然后实验者们撕毁了孩子的画 And one of the transgressors now shows remorse to the child.一个侵害者对孩子表示 懊悔 So she says, Oh, I’ve torn your picture.她说“噢 我撕了你的画” I didn’t mean to do that. It’s my fault.“我不想的 是我错了” And the other transgressor is neutral.而另个侵害者表现平淡 So she says, Oh, I’ve torn your picture, Oh well.她说“噢 好吧 我撕了你的画” So what we now do is ask whom they prefer.我们问孩子 你喜欢哪个人? Then what we found is that by five years of age我们发现 5岁大的孩子明确表示 children clearly preferred the one who had shown remorse.喜欢那个有懊悔表现的 By apologizing to the child,通过向孩子道歉 the transgressor demonstrated a commitment侵害者表现出她想 to maintaining their positive relationship.维护她们之间的积极关系 That made the child want to maintain it too.这使孩子也希望如此 But in real life, our interactions always但现实生活 我们的互动 have more background context.有着更复杂的背景 Such as where we grew up,比如 我们在哪长大 where we went to school and what social groups we align ourselves with.我们在哪上学 我们所处的社交圈 So how do our group identities affect那么群体认知会如何 our ability to choose who we associate with?影响我们选择和谁交往的权利呢? – [Amrisha] In a more recent study,– [Amrisha] 另一个最新的研究 we placed children in a group.我们将孩子们分了组 Either a yellow group or a green group.黄色和绿色两组 And then the two experimenters who came in,然后两个实验者进来 one of them was in the same group as the child.其中一个分在内群体 和孩子们一起 And the second experimenter was the out group member.另一个分在外群体 And so we had now same thing, everyone drew a picture然后进行同样实验 每个人都在画画 and both individuals accidentally tore the child’s picture.然后两个实验者都突然撕了孩子的画 And this time both of them showed remorse.这次 两个大人都表示懊悔 And what we found is that, even though both我们发现 尽管 of them had shown remorse,两者都表示懊悔 children very clearly preferred the in group individual.孩子很明确地更喜欢在内群体的大人 – [Man] By the age of five,– [男] 5岁的孩子 children have already developed biases已经有了关于团体 for their group, their community.社群的偏好 But do children just prefer their own group那是否同组的人不论做什么 no matter how they treat them?他们都更喜欢呢? – [Amrisha] And so to follow up on this, we had same setup– [Amrisha] 为了测试这个 我们设置同样的条件 but now the in group member did not show remorse.但这次 内群体的那位并没有道歉 But the out group member did show remorse.但是外群体的道歉了 And so even though she’s in the outgroup尽管她在外群体 she’s showing this kind of commitment to the child.她仍向孩子表达了歉意 – [Man] Amrisha’s team found– [Man]Amrisha的团队发现 that children consistently prefer在这种情况下 孩子们 the transgressor who showed remorse in this scenario仍旧更喜欢道歉的侵害者 in spite of their different group identity.尽管他们属于不同团体 – [Amrisha] And so here we see, what they really care about– [Amrisha] 从这我们知道 孩子真正关心的 is that the transgressor shows their commitment是侵害者对他们和他们间的关系 to them, to the relationship.是否有歉意 And they will seek that person out over even an in group member.道歉比内群体成员这一因素 更影响孩子们的选择 – [Man] When we apologize to someone outside of our group,– [男] 当我们向自己群体外的人道歉时 we signal to them that we recognize their humanity and我们向他们表示 我们知道他们是善良的 that we want to treat them well,无论他们是哪个群体 regardless of what group they’re in.我们都想和他们友善相处 We’re also acknowledging that a relationship我们承认 和他们之间的关系 with them could be valuable to us.对我们很重要 Being in different groups即使在不同的群体中 doesn’t have to define how we interact.也不会限制我们互动 And when we forgive an individual from another group,当我们原谅另一个群体的某个人时 we’re allowing them to try and bridge that gap too.也是在允许他们尝试去缩小我们之间的距离 The more often we can practice these skills the greater chance we have of building trust我们越是练习道歉的技巧 就越有可能 and relationships between groups that may seem vastly different.在截然不同的群体间建立信任关系 – [Amrisha] We humans are such a super social species.– [Amrisha] 我们人类是一种社交性物种 We really rely on each other to succeed,无论是个体还是群体 to achieve what we want to achieve both我们都依赖彼此而取得成功 as individuals and as a community.实现自己的目标 To do that it’s really vital that we要获得成功 达成目标 我们就要 maintain and sustain our corporative relationships.保持和维系合作关系 这很重要 We wouldn’t survive without them, absolutely.没有它 我们绝对无法生存 To learn more about challenging ideas了解更多新奇观点 like this, visit us at templeton.org/bigquestions.请访问屏幕下方网址
  • 2021-09-14咖啡因成瘾如何改变历史– [Narrator] 90% Of the world’s adults consume -[旁白]世上90%的成年人 some form of caffeine every day,每天都会摄入某种形式的咖啡因 making it the most widely used psychoactive drug on earth.这让咖啡因成为地球上使用最广泛的精神药物 Michael Pollan, best-selling author of books植物药理学的畅销书作家 Michael Pollan on plant pharmacology explains why.向我们解释了个中缘由 – A very strong case can be made that caffeine contributed–有一个强有力的证据表明 to the Enlightenment and the Age of Reason咖啡因在启蒙运动和理性年代 and the Industrial Revolution,以及工业革命 all of which required us to think这些需要人们 in much more focused, linear terms.以更清晰 线性的角度思考的时期作出了巨大贡献 Caffeine was an amazing aid to the rise of capitalism.咖啡因是资本主义兴起的一大助力 [contemplative music][冥想音乐] – [Narrator] Compared to other beverages,与其它饮料相比 coffee is a relative newcomer,咖啡是后来者 spreading slowly from Africa,它从非洲慢慢传播开来 through the Middle East传到中东 and into the West only a few centuries ago.再进入西方也仅是几个世纪以前的事 Yet, it’s hard to even imagine a world without it.尽管如此 咖啡在生活中已是不可或缺 – Before caffeine comes to Europe,–在咖啡传到欧洲前 people were drunk or buzzed most of the day.人们大部分时间都醉醺醺或飘飘然的 People would have alcohol with breakfast.他们在早餐时就喝酒 Water was contaminated with disease,由于水受到疫病污染 but alcohol, because of the fermentation process,而酒经过发酵加工 would kill a lot of microbes.大量的细菌被杀灭 So you gave your kids hard cider in the morning.所以人们早餐会给小孩喝烈苹果酒 There were beer breaks on farms.农场曾有啤酒小憩时间 People addled on alcohol are not gonna be so rational,沉迷酒精的人不会那么理性 are not gonna be so linear in their thinking思维不那么清晰 and are not gonna be so energetic.人也没什么精神 – [Narrator] Coffee consumption,–[旁白]咖啡 along with tea and chocolate, all of which have caffeine,茶和巧克力 这些含咖啡因产品的消费 became widespread in Europe in the 17th century,在十七世纪的欧洲变得非常流行 and coffee houses popped up all over London.咖啡馆如雨后春笋般开满伦敦 – So there were coffee houses dedicated to literature,当时有很多文学主题的咖啡馆 and writers and poets would congregate there.作家和诗人们会在那聚会 There was a coffee house dedicated to selling stock,也有一家咖啡馆做股票交易的 and that turned into the London Stock Exchange, eventually.它最后发展成如今的伦敦证劵交易所 There was another one dedicated to science,还有另一家是科学主题的 tied to the Royal Institution它与英国皇家学会关系紧密 where great scientists of the period would get together,很多当时优秀的科学家都会在那聚首 and Isaac Newton was a big coffee fan,艾萨克·牛顿是咖啡的忠实粉丝 Voltaire, the Enlightenment figure,启蒙运动的代表人物 伏尔泰 apparently had 72 cups a day.据说一天要喝72杯咖啡 I don’t know quite how you do that.难以想象他是怎么做到的 Diderot wrote the encyclopedia on caffeine.狄德罗靠咖啡因写完了百科全书 This new, sober,这种新的 提神的 more civil drink was changing the way people thought更大众的饮料在改变当时人们的思维方式 and the way they worked.和工作方式 Once you’re doing work with machinery, indoors,只要从事操作机器的 在室内的 doing double-entry bookkeeping做复式记账工作的 and all that kind of head work,以及所有脑力劳动 alcohol is the wrong drug,那酒精就是坏事的 and caffeine is the right drug.咖啡因才是正确的选择 Caffeine allows you also to break your ties咖啡因还让人摆脱 to the rhythms of the sun.随日出日落作息的束缚 Before caffeine, basically,在有咖啡因之前 people started work when the sun came up人们基本是日出而作 and stopped when it went down.日落而息 With caffeine and with light or gas light,随着咖啡因 灯或煤气灯的出现 you could have a night shift,人们可以上夜班 you could now have an overnight shift.甚至是通宵工作 – [Narrator] It’s not hard to see a through-line–[旁白]不难看出咖啡因贯穿 from coffeed-up workers keeping up with the pace of the machines in the factories,从 靠喝咖啡与机器同步工作的工厂工人 to the rise of office culture到办公室文化出现 and the establishment of the coffee break in the 1950s.以及20世纪50年代咖啡时间的形成的整个过程 Caffeine has made us super productive.咖啡因让我们有超高的效率 – There’s a very interesting body of research–有一个很有趣的研究表明 that suggests that caffeine does improve focus and memory咖啡因确实能提高注意力和记忆力 and the ability to learn.还有学习能力 So it seems to help us lock in memories.它似乎能帮助我们留住记忆 As for focus, it increases our ability在专注方面 咖啡因能提高 to concentrate on a task,我们集中注意完成任务的能力 it’s incredibly important for modern work.这对现代工作来说十分重要 – [Narrator] And of course,–[旁白]当然 caffeine also gives us a burst of energy, but how exactly?咖啡因还让我们短期内精力倍增 但这究竟怎么做到的呢? Coffee has less than five calories.咖啡只有不到5卡路里的热量 – Caffeine seemed to be in violation of the laws–咖啡因的作用机制似乎不符合 of thermodynamics.能量守恒与转换定律 Essentially, caffeine borrows energy from your future本质上说 咖啡因是预支了人未来的精力 and gives it to you in the present.放到现在去使用 Caffeine occupies a receptor that normally is occupied咖啡因霸占了 原来与 by a chemical called adenosine,一种叫腺苷的化学物质结合的受体 and this is the chemical that,而正是腺苷 over the course of the day,在一天中不断累积 builds up and makes you feel tired让身体感到疲惫 and prepares the brain for sleep.并让大脑准备好进入睡眠 Caffeine gets in there and blocks that receptor咖啡因到脑区后 阻碍腺苷与受体结合 so you never feel that tiredness.所以你不会感到疲惫 – [Narrator] Right, and that’s the catch.–[旁白]是的 这就是问题所在 Caffeine messes with your sleep咖啡因扰乱了人们的睡眠 because four to six hours after you drink it,因为在喝完咖啡4到6小时后 half of it is still swirling around in your body.一半的咖啡因还在人体内流转 – But even if you cut it out earlier in the day,–但即使你早早就喝完了咖啡 the quality of your sleep may suffer.你的睡眠质量也可能受影响 Not the quantity, necessarily, but the quality.关键的不是睡眠时长 而是质量 By which, I mean your deep sleep, your slow wave sleep,我指的是深度睡眠 慢波睡眠 a kind of sleep that’s dreamless and very deep那种一夜无梦的 深度的睡眠 and is very important to kind of brain hygiene.这对大脑健康非常重要 That’s where your brain kind of takes out the garbage那是大脑每晚清除垃圾 every night and cleans up the desktop.自我修整的时候 And that kind of sleep suffers.而受影响的正是这类睡眠 So there’s no free lunch, right, in nature and in medicine.天下没有免费的午餐 对吧 无论是自然界还是医学界 – [Narrator] So is the price we pay–[旁白] 那么咖啡因 for poor sleep worth the benefits that caffeine gives us?带来的好处值得我们牺牲睡眠吗? – There’ve been decades of research into caffeine,–人们对咖啡因的研究已有几十年 and the current research is that, on balance,目前研究表明 总的来说 it contributes much more to your health than it takes away.咖啡因对人类健康的贡献远大于它所带来的损失 And that it’s protective against many kinds of cancer,它能降低多种癌症 cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s, dementia.心血管疾病 帕金森病 痴呆症的发病风险 In the American diet,在美国人的饮食里 coffee and tea represent the single biggest source咖啡和茶是抗氧化物 of antioxidants,最大且单一的来源 and antioxidants are very important to cellular health而抗氧化物对细胞健康 and preventing cancer.癌症预防都非常重要 And we eat so few plants,我们美国人吃太少植物了 so few vegetables and fruit in this country,蔬菜水果都吃得少 that we’re getting most of those antioxidants所以我们只有通过咖啡和茶 from coffee and tea.获得大部分的抗氧化物 It’s kind of remarkable咖啡因很了不起的是 that it has such a clean bill of health它在健康方面着实可圈可点 with that one exception of what it does to your sleep当然除了影响睡眠 or what it can do to your sleep.这个例外 – [Narrator] Right.–[旁白] 是的 Caffeine ruins our sleep咖啡因糟蹋了我们的睡眠 so that the next morning we reach for more caffeine以至于第二天早上需要摄入更多咖啡因 and the cycle of addiction continues.这个上瘾的循环就不断延续 – You know, we tend to moralize addiction,–人们总会对上瘾这件事指指点点 but is it really a bad thing to be dependent on a plant但这真的是件坏事吗? that you have easy access to, you can afford,依赖上一种易获取 负担得起 that isn’t ruining your life and is giving you some benefit?且不会毁掉人生又能带来好处的植物 真的不好吗? The way in which individuals are addicted每个人对咖啡因成瘾的方式 to caffeine is mirrored in our society.会反映到社会中 We have organized our society in such a way我们让社会以某种方式运转 with, like, globe-spanning trade, working long hours就像是全球贸易 人们长时间工作 and changing the climate and changing the environment.改变了气候和环境 We have created a world in which caffeine is indispensable,我们创造了一个离不开咖啡因的世界 and therefore the coffee plant也正因此咖啡作物 and the tea plant are indispensable.和茶树是不可或缺的 And we’ve created exactly the world they need我们也创造了正好是它们需要的 in which to thrive.能让它们蓬勃生长的环境 So, I can’t think of a more clever evolutionary strategy.所以 我想不出还有比这更巧妙的进化策略了 [contemplative music][冥想音乐]
