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  • 2021-10-26实验!猫头鹰怎么飞得这么安静?Good girl.干得漂亮 No.不 And now it’s Kenza’s turn.现在轮到Kenza了 -Did you hear anything? -That was pretty good.– 你听到什么声音? – 真不错 No, nothing at all, Absolutely quiet.不 什么都没有 非常安静 It’s amazing.真令人惊讶 But what have the microphones picked up?麦克风录到声音了吗? The decibel waveform show the sound being generated by the birds in flight.分贝波形显示了鸟在飞行中发出的声音 Each spike is an individual wing beat.每个尖峰都代表一次翅膀的拍打 But with the barn owl…但谷仓猫头鹰飞行时 there’s almost nothing.几乎没有尖峰 Even our array of super sensitive microphones failed就连我们的超灵敏麦克风也无法 to pick up any sound of Kenza in flight.接收到Kenza飞行时的任何声音 And here’s the owl doing exactly the same.这是猫头鹰飞行时的录音 Nothing. Nothing at all. I’ll play it again.什么声音都没有 我再放一遍 There’s not a sound here.没有一点声音 -That is really impressive, isn’t it? -Yeah.-真不可思议 不是吗 -是的 It shows that they really are silent fliers.这说明它们真的是安静的飞行者 So, how does a barn owl fly so silently?那么 谷仓猫头鹰是如何安静地飞行的呢? When air moves, it generates sound.空气流动时 就会产生声音 The more movement, the greater the sound.空气流动越快 声音就越大 The pigeon’s large body and small wings鸽子庞大的身体和小小的翅膀 mean it can’t stay airborne without a lot of fast flapping.意味着如果它不频繁地快速拍打翅膀 就无法在空中停留 This creates turbulence in the feathers below.这就在羽毛下方形成气流 The Peregrine has much larger wings,游隼有更大的翅膀 which it uses to build up speed and chase down its prey.用来加快速度和追捕猎物 The barn owl is far more graceful.谷仓猫头鹰要优雅得多 Kenza’s large wings and small body make it easier for her to generate lift.Kenza的大翅膀和小身体使她更容易产生升力 So, just one gentle wing beat sees her gliding effortlessly through the air…因此只要轻轻拍打翅膀 她就能毫不费力地在空中翱翔…… creating little more than a whisper in the feathers below.羽毛下方发出的也只是耳语般的声音
  • 2021-08-24日渐衰老的北极狐CasWelcome to Animal Wonders! I’m Jessi.欢迎来到《动物奇迹》我是Jessi And I’m here with our Arctic fox, Cas.今天我们一起来了解北极狐——Cas Arctic foxes are absolutely incredible in the wild.北极狐是野生动物里令人难以置信的存在 Because they have extreme adaptations for an extreme environment.因为它们对极端的环境有极强的适应能力 But because of that challenge, they have pretty short lives of about 3 years in the wild.但适应极端环境带来的后果是 野生北极狐的寿命短至三年左右 Cas is eight and a half years old, and he’s starting to show his old age.Cas现在八岁半了 它开始出现老年问题 [CHEERY INTRO MUSIC][欢快的片头曲] 《动物奇迹》 Some of the things that Cas is dealing with in his old age is that he’s just overall slower.Cas在老年阶段面对的诸多问题之一就是行动迟缓 He also can’t jump as high, and he doesn’t shed as easily.它还跳不高了 换毛也很困难 Which means that he’s sometimes white in the summer,导致它有时夏天毛还是白的 and it leads to a whole lot of brushing sessions.所以要进行人工刷毛大工程 Another old age related struggle is that Cas was actually diagnosed with cancer.Cas面对的另外一个老龄问题是癌症 He got a tumor on his back right leg, and even after removing the tumor, it grew back.它的右后腿长了一个肿瘤 切除之后又长了回来 The best option from there was to actually remove his entire leg.最好的办法就是截掉整只腿 It’s been a few months now, and Cas is getting stronger everyday截掉腿到现在已经几个月了 Cas每天都变得越来越强壮 and really learning how to get around on three legs.并且正在学习怎么用三条腿走路 As Cas gets older, we’re also seeing more signs of arthritis.随着Cas慢慢变老 我们还发现它的关节炎的症状变多了 Just like humans and our dog companions, foxes that live long enough will end up with joint pain.同人和陪伴我们的狗一样 衰老的狐狸也会关节疼痛 So we’re giving him glucosamine and pain meds to help him feel comfortable所以我们会给它服用葡萄糖鞍和止痛药 以舒缓疼痛 The biggest challenge he has right now 现在Cas最大的问题就是 is that the arthritis in his back is blocking the nerves that alert him to the need to pee.他背部的关节炎影响了提醒它排尿的神经 It might sound silly, but if you can’t feel that you have to pee,听起来似乎很搞笑 但是如果你感觉不到尿意 you’ll just hold your pee until your bladder gets too full to hold it all.就意味着要一直憋到膀胱蓄满为止 To make sure he’s not filling up, I’ve been helping him empty his bladder为了避免这种情况的发生 我一直帮助它排尿 so he can continue to feel his best and enjoy his day like he would normally do.好让它保持最好的状态 能像平常一样享受生活 It’s actually kind of an easy process and he’s quite cooperative.其实帮它排尿很简单 它也十分配合我 He goes into his pee corner, and I put enough pressure on his bladder它会走到便池 然后我给它的膀胱施加足够的压力 that he engages his muscles and he’s able to relieve himself.它调动肌肉 这样就能顺利排出尿液 Now, this might sound excessive to some people这对有些人而言可能不可理喻 but when you care for animals who can’t talk and tell you how they are feeling但是在照顾那些不能用语言表达自己感受的动物时 the best way to know how an animal is feeling要了解动物们的感受最好的办法就是 is to observe their behavior to determine their quality of life.观察它们的行为 从而判断它们的生活质量 When I talk about quality of life, I mean asking the question, “Is this animal living a good life?”生活质量是指 “这个动物过的好吗” With Cas and his medical needs,为满足Cas的医疗需求 we’re having regular vet visits to assess his health and happiness我们定期请来兽医 看它是否健康快乐 and this is what we see: he’s very excited about food正如我们所见 Cas很喜欢食物 he gets along well on his three legs它非常适应用三条腿行走 and he has good interaction with Seraphina, his red fox companion.能和它的红狐伙伴Seraphina进行良好的互动 And something wonderful has come out of all of this.在这一过程中出现了一件很美好的事情 For his entire life, Cas didn’t like any kind of interaction where I would touch him.一直以来 它不喜欢任何我可以抚摸它的互动 When I was first helping Cas relieve himself, he wasn’t a fan of being touched,当我一开始帮助Cas排尿时 它不喜欢被触碰 but at the end of every session, I would give him a good rub down on his neck and ears,不过在每次排尿的最后 我都会像抚摸狗狗一样 like you would pet a dog.轻柔地抚摸它的脖子和耳朵 And after a couple weeks of having to help him pee,在我帮助它排了几周尿之后 he actually started going to his pee corner on his own它开始自己去排尿的地方 and when I’d give him his neck rubs当我抚摸它脖子的时候 he actually learned his head and ear into me to get more pets.它也学会了把头和耳朵伸过来让我抚摸 I never thought Cas would enjoy tactile interaction, but here we are.我从没想过Cas会爱上抚摸互动 但事实确实如此 And I’m finally able to show him affection in this way我终于能用这种方式来表达我对它的感情 and it makes him feel good.而且这种方式它也喜欢 That is what caring for animals is all about这就是照顾动物的秘诀 making them feel good and allowing them to live a happy and healthy life无论它们状况如何 能陪伴我们多久 in whatever capacity that is, for however long they’re with us.让它们感觉良好 健康快乐地活着 It’s been an absolute pleasure being able to share Cas with能够与学生们 成千上万这些年来遇见Cas的人 classrooms of students and thousands of people who have met him over the years,以及在我们的视频里见过Cas的观众 and with hundreds of thousands who have seen him in our videos.分享Cas的生活 让人感到非常愉快 Cas, you’re a very good boy and I’m glad we can continue to give you a good lifeCas你是个好孩子 我很开心我们能继续给你提供好的生活 even into your golden years.即使当你步入老年了也是如此 If you’d like to show Cas your love, head on over to our Amazon Wish list如果你想要向Cas表达你的爱 请前往亚马逊心愿单 and send him one of his favorite toys or treats. Link is below.送Cas一个它最喜欢的玩具或食物 链接就在下方 Thanks for joining us and getting an update on Cas!非常感谢您能加入我们并且关注Cas的最新近况 If you like animals如果你也喜欢动物 and you’d like to continue going on animal adventures with us并且想要继续和我们一起进行这场动物世界的探险 be sure to subscribe and we’ll see you next week!别忘了订阅我们的节目 下周再见! And thank you for watching animal wonders感谢您观看《动物奇迹》 which is produced by Complexly, a pretty awesome production company.本片由非凡的制片公司——Complexty制作 If you want to keep imagining the world complexly with all of us,如果你想继续和我们一起从多方面探寻这个世界 check out Crash Course Artificial Intelligence hosted by Jabril Ashe.看看Jabril Ashe的人工智能速成课程吧 Over 20 episodes, he’ll unpack the logic behind AI systems他将在二十多节课程中剖析人工智能系统背后的逻辑 and he‘ll even write and implement code in labs to program his very own AI.而且他甚至会在实验室里编写执行代码 创造一个他自己的人工智能 Check out the first video about the history of AI and the revolution that’s happening today!第一集是关于人工智能的历史以及人工智能领域正在进行的革命 The link is in the description.链接在视频简介中
  • 2021-08-24考拉到底一天要睡多久Koalas are undeniably cute,考拉十分可爱 这毋庸置疑 but they might not be the smartest creatures on the planet.但它们可能不是这个星球上最聪明的生物 They chow down on eucalyptus leaves,它们以桉树叶为食 which are pretty poisonous to most mammals这种叶子对大多数哺乳动物来说 and contain little nutrition.营养很少而且毒性很大 They look like bears, but they’re not bears.考拉看起来像熊 但它们不是熊 Their thumbs are pure body horror.它们的拇指活像一部纯粹的身体恐怖片 And they apparently smell about as good as而且它们的体味闻起来似乎像 a college roommate who believes that一个相信树油能 tea tree oil can replace actual showers.代替淋浴的大学室友那样 And yet, against all odds, koalas persist.然而 考拉还是克服所有困难生存了下来 And they sleep a lot.它们每天要睡很久 It turns out that the standard koala根据澳大利亚考拉基金会提供的数据 spends between18 and 22 hours a day drifting off to dreamland,人们发现一只普通的考拉每天通常 according to the Australian Koala Foundation.会花18到22个小时用于睡眠 Scientists have long believed that很长时间里 科学家们都认为 this may be due to their position as nature’s own teddy bear,这可能是因为它们作为大自然特有的泰迪熊的地位 but recent studies point to a more biologically sound explanation.但近期的研究给出了一个更符合生物学的合理解释 The koala subsists strictly on eucalyptus.考拉完全靠桉树生存 What you might not know is that eucalyptus is highly toxic,你可能不知道 桉树是含有剧毒的 low on calories, and very difficult to digest.热量低且非常难以消化 While the plants are poisonous to most mammals,尽管桉树对大多数哺乳动物来说是有毒的 koalas have developed specialized digestive bacteria考拉却已经进化出了能够专门 that nullifies the venomous effects.使毒性失效的有助于消化的细菌 There’s a common misconception that一个常见误区是认为 the process has a psychotropic effect on the small marsupials.这个过程会对小型袋类动物产生精神影响 But in reality, koalas are pretty much straight–edge,但事实上 考拉们基本上不受到影响 and their furry bodies are temples.它们毛茸茸的身体就像庙宇 Temples stuffed full of smelly leaves.而这些庙宇里充满了美味的树叶 “He gets the microbes he needs to digest the eucalyptus too.”它也具有消化桉树叶所需的微生物 An upshot to the all-eucalyptus diet,仅以桉树叶为食的结果 which we can only assume Gwyneth Paltrow我们只能推测格温妮斯·帕特洛 will be selling in subscription box form sometime soon,将很快以订阅盒子的方式销售 is that it provides these down under Teddy Ruxpins with all the hydration they need.桉树叶为这些澳洲的泰迪·华斯比们提供了所需的水分 Koalas are so rarely seen sipping from natural water sources that很少看到考拉从天然水源中饮水 their name is thought to mean “never drink” in an Aboriginal language.在原住民语言中 它们名字的意思是“从不喝水” But koalas struggle to get enough nutrients然而 考拉们很难获得足够的养分 and have to spend most of their waking hours它们不得不花费大部分清醒的时间 eating leaf after leaf, pretending that they’re fine.不断地食用叶子 假装它们很好 The rest of their time is spent conserving energy by taking the shuttle to snooze town.而剩下的时间都在小睡以便保存能量 By National Geographic’s reckoning,国家地理杂志的研究指出 this makes them even more ambitious nappers than sloths,这使得考拉比树懒睡得更久 which top out at 20 hours of daily rest and relaxation.树懒一天最多只休息20个小时 While riding the train to Sleepytown,考拉会以对他们有利的蜷曲姿势 koalas use their shapely curves to their advantage.坠入梦乡 With what can only be described as pear-shaped bodies,通过这种只能被形容为梨形体的姿势 they’re able to easily anchor themselves in the forks of tree branches,它们能很轻松地将自己固定在树枝的分叉处 often latching on with their honestly disturbing number of thumbs.并用它们那着实令人不安的两个拇指抓住树枝 But Koalas aren’t the only creatures但考拉不是唯一 whose picky eating habits lead to a generous helping of siestas.因挑食导致嗜睡的生物 The Giant Panda is allegedly extremely dumb,据说大熊猫很笨 and while it is biologically capable of consuming meat, it doesn’t.它们在生理上可以消化肉类 但它们却不吃肉 In fact, they almost certainly should eat meat,事实上 几乎可以确定它们需要食用肉类 even their digestive systems just like gargantuan nightmare teeth.它们的消化系统就像它们那巨大而锋利的牙齿一样强 Instead, the animals spend as much time as they can然而 熊猫们却尽可能地把时间花费在 chowing down on low-calorie, farm-to-table bamboo.狼吞虎咽从农场送过来的 低卡路里的竹子上 Despite shoving twenty to forty pounds of the stuff down their gullets on the daily,尽管它们每天会吃掉20到40磅的食物 they don’t get a whole lot of energy但它们却并没有摄取到大量的能量 because they’re essentially eating wood.因为他们本质上只是在啃木头 As a result, they spend half of the day asleep,这就导致了它们需要花半天时间睡觉 and the other half trying to find more splinters to munch on.而剩下的半天则试图找到更多竹子碎片来吃 “Time to carbo-load.”“吃饭时间到了” Science Focus noted that koalas aren’t the only mammals科学观察杂志指出考拉并不是唯一的 that love to get more than forty winks each night.每晚需要小睡40次以上的哺乳生物 The brown bat has been observed这种棕色蝙蝠被发现 sleeping for about twenty hours in a solar cycle.在一个太阳周期内睡了大约二十小时 The fifth heaviest sleeper on the list is the North American possum排名第五的嗜睡者是北美负鼠 at 18 hours a day, although it might just be faking it.它们每天睡18小时 尽管它们有时是装睡 The human baby comes in at number 8 on the list,人类婴儿排在第八位 described as sleeping for 16 hours a day,每天要睡16个小时 which is a statistic that will have new parents这是一个让新手父母们 laughing uncontrollably, weeping inconsolably, and then laughing some more.忍不住大笑大哭 最终喜不自胜的数据 the opposite end of the spectrum according to sleep orginazation睡眠组织的数据显示 相对的 giraffes only need about two hours of sleep per day,长颈鹿每天只需要睡两个小时 which is often split up into several micro-naps.还通常被分为多次小憩 Meanwhile, walruses can go three and a half days此外 海象更让人印象深刻 without resting their eyes at all, which is more than a little impressive.他们可以连续三天不让它们的眼睛休息 FInally, on a side note, koalas have individual fingerprints, just like human beings,最后 顺便说一句 考拉和人类一样有个人指纹 and they’re the only non-primates that have them.它们是唯一有指纹的非灵长类动物 So if there’s ever a koala crime spree, don’t worry,所以 如果考拉有犯罪行为 别担心 we’ll catch them – probably napping.我们会抓住它们的 可能那时他们正在打盹呢 Check out one of our newest videos right here!看看我们最新的视频吧 Plus, even more Grunge videos about your favorite stuff are coming soon.此外 更多关于你喜爱的事物的视频即将推出 Subscribe to our YouTube channel订阅我们的YouTube频道吧 and hit the bell so you don’t miss a single one.设置提醒以免错过精彩视频
  • 2021-08-24致命的天性,狼蛛的繁衍《Deep Look》《微观深望》 Here’s one for ya: 问你个问题: Why did the tarantula cross the road?狼蛛为什么要横穿马路呢? Answer? He is looking答案是 狼蛛正在寻找一个 for one of THESE: a female’s den.雌狼蛛的巢穴 Every fall in this dusty corner of Colorado每年秋天 在尘土飞扬的科罗拉多州一隅 thousands of male tarantulas get the itch to leave home成千上万的雄狼蛛渴望出门 and try their luck.去碰碰运气 They’re each sporting a new pair of tibial hooks每只雄狼蛛都戴着一副新的胫骨钩 which males only get when it’s time to mate.雄狼蛛只有到了交配期才会长出胫骨钩 Scientists call this change “hooking out.”科学家称这个为“倒刺” Hooking out means it’s time for hooking up.倒刺意味着求偶的时间到了 But sealing the deal is a life and death affair.不过 求偶是一件生死攸关的大事 The journey alone is treacherous.光是旅行过程就危险重重 This guy has run into his worst nightmare.这只狼蛛遇到了一生最可怕的事 He’s been stung by a tarantula hawk.被一只狼蛛霍克黄蜂蜇伤 This massive wasp delivers the second most painful sting in the world至少以人类对疼痛标准的定义 at least by human standards.其叮咬造成的疼痛位列世界第二 The tarantula is paralyzed in minutes.几分钟之内就能将狼蛛麻醉 She’ll drag him away, lay an egg on him狼蛛霍克黄蜂把狼蛛拖走 将卵产到狼蛛身上 and use him as live baby food幼虫孵化后 就以狼蛛为食 This one’s survived the trek这只狼蛛在长途跋涉中幸存下来 The female tarantula’s silk blankets the ground.雌狼蛛的蛛丝覆盖着地面 This must be the place.这一定就是雌狼蛛的巢穴了 No doorbell, though.不过 没有门铃 So, he knocks.所以 雄狼蛛敲了敲门 He gently taps his front mouthparts, called pedipalps,为了确定雌狼蛛是否在家 to see if she’s home.雄狼蛛用前口器 即须肢 轻轻地拍打 Hope he’s not expecting a warm welcome.希望雄狼蛛没有期待雌狼蛛的热烈欢迎 OK, here she comes…看 雌狼蛛出来了 Whoa!哇喔 OK, fangs are out.雌狼蛛露出了牙齿 She may be a lot bigger,它的体型可以比雄狼蛛大很多 but he has those hooks, remember?但我们提到过 雄狼蛛有胫骨钩 And this is his chance to use them.现在就是使用它们的机会 He clips the hooks under her fangs,雄狼蛛用钩子夹在雌狼蛛的牙齿下方 blocking her most lethal weapon…阻止雌狼蛛使用最致命的武器 and tipping the balance in his favor.使自己占据优势 Now, with his much longer legs,现在 雄狼蛛用更长的脚 he lifts her body until she’s nearly upright把雌狼蛛的身体抬起 直到雌狼蛛几乎直立 holding her out of striking distance.然后 在攻击距离之外抱住雌狼蛛 Then, using his pedipalps, the hand-off.用须肢进行交配 The mating dance finished, he runs for his life.求偶舞蹈结束后 为了保命 雄狼蛛很快就跑了 She’ll hold onto his little donation until she decides to make an egg sac.在做卵囊之前 雌狼蛛会一直保留雄狼蛛的精液 Which she may not decide to do right away.雌狼蛛寿命很长 She has plenty of time.不会着急着做卵囊 Females sometimes live forty years, way longer than males.雌狼蛛有时会活到四十岁 比雄狼蛛长得多 His days are numbered.这只雄狼蛛的时日屈指可数了 As a mature male, he’ll be dead by winter.因为成年的雄狼蛛到了冬天便会死去 If his luck holds, he’ll mate again,如果运气好的话 在生命结束前 maybe a few times, before it’s the end of the road.它还可以再次交配 也可能是好几次 Hey guys, it’s Lauren.大家好 我是Lauren Are you hooked on Deep Look yet?你爱上《微观深望》了吗? Here’s a playlist of our greatest hits.这是我们精选的播放列表 See how mosquitoes use 6 needles to suck your blood.看看蚊子是如何用6根针吸你的血 Or what happens to a hummingbird in a wind tunnel.或者蜂鸟在风洞中会发生什么 And don’t forget to hit the subscribe button不要忘了点击订阅 and that little notification bell和通知按钮 Thanks!谢谢!