  • 2021-09-07助学贷款的陷阱今天 四千万美国人为了跟上新经济的趋势而背上债务Today 40 million Americans are indebted for their passage to the new economy. 穷到无法支付自己的大学学费Too poor to pay their way through college, 这些人的负债总额已超过一万亿美元they now owe lenders more than one trillion US dollars. 的确 他们尽可能找到工作They do find what jobs they can get 来偿还以个人名义担保的债务to pay off a debt that is secured on their person. 在美国In America, 即使是破产的赌徒也有重来的机会even a bankrupt gambler gets a second chance. 可是几乎不可能发生在美国But it is nearly impossible 的是想要还清自己的助学贷款for an American to get discharged their student loan debts. 以前在美国Once upon a time in America, 上大学不意味着要负债毕业going to college did not mean graduating with debt. 我的朋友保罗的父亲 受益于退伍军人法My friend Paul’s father graduated from Colorado State University 毕业于科罗拉州立大学on the GI Bill. 他那个时代For his generation, 高等教育是免费或收取很少费用higher education was free or almost free, 因为当时高等教育被认为是一种公益事业because it was thought of as a public good. 现在 不是了Not anymore. 当保罗也从 科罗拉多州立大学毕业时When Paul also graduated from Colorado State University, 他是通过兼职才付清攻读英文学位的学费he paid for his English degree by working part-time. 30年前30 years ago, 高等教育的学费定价合理 大多数人都能支付得起higher education tuition was affordable, reasonable, 你欠下的债务在毕业的时候也能还清and what debts you accumulated, you paid off by graduation date. 现在 就不可能了Not anymore. 保罗的女儿也同他们一样 去了科罗拉多大学Paul’s daughter followed in his footsteps, 不同的是but with one difference: 五年前 她是背负巨大债务when she graduated five years ago, 从科罗拉州立大学毕业的it was with a whopping debt. 像凯特那样的学生只能贷款来完成学业Students like Kate have to take on a loan 因为对于大多数美国家庭来说高教学费太过昂贵而负担不起because the cost of higher education has become unaffordable 即便是那些能够负担得起的家庭也是很大一笔支出for most, for many if not most American families. 但那又怎样呢But so what? 借钱支付高昂的学费读书Getting into debt to buy an expensive education 如果能用借钱学到的知识 毕业工作挣钱is not all bad if you could pay it off 来偿还当初贷款的债务 倒也不错with the increased income that you earned from it. 但是事实上But that’s where the rubber meets the road. 2001年 大学毕业生年收入的百分之十Even a college grad earned 10 percent more in 2001 也比她在 2013年的收入多than she did in 2013. 所以So … 学费越来越贵tuition costs up, 公共资金支持越来越少public funding down, 家庭存款越来越少family incomes diminished, 个人收入越来越低personal incomes weak. 所以这也难怪为什么有四分之一的学生Is it any wonder that more than a quarter of those who must 无法偿还他们学生时候的债务cannot make their student loan payments? 最坏的时代也可能是最好的时代The worst of times can be the best of times, 因为根本原因相继涌现 让你无法忽视because certain truths flash up in ways that you can’t ignore. 我今天想说其中三点I want to speak of three of them today. 1.2 万亿的助学贷款债务1.2 trillion dollars of debts for diplomas 非常明显地证明了make it abundantly obvious 高等学位已经变成了 可以购买的消费品that higher education is a consumer product you can buy. 我们口中的教育 变得的跟经济学家搞的经济一样All of us talk about education just as the economists do now, 看做一种来提高人类自身收益的投资as an investment that you make to improve the human stock 以类似工作培训的方式来实现by training them for work. 这种投资将人排序分类As an investment you make to sort and classify people 以帮助雇主更轻松地挑选雇员so that employers can hire them more easily. 美国新闻与世界报道对大学进行排名The U.S. News & World Report ranks colleges 就像消费者报道为洗衣机排名一样just as the consumer report rates washing machines. 措辞辛辣粗鲁The language is peppered with barbarisms. 教师们被称为 业务提供商Teachers are called “service providers,” 学生们则是 消费者students are called “consumers.” 社会学 莎士比亚 足球和科学Sociology and Shakespeare and soccer and science, 就是商品内容all of these are “content.” 学生贷款有利可图Student debt is profitable. 但学生不是受益者Only not on you. 你的负债意味着学生贷款工业的利润增加Your debt fattens the profit of the student loan industry. 两大学生贷款供应商The two 800-pound gorillas of which — Sallie Mae 和NavientSallie Mae and Navient — 去年公布的赢利共12亿美元posted last year a combined profit of 1.2 billion dollars. 就像房贷一样And just like home mortgages, 学生贷款也可以任意捆绑或分割student loans can be bundled and packaged and sliced and diced, 并在华尔街出售and sold on Wall Street. 大学和学院And colleges and universities 那些投资于证券化贷款的学校that invest in these securitized loans 便可从中双重获利profit twice. 首先是从你缴纳的学费Once from your tuition, 然后再从债务利息中获利and then again from the interest on debt. 为了获取巨额利润With all that money to be made, 令人震惊的是 一些高等教育企业are we surprised that some in the higher education business 开始打虚假广告have begun to engage in false advertising, 用欺骗的方法高价出售in bait and switch 冠以教育之名 行以剥削之实in exploiting the very ignorance that they pretend to educate 第三Third: 学位品牌化diplomas are a brand. 许多年前 我的老师曾写道Many years ago my teacher wrote, 当学生被当成消费者的时候“When students are treated as consumers, 上瘾和嫉妒就会应运而生they’re made prisoners of addiction and envy.” 正如 消费者不断购买更新版本的苹果手机Just as consumers can be sold and resold upgraded versions of an iPhone, 人们也可以购买各种教育so also people can be sold more and more education. 大学是新的高中College is the new high school, 我们早已深知这点we already say that. 但是 我们可能就此打住么But why stop there? 各种证书 新证People can be upsold on certifications and recertifications, 硕士 甚至博士学位不断推销出去master’s degrees, doctoral degrees. 高等教育也是一种地位象征Higher education is also marketed as a status object. 买一个学位Buy a degree, 与买一辆雷克萨斯轿车或一个路易威登包一样much like you do a Lexus of a Louis Vuitton bag, 都能彰显你的与众不同to distinguish yourself from others. 然后你就成为别人嫉妒羡慕的对象了So you can be the object of envy of others. 文凭是一种品牌Diplomas are a brand. 然而这些真相 通常都被恼人的商业宣传重重掩盖But these truths are often times hidden by a very noisy sales pitch. 没有哪天我们不会听到There is not a day that goes by 那些搞政治的家伙在电视上游说without some policy guy on television telling us, 说 大学文凭是非常重要的“A college degree is absolutely essential 它能助你搭乘中产阶级的向上电梯to get on that up escalator to a middle-class life.” 通常此言论的证据就是大学溢价And the usual evidence offered is the college premium: 大学毕业生的收入平均 比高中毕业生的收入高出56%a college grad who makes on average 56 percent more than a high school grad. 让我们更仔细地看一下统计数据Let’s look at that number more carefully, 因为从表面上看because on the face of it, 听起来和实际上大学生毕业做咖啡师收银员it seems to belie the stories we all hear 的故事大不相同about college grads working as baristas and cashiers. 每一百名注册高等教育的人里面Of 100 people who enroll in any form of post-secondary education, 有45名学生未能及时毕业45 do not complete it in a timely fashion, 这有很多原因 经济因素也囊括其中for a number of reasons, including financial. 而那些顺利毕业的55人中Of the 55 that do graduate, 有2人找不到工作two will remain unemployed, 18人大材小用and another 18 are underemployed. 所以 即使大学生挣的比高中生多So, college grads earn more than high school grads, 但他们的收入能支付昂贵的学费吗but does it pay for the exorbitant tuition 还有上大学的那几年不能工作的薪水损失呢and the lost wages while at college? 现在 甚至经济学家都承认Now even economists admit 只有对能完成学业的来说 大学才是值得的going to college pays off for only those who complete it. 那是因为高中生的薪酬被不断压榨But that’s only because high school wages have been cut to the bone, 这种现象已存在数十年for decades now. 几十年来For decades, 拥有高中学历的人们workers with a high school degree 无法平等地按劳取酬have been denied a fair share of what they have produced. 一旦他们得到了自己应有的报酬And had they received as they should have, 那么对许多人来说 上大学不是个划算的事儿then going to college would have been a bad investment for many. 大学溢价的原因College premium? 是高中折价I think it’s a high school discount. 三分之二的在校大学生并不能找到适合的工作Two out of three people who enroll are not going to find an adequate job. 前景也并不光明And the future, for them, doesn’t look particularly promising — 甚至是彻底灰暗的in fact, it’s downright bleak. 而正是这些大学生们And it is they who are going to suffer 他们将遭受助学贷款的各种磨难the most punishing forms of student debt. 也正是这些大学生们And it is they, 好奇又有些可怜curiously and sadly, 成为大肆广告的大学溢价的对象who are marketed most loudly about this college premium thing. 这样的市场营销不仅是讽刺的That’s not just cynical marketing, 更是残酷的that’s cruel. 那么我们应该怎么做呢So what do we do? 如果学生和家长把高等教育看成消费品 会怎么样What if students and parents treated higher education as a consumer product? 似乎大家都是这样想的Everybody else seems to. 然后 就像其他的消费产品一样Then, like any other consumer product, 你会要求知道你到底购买了什么产品you would demand to know what you’re paying for. 当你购买药物的时候When you buy medicines, 商家会标出一系列的副作用you get a list of side effects. 当你购买高等教育这个产品时When you buy a higher educational product, 学校也应该设置提示标语you should have a warning label 以供消费者选择that allows consumers to choose, 从而理性购物make informed choices. 当你买汽车时When you buy a car, 汽车经销商会告诉你每加仑油 可以行进的英里数it tells you how many miles per gallon to expect. 但谁知道Who knows what to expect 从加拿大学术研究的学位中 我们能得到什么效果吗from a degree saying Canadian Studies. 当然 这仅只是一个例子而已There is such a thing, by the way. 如果有一个专门的应用呢What if there was an app for that? 将专业的花费和预期的收益联系起来的appOne that linked up the cost of a major to the expected income. 取名为收入基准学费或IBTLet’s call it Income-Based Tuition or IBT. 就你们来做好了One of you make this. (笑声)(Laughter) 评估你的现实条件Discover your reality. (笑声)(Laughter) 当然这样做有三大优势There are three advantages, 收入基准学费应用的三大优势就在于three benefits to Income-Based Tuition. 任何人都可以判断出Any user can figure out 列出的大学学位或专业能够带来多少收入how much money he or she will make from a given college and major. 这样 人们充分了解后Such informed users 就不会成为商家广告are unlikely to fall victim to the huckster’s ploy, 和各种销售手段的受害者to the sales pitch. 而做出更加明智的选择But also to choose wisely. 如果大学的学费比将来收入要高出15%Why would anybody pay more for college 那何苦还要上大学呢than let’s say, 15 percent of the additional income they earn? 第二个好处是There’s a second benefit to Income-Based Tuition. 将花费与收入相连By tying the cost to the income, 强制学校合理收费college administrators would be forced to manage costs better, 用创新方式来推行to find innovative ways to do so. 例如For instance, 不同专业的学生学费大概相同all of you students here pay roughly the same tuition for every major. 这很明显是不公平的 需要进行调整That is manifestly unfair, and should change. 学工程的比学哲学的An engineering student uses more resources 运用更多资源和设施and facilities and labs and faculty 需要更多实验室和教职工than a philosophy student. 结果就是等于哲学专业的学生But the philosophy student, as a consequence, 在补贴着工程专业学生的学费is subsidizing the engineering student. 但是 谁又挣得更多呢Who then, by the way, goes on and earns more money. 为什么两个人付相同的费用Why should two people buy the same product, 买相同的产品pay the same, 享受的服务只是别人的一半或者 三分之一but one person receive half or a third of the service. 实际上 一些专业的毕业生In fact, college grads, some majors, 要拿出25%的工资付学生贷款pay 25 percent of their income servicing their student debt, 与此同时 其他人只需花费5%while others pay five percent. 只有将不同专业更适当地定价 才能结束这种不平等现象That kind inequity would end when majors are priced more correctly. 当然 定价的数据Now of course, all this data — 在座的会有人做这个 对吧and one of you is going to do this, right? 所以数据需要合理设计All this data has to be well designed, 也许需要公共会计师事务所来审计maybe audited by public accounting firms 避免统计欺诈to avoid statistical lies. 我们都对统计略知一二We know about statistics, right? 尽管如此But be that as it may, 收入基准学费的第三个 也是最大的好处是the third and biggest benefit of Income-Based Tuition, 美国公民避免担心由于购买瑕疵产品is it would free Americans from the fear and the fact of financial ruin 而遭受经济损失because they bought a defective product. 也许 最后Perhaps, in time, 美国人会重新发掘young and old Americans may rediscover, 就如人们之前所说as the gentleman said earlier, 好奇心和对学习的热爱their curiosity, their love of learning — 会让人们学习自己所爱的begin to study what they love, 也热爱自己学到的love what they study, 由激情所引导follow their passion … 用才智的积累getting stimulated by their intelligence, 沿着探索的道路追寻真正想了解的未知follow paths of inquiry that they really want to. 毕竟 埃里克和凯文就是这样的After all, it was Eric and Kevin, 两年前two years ago, 就像大多数年轻人那样just exactly these kinds of young men, 他们启发了我 并跟我一同工作who prompted me and worked with me, 现在我们仍在一起工作and still do, 研究美国负债学生的情况in the study of indebted students in America. 感谢您的倾听Thank you for your attention. (掌声)(Applause)
  • 2021-09-03若い衆:日本第三性别的生活(江户时代的男男爱情)Japan’s Edo Period was a golden age of peace, culture, and a lot of sex.日本江户时代是和平文化与性的黄金时代 The red-light district of the capital bustled with men from all over首都的红灯区挤满了来自于全国各地的男人 paying top dollar for women who hated them.他们付高价消遣妓女 Now that’s all well and good这一切都还行 but what about the other kind of sex, the kind between two males?但是另一种性关系呢 两个男性之间的那种 Did that exist? You betcha.这种关系存在吗?那还用说 You’ll be happy to know that that did exist,我们惊喜地发现这种关系的确存在 and it was fascinating它很迷人 until you find out that it was mainly sex between men and boys直到发现这种性关系主要是在成年男子和男孩之间 So go ahead and throw up,所以尽管吐吧 then put on your historian thinking condom or IUD,然后就像戴上套套和宫内节育器那样 用历史思维来看待此事 and you should be ready for this topic.这样就差不多准备好迎接这个话题了 Just a warning though.警告 During the section on bedroom stuff,关于房事的部分 I will be describing sex acts while desperately searching for euphemisms.我会尽力寻找委婉的说法来描述这些性行为 It was a perfectly normal thing for men to have relationships with much younger boys back then.那时 男人和比自己小很多的男孩发生关系很正常 These relationships were an important part of life.这些关系是生活中重要的一部分 Back then, boys did not grow up straight into men.那时 男孩成长为男人前还需经历一个阶段 Like a caterpillar turning into a pupa before emerging as a butterfly,就像毛毛虫在变成蝴蝶之前先变成蛹一样 boys had a stage of life before that beautiful butterfly stage of manhood.男孩们有一个化蛹尚未成蝶的阶段 Women did not have a “pupa” stage.而女性没有“化蛹期” Boys in this stage were called wakashu (若い衆), 这一阶段的男生被称为wakashu(若い衆) usually translated as youth.通常翻译成青年 They were no longer children.他们不再是小孩了 Once a boy became a wakashu, it was open season for men to target them sexually.男孩一旦成为若い衆 就会成为男人的性对象目标 You gotta understand, people back then, men and women, thought wakashu looked sexy as hell.你得明白 那时候无论男女都觉得若い衆很性感 There was no rule on what age boys became wakashu没有规定说男孩多少岁成为若い衆 and what age they became men.