  • 2021-08-24跳蚤为何有惊人跳跃能力Sometimes, to get where you want in life, you need to go all out.有时你需要全力以赴以到达向往的地方 Fleas need to get off the ground and on to someone they can exploit.跳蚤必须跳离地面去依附在能被它们利用的动物身上 That’s a bad news If you got fur or feathers.这对有毛或羽毛的物种来说是个不幸的消息 There are more than 2000 flea species.现存两千多种跳蚤 Each partial to its own kind of creature.每种跳蚤都有自己依附的物种 But the one you’ll most likely cross paths with is the cat flea.但最有可能碰见的跳蚤就是猫栉头蚤 Fleas are one of nature’s greatest jumpers跳蚤是自然界中顶级的跳跃者之一 taking a gigantic leap almost too fast to comprehend.它们做一个飞跃几乎快得让人无法察觉 They’re small and narrow — like a little sesame seed with legs.它们又小又窄 就像是长了腿的小芝麻 Their fly ancestors lost their wings millions of years ago数百万年前它们会飞的祖先脱去了它们的翅膀 to help them slip through fur with ease.来帮助它们在皮毛中轻松穿行 Fleas are tough to get rid of.跳蚤很难被清除 Stiff backwards-facing hairs catch on fur when you try to pick them out.当你想要把它们抓出来时 向后的硬毛会粘在毛皮上 Try to squish one?试试去挤死一只? Nope!没门儿! Their flexible bodies are armored with rugged plates called sclerites.它们灵活的身体表面附有叫做骨片的坚硬外壳 Adult fleas only eat one thing– blood.成年跳蚤只吃一样东西 就是血 This cat flea prefers cat blood.猫栉头蚤更爱喝猫血 But in a pinch, it’ll latch on to you too.但在必要时 它也会附着在你身上 They lay eggs that drop from the cat’s body into its bedding.它们在猫身上产的卵掉到猫窝里 A few days later, they hatch,几天后卵开始孵化 and worm-like larvae wiggle out.虫形幼虫扭动身躯挣脱出来 The hungry larvae scavenge for food.饥饿的幼虫寻找食物 Their favorite meal comes from mom and dad.它们最爱的食物来自父母 Adult flea poop — that’s just semi-digested blood.就是成年跳蚤的粪便 也就是未消化完的血 Now, who could turn that down?谁又能拒绝这个呢? The larva curls up into a cocoon幼虫蜷曲成蛹 it makes from whatever dirt, sand or other materials it finds nearby.蛹茧由泥土 沙子等 就地可寻的任何材料制成 A few days later几天以后 Voila! All grown up.看呐!全都长大了 Now this hungry flea needs a warm body to call home.现在饥饿的跳蚤需要一个温暖的身体当家 Its jump is super fast:它跳得极快 100 times faster than the blink of an eye.比眨眼的速度快一百倍 But it takes more than muscle to move that fast.但跳这么快不只是依靠肌肉 The flea can compress itself like a spring,多亏了腿部和体部的弹力蛋白质——节肢弹性蛋白 thanks to a rubbery protein called resilin in its legs and body.跳蚤可像弹簧一样自我压缩 First the flea pulls in its over-sized rear legs and locks them in place.首先跳蚤把长长的后腿缩回并保持不动 It squeezes and flattens its body,它绷紧身体 贴近地面 squishing the resilin and building up energy for the jump… then…压缩节肢弹性蛋白并为跳跃积蓄能量 然后…… it releases the energy all at once.突然释放所有能量 The flea tumbles through the air, legs extended.跳蚤伸长腿在空中翻滚 With a lot of effort and a little luck, it’ll land on its target努力再加上一点运气 它会落在目标上 and the whole incredibly itchy cycle will begin again.开启一轮引发极度骚痒的循环 Hi Deep Peeps. Lauren here.嗨 观众们 我是Lauren You may have noticed a different – but familiar – voice on our episode today.你可能在今天的视频中注意到了一个不同但很熟悉的声音 My good friend and fellow science reporter Laura Klivans is back to take over for me我的好友和科学报道者Laura Klivans as the new official Deep Look host.将接替我成为《微观深望》的新主持人 Here’s a playlist of our 10 Deep Look episodes she’s already hosted.这里列出她已经主持过的十集《微观深望》 Thanks, Lauren! I’m thrilled to be back.谢谢Lauren!我非常激动能够回来 If you miss Lauren’s voice – you can follow her now over at NPR如果你想念Lauren的声音 你可以在NPR上关注她 where she’s the new climate science reporter. Link is in the description.她是那里的新气象科学记者 链接就在视频中 Thanks.感谢您的观看
  • 2021-08-24苍蝇真奇妙Erica!Erica Hello! Nice to meet you.你好!很高兴见到你! This is part of our insect collection.这是我们昆虫收藏的一部分 There must be millions.这有几百万个吧 Uh, About approximately 34 million, to be大约在3400万个左右 kind of precise, If we can be这个数字相对来说比较准确 Yes, so it’s one of the largest collections in the world.这是世界上最大的昆虫收藏之一 These are some of my babies.这些是其中一部分宝贝 So I work on the best animals on the planet.我研究的是地球上最棒的动物 I work with flies.也就是苍蝇 Don’t laugh, it’s true.别笑 我认真的 Do you know what, I’m gonna be really honest with you Erica.Erica 我一定要对你说实话 Go on, say it.来吧 说说看 I’ve never been that big on flies, and I’m…我从没那么喜欢过苍蝇 而且… Wait.等等 In this drawer here, you can see some of the early dedication在这个抽屉里你可以看到 that a lot of the experts work on these flies putting into these collections大量前人对蝇类的专业研究收入其中 Do you think it’s a prerequisite of being a geeky animal collector你认为会写蝇头小字是 that you can do teeny-tiny writing?成为一个狂热动物收藏家的前提吗? Yeah. Because we all have to do it in the end.是的 因为我们最后都要做这项工作 And you know that somebody like me, in a hundred years’ time,你想 一百年后 某位像我这样的人 is going to have to decipher what we’ve written.必须要去辨认前人写的注解 If you look, this one says, ‘caught with knife’.仔细看 这个藏品上写着“用刀捕获” I have this image of this Indiana Jones dipterist我想象的是一位印第安纳琼斯式的昆虫学家 like ‘whoosh’ – flying this knife across像《夺宝奇兵》中那样“嗖”地把刀飞过去 Just a floating head and thorax.只剩头部和胸腔 It is, but this was caught in 1905.-是的 -但这是1905年捕获的 Oh my word, and it’s still here我的天 它保存到了现在 its little story and everything.以及它的故事 一切都保存着 长尾管蚜蝇 学名Eristalis tenax These, their larvae,这些是它们的幼虫 is what we call the ‘rat-tailed maggots’.就是我们所说的“鼠尾蛆” So, yeah, the thing that everyone hates.对 就是所有人都讨厌的蛆 I hate maggots我讨厌蛆 If these maggots weren’t around eating all that decomposing matter.但如果没有蛆来吃掉腐烂的东西 No, I do understand那不行 我明白 We’d be swimming in dead bodies.我们将在尸体堆里游泳 We’d be swimming in excreta.在各种排泄物里生活 Disease. Whatever,我们会生病 随便怎么说 so their larvae are cleaning up after us它们的幼虫为我们清理这些腐烂物 and the adults are pollinating for us.而成虫则为植物授粉 This is why you’ve got to love a fly.这就是你应该喜欢蝇类的原因 Oh my word, there really is噢 我的天 杆子的末端上 an insect on the end of that, there isn’t it?真的有一只昆虫对吗 That’s what we call or the Americans call ‘noseeums’.这就是我们或美国人所说的“蠓” Oh! Those things are…噢!这些就是…… And you know everyone hates this?大家都讨厌它吧? I hate these, everyone hates-我讨厌它 -大家都讨厌 Because the females are all blood suckers, they’re biters.因为雌性蠓类都会吸血 它们会咬人 And they are the scourge of Scotland.它们是苏格兰之灾 These – there are about 15 species –这些 大约有15种 are some of the only pollinators of chocolate on the planet.是地球上仅有的为可可树传粉昆虫中的一些 Exactly! So you get rid of flies,是的 如果没有了蝇类 you get rid of chocolate. It’s up to you也就吃不到巧克力了 你觉得呢 Now hang on a second, Erica,等一下 Erica have you snuck some spiders into your fly collection?你偷偷放了些蜘蛛在你的蝇类收藏里吗? Well, no. Count the legs.不不 数数它们的足 They’ve got three pairs of legs, so they’re definitely an insect.它们有三对足 所以它们显然是昆虫 Their common name is the terrible hairy fly.它们俗称恐怖多毛苍蝇 That’s so great!好厉害 I know.我知道 Yes, they do look like spiders是的 它们确实很像蜘蛛 and they do run around like spiders.它们也确实像蜘蛛一样爬来爬去 Really?真的吗? But these have got tiny wings.但是它们有小翅膀 Tiny little sticks poking up.小翅膀可以伸展开来 But useless.但不能飞 Useless. Absolutely not functional at all.是的 翅膀完全没用 And these are arguably, maybe,可以这么说 它们有可能 the rarest creature on the entire planet.是地球上最罕见的生物 So, Erica, you’ve won me over with flies.Erica 我被你说服了 You’ve basically won me over because of the diversity,蝇类的多样性让我佩服 because I just had no idea.因为我之前对此一无所知 And I think people think that they know flies but人们自以为了解苍蝇 actually they’ve got all these different roles,实际上蝇类扮演了如此多的角色 survival modes,有各种各样的生存方式 and the diversity is just extraordinary isn’t it?其多样性令人惊叹 不是吗 It is, just the bodies:是的 其身体构造也很惊人 one group of animals has just run with这种生物仅依据基本躯体蓝图发育 their basic body plan and gone berserk.就能像狂战士般战斗 You don’t have to go to the tropics to find this.你不必特意跑去热带找它们 This can be anywhere, this can be in your garden.它们无处不在 可能就在你家花园里 There are more species of fly in the UK英国的蝇类数量就多于 than there are mammals on the planet.整个地球上的哺乳动物数量
  • 2021-08-24竹节虫的隐身能力与克隆繁殖As evening falls …随着夜幕的降临…… hidden creatures awaken …夜行的动物都醒来了…… Can you see them?你能看见它们吗? There’s one … and another …这儿有一个 那儿还有一个…… …and here’s one, too.这还有一个 All heading out to look for a late night bite to eat.它们都出发去寻找深夜美味 But they’re not the only ones with an appetite.但胃口大开的可不仅仅是它们 This walking stick looks delicate, feeble even.这个竹节虫看起来很纤弱 甚至很虚弱的样子 But survival is about much more than strength.但“适者生存”可不仅仅是靠体力 After all, this species has traveled far from its original home in India.毕竟这个物种是从它们的印度老家远道而来的 Their first line of defense is their incredible camouflage. 它们第一道防线就是它们令人不可思议的伪装 bumpy and wrinkled with spots and spindly legs.它们全身布满坑坑洼洼 褶褶皱皱的疙瘩 长着细长纤弱的腿 Walking sticks are part of an order called Phasmatodea, from the Greek word for phantom.竹节虫属于竹节虫目 而Phasmatodea一词源于希腊语“幽灵”的意思 When resting, they stay absolutely still …它们休息的时候会一动不动…… When they get up and go当它们起来活动时 they sway like twigs in a gentle breeze.身姿会如微风中的细枝般摇曳 They tiptoe along on tiny hooked feet它们用细小似钩形的脚踮着行走 perfectly adapted to a life in the leaves.完美地适应了隐身树叶之中的生活 But sometimes, even the best disguise can’t save you,然而有时候 即便最好的伪装也无法保其性命无虞 especially if you’re a young nymph.对幼虫来说 更是如此 Older, wiser walking sticks can make a sudden escape by popping off their branch.年长更聪明的竹节虫会猛地跳下树枝逃走 Nothing to see here, predators.“看 这里什么都没有哦 捕食者们” If they do manage to escape, walking sticks don’t always make a clean getaway就算它们幸运地逃脱 也并非总能全“身”而退 And well, they leave a limb behind.这里 它们就挣断了一条腿 Younger ones can grow their legs back年轻些的竹节虫会重新长出腿来 although they may end up shorter than before.但可能会比原来的腿短一些 That’s what happened with this new leg.这条新腿就是这么来的 For walking sticks, nighttime can be the right time to find a mate夜晚是竹节虫寻找配偶的最佳时间 But the females of this species don’t need a male to reproduce.但雌性竹节虫繁殖并不需要雄性 A female can lay viable eggs without mating at all雌性无需交配也可产出能正常发育的卵 Cloning herself through parthenogenesis, or asexual reproduction.它们能通过无性繁殖或单性繁殖克隆自己 These babies are tiny clones.这些小竹节虫就是小克隆体 All female, like mom它们跟母亲一样都是雌性的竹节虫 At this stage, they’re all the same pale brown color在这一阶段 它们都还是同样的浅棕色 But when they mature,但渐渐长大后 they might change to any of the colors in this forest palette of greens and browns.它们能变成适应森林色调的任意一种绿色或棕色 You’d think they’d just be the same color as their mom, being clones and all.克隆一定让你误以为 它们和母亲颜色一致 How the clones end up different colors is still a mystery.克隆体最终蜕变成不同的颜色的原因仍是未解之谜 However it happens, this variability works to their advantage无论事实怎样 这种多变性成了它们的优势 so they can find just the right background for their disappearing act.使它们能够恰好“消失”于背景之中 Hi, it’s Laura.嗨 这是劳拉 Don’t “leaf” yet …不要“走开”哦 Or you’ll miss our video about these amazing walking stick cousins否则 你会错过视频中奇异的竹节虫的表亲 Giant Malaysian leaf insects巨型马来西亚叶虫 They really know how to shake it!它们真的很擅长伪装 Also, here is another little critter who’s great at hiding on you.这儿还有一种精通于藏身于人类身上的小生物 Head lice use their huge claws to turn your hair头虱用巨大的爪子把你的头发变成 into their personal jungle gym.它们自己的丛林健身房 You’re welcome!感谢收看
  • 2021-08-24啄木鸟的头有多硬?当啄木鸟在啄一棵树的时候 它的头部承受的力是其重力的1000倍 根据物理学家所言 啄木鸟每次啄木 等于每秒以每小时26000英里速度 撞树并强制减速到0 令人震惊的是啄木鸟天天这么啄木 直到它的生命结束 若把这放在重力的范畴里 以重力加速度作为计量单位 啄木鸟可以承受1200倍的重力加速度 那它们怎么生存的? 它们有盘状的骨头和海绵状的头骨 能帮助它们分散外来的力 很像汽车上的吸震结构 它们还有第三个内眼睑 来防止眼睛向外突 这里是《关注真相》
  • 2021-08-24母狼救出了小狼Oh wow, that is super cool.哦哇 这太酷了 I bet that’s the breeding female.我敢说她一定是狼后 Yeah, she looks – She’s big.是的 她看起来挺大的 That’s a big belly there.她有个大肚子 She’s just like scoping it out.好像在观察周围的环境 That’s definitely the female, she’s got a huge belly.她一定是只母狼 她的肚子好大 Oh, there she goes in on the 11th.11号时 她进去了 She does go into the den.她的确会进窝里 Thirteenth.13号 Another one on the fourteenth coming out of the den.14号的录像 从窝里出来了 I mean there are so many wolf videos here.我们拍到了好多狼的录像 Eighteenth. Hold on, yeah. No.18号 暂停一下 不是这儿 Yeah – that’s the eighteenth.对 那是18号时的录像 Look at her shake.看她抖抖 Yeah, she just shook off.她就这么抖掉了水 [Squeal.][小狼叫] There’s a pup!有只小狼! We’re moving pups!她在搬运小狼们 Oh, wow. They were here!哇哦 它们在这里! Look at that.看哪 That’s a little pup; those things are tiny.那是只小狼崽 它们好小啊 It was an active den, so there were pups here.这个窝还处于活跃期 所以里面有幼崽 Oh, she comes back.哦 她回来了 Start counting, that was one.来数数啊 那有一只 Wow!哇哦! [Squeal.][小狼叫] It appears that the den was just full of water and so the pups were soaked,看来水把狼窝淹了 小狼们都被浸湿了 probably getting hypothermic or something like that很可能会得失温症之类的 so the female had to get them out right away.母狼只好马上带它们叼出来 And so that’s what we see on the video footage here.这就是录像镜头中发生的事 Yeah, these are all about two minutes apart.是的 每隔两分钟叼出来一只 [Squealing.][小狼叫] Four.第四只 – Listen to them. – Yeah, they’re really upset.– 听啊 – 是的 它们很不高兴 The spring thaw must have just melted and filled the den.一定是春季解冻期 积雪刚融化 淹没了狼窝 Five.第五只 That is absolutely amazing.这真是太让人惊讶了 That’s awesome.太棒了 Their still coming… six.还有 第六只 Very urgent.非常急迫 Seven.第七只 That last one, seven of them.那是最后一只 一共有七只 She’s done.搬完了 That is so cool.太酷了 I can’t believe we got that.真想不到我们能拍下这一幕
  • 2021-08-24探秘·象鼻的内部What if you could use your nose to snorkel,如果你能用鼻子潜泳 or uproot a small tree,连根拔起一棵小树 or smell water from several miles away?嗅到几英里外的水 会怎么样? Well, elephants wouldn’t be that impressed.They do it on the daily.大象不会对此表示吃惊 它们每天都这样做…… thanks to what’s inside their trunk.多亏了它们象鼻里的结构 象鼻里面有什么呢? If you were to dissect an elephant trunk,如果你仔细研究大象的鼻子 it would actually look more like the它看起来更像是 inside of your tongue than your nose.舌头的内部而不是鼻子 Trunks, tongues, and even octopus arms象鼻 舌头 甚至章鱼的手臂 are unique organs called muscular hydrostats.都是被称为肌肉性静水骨骼的独特器官 That means they’re made almost entirely of muscle,这意味着它们几乎完全由肌肉组成 and an elephant’s trunk has a lot of them, about 40,000大象的鼻子里有很多肌肉性静水骨骼 大约有4万块 compared to around 650 muscles in the entire human body.与之相比 人体内只有650块 Normally, muscles depend on bones and joints正常情况下 肌肉依赖骨头和关节 to move and exert force.来运动和施加力量 For example,when we pick up a dumbbell,例如 当我们举起哑铃时 our bicep pulls on our forearm bones肱二头肌拉动前臂骨 and that causes them to swing up around our elbow joint.使它们围绕肘关节向上转动 But in an elephant trunk,但是在象鼻里 there are no bones to pull and no joints to hinge on.没有骨头可以拉 没有关节可以铰接 The muscles take on that role instead.肌肉扮演了这个角色 This makes trunks incredibly flexible,这使象鼻异常灵活 they can move in all directions.它们可以向各个方向移动 And all those muscles mean而且全部为肌肉组成意味着 they’re powerful enough to lift hundreds of pounds,它们有足够举起几百磅东西的力量 yet delicate enough to pick up a tortilla chip也能完美地拿起玉米薄饼片 without even cracking it.并且不会弄碎 But while trunks may be structured like a tongue虽然象鼻的构造像舌头 and function like an arm,并且功能像手臂 they are, in fact, a nose, and an exceptional one.但事实上它们是一种特殊的鼻子 An animal’s sense of smell动物的嗅觉 is linked to the number of olfactory receptor genes it has.和嗅觉感受器基因的数量有关 And elephants, well, they have a lot of them,大象拥有很多嗅觉感受器基因 nearly 2,000 – more than any other animal we know of.接近2千个 比我们所知的任何动物都多 Bloodhounds, for example, only have about 800例如 猎犬只有大约800个 while humans have even fewer.而人类拥有的数量更少 In fact, an elephant’s nose is so good实际上 大象的鼻子非常灵敏 it can actually sniff out bombs.它可以嗅出炸弹 People have reported that African elephants人们曾报道过非洲象 avoid land mines in Angola在安哥拉避开过地雷 and in 2015, researchers put it to the test.在2015年 研究人员对此展开了测试 Elephants were presented with a lineup of buckets大象被放在一排桶前 filled with different smells, including TNT,桶里充满了不同的气味 包括TNT— the main ingredient in land mines.地雷的主要成分 Out of 97 TNT samples,在97个TNT样本中 elephants detected all but one.只有一个没被大象检测出来 Of course, their trunks didn’t evolve as bomb detectors.当然 它们的鼻子没有进化成炸弹探测器 They use their nose like we use our eyes,他们的鼻子就像我们的眼睛一样 to find food and water, to avoid predators,能去寻找食物和水 去避开捕食者 and to map out other elephants nearby.和搜寻附近的其它大象 That’s like walking into a family reunion with your eyes closed这就像即使闭着眼睛走进家庭聚会 and knowing exactly where everyone is.也是知道每个人在哪的 But if you can believe it,但是如果你相信 there are even more tricks up their trunks.它们的鼻子还有更多的把戏 When elephants traverse deep rivers, for example,例如 当大象穿越深河时 they curve their trunk into a snorkel,它们把它们的鼻子弯成通气管 and when bathing, they can use it as a hose,洗澡时 它们把象鼻当水管用 or more like a fire hose.更像一个消防水管 With one suck, a trunk can pull in象鼻吸一次 as much as 10 liters of water.就能吸入多达10升的水 And the trunk’s impressive abilities haven’t gone unnoticed.象鼻的惊人能力并没有被忽视 In fact, if you stick a mirror in front of an elephant,事实上 如果你在大象面前竖一面镜子 one of their favorite activities它们最喜爱的活动之一 is to open their mouth and check out their trunks.就是张开嘴检查它们的鼻子 Let’s admit it, if you had a nose like that,承认吧 如果你有那样的鼻子 you would do the exact same thing.你会做同样的事情