多少岁成为男人 Roughly, the wakashu range was from 11 years old to mid-20s,若い衆 的年龄范围大致在11岁到25岁之间 but there were wakashu as young as 7 and as old as 80.但若い衆 有7岁的也有80岁的 We’ll see why the ages were all over the place later.我们稍后探讨为何各个年龄段都有若い衆 Now a man in a relationship with a really young wakashu *was* generally frowned upon.与非常年轻的若い衆谈恋爱的男人通常会被人讨厌 Not because it was exploitation of minors, don’t be ridiculous.别傻了 不是因为这是在剥削未成年人 They just thought those men had poor taste.他们只是觉得那些人品味很差 What kind of a man goes after immature 14-year-olds?什么样的男人会去找14岁的小孩呢 It’s like saying, “Who drinks cheap $10 wine from the supermarket?”这就好比 “谁喝超市里10美元的廉价葡萄酒呢” or “Who eats pizza with pineapple?”或者说“谁会吃披萨配菠萝呢” People with bad judgement, that’s who.他们是些没品位的人 Wakashu were considered most attractive at around 15 to 17 years old.人们认为若い衆 在15到17岁的时候最有魅力 Poets wrote about how wakashu beauty was like cherry blossoms.诗人曾将若い衆之美比喻成樱花之美 It blooms quickly, but vanishes just as fast.它很快开花 却也很快消失 The age of a wakashu wasn’t as important as相比于年龄 their behavior and the physical changes in their puberty-ridden bodies.若い衆的行为和青春期身体的变化更为重要 One writer wrote that a wakashu reached peak beauty一位作家写道 当若い衆脸上开始长青春痘的时候 when pimples started appearing on his face,那就是他们的美丽巅峰时刻 which seems like some weird pimple fetish,这看起来像是某种奇怪的青春痘迷恋 but it was because they thought pimples were a sign of sexsual maturity.其实是因为他们把青春痘看作性成熟的标志 After that short period where wakashu made men lose it just by looking at them,那时的若い衆只需稍看一眼 男人们便为之神魂颠倒 a wakashu was seen as more mature, which had its own appeal.有独特魅力的若い衆被认为更加成熟 But for most people, a wakashu was past his prime对多数人而言 当若い衆脸上长满青春痘的时候 the moment puberty hit him like a ton of pricks他们的黄金时代已逝 and his perfect body was deformed by facial hair and a deeper voice.他完美的身体因胡须和低沉的声音而变形 Eugh.额 At some point, usually around the mid-20s,在某个时候 通常是在25岁左右 a wakashu had a coming-of-age ceremony and became an adult.若い衆成年前会举行一个成年礼 This made them off limits to other adult men.成年礼后 其他成年男性就不得靠近了 No more male-male hanky-panky.不会再有男性之间的卿卿我我 Sex between men probably did exist back then, but it wasn’t accepted.男人之间的性爱在当时可能的确存在 但不被人们接受 Men were not supposed to sleep with other men…男人不应该和其他男人上床 except if they went to a male prostitute who was dressed as a wakashu,除非他们去找穿得像若い衆的男妓 but that’s a whole other topic.不过那就是另一个话题了 Now that we covered the ages of wakashu,既然我们已经讲了若い衆的年龄 you’ll be surprised to know that age didn’t matter much.你会惊讶地发现其实年龄不是那么重要 These days, we determine adulthood by age.如今 我们用年龄来判定是否成年 In most places, before 18, you’re a child,在大多数地方 在18岁之前你还是个孩子 and when you reach 18, you’re a child with acne当你到了18岁 你是个长粉刺的孩子 no– you’re an adult. Theoretically.不 从理论上讲你是个成年人了 Using age to determine adulthood seems like common sense.用年龄来判断成年与否似乎是常识 We don’t even question it.我们甚至不会去质疑它 How else would you do it?不然怎么办呢 That’s how people have always done it.人们往往都是这么判断的 Well, not quite, and not the Japanese.但也不完全是 至少日本人不这样判断 What made you an adult wasn’t age.使你成为成年人的不是年龄 It was mainly clothing and hairstyle.而主要是服装和发型 If you were a wakashu, you wore the same type of kimonos that girls wore,如果你是若い衆 你穿着和女孩一样的和服 ones with the inner part of the sleeves left open,就是那种袖子内侧敞开的 including the elegant furisode 振袖, which had long dangling sleeves.其中包括优雅的振袖 一种有着晃来晃去长袖的和服 Wakashu clothing became this erotic thing.若い衆的服装变成了这种色情的东西 People even called a sexy wakashu a furisode,人们甚至将性感的若い衆比作振袖 like “Oh I’d like to wrap that furisode around my body.”就像 “哦 我真想把那振袖裹在我身上” When a boy left childhood and became a wakashu, 当一个男孩度过童年成为若い衆时 the top of his head was shaved,他的头顶会被剃光 giving rise to the wakashu’s sexiest and most recognizable feature:这催生了若い衆最性感 最易辨识的特征 the forelock, a patch of hair in front of that shaved part.额发 被剃掉的部分前面的一小块头发 They tied the hair in the back into a top-knot,他们把后面的头发扎成头髻 and tied the forelock back over the shaved spot in a few different styles.把额发向后梳 扎成不同的发型 Forelock fetish was real.额发迷恋 是真实存在的 It was like cleavage or a hard set of abs.就像迷恋乳沟或硬腹肌一样 No really, men went crazy over the forelock.不过 男人真的对额发很着迷 They had dreams about it, touched themselves in the dream,他们做了关于额发的梦 在梦中触摸自己 and then woke up and touched themselves to the memory of the dream.醒来后再次触摸自己来唤醒对梦的记忆 If you’re not convinced, how about this.如果你不相信 那这个呢 They often used the word forelock instead of wakashu, like他们经常用额发比作若い衆 比如 “Hey Tom, check out that sweet forelock at the bar,”“嘿 汤姆 看看酒吧里那个漂亮的额发” or “I’d love to split that forelock in half,”或者“我想把那额发分成两半” or “Easy, breezy, beautiful cover forelock.”或者“简单 轻快 漂亮的额发” Okay so now that you’re an expert in wakashu appearance,好了 现在你是若い衆造型专家 can you tell who in this artwork is the woman and who is the wakashu?你能分辨出这幅画里 哪个是女人哪个是若い衆吗 Women and wakashu wear the same clothing, so they look similar.女人和若い衆穿的衣服相同 所以看起来很像 If you said this one, congrats!如果你猜的是这个 恭喜你! You spotted the boy.你找到了那个男孩 You win my applause, and visit from the FBI.你赢得了我的掌声和FBI的青睐 Someone with a keen naughty eye can see that little patch of skin on this person’s head.眼尖的人可以看到这个人的头上有一小块皮肤 That’s the shaved head of a wakashu.那是若い衆被剃的光头 Often in art, the only difference between women and wakashu在画里面 女人和若い衆之间唯一的区别 is that little bald spot.通常就是那个小小的秃顶 Upon becoming an adult, a wakashu lost the furisode一长大成人 若い衆就不再穿振袖了 and replaced it with the dull men’s kimono with no dangly bits,而是换上了没有垂饰的无趣的男子和服 and his precious forelock was shaved.他宝贵的额发也被剃掉了 Parents sometimes had a problem with their wakashu sons being way too attractive.父母有时会困扰于他们的若い衆儿子太有魅力 They would worry so much about their sons sleeping around or getting hit on by thirsty men他们会担心自己的儿子到处乱搞或者被饥渴的男人勾搭 that they would force him to become an adult early and shave his forelock,他们会强迫他提早成年 剃掉额发 finally making him a little uglier.他们最终让他变得更丑 Because it was all about the hair and clothing, and not about age,因为这一切都是与头发和衣服有关 而与年龄无关 there were sometimes wakashu who were 80 years old.有时也会有80岁的若い衆 They just kept wearing the dress and hairstyle, and behaved like young men.他们仍然留着若い衆的服饰与发型 表现得也像个年轻人 You probably know some of these wakashu in your life.你可能在生活中认识一些若い衆 These boys never became adults, they just became husbands.这些男孩从未长大成人 他们只是成为了丈夫 Let’s talk about what happened in these male-male relationships.让我们来谈谈在这些男男关系中发生了什么 It was called shudō 衆道, or the Way of Youths.它被称为shudō衆道或青年的爱 They called it a way, like an art, like the art of sword making.他们称其为道 可视为行事的艺术 比如铸剑艺术 Or like bushidō, the Way of the Warrior.或者像bushidō 武士道 Or like the art of eating an ice cream cone without letting it melt on your hand.或者像吃甜筒而不让它在手上融化的艺术 Like all of those things, shudō was an art to master,像所有这些东西一样 衆道是一门需要掌握的艺术 a path to be pursued and perfected.是一条需要追求和完善的道路 So take my hand and let me lead you down this path through a magical forest of horny men.所以就让我带你沿着这条路穿过有着性欲男人的神奇森林 There were all kinds of customs and proper ways to act,这儿有各种各样的风俗和礼仪 all centered around this relationship between a man and a wakashu.都是围绕着男人和若い衆之间的关系而展开 And yes, there were also proper ways to behave in the bedroom.当然 也有表述房事的内容 Talking about shudō will probably take up a whole video,谈论衆道可能会占用一整个视频 so we’ll focus on the life of the wakashu within shudō.所以我们就关注衆道中关于若い衆生活的部分 Leave a like and comment if you want to see a shudō video.如果你想看衆道的视频 请点赞 评论 As a wakashu in Edo Japan,日本江户时期的若い衆 you were a walking man magnet okay?就好比一块行走的吸引男人的磁铁 You couldn’t take two steps without tripping on a man trying to get inside your kimono.你走不了两步就会被一个想钻进你和服的男人绊倒 This desire was one-way.这种欲望是单向的 Wakashu were not supposed to have desire for men.若い衆不应该对男人有欲望 It was part of their allure.这是他们诱人的一部分 The adult men were the ones on the prowl.成年男子是那些徘徊觅侣的人 So as a wakashu, if you didn’t like them,所以作为一名若い衆 如果你不喜欢他们 why in the world would you enter a relationship?那你为什么要开始一段关系呢 Because of compassion.因为怜悯 If a man sincerely showed his longing, you were supposed to feel like,如果一个男人真诚地表达了他的渴望 你可能会想 “Oh he wants me so dearly, and look at how much he’s suffering, let’s touch penii.”“哦 他那么想要我 看看他有多痛苦 那我稍微碰一下吧” A wakashu who rejected men left and right was seen as cold-hearted.一个拒绝身边男性的若い衆会被认为是冷漠的 It was also rude to reject a man merely because仅仅因为一个男人的地位低或没钱而拒绝他 he had lower social status or small bank accounts.也是粗鲁的 Of course, these were ideals.当然 这都是理想状况 In practice, wakashu rejected men all the time,实际上 若い衆一直排斥男性 and sometimes wakashu did desire their male partners.有时若い衆也会渴望他们的男性伴侣 When a man and a wakashu became a couple当男人和若い衆结成伴侣时 they often spoke vows to each other or wrote them down.他们经常互述誓言或写下誓言 Some even went further, showing off their loyalty by stabbing their thighs or arms,有些人甚至做得更绝 用刀刺大腿或手臂 tearing off a fingernail, or even chopping a finger off.扯掉指甲 甚至砍下一根手指以示忠诚 Look if you can’t even cut off a finger for your partner, are you really in love?你若不能为了你的伴侣切一根手指 你是真的爱他吗 The easiest way I can explain the man-wakashu relationship is…说简单点 男人和若い衆关系就是 the man was a mentor who slept with you.和你睡过的男人便是你的导师 The man gave the wakashu protection, financial help, and was a role model.男人会保护并资助若い衆 是供效仿的榜样 In return, the wakashu gave the man respect, obedience, and his body.作为回报 若い衆给予男人尊重 服从和肉体 It seems a bit weird because today, relationships are supposed to be between equals.这似乎有点奇怪因为当今的关系都应是平等的 If there’s a power imbalance, it’s questionable.如果双方不平衡 这段关系便值得怀疑 Like a teacher shouldn’t sleep with a student without a camera crew.就像老师不应该和学生上床 除非是拍戏 But in a wakashu relationship, the power imbalance was necessary.但在若い衆的关系中 权力的不平衡是必要的 It was the main thing.而且是非常重要的事 The man wore the panties in the relationship.男人在这段关系中占支配地位 Even the attraction was one-way.甚至这种吸引力也是单向的 The man was the thirsty one, and the wakashu was the object of desire.男人是饥渴的人 若い衆则是欲望的对象 You never saw a wakashu carry around a bottle of Aquafina, because they were not thirsty.若い衆从不带水喝 因为他们并不饥渴 Let’s talk about bedroom stuff.我们来谈谈房事的部分 Yeah they did have sex.是的 他们确实会做爱 This shows why some historians have called wakashu a third gender.这说明了为什么一些历史学家称若い衆为第三性别 In the Edo Period, they split the types of people who could have sextime into men, women, and wakashu.在江户时代 人们把有性生活的人分为男人 女人和若い衆 It was a sex triangle, and who doesn’t love triangles?这个是性三角形 谁不喜欢三角形呢 Now you gotta be careful not to picture a wakashu但你得千万别把若い衆 as a stereotypical flamboyant gay man.想象成刻板印象中卖弄风情的同性恋 No, their attractiveness was more masculine than feminine.不 他们的魅力更多在于阳刚而不是阴柔 Shudō was associated with warriors and strength and poking things with sticks.说起衆道 人们会联想到武士 力量 进攻 A wakashu was supposed to stay faithful to his partner若い衆应当对他的伴侣保持忠诚 and the man was supposed to stay faithful to his own needs, so he could sleep around.而男人却只需忠于自己的欲望 所以他可以四处混荡 But the wakashu could sleep with other women, or other wakashu.但是若い衆也可以和其他的女人或者若い衆 上床 A wakashu’s partner in bed was expected to be older than him.若い衆的床伴年龄应当比他大 The main sex act in a shudō relationship was through the bum,在衆道的关系中 主要的性行为是肛交 with the adult man being the penetrator and the wakashu being the penetratee.成年男子是插入者 若い衆是被插入者 It was never the other way around.从来没有相反的情况 This was very important, only weirdos did it the other way around.这很重要 只有怪人才会反过来那么做 Some rarer acts included putting the man’s sexcalibur一些更罕见的动作包括将男子的性剑 between the wakashu’s thighs instead of full on insertion,插入若い衆的大腿之间 但不是完全插入 but everyone agreed the real thing was better.不过人们都认为真材实料会更好 And a wakashu sometimes used his hands on his partner in preparation for the main course.若い衆有时候会在前戏时用手帮助床伴 Oral didn’t seem to be a thing. At least it wasn’t encouraged.用嘴似乎不行 至少不鼓励这样做 Oh they also kissed.哦 他们也接吻 The man was supposed to be the one in charge, the one enjoying the whole ordeal.男人支配着整个过程 享受着这场磨难 And it was an ordeal, for the wakashu.对若い衆而言 这的确是一场磨难 The wakashu was not supposed to enjoy it.若い衆不会享受整个过程 Not because the man went out of his way to hurt him or anything,不是因为男人故意伤害若い衆 but because the conventional wisdom was that而是因为传统观念认为 Using the butts to import any foreign objects屁股被任何外界物体插入 was generally unpleasant.通常是令人不悦的 The person receiving it only did it for duty, for affection, or for money.接受这样做的人只是为了责任 感情或金钱 Writers often went on and on about the pain and suffering of being a bottom.作家们经常没完没了地讲述做下面那一个的痛苦 One lord remarked that a tyrannical government was like butt play.一位贵族曾论道 一个专制政府就像是一场闹剧 The people at the top had fun while the ones at the bottom suffered.上面的人享乐而下面的人受苦 He later went on to have 2 Netflix comedy specials.后来他又在Netflix上做了两档喜剧特别节目 In art, when a man is engaged in healthy coupling with his wakashu,在画中 当一个男人与他的若い衆交合时 the wakashu’s peanuts is usually not shown, because it wasn’t important.若い衆的“花生”通常不会被展示出来 因为它并不重要 It wasn’t even supposed to be hard.这本来就不该硬起来的 Getting hard as a wakashu was a bit embarrassing.若い衆硬起来的话会有点尴尬 Usually when it is shown, it’s being used as an extension of the man’s own peanuts,通常 当它被展示的时候 它是作为男人自己的“花生”的延伸 like when the wakashu was between a man and a woman.比如当若い衆被夹在男人和女人之间时 Now there were people who enjoyed someone driving the opposite way on their one-way street,现在的有些人喜欢反其道而行之 but those people were called weird.这些人被称作奇葩 As you can see, there was a lot of sex talk,如你所见 有很多关于性的讨论 but sex was not what defined wakashu relationships.但性并不是用来定义若い衆关系的 Sex usually happened maybe once a year to a wakashu,若い衆通常一年发生一次性行为 so pretty infrequently, or frequently for some of you.所以很不频繁 对有些人来说可能也算频繁 In some cases, the couple didn’t sleep together at all.有些夫妇根本就不会同床 There was a difference between mere sex and shudō.单纯的性和衆道之间是有区别的 Ideally, the relationship was about mentoring a youth into adulthood.理想情况下 这种关系是指导一个年轻人长大成人 One writer criticized men who slept around with a bunch of wakashu,一位作家批评那些和一群若い衆鬼混的男人 saying these men did not follow shudō, they just wanted to sleep around.他说 这些人并没有遵守衆道 他们只是到处鬼混 The wakashu, this whole stage of life for boys, disappeared during the Meiji Period.若い衆阶段在明治时期消失了 As Japan modernized, the Meiji government pushed to get rid of the old clothing and hairstyles.随着日本的现代化 明治政府革除旧服和发型 Since clothing and hairstyle were the two things that defined the wakashu,因为服装和发型是若い衆的两大特征 as those disappeared, the wakashu also disappeared.随着服装和发型的消失 若い衆也消失了 But fear not, something from the wakashu times may have survived in the modern day:但别害怕 若い衆时代的一些东西留存到了现代 the look of the bishōnen 美少年, or “beautiful boy.”bishōnen“美少年” 或“漂亮男孩”的美貌 I hear the ladies are into it.听说很受女性喜爱 For more videos on this topic, check out the videos on the right.想了解更多关于这个主题的视频 请查看右侧的视频 I’ll see you there.我们在那儿见 We have a new patron this week, GarGhuul, a powerful demon lord I think.这周我们有了新的赞助人 格格巫 一个强大的恶魔领主 Alright, I love you, and spread the knowledge!好了 爱你们 请把知识分享出去吧
  • 2021-09-03在这里,所有公共交通都免费Luxembourg is a small country.卢森堡是个小国家 It’s about 50 miles by 35 miles,面积约为50英里×35英里 with just over 600,000 people living in it.人口仅有60多万 And here in the capital, Luxembourg City,在首都卢森堡市 around 200,000 people commute into work every day,每天约有20万人通勤 half from outside the country,其中有一半来自国外 but less than 20% of them travel by public transit.但只有不到20%的人乘坐公共交通工具 But from Sunday, March 1st,但从3月1号(星期日)开始 all public transit in the entire country will be free.全国的公共交通都将免费 Pretty soon, there’ll be no ticket machines,很快 除了售卖国际券票的机器 unless you want an international ticket.其他售票机都将被移除 There’ll be no fare dodgers,不会再有逃票的人 unless you count people who are sneaking into the first-class train cabins除非你把逃票溜进头等舱的人也算上 that you will still have to pay for.那里还是需要购票的 And on the face of it,表面看来 free public transit seems like an easy decision.免费公共交通是个简单的决定 Get people out of cars and into buses and trains.可以让人们不再自驾车转而乘坐公交和火车 But it’s a little more complicated than that.但实际情况有点复杂 We are the country, besides Qatar,除了卡塔尔 with the highest degree of cars per household in Luxembourg,卢森堡是户均汽车拥有量最高的国家 and we have definitely a big problem,我们的确面临很严重的问题 especially in peak hours, with enormous congestion problems.尤其在高峰时段 交通拥堵相当严重 We have a problem also, that’s quality of life in our cities, in our villages, is really worsened.另一个问题是城乡居民的生活质量很糟糕 That comes because Luxembourg is a country因为卢森堡在过去25年里 where you had not only the highest average of economic growth in the last 25 years,不仅人均经济增长位列欧盟第一 but also our population growth is the highest in the European Union.而且人口增长也是欧盟最高的 Having mobility behaviour that is mainly based on individual cars主要依靠私家车出行 cannot really function anymore,已经不再可行了 and at the end, it’s also a problem then for our economy itself.最后交通拥堵也会严重影响国家经济 Making public transit free is not a new idea.公共交通免费并不是什么新办法 There are quite a few cities around the world who’ve already done it,世界上很多城市早已施行了这种方案 and a lot of Estonian now has free public transit for residents.很多爱沙尼亚居民都在享受免费的公共交通 Luxembourg, though, is the first country to abolish fares entirely,但卢森堡是第一个完全废除车票的国家 and partly that’s because it can afford to do it.一定程度上是因为它有这样的经济实力 The country is a small, rich tax haven.卢森堡国土面积虽小 但税收很高 The thing is, public transit here is almost free already.现在这里的公共交通几乎已经完全免费 A ticket valid for a full day on every bus, tram, and train in the country is €4.公交 有轨电车 火车都可以用的单日通票价为4欧元 The whole transit network costs the government €700 million a year to operate,政府每年需拨付7亿欧元来维持交通运输网运行 but all the tickets sold add up to just 10% of that.但全部售票收入加起来只有政府支出的10% By comparison, London’s transit network is about half-funded by fares.相比之下 伦敦的交通网成本一半都依靠车票收入 So from the Luxembourg government’s perspective,所以在卢森堡政府看来 there’s not actually that much difference between a €4 day ticket and free transit,一张单日车票4欧元和免费并没有很大区别 But “free transit” is the sort of headline that gets you a lot of good publicity.但“免费交通”是会获得很多关注的那种头条 But hey, if transit is free, why would you want to get around by car?但是 如果交通免费 你为什么还想自驾出行呢 Well, it’s because the transit here isn’t great.这是因为这里的交通并不怎么样 It’s okay, by European standards.按照欧洲标准 它还可以 The buses and trains will get you there.公交和火车可以送你去目的地 I’ve had no problems as a tourist,作为游客没有任何问题 but the commuter lines are already overcrowded in rush hour.但在高峰时段通勤线路太拥挤了 A lot of the rolling stock is dated,很多轨道车辆都老旧了 and there is a litany of complaints about the paths they take民众对所乘线路有很多抱怨 and how they deal with breakdowns.对车辆故障的处理方式也很有意见 Driving here, even with the congestion, is usually quicker and more convenient,即使拥堵 这里开车通常会更快 更方便 sometimes even for journeys directly between city centres.甚至市中心之间的行程有时也是这样 So every year, there’s more and more people moving here,年复一年 移居这里的人越来越多 and the infrastructure system is under a lot of strain.基础设施面临着很大压力 So the needs are to make it work, not to make it free.人们的需求是实用 而不是免费 There’s lots of research on this,关于这个问题已经有很多调查 and what comes out over and over again is that结果一次又一次地证实 the fare is not the main motivating factor.票价不是主要的驱动因素 The motivating factor is comfort, reliability, and safety.真正的驱动因素是舒适 可靠和安全 No one ever knows if the trains are actually going to be on time.没有人知道火车会不会准时 It has happened that之前发生过 people are standing for an hour and a half on the platform waiting for the train,人们在站台等火车要等一个半小时 with no substitute buses or anything.而没有可替换的公交或者别的交通方式 So that’s an extreme case, obviously,很显然 那是一个极端事例 but if one wants to be somewhere on time,但如果我们想准时到达目的地 one has to take this into account, that these things do happen.我们就得考虑候车时间 因为确实会发生 The cities who are doing this investment into public transport, into free public transport,将资金投入公共交通和免费公共交通的城市 that’s really the bit of cities that, from a competitive point of view,从全球竞争角度来看 will be, worldwide, the winning cities.这些少数城市将会是赢家 Even if I say it’s free to use,即使说是免费使用 somebody pays it.也有人承担运输成本 So at the end, the 700 million euros will be paid by the taxpayers in general.最后 这7亿欧元通常将由纳税人承担 Someone, for example, with Minimum income pays no taxes.而最低收入人群不用纳税 So he has the public transport, really, for free,所以他们确实在享受免费的交通 but somebody who pays high taxes, he pays much more.但纳税多的人会支付更多 That’s an important point这是非常重要的一点 for someone like me, who’s a tourist with a travel budget,对于我这样需要做旅行预算的游客来说 €4 for a day pass isn’t a big issue,每天花4欧元通行并没有什么 but for someone on Minimum wage但是对于那些从能买得起房子的地方出发 who has to commute an hour, or two hours, from wherever housing’s affordable,每天通勤1或2个小时的最低收入人群来说 that makes a big difference.影响非常大 – I don’t think the key social issue in Luxembourg is the price of the transit.我认为卢森堡的社会问题关键不是票价 One needs to look at the housing costs.住房成本才是需要关注的地方 The increasing prices of housing日益增长的房价 are pushing people to the border regions.将人们推到了边界地区 So it might be financially more sound to live in Belgium, or France and Germany,所以住在比利时 法国和德国 buy a house, or rent a house,and buy a couple of cars,在这些国家买房或者租房 买几辆车 than it would be to live here in Luxembourg and use the transit.都比住在卢森堡乘坐免费交通更经济 It needs investment, and it needs investment now.公共交通需要投资 现在就需要 It’s behind.它已经落后了 And so Luxembourg needs to catch up and plan for the future.卢森堡需要奋力追赶 同时为未来做好计划 You must see the free public transport additionally to the investments此外 必须将免费交通看作 that we are doing in the improvement of the network我们改善公共交通网 and the quality of the public transport.提升公共交通品质的投资 If you only introduce free public transport,如果只是公共交通免费 that will change not very much in behaviour.现状不会有太多改变 It can only function if you do it combined with a complete strategy只有和完整的政策结合 才能发挥作用 that will switch from individual mobility to multi-modality,实现私家车到多种交通工具出行的转换 so even including pedestrians, cyclists,甚至包括步行 骑自行车 and if you invest at the same time, a lot of money, in the infrastructure of public transport,同时把大量资金投入到公共交通的基础建设 so that at the end, you can combine everything.这样最终就可以结合所有策略 We say, if we built an infrastructure,比如 如果建造基础设施 we will build it to move people and not to move cars.目的就是输送民众 而不是车辆 – I’m not saying free transit is a bad thing.我不是说免费交通是件坏事 I think it’s a great idea, personally,相反我个人认为是非常棒的点子 but having good, frequent, well-connected transit但是好的 车次较多的 线路广 that isn’t too crowded to board is also important.又不太拥挤的乘坐体验也很重要 The question isn’t as binary as “Should public transit be free?”问题并不是“公共交通应该免费吗”这么简单 because in a utopia, of course it would be.因为在乌托邦理想社会中 肯定会是免费的 It would also be autonomous, zero-emission,公共交通也一定会是自动化 零排放 and it would run from anywhere to everywhere all the time.全时段全区域间都有线路车次 But until we’re in a post-scarcity society,但在我们进入后稀缺社会之前 the public are paying one way or another, either through taxes or fares.公众都会以某种方式来付费 纳税或购票 The more important question is about planning and long-term investment,最重要的是计划和长期投资 because if your bus is always late,因为 如果公交总是迟到 and your train’s always cancelled,火车总是取消 it really doesn’t matter if they’re free.那它们是否免费也就不重要了
  • 2021-09-03让更多人享受得起得夏令营住宿夏令营每周大概花费一到五千美元 我们的目标是给负担不起住宿营的孩子 提供一个免费体验的机会 《伟大的故事》人人都热爱阳光 奥斯汀 得克萨斯 我叫Erica Blue 是奥斯汀阳光夏令营的CEO 我在低收入家庭长大 六年级到七年级的暑假 朋友付钱让我参加了一周 我父母负担不起的夏令营 这段经历改变了我对生活的看法 我知道夏令营能带给孩子多大的改变 奥斯汀阳光夏令营成立于1928年 至今已在德克萨斯中心地区 服务了超过5万个孩子 Zilker Park是8至11岁孩子的活动地点 12至15岁的孩子都在特拉维斯湖活动 孩子们初来乍到都有点紧张 还有的甚至有点害怕 我们会在报到后把他们召集在一起 让他们见见自己的室友 他们会和室友一起制定一个阳光条约 主要关于如何团结一致遵循阳光价值观 我们每天都会花几小时在巴顿泉池游泳 巴顿泉池可是奥斯汀的一块宝地 我们一起去远足郊游 我们专注于与户外运动和健康有关的项目 营员与顾问之间建立起的关系 是夏令营最奇妙的部分之一 我们努力想办法确保夏令营的顾问 和参加夏令营的孩子们共同进步 去年我们开创了顾问培训项目 我们16至17岁通过考核的营员 会接受两年的专业发展培训 我们也鼓励他们和孩子们打交道 试着做活动 希望他们成年后能回来当我们的顾问 洁达是我们优秀的培训顾问之一 她在阳光夏令营找到了归属感 我认为这也改变了她的人生轨迹 她对像阳光夏令营这样的项目很感兴趣 因为在这里能结交到其他积极向上的榜样 我12岁时参加了这个夏令营 14岁时开始担任培训顾问 阳光夏令营真的改变了我和我的生活 作为培训顾问 我可以尽可能地 让这些孩子体验一个精彩难忘的夏天 我们在德州中心社区产生了巨大影响 我从心底里相信每一个孩子都应该 在这独一无二 有爱有趣的夏令营 经历一次蜕变 《伟大的故事》