  • 2021-08-24鹦鹉与主人说话来消除寂寞感The third most cherished pet is equally playful第三大最受欢迎的宠物也很顽皮 the common parakeet better known as the budgerigar那就是长尾小鹦鹉 也叫虎皮鹦鹉 is hardwired to seek out company.寻找陪伴是它们的天性 You pretty bird. You dummy.你真美 小笨笨 Disco is a pretty bird. Baby.Disco真美 宝贝 A mirror provides a temporary companion.这面镜子可以短暂地陪伴它 He doesn’t see it as a reflection of himself它不知道镜子里就是自己 more a buddy who comes and goes.而是把它当成不时会出现的伙伴 But when he wants some real quality time但当它想好好玩耍一番的时候 he’s learnt some playful tricks to get noticed.已经学会了耍花招来引人注意 I see you over there.我看见你啦 Baby bird. Baby bird.小小鸟 小小鸟 Come on baby bird.过来小小鸟 what are you doing, disco?Disco你在干嘛呀? What did mama say? Are you dancing?妈妈说什么来着?你在跳舞吗? What is it Disco?Disco怎么啦? Yeah, come on over. Come on now.来 过来 过来 Having captured his owner’s attention,它成功吸引了主人的注意 he can practice another skill.接下来该表演另一个把戏了 It’s not easy being green.身披一身绿可真不易 It’s not easy being green.身披一身绿可真不易 It’s not easy being green.身披一身绿可真不易 Mimicry isn’t as unnatural as it seems.模仿是它们的天性 Wild parakeets mimic each other,野生长尾小鹦鹉会相互模仿 and each family learns their own distinct calls.它们能学会独属于自己家庭的叫声 Never shake a baby bird,不要摇晃本小小鸟 that would surely be absurd.否则你真是太荒谬 Never shake a baby bird,不要摇晃本小小鸟 that would surely be absurd.否则你真是太荒谬 This budgie is just doing what he would do in the flock.它在鹦鹉群中也会这样模仿 I’m a parakeet. What is it?我是长尾小鹦鹉 怎么啦? A green and yellow bird that talks, but that’s not important right now.是一种黄绿相间能讲话的鸟?但这都不重要了 Even having a name may not be as unnatural as it seems.即便它有自己的名字 似乎也是很正常的 I’m disco, and I know it.我叫Disco 而且我了解它 I’m disco, and I know it.我叫Disco 而且我了解它 I am not a crook! My name’s Disco.我可不是骗子 我叫Disco wild parrots have been shown to assign special calls to name their offspring.研究表明 野生鹦鹉会以特别的叫声来唤它们的孩子 just as we name our own pet budgies.像我们给自己的宠物鹦鹉取名一样 Baby bird. Just a baby bird. Keep it bird.小小鸟 Disco是个小小鸟 保持住这鸟样 In turn, young parrots learn these names而小鹦鹉们会从父母那里学习自己的“名字” and use them to introduce themselves.并以此来做自我介绍 I am not a crook! My name’s Disco.我才不是骗子 我叫Disco This extraordinary ability may mean that这种出色的能力 disco has a sense of his own identity.可能说明Disco拥有自我身份感 It certainly seems so at times.起码有时看上去是这样 Disco baby.Disco宝宝 Talking is now a game,说话变成了游戏 a way to express wild behavior in the confines of his home.一种由于家养环境限制而表现其野生行为的方式 Call the cat, meow meow.小猫 喵 喵 Give me a kiss.来啵一个 I can has cheeseburger?本宝宝手里有芝士汉堡 Are you a little short for a storm trooper?你做冲锋队的是不是有点矮呀? Disco, I used to be a spy.我以前可是个间谍 Baby parakeet.宝宝长尾小鹦鹉 Chill, I’m a doctor, not a parakeet.我是医生 不是鹦鹉 I’m a doctor.我真是个医生 Disco has memorized over 130 phrases in all.Disco已经记住了130多句话 My cage is bigger on the inside.我的笼子里面比外面大 My cage bigger on the inside.我的笼子里面比外面大 Like learning any new language, practice makes perfect,这就像学习一门新的语言一样 熟能生巧 even if it means talking in your sleep.即便是说梦话 …In the free world.继续在自由的世界里摇滚 Keep rocking in the free world.继续在自由的世界里摇滚 Nobody expects… Je t’aime. Talk birdie.没人预料到……我爱你 说话的鸟鸟 Good night Disco.Disco晚安 The intimacy between disco and his owner may be unusual,Disco和它的主人非常亲密 这可能很不寻常 but the desire to play can bring the oddest of couples together.但是玩耍的愿望让这对最古怪的组合走到了一起
  • 2021-08-24掠夺者蚂蚁偷走其他蚂蚁的宝宝并洗脑它们You’re watching Deep Look’s 100th episode.你现在收看的是《微观深望》第一百集 Think we should do 100 more?想让我们做更多视频? Then support us on Patreon.请在patreon上支持我们 Link is in the description.网址链接在简介中 These ants are planning a heist.这些蚂蚁在谋划一场抢劫 They don’t have a choice.它们别无选择 They can’t feed themselves on their own.它们无法靠自己养活自己 But they’re not plotting to steal food.但它们不是在谋划着偷取食物 They steal other ants.它们偷其他种群的蚂蚁 They’re kidnappers.它们是绑匪 As the sun sets in California’s Sierra Nevada mountains,当太阳落入加利福尼亚的内华达山脉 scouts leave their underground nest.侦察蚁从地下的蚁巢出来 They’re looking for ants of an entirely different species.它们在寻找与自己种群完全不同的蚂蚁 This nearby colony of black ants knows what’s out there.附近这窝黑蚂蚁知道洞外有危险 So every afternoon, 每天下午 they block the entrance to their own nest to protect themselves.它们会堵住自己巢穴的入口以作防御 But it’s too late – a scout spots them.但是已经太晚了 一只侦察蚁发现了它们 She rushes back to mobilize her sisters.它冲回去动员它的姐妹们 They charge out across the forest floor.它们蜂拥而出 穿过森林地表 It’s a raid!这是一次突袭! The black ants try to defend themselves from the onslaught, 黑蚁们试图奋力抵抗这突击 but it’s not enough. 但是无济于事 They’re overwhelmed, panicked. 它们极度惊慌失措 The raiders start digging.这些绑匪开始挖掘洞口 Once they’re in, they know exactly what they’re after.一旦它们进入 它们就知道自己要找什么了 The most prized possession ants have…蚂蚁最珍贵的财产就是 their young.它们的幼蚁 These white things are pupae – developing juveniles.这些白色的东西是蛹 正在发育的幼体 The kidnappers use their pointy, oversized mandibles to snatch them up这些绑匪用它们又大又尖的颚部抓起蚁蛹 and haul the young back to their nest.然后把这些幼体搬回它们的巢穴 Now, you’d think when the stolen ants grow up,你可能会想 被偷幼蚁长大后 they’d realize they’re surrounded by strangers 它们会意识到自己身陷异族蚁群的巢穴 in the nest of a totally different species.周围尽是非亲非故 But ants don’t really recognize each other by sight.但是蚂蚁不是靠视觉来辨认彼此的 They use smell.它们用嗅觉 So the kidnappers coat the young ants in secretions from glands near their mouths,因此 绑匪会用口器旁边腺体的分泌物涂抹幼蚁 imprinting their colony’s scent onto the new arrivals.把它们种群的气味覆盖在新成员身上 As they grow up, the young black ants think they’re at home, with their own family.幼蚁长大后 就会认为自己与家人生活在这里 They have no idea.它们被蒙在鼓里 So the newly enslaved ants just get to work,新近被奴役的蚂蚁要开始工作了 leaving the nest to forage for food for their captors.离开蚁巢去为俘虏它们的蚂蚁捕食 The captive ant’s mandibles are serrated for grinding up food.俘虏蚂蚁的颚部呈锯齿状 可以磨碎食物 The kidnapper’s jaws are really only good for one thing: grabbing young ants.而劫持蚁的颚部只适合做一件事: 抢夺幼蚁 They can’t even chew their own food.它们甚至都不会咀嚼食物 So the kidnappers get their captives to regurgitate food right into their mouths,所以俘虏要把食物反刍喂到劫掠蚁嘴里 kind like of a pre-made smoothie.有点像预制的冰沙 It’s called trophallaxis.这称为“交哺行为” The captive ants do pretty much all the work in the colony,被俘蚂蚁在这个蚁巢几乎做着所有的工作 like keeping up the nest and looking after the young.比如整理蚁巢和照顾幼蚁 So the kidnappers can spend their days just lounging around in a big pile…而成群结队的劫持蚁们可以整天无所事事 until it’s time to storm the forest floor again,直到席卷森林地表的机会再次到来 looking for more unsuspecting ants to join their ranks.寻找更多毫无戒心的蚂蚁加入它们的队伍 Hey, it’s Lauren.这里是Lauren How about a few more untrustworthy invertebrates?再来点儿关于无脊椎动物的视频怎么样? Like a sea slug that steals poison from its prey.比如一只海蛞蝓从猎物身上偷毒 Or rainforest ants that break their promises for a little sweet payoff.或者雨林蚂蚁为了一点甜头而背信弃义 And check out Above the Noise记得观看《出离噪音》 a show that explores the research behind controversial topics in the news.该节目旨在探索新闻争议话题背后的那些研究 Like the ethics of keeping animals in zoos.比如把动物关进动物园是否道德 See you next time.下期见
  • 2021-08-24十步赢得狗子的心大家好 我是《训狗技巧》的Samantha 这是我的巧克力色的拉布拉多犬 Sadie 今天我要分享十个让狗狗喜欢你的秘诀 当然了 我的狗很喜欢我 也和我很熟悉 不过这些方法适用于 你刚养狗或狗刚到你家 或许你的新室友养狗 诸如此类 你希望狗狗喜欢你的情况 第一 要保持耐心 狗狗不会瞬间喜欢上你 它们需要时间来熟悉你 所以 一定要耐心 第二 注意观察 通过观察来了解它们喜欢和不喜欢的东西 有些东西可能会让狗狗感到不安和压抑 我们要让狗狗远离这些东西 刚开始的时候 你需要观察狗的方方面面 三 四两点一起讲 都与肢体语言有关 你要留心狗的肢体语言 看有没有耳朵后贴 眼睛大睁 尾巴下垂 显然Sadie很喜欢我 它现在很开心 你看它的尾巴上扬而且摇得欢快 不过 摇尾巴不一定代表狗狗很高兴 如果狗狗尾巴朝外 只摇晃末端 它可能在紧张 如果狗狗的尾巴…… 来这儿 Sadie 看Sadie现在尾巴上扬 四处摇摆 过来 大姑娘 Sadie 拿点儿它可以注意的东西 你瞧 它的尾巴向上摆动 它很兴奋 如果它的尾巴…… Sadie 如果它的尾巴…… 这个给你 如果它的尾巴像这样下垂 轻轻摇摆 或者夹在两腿之间 这两种表现都说明狗在害怕或是不安 接下来 很自然地过渡到第五点 第五 了解狗狗喜欢的东西 真棒 如果狗狗喜欢你丢我捡 那就陪它玩儿 有的狗喜欢拔河 有的狗喜欢散步 有的狗喜欢独自躺在某个地方 给它们时间做它们想做的事 如果你能参与进去 这会是很好的互动 Sadie显然很喜欢你丢我捡 别人刚来我们家时 我们希望他们习惯狗狗的存在 有两样东西能赢得Sadie的欢心 一是食物 二是玩具 它喜欢你丢我捡 是和它快速熟悉的方法 所以找到你刚养的狗喜欢的东西 或者你想要博得其心的狗喜欢的东西 然后和它们一起玩 找到狗狗喜欢的东西后 我的下一个建议是 尽情地玩 放轻松 你要表现得轻松 提到肢体语言时 我说第三 第四点相辅相成 你的肢体语言和狗狗的相互影响 如果你叉着手 怒目而视 或者营造出你不开心的氛围 那狗狗也会不开心 不安的情绪也是如此 如果你很烦躁 并在狗狗面前表现出来 或者你的肢体语言很扫兴 这就不太妥当了 所以 玩耍 放松 享受和狗狗共度的时光吧 另一条我提到的博得Sadie的心 它知道我手里有吃的 就是喂狗狗 如果狗狗喜欢吃东西 大多数狗狗都喜欢 喂食是迅速博得它们喜欢的方式 如果你不是狗主人 只要主人不介意 并确保狗狗没有食物过敏 就给它们喂食吧 第八 陪伴 抓住现在 好好花时间相处 你不能光顾着看手机 光顾着和别人说话 你必须好好陪伴狗狗 以此来告诉它 你们之间的联系很重要 所以 好好陪伴狗狗吧 说到这儿 下一条建议就是试着互动 去散步 去爬山 或者训狗 做些敏捷训练 嗅觉训练 互动方式有很多 相关信息我们网站上都有 如果不清楚有哪些活动 该如何开展 都可以去网站上查看 一定要互动 增进和狗狗感情的最好方式便是互动 一起让你们的关系更进一步 第十 不要强迫你的狗狗 人与狗之间的关系和 狗狗关系与人人关系都很相似 有时候你们就是不合拍 这没什么 这种情况确实存在 虽然不常见 如果你做出了努力 狗狗不怕人 通常 关系自然而然的就会建立起来 有些狗狗要花更久的时间接受你 不要逼它 如果狗狗不想和你呆一起 你在旁边它就会紧张 别勉强它 顺其自然就好 它会习惯的 不需要太久 如果对赢得狗狗的喜欢有任何疑问 如你们所见 我和它们俩关系很好 欢迎通过Samantha@topdogtips.com给我发邮件 感谢收看本期节目