  • 2021-09-03大富翁游戏的正确打开方式Phil: OK, so when do you play Monopoly?你们什么时候会玩大富翁呢? Melissa: I have not played Monopoly since I was, like, ten. So…我可能十岁之后就没有玩过大富翁了 Ashley: Now I play it when I’m at my parents’ house现在我去父母家的时候会玩 if there’s a big family gathering.比如大型家庭聚会的时候 Estelle: I don’t ever play Monopoly.我从来不玩大富翁 Basically, you played Monopoly when you were a kid or when you were stuck inside.基本上 你们只在小时候或者被困家里时才玩它 So, I talked to somebody who played Monopoly我在澳门威尼斯人酒店的舞厅里 in a ballroom in the Venetian hotel in Macau.和一位玩大富翁的人交谈过 I’m Brian Valentine.我是布莱恩•瓦伦丁 I was the United States representative to我曾作为美国代表 to the Monopoly World Championships in 2015,参加了2015年大富翁世界锦标赛 where I finished third amongst the 28 competitors.在参赛的28名选手中 我获得了第三名 He taught me all the right ways to play Monopoly他教我大富翁的正确玩法 and even make the game a little shorter.甚至还教我如何快速结束游戏 All the rules, odds, and strategies各种规则 胜算 策略 that can actually help you win.这些能够帮你赢得比赛 This is a Monopoly board from…Target这是一块我从Target买的大富翁游戏板 but I took it with me to Macau我把它带去了澳门 and asked all the players to sign it for me.然后让所有的参赛者在上面签名 Just as a keepsake.就当是纪念品了 I’m almost getting the sports cliches talking about Monopoly谈到大富翁 我总是想起那些批判的声音 but it was very humbling to have made it that far很惭愧我一直玩到了现在 against players who are the best in their country和各国顶尖的大富翁高手同台竞技 and who are fantastic people.他们都非常出色 And this Monopoly genius这位大富翁天才 he knows heatmaps and housing arbitrage and strategy他懂热图 住房套利 游戏策略 but he just wants you to follow the rules.但是他只要求你按照规则来 OK, what happens on free parking?那么“免费停车场”是做什么的呢? Do you, like, collect money from people?从别人那里收钱? There’s no money under free parking, I guess that’s the biggest.免费停车场不收钱 这是首要规则 You don’t put money under free parking你不能把钱放在免费停车场 people see as a chance to equalize the game that’s stacked against them.人们把这看做扳平游戏不利局面的机会 If you keep putting money back in the game it stops the progress.如果你一直把钱放回游戏中 就玩不下去了 People don’t play the game by the rules.人们不按规则玩游戏 If they did, it wouldn’t take quite so long.如果按照规则来 这游戏用不了那么久 -Do you auction stuff off? -No.– 你拍卖东西吗? – 不 I remember reading it on the back of the card, but I don’t remember我好像在卡片背面看到过这条 但我记不清了 I remember that always feeling a little over my head in terms of play.我记得每次玩大富翁 我都晕头转向的 If you land on it and don’t want it如果你停在某处 但是不想买 it’s got to go up for auction on the spot Somebody can buy it.必须当场拍卖 别人可以买下它 You can start the bidding at a dollar.你可以起价1美元 I’ve seen it happen, and I’ve seen someone take Boardwalk for 20 bucks.我见过这种事 也见过有人用20美元买下了“步行道” Once you have the rules in order, you’ve gotta go with the strategy.一旦规则清楚了 就要开始学习使用策略 What’s the best spot in Monopoly?大富翁中最好的位置在哪里? Oh, I’m sure it’s like Boardwalk.噢 我认为一定是步行道 That’s the glamour, that’s the trademark of Monopoly, it’s Boardwalk – you gotta get it.那是迷惑你 这就是大富翁的特点 让你觉得步行道必须拿下 The object of the game is to take everyone’s money and be the only person left in the game游戏目的是赢得所有人的钱 成为唯一胜者 While Boardwalk certainly offers the prospect of that步行道确实看起来很有市场前景 $2000 when you get a hotel on it建了旅馆的步行道 过路费是2000美元 think about what it costs to get there.但是你要考虑一下代价 You’ve got to buy each of the two properties首先你得先买下步行道和停车场 Then it’s 200 dollars, per house per property然后每个地产的每栋房子都需要200美元 until you get to that level.直到你达到那个等级 So that’s another thousand dollars on each one to then get $2000 back.意味着在每块地上另外多花1000才能赚回2000 And there are only two of them, right?而且同色地产只有这两个 对吧? Most of the other Monopolies have three spaces大多数其他玩家有三块同色地产 that you can hit and then draw rent.可以买下后用于收租 If you are building up Boardwalk and Park Place如果你能在别人胜利之前 before anybody else has built Monopolies up against you建好步行道和停车场 then hell yeah, go for it.那太好了 赶紧建吧 But if you’re in a situation但如果你所处的状况是 where other folks have Monopolies on that hot side of the board别人已经垄断了地图上的热门地点 and you’re waiting to throw the haymaker, if you will, on Boardwalk and Park place而你还在等待着一举拿下步行道和停车场 that’s a loser more than it’s a winner.那你这种策略是失败的 warm color=hot spots暖色地产=热点区域 You can go on any website and learn the basic parlor trick你可以上网学习一些基本的小技巧 that the oranges are the best Monopoly to have比如橙色区是大富翁里最好的地盘 Are you gonna now show a chart of你要用热点图 the Monopoly board with a heat map?来展示大富翁棋盘吗? I’m sad to say that I will.好吧 我确实打算这么做 I knew that existed.我就知道 The reason that , that is so is原因是在游戏中 because jail is one of the most often landed on spaces in the game监狱是最常去的地方之一 数字的大小表明出现的可能性大小 The fact that the common role is 7,最常出现的数字是7 then 7 from jail从监狱走7步 while not an actual property it’s Community Chest是社区福利金 并不是实际的地产 6 and 8, the next most likely numbers,6和8是第二可能出现的数字 are St. James and Tennessee Avenue.对应“圣詹姆斯广场”和“田纳西大道” So you know that the oranges are likely to get hit on.所以橙色区是最有可能走到的区域 And also, by extension, the section between jail and go to jail另外 从一个监狱走到另一个监狱 that side’s the side you want to be building on.这一侧区域是你要盖房子的地方 It’s feast or famine on the other side of the board.另一侧要么富得流油 要么穷得叮当响 So there’s a couple more strategies that are on the practical, not so mathy and这儿还有几个策略 比较实际 与数字关系不大 If you get to jail early, go ahead pay up, get out of there.那就是如果你很早入狱 直接付费出狱 You can also use your houses as weapons to control the game.你也可以用你的房子作为武器来操控这个游戏 You have 32 houses in the game.游戏中有32套房 You’ve got to build houses before you can build hotels.你要先建房子才能建旅馆 The houses have to be physically present to be bought房子必须有库存才能购买 which is why, in a lot of circles这就是为什么 在很多的游戏局里 you’ll hear people say about creating a housing shortage.你会听到人们说 制造房屋短缺 You want to get to the four house level你只有建成四栋房子 so you can pull the trigger and get hotels if you need to,才能触发建造旅馆的条件 如果你需要 or you can sit on the four houses and keep other people from having them.或者你也可以占着四个房子 让别人买不到房子 OK, so final question.最后一个问题 So when I say what is the right way to play Monopoly当我问什么是大富翁游戏的正确打开方式 how do you respond?你如何回答? The right way to play Monopoly is just…don’t play it.正确打开方式就是不玩大富翁 Don’t steal from the bank.别偷银行里的钱 And that goes out to my cousins这是我和表亲在10岁时 when we played when we were ten.玩大富翁总结出来的 I would say, is it just like, to win? How to win?我会说 就是想方设法赢钱? With honor.带着荣誉感 It’s almost, sometimes, you feel like you have this Renaissance era有时候 你会感到一种文艺复兴时期 like sense of honor and dignity的荣誉感和尊严感 Not that we’re going around slapping each other with gloves having duels or anything like that.并不是说我们要带着手套互扇耳光或者进行决斗的那种 But…that’s the thing that keeps coming to me is honor.而是这个游戏一直带给我荣誉感 Playing Monopoly allows you to get to know people玩大富翁可以让你了解对方 in a way that formal introductions这种了解不是做正式自我介绍 or being coworkers, or whatever, doesn’t quite show.或者做同事什么的能达到的 Because in an hour and half, two hour game,因为在长达一个半到两个小时的游戏中 you’re gonna see how people handle adversity,你会看到人们如何处理困境 you’re gonna see how people handle success如何面对成功 you’re gonna see, bundled in this short format你会发现 当人们被捆绑在这种简单模式下 that allows you to see who a person is.你能看出他们是怎样的人 It’s Monopoly, we’re talking about Monopoly.这就是大富翁 我们讲的就是它
  • 2021-09-03“印第安人”还是“美洲原住民”?The first people who lived here最早生活在这片大陆上的一批人 named themselves across the continent, in hundreds of languages.用数百种不同语言称呼自己 The word for people – or the First People – was what they used.他们用的是“人”或“第一人”这个词 Other people existed, to trade and talk and fight with存在着其他群体 与他们进行贸易 交流和战斗 But the continent was vast and travel slow.但这片陆地广阔且交通不便 There were no horses and wouldn’t be for millennia.这里没有马 甚至之后几千年内都没有 No group could know all the others.没有一个群体能认识其他所有群体 So there was no single name for all.所以没有对所有人的统一称呼 Then, from across the sea, came a new other people.之后 从海的对面来了新的群体 Who brought with them great and terrible things.这群人带来的事物有好有坏 They too had a name for themselves in their own language.他们有用自己的语言为自己取的名字 But they also brought a name for the First People: Indians.也将第一批人命名为:印第安人 We are in the future from this past.我们在这一过去的未来 And you in the future from my present (possibly the far future).而你在我的现在的未来(或许是很远的将来) And the word ‘Indian’ may have just made you uncomfortable.而“印第安人”一词可能会让你感到不舒服 So let’s talk about words.让我们来讨论一下词汇 Words are what we make them.词汇是由我们创造的 Without the words surrounding them,当词汇没有具体的语境 without brains to interpret them,或者没有用头脑去解析它们 words are but whispers of wind.言语不过是风的低语 It’s a word’s utility to the speaker and the reaction of the listener一个词汇的诞生 存在 消亡 that causes words to be born and to live and to die.取决于它是否传达了讲者的想法 激发了听者的反应 Long after its first use in the New World,当这个名字在新大陆出现很久之后 the early British and American Empires needed a word早期的英美帝国需要一个词 to collectively describe the First People.来从整体上称呼第一批人 And ‘Indian’, despite its confused origins, was that word.他们选择的词是“印第安人” 尽管这个词的起源让人困惑 As the Empires expanded, there was terrible conflict.随着帝国的扩张 发生了可怕的冲突 The First People found themselves decimated and scattered.第一批人被大量消灭 流散各地 Many forcibly moved to reservations.许多人被迫搬到保留地 Land unknown with others unknown.未知的土地和陌生的人群 Needing to act as one new group to survive.使他们需要作为一个新群体生存下去 To hold on to any sovereignty.去争取一些主权 As the world progressed from horses, to steam, to electricity,随着世界从马匹运输发展到蒸汽 再到电力 the nature of conflict changed.冲突的性质发生了变化 Fewer guns and germs.战争和疾病减少了 More minds and laws.思想和法律冲突变多了 But the First People were now a tiny minority in the land但“第一批人”现在只是这个国家人口的一小部分 While also a multiplicity of groups.同时却是一个多元化的群体 For comparison, there are about 200 countries in the world.相比之下 世界上约有200个国家 Within the United States, the reservations number more than 300.而美国国内 保留地的数量超过了300个 Within and without those areas of special sovereignty,在这些有特殊主权的地区内外 there are more than 500 federally recognized tribes.共有超过500个公认的部落 Each with a different name.每个都有不同的名字 To win the minds of the majority,为了取得多数人的同意 to get laws securing sovereignty,用法律来保护主权 hundreds of different names for different groups is not helpful.成百个不同的群体名字帮不了什么忙 A collective name – one clear in the minds of the majority – is needed.一个统一的名字——一个多数人认可的概念明确的称谓非常必要 A name useful for unity.一个有助于统一的名字 In the time of Civil Rights,在民权运动时期 ‘American Indians’, shortened to ‘Indians’,这个统一的名字出现了 尽管其来源复杂 was (despite its confused origins) that name.这个词就是 “美洲印第安人” 缩写为“印第安人” For words are what we make them.名字就是我们这样创造出来的 And we can unmake them.而我们也可以取缔它们 As I write this script looking at the past,在我写这份文本时 回顾了过去 and toward you in the future,展望了你所在的未来 I will bet that future history will unmake ‘Indian’我相信未来的历史会取缔“印第安人” in favor of ‘Native American’, or something else.改用“美洲原住民” 或者其他的什么词 You know if this has happened.不知道你那会儿改没改 But here, as part of working on this series,但是在此 在制作这个系列的时候 I’ve traveled to many reservations to see them我游历了很多保留地来观察他们 and to talk to the people who live in them.和住在那里的人们交流 On reservations, the word ‘Indian’ is still used在那里 他们依然会用“印第安人” without hesitation or negative connotation.毫不犹豫 也没有贬义内涵 Used as identity, not universally, but near it.用来定义自己 不是全体公认 但也差不多了 You, like me, may be surprised to hear that,你 像我一样 可能听到时会很惊讶 given the word’s confused origins.因为这个词的奇怪来源 But words are what we make them.但是词汇就是由我们创造的 And Indians have made the word theirs.印第安人已经把这个词变成了他们自己的 Now, as for ‘Native American’, while preferred by some,拿“美洲原住民”这个词来说 尽管有些人爱用 there exists in others a strong dislike and resentment of the name.但是另外一些人却非常厌恶和不满 The word created to explain this dislike was passed on to me.人们创造了一个词 用来解释这种厌恶 And the only way to explain fully is to pass it on to you.要解释明白 唯一的方法就是 给你们看这个词 So, the dislike comes from… ‘overinclusivity’所以 这个词就是 即这种冒犯来自于 “过于宽泛” [audience gasps][观众惊讶声] I know. I know. I know.我可以理解你们这种反应 But let’s stay thoughtful and examine让我们继续思考和检验 what this word was created to communicate.这个词被创造出来是想表达什么意思 For at least 300 years,在过去至少300年中 ‘Indian’ has meant the first people in this part of the world.“印第安人”用来代表了这片土地上的第一批人 Separated at first but thrust into a shared history.本来是分散的却被归为一类 It is clear. It is sharp.很清晰 很明确 The word ‘Native American’, less so.而“美洲原住民” 则并非如此 It can include everyone from the top to bottom of two continents.它可以涵盖这两块美洲大陆上的所有人 A vast number of different cultures and current-day goals and concerns.这一大群人有着不同的文化 当下生活目标和忧虑 The histories of North, Central, and South America北美 中美 南美的历史很不一样 are as divergent as the histories of Asia, Europe, and Africa.可比肩亚洲 欧洲 非洲之间的历史差异 To call a person from here, here, or here称呼一个来自这里 这里或者这里的人 a ‘Native Afro-Eurasian’ would be so over-inclusive一个“亚非欧原住民”就太过于宽泛了 as to make it difficult for that human to strongly这让人很难有强烈认同感 identify with or rally others under.或者产生共同意识 So it goes for ‘Native American’.这就是“美洲原住民”(这个词的问题) Additionally, it can feel like yet another thing forced from the outside.此外 这个词也给人一种外界强加的感觉 Talking to people about this project over the last… Five years… 最近五年 当跟人们聊到这个现象(用“美洲原住民”取代“印第安人”) revealed a strong correlation.一种很强的相关性显示出来了 The closer a person had ever been to a reservation,一个曾与保留地关系越密切的人 the more likely they would use ‘Indian’.越是倾向于用“印第安人” The farther, the more likely they would use the word ‘Native American’.越远 则更喜欢用“美洲原住民” And that’s understandable.这也是可以理解的 Is ‘Indian’ okay?可以用“印第安人”吗? *Maybe.*可能吧 But ‘Native American’ won’t be wrong.但是“美洲原住民”也没错 And it’s useful to express concern and sensitivity as an outsider.可以用来表达身为外部人的关怀和体贴 But this creates an unstable balance 但内部人和外部人的用词不同 between insider and outsider use of a word.会导致一种不稳定的平衡 If the majority hesitates over a word,如果大多数在使用这个词时感到犹豫 it slides into uncomfortability这就会滑向一种不适 or worse.更糟糕的是 If the majority decides a word is unacceptable,如果大多数决定一个词不能被接受 so it becomes.那这个词就不能被使用了 Groups should be able to name themselves,群体应该可以决定自己的名字 but when they’re small, they often can’t.但当他们的群体很小时 他们通常没有这种力量 The word used to describe themselves,他们用来描述自己的词 outsiders, through sheer numbers, redefine.被占据多数的外界人群重新定义 At the time of writing, this is happening to ‘Indian’在此时 这个被重新定义的词是“印第安人” but the leading replacement is not as universally well-regarded但首选替代词“美洲原住民”并没有被普遍的 inside reservations as those outside may expect.像外界期待一样 在保留地内部被认同 As we will talk about, many things have been given to the First People.就像我们接下来要讲到的 第一批人们被给予了很多东西 Promises. And rights. And lands.承诺 权力 和土地 Only once used and adopted by them to be taken away.然而只是短暂地给到了他们 之后就被收回 So it may go again.所以这样的事可能还会发生 Thus, this series will use ‘American Indian’ or ‘Indian’ for three main reasons.因此 本系列视频使用“美洲印第安人”或者“印第安人”有三个主要的原因 One. The word is clear in geography and history.一 这个词语在地理和历史区分上非常清晰 Limited to the first people of what is now the continental United States.仅限于现在美洲大陆上的第一批居民 Two. The tribal governments and the United States government use ‘Indian’.二 部落政府和美国政府使用的是“印第安人”这个词 The Bureau of Indian Affairs, staffed by Indians, 负责调解这两个政府的机构 印第安人事务办公室 which mediates between the two governments also uses ‘Indian’.由印第安人任职 也用“印第安人”这个词 To call governments and departments and laws by names other than what they are 涉及政府 机构 法律名字时 would be pointlessly confusing.用其他词代替只会让人困惑 毫无意义 Three. At the time of writing, ‘Indian’ is used by Indians三 在当下“印第安人”是他们使用的 on Indian reservations to describe themselves.在印第安保留地中描述自己的名字 Ok. We’re well past that point where you hear a word so many times好的 当我们重复听一个词太多次 it starts to become meaningless.就开始忘记它的含义了 Fun fact. There’s a word for that: semantic satiation.有一个术语用来描述这种有趣的现象:语义饱和 Delightfully alliterative and will cause itself,这个词优雅的头韵本身也会导致语义饱和 but I leave that as an exercise to the viewer.我把这个留作给观者的一个练习 This has been 1300 words in an attempt to explain 1.这已经有1300个单词来尝试解释这一个词 That complete we can now move on to the next part.完整内容会在下一个部分继续