  • 2021-08-24探寻雨林深处Our mission, to take a rig of remotely operated cameras我们的任务 是将一些遥控相机 and install them into one of the wildest rain forests on Earth,安装在地球上最荒凉的雨林之一里 would be a film making challenge like no other.这个拍摄任务面临的挑战非同寻常 The journey to the filming site took four days,我们花了四天才到达拍摄地点 pressing deeper and deeper into the Ecuadorian Amazon.不断深入厄多瓜尔的亚马逊森林 Despite it being the dry season,尽管时值旱季 we were already getting a taste of the unforgiving conditions we’d be up against.我们已经尝到了将要面对的严酷环境的滋味 Tired and wet, we finally arrived at our filming location.浑身湿透疲惫不堪 我们终于抵达拍摄点 Home for the next month.接下来一个月我们都要住在这里 Set on the banks of a small tributary,坐落于一支小分流的岸边 this area of pristine jungle is completely isolated.这片原始丛林完全与世隔绝 Not a place we could get spares如果我们的摄像设备坏了 if any of our camera equipment went down.在这个地方我们可找不到备用品 It’s just so hot, so wet.这里又热又潮湿 It’s rained all night long.雨下了一夜 So we’ve been kind of walking through extremes我们就像是穿越各种极端环境 just to get to the site.只为到这儿 The sweat bees are having a field day,这里的隧蜂正不失时机地 trying to get into all of our eyes and noses and ears,一直想进我们的眼睛 鼻子和耳朵里 and it’s beautiful and I love it.这里很美 我喜欢 With the help of our local guides,在当地导游的带领下 our first task was to locate the key sites to place our cameras.我们的第一个任务是找到放置相机的关键位置 We want to make sure we’ve got as much coverage in this clearing as possible.我们要确保在这片空地做了足够的伪装 Do you think if we got a camera there and a camera there,你觉得我们能在这里和这里放个摄像机吗 it makes sense to have a high camera on a different tree,把高处摄像机放在不同的树上比较好 just so we have another angle?这样就可以从不同角度观察 You could, yeah, get a ladder up there.你可以把梯子放在这里 And we could use, we could have a camera kind of right back against this tree here,我们可以把摄像机靠着这棵树放置 so it’s not going to get knocked by anything.这样它就不会被其他东西碰倒 We wanted to find the paths the animals used through the jungle.我们得在丛林里找动物们的踪迹 I think this is the root我觉得这个树根 that the monkeys tend to come down.就是猴子们下来的地方 You can see all these branches are covered in mud你看这里的树枝都被泥覆盖 like I’ve been climbing on them.就像我爬过一样 As well as the places they go to feed.除了呆在栖息地 动物们还要去觅食 There’s two big trees over here这里的两棵大树 which got loads of fruit on them which aren’t ripe yet,果实累累但是还没熟 but I think they’re going to be drawing a lot of wild life in the coming weeks when they ripen.但我觉得它们成熟后那几周会吸引大量野生动物 With only a month to get the footage we needed,仅有一个月的时间来拍摄我们的视频 we had to find areas that multiple animals visit daily我们得找到每天都有各种动物去的地方 to increase our chances of capturing the most interesting behaviors.以增加我们捕捉其最有趣行为的机会 Let’s work out where our box should go.我们想想摄像机应该放在哪 One potentially fruitful spot that we discovered我们找到的一个潜在食物源 was a flooded clearing.是个满是淤泥的空地 Pretty much every animal requires salt in their diet.很多动物需要补充盐分 These solidaras, these mineral lakes are kind of key areas这些泥浆和矿物湖是关键区域 where they can get that,它们可以在这里补充盐分 so over years probably hundreds of different species come in,可能几年间有上百个物种来过这里 they churn up the mud, they eat around at the banks,它们捣腾泥浆 吃岸边生长的食物 kind of creates these big wallows,形成这些大泥坑 and in a place like the Amazon, which is so enclosed,在亚马逊这样与世隔绝的地方 the trees are so thick and you get so little light, apart from places like this,而且 树林浓密 光照稀疏 these are the kind of real key spots where you see amazing wildlife action.这里是观察野生动物奇特行为的最佳场所 In order for us to capture the behaviors of as many varied species as possible,为了让我们捕捉尽可能多不同物种的行为 we needed to fix cameras in a broad range of habitats.我们需要将摄像机固定在各种栖息地 From caves, to well worn animal trails,从洞穴 到陈旧的动物踪迹处 high up in a canopy, and along the banks of the river.树冠高处 河流沿岸 We’ve got some pretty special equipment to film here.我们有非常特殊的设备来拍摄 Which is a remote camera so这些是遥控相机 we can put multiple cameras in one place,我们可以在一处安置很多相机 we can get multiple angles.从不同角度拍摄 We can be close to the animals without disturbing them.我们可以在不打扰它们的情况下近距离观察 It’s a very new and exciting way to capture wildlife.这是拍摄野生动物的一种全新而令人兴奋的方式 You know the wildlife here is really smart,这里的野生动物很聪明 amazing sense of smell, rubber cables.嗅觉灵敏 警惕性高 We’ve got to try and disguise the smells我们得掩盖气味 and the shapes of these things as much as possible.尽量伪装设备 So covering it with leaves, covering it with mud.那就用树叶和泥把它盖住 A country ripple is it you wanted?想这样把电线偷偷布满全国吗? It’s not a bad place to hide cables把电线藏在这里还不错 in the sense that there are just creepers毕竟这里到处都是匍匐植物 and vines just kind of everywhere还有藤蔓 到处都是 It’s hard to know we’ve laid a camera sometimes.有时我们自己都不知道把相机放哪了 You go into the cave entrance down there,你下去到洞穴的入口处 where you’ve neatly cut the cables你把电线修剪整齐 into the side of that wall, plastered it over.放到墙边 用泥把它盖住 I thought we still needed the cables in down there.我认为我们仍然需要那边的电线 The cameras we use capture a 360 view of their surroundings,我们的相机可以360度捕捉周围画面 and can tilt and zoom to capture the wildlife.可倾斜可放大 来捕捉野生动物影像 All controlled remotely.这些都靠远程遥控 But connecting power and getting video links from multiple cameras但给不同相机连上电源 接上视频 was a huge task,是项艰巨任务 and the tough conditions of the Amazon Rainforest而亚马逊雨林里艰苦的环境 called for some even tougher equipment.需要更耐用的设备 So all of our cameras are going to be connected with我们的相机 将与这个 this essentially military grade fiber optic cable.军用级别的光缆链接 It’s rotproof, it’s water proof,它防水防腐 it’s ant and insect proof,防虫蚁 and it’s superlight as well.而且超轻 So this is amazing.这就很棒了 This allows us to have our camera base several hundred meters away from the cameras这使我们可以把相机安装在拍摄基地的几百米外 so that we’re gonna be in a place我们就可以待在一个 where we’re not going to disturb any of these animals不会打扰这些动物的地方 and be able to monitor them without altering their behavior.还能在不惊动它们行为的情况下 观察它们 Over the month we installed more than 6000 feet of cables这个月 我们安装了6千多英尺的光缆 to connect our cameras, infrared lights, and batteries,以链接相机 红外光和电池 all feeding back to our remote monitoring stations,这些都反馈给我们的远程监视站 from where we could film the action as it unfolded.在这里我们可以拍下整个事件发生过程 And after the huge technical challenge of rigging this entire area of jungle,在给雨林安装设备这一巨大的技术挑战完成后 we could now begin the even bigger task我们现在可以开始更艰巨的任务 of using our network of cameras就是用我们布置的相机网 to try and film the intimate lives of the animals here.尝试拍摄这里的动物的不为人知的生活 Wow what a remarkable moment to have captured.哇 这记录了多么完美的一幕
  • 2021-08-24寄生真菌控制昆虫的大脑真菌和粘菌竞相分解森林地面上的尸体 它们中许多通过释放孢子进行传播 多达每秒3万个 这些孢子中哪怕只有一个落在合适的地方 并扎根生长 它就可以开拓一个全新的领域 但并非所有菌类都以死尸为食 几天前 一个孢子落在了这只蚂蚁身上 现在蚂蚁表现得很奇怪 菌根网络已渗进它的肌肉 它的身体已经被虫草控制了 虫草是一种寄生真菌 它使蚂蚁的大脑充满化学物质 麻痹蚂蚁 迫使蚂蚁前往条件完美的地方 光照刚刚好 湿度刚刚好 刚好适合寄生真菌在体内生长 虫草以致命一招送蚁归天 然后虫草展示了它可怕的天性 经过三周的生长 虫草可以释放自己的孢子了 感染更多蚂蚁 释放更多孢子 感染更多蚂蚁 释放更多孢子 感染更多蚂蚁 更多蚂蚁 更多蚂蚁 更多蚂蚁 虫草可以消灭整个蚁群 不仅仅是蚂蚁会有这种危险 全球范围分布着600多种虫草 大多数生长在丛林 捕食着各种各样的受害宿主
  • 2021-08-24猫咪不同睡姿背后的奥秘猫的睡姿可以揭示许多有关其个性 健康及其感受等信息 本指南分析了猫最常见的睡姿 并解释了猫以某些方式睡觉背后的科学原理 1 蜷曲式 在蜷曲的姿势中 猫的尾巴环绕着身体 并把头埋进怀里 这个睡姿意味它可能试图保存体内的热量 并对身体的基础部位提供保护 这也是野生动物最普遍的一种睡姿 因为这可以帮它们保暖并保护重要器官 2 睡盒子里 看你的猫咪蜷睡在盒子里绝对是一种享受 然而 除了可爱之外 还传达了有关猫的强烈信号 这意味着你的猫正担心它的安全 并且寻求舒适与保护 当猫睡在狭小拥挤的地方时 它们正在担心自身的安危 盒子坚固的四壁提供了紧凑而安全的空间 从而使它们感到安全 除了盒子外 猫咪可能会寻找抽屉 碗 或者其他可以刚好塞进的物品 你需要分析一下你的猫为什么担心它的安全? 或许是它害怕家里的其他宠物或孩子 你可以做一个里面足够蓬松的 密闭的盒子来帮助它舒适地睡眠 3 肚皮朝上式 猫的肚子是最脆弱的地方 如果你家的猫睡姿是肚皮朝上式 四肢摆成怪异的角度 肚皮对着天花板 这表明猫在家里感到舒服和安全 你可以为自己赢得爱宠信任而感到幸运 因为猫猫总是为自己安全着想 在不确定环境是否安全时 它们不会露出脆弱的部位 猫猫仰睡时表明 它们对周围环境感到信赖而放松 4 半眯眼式 不论你的猫咪被驯服得如何好 它们捕猎的天性不会改变 肉食动物会捕猎其他动物 但是很少会被当成猎物 所以猫咪即使是打盹儿也不会眼睛全闭 这种姿势下你会注意到它的耳朵不时地抖动 它正在警戒 这种浅睡眠可以持续几个小时 你的猫咪能够意识到周围正在发生的情况 任何一点异响都会引起它的格外注意 有时猫猫睡觉时会睁一只眼闭一只眼 这被称作单侧大脑半球短波睡眠 这种情况下 猫猫的大脑一半处于无意识状态 另一半则处于活跃警戒状态 这种睡眠形态对它们是有益的 因为它甚至可以在伴有某些威胁的地方休息 5 长面包式 这又是另一种有趣的睡姿 这种姿势让你忍俊不禁但又感到困惑 这种情况下猫咪蹲伏着 但是要把爪子伸到身体下面 如果你看见你的猫咪以这种姿势睡觉 这表明它并不想长时间休息 而是在为下一项活动养精蓄锐 通常在长面包姿势下 猫咪至少会闭上一只眼睛 6 侧睡 侧睡让猫猫感到极度舒适 当猫猫侧睡并把腿伸出时 意味着它们十分满意并感到安全 此时的猫咪处于最放松的状态 并且不需要对周围保持警戒 通常猫猫深度睡眠时会采用这种睡姿 7 小爪遮脸式 这是常见的猫咪睡眠姿势中最可爱之一 很多时候你也会惊讶于这种姿势 当它们的小爪遮在脸上时 表明它们不想被打扰 这通常发生在猫猫熟睡的时候 当日光或灯光使他们感到不舒服的时候 所以它们会这样遮住眼睛 8 单轨式(小龙女式) 这种姿势下 猫猫躺在扶手或椅背上 沙发 楼梯栏杆 篱笆桩 门沿顶部 特别是 猫猫会悬着四条腿 这种姿势被叫做单轨式 是因为猫猫这样时的姿态 就像正在行驶的单轨列车 关于建筑在应用和功能方面的规则 猫猫一无所知 它们喜欢用这种方式休息 因为这十分便于日常监视 9柔术演员式 柔术演员能把身体弯折成不自然的姿势 猫猫以柔术方式睡觉时 四仰八叉 歪歪扭扭 同时头部扭成怪异的角度 每每看到自己的猫咪这样睡时 总是忍不住想笑 有些主人担心角度过大的姿势会伤害到猫咪 但这通常情况并非如此 因为猫咪的脊柱非常柔韧 有极富弹性的椎骨和毛茸茸的身体 这种姿势的背后没有特别的原因 可能猫猫那一刻只是单纯觉得很舒服 至此 我们已经为您展示了猫猫最重要和常用的睡姿 你现在可以轻易理解那些 猫咪无法告诉你的信号和迹象 你可以判断猫咪是否感到安全或威胁 亦或是睡得安稳与否
  • 2021-08-24仓鼠塞满腮帮子的秘诀所有的宠物金仓鼠 都是同一个科的后代 这个科是于上世纪中叶在叙利亚沙漠发现的 一个隧道系统 就能让它们回归野外的生存方式 在沙漠里 为了避开高温和天敌的追捕 白天它们会一直躲在洞里 通过移动X光 你可以看出它有多灵活 因为脊柱非常柔韧 它可以轻松地急转弯 事实上 它的脊柱极为柔韧 可以原地完成180度转身 少有动物可以像这样U型转身 给它食物 它就像是在吃“最后的晚餐” 把所有多余食物都塞进颊囊里 方便稍后接着吃 为了让食物保持新鲜干燥 它不会分泌任何唾液 X光反映了它是如何塞进全部食物的 它的颊囊一直延伸到臀部 当它一口也塞不下了的时候 它就把最爱的零食带走 说时容易做时难 它的下一个挑战是吐出这些储藏品 坚果粘在它干燥的颊囊上 不过这个问题它自有办法解决 它会用它灵活得惊人的爪子来帮忙 仓鼠这样贮藏食物是因为在沙漠里 它们永远不知道下一顿食物在哪 这种在圈养环境中无用的做法 对它们来说 就是一种回味野外行为的娱乐方式
  • 2021-08-24大象 101 I 国家地理野生动物你可能已经知道 大象体型巨大而且雄伟 但它们的体型和智慧还是可能会让你惊讶 大象是体型最大的陆地动物 平均来说 非洲象的肩背高约10英尺(3米) 重达18000磅(8165千克) 然而有记载的最大的大象 高13英尺(4米) 重约24000磅(10886千克) 为了维持巨大的体型 [树枝摇晃声] 成年大象需要摄入相当多能量 高达50加仑(189升)的饮水量 约220磅(100千克)的食物 每天大约是70000大卡 大象的巨大体型 一定程度上限制了它们的行动 尽管它们可以行走和游泳 大象却是少有的无法跳跃的哺乳动物 大象的腿过于纤细 无法驱使沉重的身躯向上 另外大象的腿缺乏弹性结构 因为它们用脚趾站立 大象是十分聪明的动物 它们智力表现之一是 能够在镜子里认出自己 其他能够这样做的生物只有 人类 大猩猩 海豚 和喜鹊 大象的智力还体现在其运用工具解决问题的能力 但其最广为人知的智力表现很可能是 极好的记忆力 大象的生命中经历了一次次迁徙 它们可以记住迁徙路线中的水源位置 大象是现存唯一有长鼻的动物 象鼻是由鼻子和上嘴唇组成的 它沉重而有力 其中包含了约15万个肌肉纤维 重约300磅(136千克) 象鼻不仅可以举起 近乎自身两倍大的物体 还能够熟练地捡起小物件 象鼻末端的扇形凸起 可以精准地捡起一颗浆果或叶子 除了用来抓东西 象鼻还用来互相问候和表达安慰 它们会互相缠绕象鼻 触摸对方的脸 来表示喜爱 象牙本质上是巨型牙齿 与人类牙齿十分类似 象牙由被称为牙本质的东西构成 主要的区别在于 大象的牙本质内 有着菱形的排列分布 这使它极为强韧而有光泽 幼年的大象甚至有乳牙时期 这里特指婴儿象牙 它们会在一岁左右脱落 然后被一对永久的象牙替代 它们可长达6英寸(1.8米) 每个重达50磅(22.7千克) 不幸的是 大象因为象牙被盗猎 象牙制品的需求 导致大象数量锐减 非洲象并不是濒危物种 它的近亲亚洲象是濒危物种 非洲象被列为易危物种 在非洲南部的一些国家 甚至有非洲象过多的现象 亚洲象的数量已经大幅减少 这一物种的栖息地 曾经遍布亚洲 从叙利亚到中国北部 但是今天 它们仅存于印度和印尼之间小片地区 家园破碎 象牙盗猎 与当地农民的冲突 都是大象所要面临的风险 但是通过研究动物保护的复杂性 我们能接近于找到一种方法 让人类和大象 这种十分聪明的神奇的动物 能够和谐共处 [旋律]
  • 2021-08-24狗狗们的天赋Dogs actually have a genius.狗狗实际上具有一种天赋 They have a special genius它们有一种特殊的天赋 to understand humans to cooperate可以理解人类 and communicate with us in a way that really no other species can.与我们交流合作 这是其他生物所不具有的 录制于2018年阿斯本思想节 布莱恩·海尔《天才犬》 If you look at dogs and their success as a species,如果你知道狗是怎样作为一个物种成功的 it’s kind of a remarkable story.这绝对是个精彩的故事 We know dogs began being domesticated 14 to 25,000 years ago.我们都知道 狗在1万4千年到2万5千年前被驯化 They evolved from wolves.它们从狼进化而来 Sadly, wolves are endangered everywhere they’re found不幸的是 狼在每处栖息地都濒临灭绝 and dogs are found everywhere where you find humans但是有人类的地方就会有狗 and they are anything but endangered.它们绝不会濒危 And it’s all about forming a relationship with us.这是因为它们和人类之间形成了一种关系 When we make eye contact with them当我们和狗狗们有眼神 and when we’re physically interacting with them,和肢体接触时 it is causing a neurophysiological response这时人类与狗之间会产生神经性反应 that is the exact mirror就如同 of what happens as parents bond with their newborn infant.父母与新生儿之间的一样 It leads to bonding and social concern.这让两者紧密相连并引发社会关注 Well, dogs actually seem to have hijacked that mechanism in us.好吧 狗狗实际上绑架了我们的情感机制 So they really have a converged所以它们真的在转变 and become more like humans变得与人类更相似 than their wolf relatives.而不是像它们的狼族亲戚 Once we realized that dogs had this genius to cooperate and communicate,当我们意识到狗有合作和交流的天赋时 I think often we’re really worried about some kind of hierarchy,我认为我们经常会考虑等级优劣的问题 you know, are dogs smarter than other species,例如 狗比其他的物种更聪明吗 or is my dog smarter than other breeds or whatever或者我的狗比其他的狗更聪明吗之类的 That’s just not the case when you actually study dog psychology.当你真正了解犬类心理学时会发现 事实并非如此 Dogs have different types of intelligence.狗狗们有不同种类的天赋 Then each of these types of intelligence,这些不同类型的天赋 they vary independently from one another.让每一只狗与众不同 So that means if you’re a really great communicator as a dog,这意味着 如果你是一只善于与人沟通的狗 it doesn’t mean that you have amazing working memory that you rely on.你所依赖的就不是惊人的记忆力 If you’re a dog that really is incredibly skilled如果你是一只擅长利用 at using inferential reasoning to solve problems,推理能力去解决问题的狗 it doesn’t mean that这不意味着 you’re a dog that necessarily has a lot of empathy relative to other dogs.你要有其他狗狗一样的共情能力 So these things vary independently所以天赋截然不同 and that’s then what is the就像是 those are the ingredients for all the different recipes of personality构成不同人格的各种要素一样 that then we get to enjoy for all those individual dogs我们喜欢每一只狗 we each fall in love with.每个人都爱它们 Some of the things dogs are doing today that even 10 years ago they wouldn’t be doing狗现在能做十年前做不到的一些事 is there are dogs trained as cadaver dogs有些狗狗被训练成警犬 to find people who have died去搜寻尸体 People who are missing.找寻失踪的人 There are dogs that are being used to sniff out a variety of cancers,有些狗狗被训练嗅出各种癌症 there’re dogs that are helping children with autism,有些狗狗帮助患有自闭症的儿童 anything that involves social bonding,如果你有社交联系方面的需求 the need for companionship and nonjudgmental love有对友谊和无私的爱的需求 dogs are your ticket.狗狗是你的选择 I enjoy really studying dogs because我真的很喜欢研究狗狗因为 not only did they help me understand humans better and,它们不仅帮助我更好地了解人类 obviously find ways to enrich my own relationship.而且极大地丰富我的社交圈子 But I think it’s a really powerful way to study并且我认为从狗狗的视角去研究 and even talk about evolutions through the eyes of dogs.甚至讨论进化 是一种非常有效的方法
  • 2021-08-24如何知道你的宠物真的爱你?It’s a question that has plagued pet owners for countless generations.有一个问题困扰了无数代宠物主人 Does my pet really love me?我的宠物真的爱我吗? Well, unless animals suddenly figure out a way这个嘛 除非动物能突然找到一个 to communicate with humans能与人交流的办法 Then there is a good chance that nobody will ever know the truth否则很可能没人知道答案 Luckily, however, some experts in the field of animal behavior但幸运的是 有一些动物行为领域的专家 have been trying to answer this question themselves.尝试亲自来找到答案 Here’s what they’ve come up with:他们想到了这个点子: There are a handful of clear signs可以通过一些明显的迹象 that your dog is into you.来判断你的爱犬是否喜欢你 First off, there’s eye contact:首先 是眼神交流 does your pup stare deeply into eyes,你的爱宠是否会像凝望第一缕阳光一样 as if gazing upon their first sunrise?凝视你的眼睛? Well, that’s a decent starting point.没错 这是一个超棒的开始 In the wild, eye contact can be seen as threatening,在自然界 眼神交流被视作一种威胁 but a loving gaze from a dog但狗狗对你爱的凝视 indicates trust and affection.表明了信任和喜爱 What’s known as “checking in” is also a positive sign:“确认”也是一个积极的信号: when you’re out on a walk当你外出散步 or checking out a new place,或者进入一个新环境时 does your dog keep looking back at you,你的狗狗是否会经常回头看你 as they’re looking for direction or affirmation?就好像它们在寻求指示或者批准? That’s good news for your kinship.这对你们的亲密度来说是个好消息 [barking][犬吠] Additionally, a classic canine freak out when you return home is a great sign,此外 当你回家时 狗狗狂喜也是很好的迹象 as is an ability to chill out when you’re spending time together.因为这是一种你们在一起时放松的能力 In comparison to dogs,相比于狗狗 cats are decidedly more difficult to gauge when it comes to affection.说到感情 猫咪的表达显然更难判断 Still, there are a few ways不过 还是有一些办法 to tell whether you’re in your furball’s good graces or not, 且有尤为突出的一点 with one in particular standing out above the rest.来判断你的“毛球”是否喜欢你 Being the little sociopaths that they are,作为不爱“社交”的小成员 cats tend to display their love猫咪习惯通过杀死小生物 by killing things and leaving them in your house or at your feet.并把它放在屋子或者脚边来示爱 Why?