  • 2021-08-24马克·哈米尔的星途How can one man embody the Galaxy’s great hero一个人怎么能既是银河系的伟大英雄 and Gotham’s ghastliest villain?又是哥谭镇最可怕的恶棍呢? This is the Evolution of Mark Hamill.这就是马克·哈米尔的成长之路 Luke Skywalker made Hamill a household name,卢克·天行者让哈米尔家喻户晓 but his outer space adventures are only half of the story.但他的太空冒险仅是故事的一部分 Throughout his career,在职业生涯中 the actor has owned some of pop culture’s most iconic roles他出演了流行文化中一些最具标志性的角色 but things started slowly during the early years但他早年的事业发展缓慢 Hamill was born in California in 1951哈米尔1951年出生于加利福利亚 but he didn’t stay there for long但他在那里生活的时间并不长 As the son of a U.S. Navy Captain, his family moved constantly.作为美国海军上校的儿子 他经常搬家 He attended nine schools in ten years,十年间他辗转就读过九所学校 and by the time he’s graduated from Hamil, he actually lived in Japan.当他从汉密尔毕业期间 实际上住在日本 Mark moved to LA at the age of 17, working various odd jobs马克17岁时搬去了洛杉矶 做着各种零工 and living in an old gardener’s shed for $55 a month住在一个老园丁的棚屋里 每月55美元租金 as he tried to make it in Hollywood.那时他努力地在好莱坞立足 His first paying role was a guest spot on a 1970’s Bill Cosby series,他的第一个有偿角色是客串1970年比尔克劳斯系列影片 and from there, he landed bit parts on various shows,从那时起 他就在各种节目中跑龙套 including “The Partridge Family”包括《鹧鸪家族》 a 9-month stint on “General Hospital”为期9个月的《综合医院》 and a co-starring role in a short-lived sitcom called “Texas Wheele”和一部担任联合主演的情景喜剧短片《德克萨斯惠勒》 ”This is the dumbest thing I’ve ever heard of“我听过最愚蠢的事情是 getting all dressed up to bury a duck.”通过盛装打扮来掩人耳目” Hamill was slowly but surely finding success in the world of television哈米尔稳扎稳打地在电视界打开了局面 but his big screen debut made him a megastar overnight然而 他的大银幕处女作让他一夜成名 thanks to a little movie called Star Wars感谢这部叫《星球大战》的小电影 When Mark Hamill first heard about当马克·哈米尔26岁时第一次听说 the casting call for an upcoming sci-fi fantasy flick,一部即将上映的科幻电影的角色招募时 he was 26 years old他只有26岁 and crashing on his friend and fellow actor Robert Englund’s couch.借宿在他的朋友兼同事罗伯特·恩格伦德的沙发上 Englund, who would later become an icon of his own as Freddy Krueger,恩格伦德后来有了自己的代表角色弗雷迪·克鲁格 had auditioned for Han Solo.当时也参加了汉·索洛的试镜 Sadly, he didn’t get the part,不幸的是 他没有被选上 but he suggested that Mark should try out但他建议马克应该试试 for the role of an idealistic farmboy named Luke.一个名叫卢克的理想主义农家男孩的角色 “but I was going to Tosche Station to pick up power converters”“但我要去托什站取一些电力转换器” ‘Star Wars’ changed the way movies are made and marketed,《星球大战》改变了电影的制作和营销方式 and its global success made Hamill a household name overnight,它在全世界的成功让哈米尔一夜成名 but he almost didn’t live to see it.但也让他差点丧命 Five months before the movie was released在电影上映前五个月 Hamill was involved in a serious car accident.哈米尔出了一场严重的车祸 His nose and cheekbones were shattered他的鼻子和颧骨都碎了 requiring surgery to repair the damage,需要手术来修复损伤 and forever altering the face that millions of fans would look up to.并永远地改变了可能被数百万粉丝仰望的颜值 You can see the difference in the ‘Star Wars Holiday Special,’你可以在《星球大战假日特辑》 and ‘Corvette Summer’, the box office bomb.和票房炸弹《克尔维特夏日》中看到前后的差别 He starred in immediately after ‘A New Hope.’他在《星球大战4:新希望》之后很快成为主演 When it came time for the Empire to Strike Back,拍《帝国反击战》这部电影时 the movie actually incorporated his accident into the script,该片实际上把他的意外融入了剧本 with a fierce Wampa attack用万帕的猛烈攻击 to explain Luke’s changed appearance.来解释卢克变脸的原因 His earnest performance as the archetypical hero他卖力地表演这样的典型英雄形象 continued to thrill fans in ‘Return of the Jedi,’在《绝地归来》中依然让影迷们兴奋不已 and after the original trilogy ended,在最初的三部曲结束后 you’d think he would have become a leading man你可能会认为他会成为像 like his co-star Harrison Ford.他的搭档哈里森·福特那样的主角 Well, that didn’t happen,但这并没有发生 because Hamill became a victim of Hollywood Typecasting因为哈米尔成了好莱坞类型选角的牺牲品 ‘Star Wars’ transformed Hamill into a teen icon,”星球大战”使哈米尔变成了青春偶像 but fame was a double-edged sword.但名利是把双刃剑 For years after the original trilogy,在最初的三部曲之后的几年里 studios were reluctant to cast him工作室不愿意让他接任何其他形象的角色 as anything but a babyfaced hero.除了娃娃脸的英雄 Luke Skywalker hounded him for years卢克·天行者困扰了他许多年 and, frustrated by the lack of meatier roles,苦于缺少更丰满的角色形象 Hamill turned his attention to Broadway,哈米尔把注意力转向了百老汇 where he appeared in stage productions of ‘ The Elephant Man, ’在那里他出演了舞台剧《大象人》 and replaced Tim Curry as Mozart in ‘Amadeus.’取代蒂姆·柯里 在《莫扎特传》里饰演莫扎特 When the latter play was adapted to film in 1984,当莫扎特传在1984年被改编成电影时 Mark was eager to reprise the role onscreen,马克很渴望在银幕上重演这个角色 but a Hollywood executive flatly refused, saying但被一位好莱坞高管断然拒绝 “I don’t want Luke Skywalker in this film.”他说“我不希望卢克·天行者出现在这部电影中” The only roles available to him were on TV shows,他只能在电视节目中出演角色 like ‘The Flash,’ or in cult sci-fi films比如《闪电侠》或者什么邪典科幻电影 like‘Midnight Ride’ and ‘The Guyver,比如《午夜骑行》和《盖弗》 “I want you to like me.”“我希望你喜欢我” “Then why are you doing this to me?””那你为什么这样对我?” “Laura, I’m not going to hurt you.“劳拉 我不会伤害你的 Just don’t run away from me, ok…Promise!”别离开我 好吗 答应我!” a far cry from the global phenomenon of ‘Star Wars.’此剧和全球现象级的星战热度相去甚远 Hamill eventually realized that哈米尔最终意识到 people couldn’t see him as Luke Skywalker如果观众根本看不到他 if they couldn’t see him at all就不会把他看作是卢克·天行者了 so he took his face out of the equation所以他让自身形象摆脱这种定式 and tried his hand at voice acting并尝试为角色配音 Hamil has actually experimented with boys of world before ‘ Star Wars,’他曾在《星球大战》之前为世界男孩配音 in Ralph Bakshi’s 1977 film ‘Wizards,’即拉尔夫·巴克希1977年的电影《巫师》 but he wouldn’t land the role that made him an icon until 1992,但直到1992年 哈米尔才迈入偶像阵营 where he appeared in another masterpiece那时他配音了另一部 that changed the course of pop culture: ‘Batman:The Animated Series’改变流行文化进程的巨作:《蝙蝠侠:动画系列》 Ironically, Hamill wasn’t the first choice to play the Joker.讽刺的是 哈米尔并不是扮演小丑的首选 Originally, Tim Curry was cast to play Gotham’s Clown Prince of Crime,一开始 配音哥谭的小丑犯罪王子的是蒂姆·库里 but after a bout of bronchitis,但由于支气管炎发作 Hamill stepped in to replace him,哈米尔代替了他 just like he did in‘Amadeus’ nearly a decade earlier.就像他近十年前在《莫扎特传》里那样 Hamill made the role his own,哈米尔用自己的风格诠释角色 with his over-the-top, cackling performance运用夸张 大笑等表演技巧 that perfectly blended merriment and menace.完美融合了欢乐和威胁的情绪 “They used to kid me”他们之前还嘲笑我 because I was the only one who would stand up.因为我是唯一一个会站着配音的 And I just thought to当时我只是想 energize the character, to shake my fist让角色有活力 挥舞我的拳头 and I felt I’ve got to stand up.”我觉得我应该站起来” For a lot of people, Hamill is the Joker,对多数人来说 哈米尔就是“小丑” and for nearly 25 years he continued to portray the character将近25年来 他一直在塑造这一形象 throughout cartoons, animated movies, and the ‘Arkham’ video games.出演卡通片 动画电影以及蝙蝠侠系列电玩游戏 Since he began as Joker,自从以小丑形象出现 Hamill has become one of animation’s most prolific voice actors,哈米尔成为最多产的动画配音演员之一 but he especially relishes playing the bad guy.但他十分享受饰演反派角色 He went on to voice supervillains across several different shows,他开始为不同电影里面的超级大反派配音 from the Hobgoblin in ‘Spider-Man,’ to从《蜘蛛侠》里面的红魔到 reprising his live-action role as the Trickster到重新出演的真人漫画角色: in ‘Justice League: Unlimited.’《无限正义联盟》中的魔术师 After his resurgence, Hamill re-embraced his status as a geek icon,复出后 哈米尔重新接受了自己偶像怪才的形象 appearing in cameos on ‘The Simpsons’, ‘Third Rock from the Sun’客串了《辛普森一家》《歪星撞地球》 and a memorable turn as ‘Cock Knocker’在《杰伊和沉默的鲍勃反击战》中 in Kevin Smith’s ‘Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back.’令人印象深刻的转型饰演了“敲鸡人” “Why do they call you Cock Knocker?”“他们为什么叫你敲鸡人?” “Actually there’s a funny story behind that.事实上 背后有一个有趣的故事 [laughs]”You’re gonna love this; True story.”[笑声]你肯定会喜欢这个的 真实的故事 [groans] See,[呻吟]看 Hamill isn’t just an actor哈米尔不仅仅是一个演员 he’s an honest-to-goodness nerd.他还是一个善良诚实的书呆子 and if you need proof of his cred,如果你想证实这个名声 just check out his sole directorial effort:只需看他独自导演的作品: the 2004 mockumentary ”Comic Book The Movie”2004年的仿纪录片《漫画书》 a love letter to fandom一封给影迷的情书 that gave many of his fellow voice actors也给了他很多配音的同行们 a chance to shine in front of the camera.一个在镜头前发光的机会 Hamill’s career could have ended here,哈米尔的演员生涯本来可以到此结束 as a beloved but mostly irrelevant pop culture relic作为一个受欢迎但和流行文化没什么关系的老演员 but in 2015, Hamill faced his biggest challenge yet:但在2015年 哈米尔面临人生中最大的挑战: Stepping back into the role that both made and cursed his career,回归这个既成就了他 也诅咒了他的角色 giving the galaxy a renewed hope给全世界带回了新“新希望” After Disney purchased Lucasfilm in 2012,自从迪士尼在2012年买下了卢卡斯电影后 they went full steam ahead on production他们全力以赴地开启制作 of the long-awaited’Star Wars’ sequel trilogy广受期待的《星球大战》续集 But first, they had to convince Mark Hamill但是 他们首先要说服马克•哈米尔 to pick up the lightsaber once again.再一次拿起光剑 George Lucas himself approached the actor, just before the deal was sealed,在敲定合同前 乔治•卢卡斯亲自联系了马克 and initially, Hamill was reluctant to return to the galaxy far, far away.起初 哈米尔不愿意回到遥远的银河系 He eventually agreed after hearing但听说哈里森·福特也会参演时 that Harrison Ford would also be involved他最终同意了出演 because he didn’t want to be the only holdout.因为他不想成为唯一的反对者 Hamill grew a beard and lost 50 pounds哈米尔蓄了胡须 减重50磅 to play the older, grizzled Luke来饰演头发花白的年迈卢克 even though he only appeared on screen尽管他只出现在了 at the very end of ‘ The Force Awakens’《原力觉醒》的最后几分钟 ‘The Last Jedi’ gave him a much meatier role,但“最后的绝地武士”给了他一个更丰满的角色 but after living with Luke for 40 years但在与卢克共同生活了40年之后 Hamill had his own strong opinions on the character.哈米尔对这个角色有他自己坚定的看法 He initially disagreed with director Rian Johnson’s他最初不同意导演里安·约翰逊的决定 decision to make Luke a broken, jaded man,让卢克成为一个伤痕累累的绝地武士 but whether you loved or hated ‘The Last Jedi,’但不管你是喜欢还是讨厌《最后的绝地武士》 Hamill’s powerful performance哈米尔富有张力的表演 helped ease the loss of the beloved hero.缓和了失去这位众人热爱的英雄的伤痛 and even though Luke himself尽管卢克本人 might have joined his father and mentors in the force可能加入了他父亲和导师的原力阵营 Mark Hamill’s Hollywood legacy will never truly die.但马克·哈米尔留下的好莱坞遗风永不消亡
  • 2021-08-24西方姓氏数目为何会逐渐减少?When you marry,结婚后 usually you take on your partner’s surname通常你会随伴侣的姓氏 or your parter takes on yours.或对方随你的姓 Two people with different surnames become两个不同姓氏的人 two people with the same.因而拥有了相同的姓氏 One surname spreads, the other one goes… …extinct?一种姓氏得到延续 另一种会走向……灭亡么? Usually not, there might be siblings, cousins,通常不会 因为可能有同姓的兄弟姐妹 堂兄弟姐妹 strangers who happen to share the surname to还有碰巧同姓的陌生人 carry it on for the one who lost it替改变姓氏的人把原来的姓氏传递下去 But if one person fails to pass on the surname,但如果一个人没能将姓氏传递下去 so might the others.那么其他人也有失败的可能 In fact, every now and then 事实上 当一个姓氏的最后一人离世 entire surnames do go extinct而未能将其传下去时 when its last bearer passes away without passing it on.这个姓氏就消失了 这一情况时有发生 According to the Daily Mail,《每日邮报》报道 in England and Wales, 200,000 surnames自1901年起 在英格兰和威尔士 were lost since 1901.已经有20万姓氏消失了 You can find lists of endangered surnames你可以在一些网站上找到濒危姓氏的名单 on websites such as Ancestry.com and myheritage.com例如 Ancestry和myheritage Ancestry counts surnames with less than 50 carriers left as endangered,Ancestry将少于50人的姓氏列为濒危姓氏 which in England and Wales, would currently be names such as在英国和威尔士 这些濒危姓氏有 Pober, Mirren, Febland (heh, Febland), Nighy – N-Nighy?Pober Mirren Febland Nighy Well, some of these names might be more of those than others,虽然其中有些姓氏的人数可能相对多些 it’s sad to think that they might all cease to exist within a few generations.但遗憾的是它们都可能在几代人后消失 Back in the days, new surnames were created as well在以前 人们会根据 based on someone’s job or father’s given name某人的工作或父亲的名字 or where they came from.还有籍贯创造新的姓氏 But that doesn’t really happen anymore,但那些情况已经不太会发生了 not on a large scale, anyway.至少不会大规模发生 So more surnames are lost than new ones are being born.所以消失的姓氏远比新产生的多 Keep this experiment going long enough,如果这种情况持续时间够长 and we will all end up with the same surname eventually, won’t we?我们最后将变成同一个姓氏 不是吗? When we look at Earth’s more ancient civilizations当我们探究地球的古代文明 even more ancient-甚至更远古的文明 intensive research reveals that深入研究表明 most Chinese surnames in use today现今使用的大多数中国姓氏 were handed down from thousands of years ago.是几千年前传下来的 While historically about 12,000 Chinese surnames have been recorded,历史上记载了约12000种中国姓氏 only a bit over 3,000 are currently in use,而目前仍在使用的却只有3000出头 it reduction of 75 percent!减少了75% And only a fraction of those所有人口中 大多数人 are taking over a majority of the entire population.只会使用一小部分姓氏 The three most common surnames in mainland China are Li, Wang and Zhang,中国大陆的三个大姓分别是 李 王 张 which make up for more than 7 percent of the Chinese population each.每个姓氏的使用人数都超过中国人口的7% Together they belong to close to 300 million people总数近30亿 and are easily the most common surnames in the world.它们无疑是世界上最普遍的姓氏 In China, the phrase”three Zhang, four Li” is used to say just”anybody.”在中国 “张三李四”被用来泛指“某人” So after thousands of years,即使历经几千年 the Chinese people aren’t down to one all-dominating surname, but several.中国人的姓氏并没有被一个大姓所占 而是几个 What’s going on here?这是为什么呢? This effect can be shown in a simulation.这种现象可以通过模拟来展示 What you see here is the result of a Galton-Watson process,这里看到的是高尔顿-沃森过程的结果 which maps out how the distribution of family names changes over time.这里绘制出了姓氏分布如何随时间而变化 It starts out with a very large number of unique family names这个模拟从大量独一无二的姓氏开始 each represented by a different color,每个姓氏用不同颜色代表 and after 40 generations or around a thousand years在40代或大约一千年后 ends with the ones which are left.以剩余的姓氏结束 When you look at the very end there,看到最后 what you see is very similar to the Chinese situation.你会发现和中国非常相似的情况 The top three names take over 20 percent of the cake.排名前三的姓氏总占比超过总人口的20% But the question is: if we keep the simulation going,那么问题来了 如果我们继续模拟下去 will we end up with only one surname?我们最终会只剩下一个姓氏吗? Mathematically, the entire population does converge to only one surname.数学计算角度上 所有人终将会变成同一姓氏 But in real life,但在现实生活中 if we start out with, say,10,000 surnames假设我们最开始有10000个姓氏 and there are actually much more than that其实远不止这些 after 40 generations we’d still be left with over 400.那么40代之后还会剩下400多个 Okay, how about 200 generations?好 那么200代以后呢? Still 93 left.还有93个 While the less frequent names are dying out quickly,虽然不常见姓氏快速消失 the more frequent ones become so widely spread但其他较常见的姓氏流传地如此广泛 that humans will probably cease to exist before they do.还没等到它们消失 人类可能已经不复存在了 The probability of extinction of a unique family name仅由一对年轻夫妇拥有的特殊姓氏 that is carried by only one young couple is 45 percent消亡的可能性是45% at least in the West至少在西方是这样 That’s the average likelihood of them having no children这个比例是他们没有孩子 or only children who won’t pass on the family name.或者他们的孩子没有把家族姓氏传下去的平均概率 But the likelihood of a family name which is held by multiple couples但是由多对夫妻共同拥有的姓氏 going extinct within one generation is 45% to the power of the number of couples.在一代之内消失的概率是45%的n次方(n=夫妻数量) So with a few more people sharing a surname所以有多人使用的姓氏 it becomes very unlikely very quickly that this surname should disappear soon.是非常不可能在短时间内迅速消失的 If you want to know how often your family name is currently in use,如果你想知道自己的姓氏如今有多少人使用 you can find that out on websites such as Forebears.可以在类似Forebears的网站上查找 According to the US census bureau据美国人口普查局数据可知 the most common family names in the US are currently美国人如今使用最普遍的姓氏是 Smith, Johnson, and Williams,Smith Johnson 还有Williams which together make up for around 2 percent of the entire US population.它们加起来约占美国人口总数的2% That’s, of course, not very impressive to China.当然 相对中国来说这个比例并不是很大 In a way, you could say that on this timeline,某种程度上 你可以说在这个时间轴上 the US is somewhere here while China is already over there.美国还在这儿 中国就已到那儿了 As fewer family names become more widely spread,随着姓氏数目变少而拥有这些姓氏的人变多 we might follow the Chinese feat或许我们会跟上中国的脚步 and become more creative about given names.并在取名上更具创造力 So instead of Tim Smith, you might be called the TalentedPeaceful Smith.你可以叫TalentedPeaceful Smith 而不是叫Tim Smith And, instead of Tom, I might be called The Rest of Us.我可以叫The Rest of Us 而不是Tom
  • 2021-08-2470人(5-75岁)的答案:你的生活目标是什么?What goal do you have in life?你有什么生活目标吗? I play Lacrosse and it has a goalie.长曲棍球运动有守门员 No.没有 I’m not really sure, actually.其实 我不是很确定 No.没有 Be very famous and very rich like变得很有名和很有钱 I’ll like to live in Connecticut.我想住在康涅狄格州 I have a lot.我有很多 I want to be famous.我想出名 To just be happy.快乐就好 I’m deciding between an actor or magician.我在演员和魔术师中犹豫 I really want to make a difference in life.我想度过不一样的人生 To be like one of the first pretty Victoria Secrets angles.成为首席维多利亚秘密秀的天使 Probably to be a very famous actress.可能是成为著名演员 To be happy.变开心 To write and publish a novel.写一部小说 然后出版 I want to be a house-husband.我想成为家庭主夫 To find somebody to spend the rest of my life with.寻找与我共度余生的另一半 I would like to raise a family我想要成家 and I would like to have a career that I’m passionate about.而且还想要一份我热爱的职业 To be happy.快乐 I want to wake up every day and love what I do.我想每天醒来 热爱我的工作 To be financially and economically independent.我希望自己经济完全独立 To be happy.快乐 To win an Oscar.拿奥斯卡奖 To travel the world.环游世界 To travel more.尽可能多地旅行 To have creative control of what I do.对我所做的有创造性的把握 I really want to like a bungalow with a backyard我很想要个带着院子的小屋 and my puppy just like running around.然后我的狗狗可以到处跑 To be okay with where I’m at in my life.随遇而安 Freedom. I just want to be able to travel when I want to travel.自由 我想去哪就去哪 I have the goal of buying a house.我的目标是买房 I was definitely like to travel more.我肯定想再去多旅行几次 I just want to get paid for being myself.我想因为做自我 而有价值 To always wake up保持清醒 with the passion for the day that’s gonna come.带着对未来的激情 Retire early and travel.早点退休 然后到处走走 Be happy and to be successful.快乐和成功 To raise my children to be respectful and successful.把我的孩子养成有教养 有成就的人 To be happy.快乐 Just be a good person.做个好人就够了 Retire and make sure my dogs in a row.退休和让我的狗听话点 I want to get to the point when the punches don’t even feel like punches.我想要到达一个更能迎接挫折的阶段 To win an Academy Award.拿到美国电影艺术学院金像奖 To pass on the things that have worked out well in my life.把我生命中成功的东西传递下去 Live like to the fulllest, don’t take anything for granted.好好生活 不要把任何事情都认为是理所当然的 To see the creative project set I’ve been working on, succeed.看到我一直在做的创意项目成功 To live an independent happy life.过独立 快乐的生活 To create and to continue my art business.创造和延续我的艺术生意 Make sure that my children are independent.确保我的孩子能独立 To be a really good mother to my children and做孩子的好妈妈 并且 be a good role model for them.给他们做个好榜样 Just be a happy man.就做个快乐的人 To make a difference.有所作为 Live a very long time, very healthy.能非常健康 长寿 World domination.统治世界 To be content.知足 Stay happy, remain happy.保持快乐 To be happy.开心 To learn as much as I can about myself.尽可能地了解我自己 Be in control of myself.能够控制自己 Continue to have my health.保持健康 I believe I’ve already done that.我觉得我已经完成目标了 Umm. Well, not totally completed it.额 也不是完全做到了 Well, but I’ve retired early.但我提前退休了 I bought a place in Manhattan我在曼哈顿买了房 and I’m living here and enjoying it.现在住在这里 很开心 To make a living singing and acting.以唱歌 表演为生 My goals right now are mostly for my son.我现在的目标主要是为了我儿子 When I die, I don’t want to regret not having done things.我不想在去世时后悔有什么事没做 Right now is happiness.现在目标是幸福 To help others’ day, be happy.乐于助人 开心 I want to try and make life better for someone else.我想努力让别人的生活变得更好 I just look forward to,我打算继续向前看 actually most of my days, it’s a good time.其实 我人生大部分时候都还挺顺心的 To leave something behind that people will say,留下一些什么 让人们会说 oh yeah, she was here.噢 她从未离去 To stay calm and not panic.保持平静 不慌不乱 To make a difference.有所作为 To win an Oscar.拿奥斯卡奖 I aim to live each day我立志过好每一天 with appreciation.带着感激 To be as much as myself as I can.尽我所能 做好自己 I want to be happy.我想要开心 I want to make the people around me happy.我想让周围的人开心 I want to go out with my boots on.我想穿上鞋子出去外面 I want to keep moving.我想继续前进
  • 2021-08-24为什么这么多电影中出现这种令人毛骨悚然的旋律Remember when Mufasa died?记得木法沙死的时候吗? Or when Luke Skywalker’s aunt and uncle were killed?还有卢克·天行者的阿姨和叔叔被杀的时候? Or even when George Bailey decided he couldn’t bear to live anymore?还有乔治·贝利觉得自己活不下去的时候? These are some of the most grim, tragic moments in film history,这些都是电影史上最残酷 最悲惨的时刻 but they have something else in common.但是它们还有点别的共同点 Once you start paying attention, these four notes are everywhere只要你仔细观察 会发现这四个音符无处不在 《善地》2019 《蝙蝠侠归来》1992 《第三类接触》1977 《指环王:护戒使者》2001 And we’ve been associating them with death for almost 800 years.而且其与死亡联系在一起已有近800年了 What you’re hearing in those movies is called the “dies irae,”你在上述电影里听到的音调叫“dies irae” A Gregorian chant created by Catholic monks around the 13th century.是天主教僧侣在13世纪左右创造出的格里高利圣歌 It was used for one specific mass: funerals.用于一个特定的弥撒:葬礼 [Latin chant plays][拉丁吟唱剧] “Dies irae” translates from Latin to “Day of Wrath.”“dies irae”从拉丁语翻译过来就是《震怒之日》 That’s the day Catholics believe God will judge the living and the dead天主教徒认为 上帝会在这一天审判生者和逝者 and decide whether they go to heaven or hell for eternity.并决定让他们是永远升入天堂还是投入地狱 It really is the sort of fire and brimstone passage that’s talking about the day of reckoning它其实是讲述末日审判炼狱之苦的文段 where in essence the decision is being made whether you’re going to heaven or you’re going to hell.本质上是决定你去天堂还是地狱的一个过程 That’s Alex Ludwig, a musicologist and professor from the这位是亚历克斯·路德维希 一名音乐学家兼教授 Berklee College of Music who keeps a big list of dies irae references in movies.他来自伯克利音乐学院 在电影中保留了大量《震怒之日》的参考书目 The musical material and the text combine together to create this sort of ominous sort of sense of dread.那音乐和文字结合在一起就营造出了那种不祥 恐惧之感 Over the next few hundred years, the Church’s influence spread considerably,在接下来的几百年里 教会的影响显著扩大 and the Day of Wrath started popping up in works of art outside the church,《震怒之日》 开始出现在教会以外的艺术作品中 like Mozart’s 1791 symphony “Requiem,” influenced by the music of funerals.比如莫扎特1791年创作的交响乐《安魂曲》 就深受葬礼音乐的影响 In 1830, French composer Louis-Hector Berlioz1830年 法国作曲家路易斯·赫克托·柏辽兹 took the dies irae’s cultural capital to a new level.把《震怒之日》的文化价值提升到了一个新的高度 In his “Symphonie fantastique,” he lifted the melody but left out the words.在他的《幻想交响曲》中 他提高了这首赞美诗的音调 但省略了歌词 Berlioz’s story isn’t set in a church or funeral柏辽兹在《幻想交响曲》中讲述的不是以教会或者葬礼为背景的故事 — it’s about an obsessive love,而是关于一场疯狂的爱情 in which the main character dreams that the lover讲述了主角梦见他谋杀的情人 he murdered has come back as a witch to torment him.变成女巫回来折磨他 The movement is called “The Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath.”这一乐章名为《女巫安息日之梦》 And so it’s set at midnight in a graveyard所以它是在午夜的墓地里进行的 and there are all these creepy spooky pieces of music, including the dies irae.这里面有很多恐怖的音乐 其中包含了“震怒之日” What better piece of spooky music to play?还有什么比这更适合做恐怖音乐? Because this is a piece of music that already had these connotations behind it.毕竟这段旋律里已经有这种内涵了 Other great composers added versions of the dies irae to their works too,其他伟大的作曲家也在他们的作品中加入了各种版本的“震怒之日” like Hungarian composer Franz Liszt’s Totentanz, or Dance of the Dead,比如匈牙利作曲家弗朗西李斯特《死亡之舞》的创作 inspired by this medieval painting depicting suffering and death,就是受到中世纪画作中描绘的苦难和死亡的启发 or Giuseppe Verdi’s Messa da Requiem.再比如威尔蒂的《安魂曲》 And then we have the early silent films.还有早期的无声电影 Where the dies irae is then extracted even further那些电影对“震怒之日”做了进一步的提取 and used as a sort of sample or sort of reference to dark ominous actions并用来暗示某种黑暗不详的行为 taking place on screen.正在上演 Silent films were often accompanied by full orchestras, playing songs无声电影经常借助管弦乐队的伴奏 that helped propel soundless stories along. Like 1927’s Metropolis,服务其无声故事情节的推进 比如1927年的《大都会》 a silent German sci-fi about a dystopia full of robots and destruction这部德国无声科幻电影 描绘了一个充满机器人和破坏的反乌托邦 — which uses the dies irae in a particularly dramatic moment.那部电影在一个格外戏剧性的时刻用到了“震怒之日” As films started incorporating sound,随着电影开始融入声音 the dies irae kept being used as a shorthand for something grim.“震怒之日” 就成了残酷的代名词 Like in It’s a Wonderful Life and Star Wars: A New Hope.比如在《美好人生》和《星球大战:新希望》中 But perhaps its most iconic use is in The Shining.但是它最具代表性的应用可能是在《闪灵》这部影片中 Everyone knows The Shining is a horror film and it’s like, that’s the perfect signifier for the dies irae.众所周知 《闪灵》是部恐怖片 而它也是“震怒之日”完美的象征 The dies irae has come a long way from 13th-century funerals to scary movies.从13世纪的葬礼到恐怖电影 “震怒之日”经历了一条漫长的路 That’s because there’s something about those four notes that makes us feel uncomfortable.那是因为里面的四个音符让我们觉得不舒服 Let’s talk about the music.我们来谈谈音乐吧 The chant is in what’s called Dorian mode — and we don’t have to dig into all the ancient modes like that这首乐曲采用的是“多利安调式”——我们不必过于纠结类似的古代调子 — but today if you would play those first four notes you would say that that’s in a minor mode.但是今天 如果你要演奏这前四个音符 你会说那是个小调式 Minor music has always had this connotation of sadness, of darkness.小调音乐总是有悲伤的 黑暗的含义 If you look at the actual notes, you’ll see that F and E are half steps apart,如果你看了实际的音符 你会发现F和E只相差了半个音调 right next to each other.彼此挨得很近 Our ears are trained not to like those sounds together.我们的耳朵不习惯听到这两个音一起出现 Plus, the notes descend, getting deeper as the phrase progresses.另外 随着乐曲进行 音调越来越低 Musical lines that descend are sad音调往下走的曲子显得悲伤 whereas music that ascends, that rises, is much happier.而音调往上走的曲子会显得欢快 Combine these three things together and you’ve got an inherently spooky song —这三点结合起来 就成了一首让人毛骨悚然的乐曲—— even without all the fire and brimstone.即便没有讲述炼狱之苦 If you talk to a music professor like Alex, they’ll tell you the dies irae is everywhere.如果你和亚历克斯这样的音乐教授交谈的话 他们会告诉你“震怒之日”无处不在 And it is — but maybe not in places untrained ears will catch.的确如此 但是未经过训练的耳朵可能听不出来 The phrase has become so culturally ingrained that even a modified version它已经深深扎根在了文化之中 以至于修改过的版本 — like the theme to The Exorcist比如《驱魔人》的主题曲 — or a shortened version, like the Nightmare Before Christmas还有删减过的版本 比如《圣诞夜惊魂》 can suggest the same scary feeling.都能传达出类似的恐怖之感 It’s just that it it fascinates me that this piece of music still gets used.让我感到神奇的是大家仍然在用这首曲子 I’m still hearing them. I’m still adding films to my list.我仍可以听到这个旋律 仍然在看这类电影
  • 2021-08-24朋友VS 霸凌在座各位有好朋友的 请举手 举手的人 请一个一个告诉我是什么让那个人成为了你最好的朋友? 好的 请 他们从未让我改变自己 他们从未要求你改变自我 还有其他人么?好的 他们总是陪伴在我身边 他们总是陪在身边 好极了 但我想问大家的是 你为什么不说是那个人取得的成绩 他们喜欢的运动 他们开的车 有钱还是没钱 会有人这样想吗? 这些都不重要 但是为什么我们会觉得这些重要呢 请问 你们去哪里会有安全感 大家在学校里感觉安全么 有人这样觉得吗? 当真?为什么呢? 因为你在那里不能做真正的自己 在那里不能做真正的自己 我以为我们是朋友 但是朋友不会说对方的闲话 这就说明你跟我从来都不是朋友 朋友? 什么朋友? 我是你的朋友 如果朋友都像你这样 谁还需要朋友呢? 没有人跟我说话 她告诉我 教室里有霸凌 她在停车场看到了霸凌 她在操场也看到了霸凌 我想知道你们在干什么 当你看见霸凌的时候 你在干什么 学校又凭什么非得为这些霸凌买单 你真的非得跟那个怪胎做朋友吗 你是我朋友 真的 那些孩子们总爱给你找茬 没心没肺的样子 为什么你总是想故意欺负别人? 因为欺负他们很有趣 这就是一种习惯而已 你知道吗 你可能也会成为那个被欺负的人 你不知道有多少人在学校吃饭时(被整得)狼狈不堪 你不知道学校里多少人想自残 他们很介意被(霸凌)的 你不知道有多少人厌恶他们的生活 你不知道为什么会这样 我尝试着躲开他 我发现到大家都看着我 还有人笑我 真的很尴尬 如果我们一起散步 还抱在一起 你朋友会怎么看? 他会嘲笑我们的 离我远点 离我远点 我尝试自杀 因为那些人觉得他们只是在开玩笑 不知道我曾经经历过的地狱般生活 你知道的 被霸凌的感觉是多么难以容忍 别孤立你那些被欺凌的小伙伴 为他们挺身而出 并告诉他们他们能活出自己想要的模样 上帝啊 冷静点 这不是他的错 他觉得很丢脸 说道 事实上 我不喜欢这样 这… 这很伤人 我只是现在感觉到很孤独 我知道你并不在乎这些 但我…… 我想我们是朋友 我们不是朋友 真正的朋友不会拒绝对方的求助 我听到他们在背后议论我 他说若是长成我这样 他宁可杀了他自己 如果实际上我们相貌如何并不是很重要 那么为什么我们互相取笑长相 其实也无关紧要 自杀不是选择 知道吗? 你很清楚这不是一个选择的 对吧 我女儿尝试自杀 因为你女儿在欺负她 当别人打算自杀时 警察只会说不要霸凌这些人了 我曾经不太懂什么是友谊 如果人们觉得跟我熟络了 就会嘲讽我 之前都是我朋友 现在一个也没有了 你看 其实现在我连一个朋友都没有 我曾一度尽力跟你好好相处 我当初怎么会遇到你这种人 我把你们当做我的朋友 我没有朋友 编辑者 Evie May Sellars
  • 2021-08-24为什么一个人拥有2371部手机涉及到我的手机时我会很感性 我见不得有人把它摔了 也见不得有人划伤它 这些是我的宝贝 收藏手机 《伟大的故事》 印度 塔那 这是贾耶什•卡利 他的收藏非比寻常 多年来贾耶什逐渐收集了大量各式各样的手机 一 二 三 四 五 六 七 八 贾耶什 你到底有多少手机? 今天我数了数 一共有2371台 我五六年前开始收集手机 从世界各地搜集 比如…… 欧洲 英国 美国 瑞士 迪拜等很多国家 我妻子对我很生气 因为她所有衣柜都被我霸占了 我所有手机 一些放在卧室里 大部分放在车里 还有些放橱柜里 总之家里每个地方都有 你好 贾耶什对这些手机的痴迷 始于他的第一部诺基亚3310手机 本是不走运的一件小事 却向他证明了该手机的耐用性 一个朋友在我打电话时推了我 手机就从学校二楼的走廊掉了下去 我跑下楼 心里很紧张 它还能不能用? 我把电池放回去 惊喜的是它还能用 从那开始我就喜欢上了诺基亚 这些手机不只是以前的老古董 贾耶什对要收藏的手机有非常严格的标准 因此每当买手机时我都会考虑几件事 一是它需是全新或近乎全新的状态 第二 功能上它要完全没问题 因为买它们不仅为了收藏 还要拥有和使用它们 是的 你没听错 我是诺基亚收藏者 你说说看 我的朋友和家人对此看法不一 有人说我疯狂 有人为我骄傲 也有人说我拿这么多钱打了水漂 但他们其实并不知道事实恰恰相反 尽管贾耶什的收藏在印度同类收藏中已被公认为规模最大 但他有个更大的目标 我要尝试吉尼斯世界纪录 在印度 我已因收藏诺基亚手机而出名 但我认为拥有吉尼斯世界纪录证书 能提高你的声望 对他来说这不仅仅是记录和认可 我非常照顾它们 我盯着它们 看着它们 我也发自内心地感到快乐 《伟大的故事》
  • 2021-08-24如何在演讲中提高自信?我爱这个国家 你们也是 约翰·麦凯恩亦如是 那些在战场上战斗的男人女人们 他们或是民主党人 或是共和党人 或无党派人士 但他们一起战斗 一起流血 甚至牺牲 在同一面光荣的旗帜下 他们不为“红洲”而战 也不为“蓝洲”而战 他们为美利坚合众国而战 乍一看 这些人似乎天生就有这样的才能 能在一大群人面前演讲 向他人传达自己的信仰 他们充满激情 吸引着观众的目光 但演讲的真相是 和其他技巧一样 它包括一些规则和原则 每个人都可以学着像他们一样演讲 甚至超过他们 许多人害怕站在台上演讲 是因为看到这样一大群观众时 他们会变得紧张 他们担忧自己准备不充分 他们开始疑惑自己到底要讲什么 由此导致许多演讲者开始恐慌 这就是人们害怕演讲的原因 告诉你吧 当你在人群面前讲话时 他们不知道你要讲的内容 所以如果你有讲稿 却忽然忘记了部分内容 不需要紧张 因为除了你 没有人知道你的讲稿 那是你的计划 你的稿子 任何错误 也只有你自己知道 无论你说了什么 人们都会认为那是提前准备好的 所以如果你忽略了自己的错误 那么就没有错误 一个成功的演讲就像一次飞行 对于一架飞机来说 起飞时是最危险的 如果起飞成功了 那么接下来的旅行也将安然无恙 演讲也是如此 如果你在前30秒就吸引了观众的眼球 那么整场演讲 他们都会聚精会神 当你意识到人们在专心听你演讲时 你将更加自信 这最初的30秒是如此重要 以至于油管也以此为依据 你点开了一段视频 观看却不足30秒 这次观看就不会被油管记入播放次数 如果一段视频在30秒内抓住了观众的眼球 那么观众很可能会看完整段视频 所以开始演讲时 你要激起观众的好奇心 你可以从一个故事开始 看电视剧时 每一集末尾都有一个让你欲罢不能的点 你心痒难耐 简直不能等到下礼拜的下一集 迫切想知道接下来到底会发生什么 所以在最初的30秒里 你以一个故事开头 你便激起了他们对故事后续发展的好奇心 这使得观众能保持专注 但这只是一种方法 另一个抓住注意力的方法是 从大多数观众不了解的奇闻轶事入手 比如 你想讨论深网 你可以这样开始 大家知道可以在深网购买核武器吗? 是的 我指的是导致许多国际问题的核武器 然后你开始说明什么是深网 它的运行原理以及用途 现在你必须记住的是 不要着急 在开口之前 确保你是冷静的 深呼吸 不要过多关注你将要讲什么 尤其是观众将如何讨论你或看待你 这不是你演讲时该关心的事 你唯一需要关心的是 记下要点 然后直接说出你的想法 不要想着你没记住或忘记了什么 那只会让事情更糟糕 在此我想指出许多人容易犯的错误 不要把演讲稿写得太详细 因为你需要随机应变 照读手稿的视频是枯燥的 没有人会听你在说什么 如果你演讲的时候不停看提词器 观众会听不懂 你也很有可能会迷惑起来 最简单便捷的方法就是写下主要观点 那些能让你想起要点的句子 所以如果你有五个要点 写下五个概括性的要点句 然后自行加入你认为重要的细节 让我们回到飞行的例子 飞机着落的危险仅次于起飞 演讲也是如此 最后的部分将在观众脑子留下印象 所以无论你想通过演讲传达什么 你必须以简短的方式做个总结 给观众留下印象 如果你曾经尝试过这些方法 请在下面评论让我知道 当然如果你也有演讲的经历 请与我们分享
  • 2021-08-24为社么千禧一代不买房子?假设召集一百名25到35岁之间 拥有平均工资水平的人 你认为多少人有自己的房子? 答案是仅仅27人 但是还在20年前 拥有者人数仍有65 这之间有着近40%的巨大落差 难道现在年轻人都不想买房? 可是 这千禧一代中一半的人把它作为首要人生目标 比孩子和婚姻都更重要 事实是 只有9%的人对买房毫无兴趣 所以年轻人究竟为何不买房了? 答案其实显而易见 他们弄错了人生的优先次序 先不提懒惰牛油果理论 问题是 千禧一代是否已被驱逐出房产阶梯 如果是 这又意味着什么? 其实 年轻人在一些方面比以前的确更晚 平均19岁参加工作 这比20年前晚了一年半 同时结婚生子的时间也更晚了 这样看来晚点买房 也许只是“放慢人生节奏”的一部分 但是别忘年轻人是想要买房的 同时 购房年龄的变化也比其它几项要大得多 所以要追根究底 我们需要算一算 请想象一名“千禧一代” 要购买一座房产 只靠平均工资 不靠外界援助 这样有可能吗? 好消息是 年轻人比20年前要更富有 财富增长了有22% 但是考虑到支出 我们来看他每月能存多少 首先是基本支出 例如税收和退休金供款 可能还有学生贷款 然后是房租 为了省钱在和别人平摊 最后是生活费 包含吃穿用度各项 此数据来自约瑟夫·朗特里基金会 他们对英国大众横断面调查后 得出了 要过上正常生活 所需的最低支出 以不至于隐居世外 诚然 这个标准的生活并不自在 但是总算是留下了总收入的将近四分之一 还行吧 那我们来选购一座普通房产 接着是坏消息 同样是二十年 房价相比原来上涨了152% 意味着 之前房价是平均收入的四倍 现在是八倍 嗯好吧 这么看还算有好有坏 但是按照平均水平每月近400磅的存款 多久能买下一座普通房产呢? 假设房产的按揭是工资的四倍 即使这样也是相当大的数额 按照这样的速率 大概是 哦 291个月! 呃 稍等 那是24年! 好吧 好吧 我知道这样评论区肯定要爆炸 并不是就没人买得起房了 仍有一些捷径存在 但是重点是 跻身房产阶梯比以前困难很多 更少人选择买房 更多人选择私人租赁 所以这意味着什么? 接下来 是你的才艺展示时间 数据显示 出生在租赁房中的儿童数量 仅十年间就翻了一倍 这并不乐观 因为研究曾指出租赁房屋 在所有选项中最不安全 质量最差 同时价格最昂贵 更加骇人的是 有人预测 三分之一的“千禧一代“在退休后仍会租房 收入在退休后一般会减半 在付完按揭的情况下还算可观 但如果仍在承担房租 情况就比较悲观了 用养老金支付房租需要更高的政府养老金预算 有研究估计接近五十万英镑 为了补偿这个差额 本来就庞大的住房改善预算 可能还需要增加154% 这一切 都表明大众对于社会不平等的关注 十名25到35岁的年轻人中 仅一人能够只靠收入购房 跨代财产也起到了很大的帮助作用 有能力买房的年轻人中 62%的人得到了父母或者朋友的援助 而55岁以上的人群里 这个情况仅有6% 这种起步经济援助的影响是如此突出 英国决议基金会曾表示 家族财产的继承可能比个人的劳动所得 对生活水平影响更大 如此也不奇怪 70%的千禧一代会认为 拥有房产是个遥不可及的幻想
  • 2021-08-24为什么不应该在左车道开慢车A few months ago I took a road trip from Chicago down to New Orleans.几个月前我开车从芝加哥到新奥尔良旅行 And on the way back up, we were somewhere either in Tennessee or Missouri,返程途中 在田纳西州或密苏里州某地 I got pulled over, it was my first time getting pulled over.我被警察拦停 这是我第一次被拦停 And it wasn’t for speeding.但不是因为超速 it was because I was driving in the left lane.而是因为我当时在左车道行驶 So there are basically two types of drivers in the world.大体上 世界上有两种司机 There are people who get really upset about all the people driving slowly in the left lane.有些人会对所有左车道慢行的人感到气愤 That’s Joey. He fits into that first group.他是乔伊 他属于第一类司机 And then there are a lot of drivers who had no idea that this is even a problem.还有许多司机甚至不知道这是个问题 Yeah, that was me.没错 就是我 Sorry about that.很抱歉 I don’t drive much.我不怎么开车 The truth is, when drivers hang out in the left lane,实际上 驾车在左车道慢行 it makes traffic worse and more dangerous for everybody involved.会使交通变得更糟并使大家都陷入危险 Here’s what that looks like.就像这样 If you have relatively slow drivers scattered amongst the right and left lanes,如果相对较慢的司机散布在左右车道 faster drivers have to repeatedly slow down,快车司机不得不反复减速 and weave back and forth changing lanes many times to pass all of them.通过多次变道来回穿梭来超过慢车 So if you’re going five miles slower than everyone else如果你比其他人慢5英里/小时 and you’re traveling in the left lane,并且在左车道行驶 it forces them to make dangerous moves trying to pass you on the right,会迫使快车做出从右侧超车的危险行为 which is more likely to cause an accident.更可能导致车祸发生 But there’s a better way for traffic to flow但有个更好的使交通畅通的方法 and that’s if we only use the left lane for passing.即我们只用左车道超车 If all the slower drivers are in the right lane,如果所有慢车都在右车道 a faster driver can pass several at once,快车可以一次性超过多辆车 and get back over to the right, which cuts down the total number of lane changes然后返回右车道 这样就会减少变道总次数 and eliminates the slowdowns.并且无需减速 Move over, or get a ticket.让开 不然就开罚单 That’s the message from state troopers to people driving too slowly in the left lane.这个警示语是州警给在左车道行驶缓慢司机的 Some people argue that as long as they’re going the speed limit ,有些人觉得只要自己不超速 they shouldn’t have to move over.就不用让道 But there’s evidence that slowing down and changing lanes但有证据表明减速和变道 is actually more dangerous than speeding.其实比超速行驶更危险 Research has shown that the strongest predictor of an accident研究表明 事故最关键的预测因素 is variance from the average speed of traffic.是车辆与交通平均速度之间的差值 And a car going five miles per hour slower than the surrounding traffic比周围车辆慢5英里/小时的车辆 has a greater chance of causing an accident比车速快上5英里/小时的车辆 than one going five miles per hour faster.更有可能引发交通事故 That’s why every state has some law on on record that所以每个州都有法律法规 restricts the use of the left lane.限制左车道的使用 In 29 states, any car that’s moving slower than the surrounding speed of traffic在29个州中 任何车速低于周边车辆的车 should be in the right lane.都应在右车道行驶 And in 11 states, the laws are stricter还有11个州 这项法律尤为严格 they say that the left lane is only for turning or passing.明确规定左车道只用于转向或超车 Historically police didn’t really pay that much attention to slow left lane drivers,在之前警察不会太关注左车道的慢车 but more recently there have been campaigns in places但最近有些地区已经有相关行动 like Washington, Texas, and Ohio例如华盛顿 得克萨斯州 俄亥俄州 where police are actually issuing tickets to people they spot traveling slowly in the left lane.警察确实向左车道开慢车的司机开了罚单 “The reason why I stopped you is“我拦下你的原因是 the law in the state of Washington is keep right except to pass.”根据华盛顿州法律 如非超车须保持右行” “This is something that has always been illegal“这样做一直是违法的 and against the law here in Michigan,同时也违反了密歇根州法律 But now officers are rolling out this new education effort to help the public understand现在官员也在进行宣传教育工作帮助民众了解 just what they can and they cannot do when it comes to this type of driving.”遇到此类情形哪些可以做哪些不可以” Now, it doesn’t have to be this way.当然也不一定是这样 A good example of this is the German Autobahn德国高速公路是很好的例子 so this is Germany’s highway network,这是德国的高速公路网 which has long stretches of road with no speed limits有很多长路段都是没有限速的 and it has surprisingly low accident rates.但事故发生率却出奇的低 One reason for this, some researchers think is研究者认为原因之一是 that German drivers are more likely to stay in the right lane for traveling德国司机更喜欢在右车道行驶 and only use the left for passing.并只用左车道超车 That shared norm helps keep them safe.这个规范保证了他们的安全 So fellow drivers I am sorry抱歉各位司机 I didn’t know the rules.我当时不知道这个规定 But I’m not alone,但不止我自己是这样 and if more people understand how this works,如果让更多人明白这一原理 we will have much fewer traffic jams.我们的交通拥堵问题将会少很多 And our roads will be a lot safer, too.道路也会更加安全
  • 2021-08-24这面镜子能够反映真实的你这是阿兰穆拉镜子 是用锡铜合金做出来的一种稀有的镜子 只有少数家族才知道制作这种镜子的秘诀 毫不夸张地说 人们都说这种独特的镜子可以照出最真实的你 “旁观者的眼睛”《伟大的故事》 印度 阿兰穆拉 我叫哈瑞达斯 我会做阿兰穆拉镜子 阿兰穆拉位于喀拉拉邦的帕塔纳姆蒂特塔 kannadi代表镜子 用来看物体的普通镜子起源于比利时 这种普通镜子的背面是水银涂层 所以镜像在通过玻璃时产生了折射 但是阿兰穆拉镜的前表面是由人工打磨的 所以镜像不会有任何偏差 众所周知阿兰穆拉镜子十分昂贵 昂贵的原因有两个 一是材料成本 二是人工成本 因为它是纯手工打造的金属镜子 制作一个需要花费更多的时间和精力 我们用黏土做成的模具制作阿兰穆拉镜子 将圆盘的一面打磨到所需的镜子厚度 在其中加入蜡 加热时 蜡的融化会使金属更好地流动 保持相同厚度的间隙并将两个模具拼起来 再用黏土把他们包裹起来 加热后的模具需要约六个小时冷却 在模具冷却之后 将它打破 打破之后 我们得到了一块阿兰穆拉镜子 然后我们开始打磨并设计镜子 阿兰穆拉镜主要是用作送人的礼品 作为宗教用品 阿兰穆拉镜会与灯一同陈列 我从爸爸那学到了阿兰穆拉镜的制作秘技 将来 这项技术会由我的儿子继续传承 这是我的恳求与愿望 《伟大的故事》
  • 2021-08-24让当代舞蹈包容所有人作为一名舞者 被告知再也不能走路 是最糟糕最可怕的事了 但跳舞其实并不一定非要站起来 而是要把你的内心表达出来 我可以舞动身体 这是和之前完全不一样的经历 《让当代舞蹈包容所有人》 我是马克•布鲁 轴心舞蹈团的艺术总监 轴心舞蹈团是一家包容所有人的公司 既有身体健全的 也有残疾的舞者 我们的核心是把健全和残疾舞者结合 让他们一起做独特的事 我们从这个动作开始 舞蹈世界里 我们用“翻译”这个词 比如 编舞老师教给我一个动作 而有些残疾舞者不能站起来 那我怎么用我自己的身体 “翻译”这个动作 现在我看看你会怎么做 每次编舞老师教我一个动作 我都会认真学 看她怎么舞动 她想用这个动作表达什么 然后我试着去领悟 琢磨怎么让我的轮椅一起舞动 换手 找到像有人在拉你那种感觉 挺起胸膛朝向天空 在我看来 德马科 非常理智而又谦逊 他是最让其他舞者信任的人 完全信赖 跳舞让我感到非常自由 归于自然之感 我在寄养环境下长大 我曾经一无所有 但那不成问题 更像是种自由的状态 有时 观众第一次看到一帮 坐在轮椅上的舞者 那一刻 他们看到的只是这些 他们会想 他们一会怎么跳 然后当这场演出开始时 观众眼中就看不到轮椅了 有天我们表演完 有个坐轮椅的孩子走向我 他告诉我 他一直梦想着跳舞 但一直以为不可能做到 而看到我们之后 他意识到自己其实可以

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