为什么呢? Well, because your cat sees you as helpless incapable 因为你的猫觉得 of slaughtering rodents and birds on your own.靠你自己无法杀死老鼠和小鸟 It’s trying to help — so you’re welcome.它在尽力帮你——所以你是受欢迎的 For what it’s worth,无论如何 a cat exposing its belly is also小猫暴露出它的肚子 an expression of the creature’s love language,也是动物表达爱意的一种方式 but experienced cat owners但是有经验的猫主人 will know better than to walk into that particular trap.会知道最好不要掉进这个陷阱 It can be difficult to know whether or not your hamster likes you or not,要想得知你的仓鼠是否爱你也很难 especially since they will probably go their entire life特别是因为它们可能终其一生 thinking of you as some kind of blurry sky god that brings them treats.都把你看作某种模糊的供应美食的天神 Still, there are some ways to measure the affection of a hamster.不过 还是有办法衡量仓鼠对你的爱 The dead giveaway comes when they come to your voice当它开始听到你的呼唤而不再躲藏时 when called instead of hiding.说明它真的爱你 On the flip side of the coin,另一方面 a hamster’s distaste for someone can be seen仓鼠对某人的厌恶也可以被观察到 when they grimace at human’s approaches比如当它们对人的靠近做鬼脸 or raise their paws in the air —或者举起爪子时—— an indicator that they’re about to throw down.就是它们准备开战的标志 Hard.生活好难 Whether you’re a nautical scallywag or not,无论你是不是一个海盗 a parrot can seem like a great choice for an animal companion.鹦鹉似乎是一个很好的动物伴侣选择 But feeling the love with parrots can be tricky,但想感受到鹦鹉的爱意却是棘手的 what with their cold reptilian eyes,因为它们的眼睛跟爬行动物一样冰冷 predilection towards endless screaming,还有无休止地尖叫的嗜好 and habit of enthusiastically tearing at your tender human flesh.还有热情地撕咬你的嫩肉的习惯 Bonding with a parrot is a complicated process,和鹦鹉建立联系是一个复杂的过程 but it’s easy to recognize when it finally happens.但一旦建立你很容易感觉出来的 One sign can be when they start to display a distinctive call其中一个标志是 当它们不管你在不在屋里 whenever you leave the room.都会发出独特的叫声 Responding to it completes a cycle of behavior对它的回复形成了一个行为循环 that they would normally exhibit in the wild也就是它们在野外与同族群的其他成员交流时 when checking in with other members of their flock.通常会表现出的行为 A bonded bird won’t be shy about seeking out physical affection either,一只跟你关系亲密的鸟不会因身体爱抚感到害羞 and will try to groom the hair and clothing of the person it digs the most.反而会为它最喜欢的人梳理头发 整理衣服 Horses have been making friends with humans for thousands of years,马儿和人类几千年来都是朋友 and, to this day,而且 迄今 are still beloved by spoiled rich kids around the world.仍然被世界各地的纨绔子弟所喜爱 But how can the next generation of one percenters tell that但是富二代怎样分辨 they’ve got a prancing, heartstruck stallion他们得到的是一匹欢腾又动人的骏马 rather than a misanthropic thoroughbred of indifference?而不是一匹厌恶人类的冷漠种马? Well, your standard pony will display its fondness你的小马驹会用 in just the way you’d probably hope:你所希望的方式表达对你的喜爱 through signs of physical affection.通过肢体表达爱意 These can include nuzzling,包括用鼻子蹭你 as well as attempting to lean against you.和尝试依靠你的身体 Even something as simple as甚至简单到 turning their head to face you when you’re in the area当你在附近时 他们转过头来面对你 can be a sign that your equine companion thinks you’re the bee’s knees.可能是你的马同伴认为你是最棒的标志 Yeah, sorry.噢 不好意思 Your bearded dragon doesn’t love you.你的松狮蜥并不爱你 Go adopt a labrador or something.去领养一只拉布拉多或什么别的宠物 Check out one of our newest videos right here!来这里观看我们最新的视频吧! Plus, even more Grunge videos about your favorite stuff are coming soon.对了 还有更多你喜欢的视频正在来的路上哟 Subscribe to our YouTube channel and hit the bell记得订阅我们的油管并按时查看哦 so you don’t miss a single one.这样你就不会错过任何视频啦
  • 2021-08-24水雉爸爸从鳄鱼口中救出自己的宝宝 Day old African jacanas初生的非洲水雉 already know where the food is,已经知道食物在哪了 And they get there on oversized feet.它们用宽大的脚掌走向那儿 They all have to grow into one day.它们都必须在一天内成长起来 They’re not ideally adapted for running or flying,它们还并没有完全适应奔跑或飞行 but getting around on floating lilies,但却可以在浮萍上踱步 that is their specialty.这是它们的特长 It helps that they weigh just a few ounces.轻盈的身体帮助它们做到了这一点 The twins have no perception of the danger这对双胞胎还未察觉到 beneath the lilies.浮萍下的危险 Without a mother, two tiny fluff balls with long toes在没有妈妈的陪伴下 两个小毛球用他们的长爪子 wandering around on a thin platform of lilies在轻薄的浮萍上踱步 won’t last very long out here.但它们不会在那里呆很久了 But jacana mothers always abandon their chicks as they hatch水雉妈妈一旦把小水雉孵化出来就会抛弃它们 and leave them entirely in the care of the males.把它们留给雄水雉照顾 The father has his own flotation issues to deal with,水雉爸爸在水上行走有些困难 but he keeps up with them,但它时刻跟随着小水雉们 watching for anything suspicious in the water.关注水中的任何可疑情况 And, there it is.它来了 With a coded chirp he calls his chicks to him.水雉爸爸用密语召唤着它的宝宝到它旁边来 It’s not just to hide them from the crocodile.除了让它们躲避鳄鱼 He has to move them to safety,它还得将宝宝们转移到安全的地方 and the best way for him to do that而达到这个目的最好的方法是 is to tuck one under each wing and walk them out of danger.将宝宝一边一个塞在翅膀下带它们远离危险 Keeping the kids quiet in a dark place让水雉宝宝们在黑暗中保持安静 is always a challenge.是个挑战 Those that survive here are the ones most aware能够在这里存活下来的都是那些最能够察觉到 of the sinister hiding in the beauty.隐藏在美好下的危险的动物
  • 2021-08-24海獭为什么互相拉着手Spy sea otter joins them 藏有摄像头的仿真海獭间谍 in their floating nursery.潜入了这个漂浮的托儿所 She’s immediately accepted 她很快就被这些 by these notoriously shy creatures.出了名的害羞家伙们接受了 It’s a privileged insider’s view 如此绝佳的圈中视角 of the most sociable otter of all.来自这只最善于交际的海獭 Here, they not only have company,在这儿 海獭们不仅互相陪伴 there are more eyes to spot danger.还有更多双眼睛留意危险 The spring melt makes the glaciers unstable.春雪消融让冰川不再坚固 The icefall creates a rolling wave up to 10 meters high.冰崩掀起的滚滚巨浪高达10米 It may still be a danger over a kilometre away.在一公里开外仍然构成危险 In the turmoil, mothers and pups are easily separated.混乱之中 海獭母子很容易被冲散 They must find refuge away from the glacier.它们必须在远离冰川的地方找到避难所 In a cove,在一个小海湾 they find a solution to the turbulent waters.海獭母子找到了应对湍流的方法 Kelp offers the moorings they need.海带令它们得以停靠 It’s just a matter of how best to attach themselves.它们仅仅需要考虑如何绑缚才最牢靠 But even this beginner is having success.然而 连这个初学者也成功了 As the ice vanishes, more kelp beds will soon appear.随着冰川的消失 “海带床”会越来越多 The otters can enjoy the up coming summer in peace.海獭们可以安然地享受即将到来的夏天了
  • 2021-08-24虎鲸的不同狩猎过程From years of killer whale studies, we know that, really,通过对虎鲸多年的研究 我们了解到 killer whales are kind of mummy’s boys and mummy’s girls.虎鲸是一群离不开妈妈的孩子 They have these really tight family groups that stay together for a long, long time它们和家庭成员长期紧密地生活在一起 and it allows them to pass on what they’ve learnt to the next generation, and to the next generation.这使它们能够将所学的本领代代相传 And we also see that in the hunting strategies.在它们的捕食策略中 我们也发现如此 And what we see across the globe,在全球范围内我们发现 is different strategies associated with hunting mammals虎鲸在捕猎哺乳动物或者鱼时 or hunting fish.有不同的捕食策略 And I wanted to investigate this variation closer to home,我想在自家附近研究这种差异 so in the waters around the UK.也就是英国附近水域 And that actually first started here in the Natural History Museum.实际上研究是从自然历史博物馆开始的 When we’re working in the field当我们在野外工作时 we can observe the behaviour in the animals.我们可以观察到动物的行为 but museum specimens can give us something else但博物馆标本可以给我们一些其他东西 they can actually give us a picture through time.他们可以展示出久远的历史 [Yeah, so this is the jaw that I wanted to show you…]是的 这是我想给你看的虎鲸下颌 It’s something that was really surprising当我们看到这些收藏品时 when we first started to look at the ones in the collection here,相当地惊奇 and that was some big differences in the teeth.我们发现虎鲸的牙齿有很大的不同 Some had very worn down teeth, and others had very little wear.有的牙齿磨损严重 有的几乎没有磨损 We wanted to find out whether this variation in tooth wear我们想知道这种牙齿磨损的变化 was related to what the animal had been feeding upon during its lifetime,是否与它们一生中捕食的食物有关 and what the feeding strategy might have been.以及它们的捕食策略是什么 To do this, we looked at the chemical composition of the teeth.为此 我们研究了虎鲸牙齿的化学成分 It can tell us roughly where the animal was feeding within the food chain.其可大致透露虎鲸的食物在食物链中的位置 Is it low down? So, for example, feeding upon fish?是在食物链低端吗?比如吃鱼 Or is it feeding higher up in the food chain?或者是位于食物链的高处? So, is it feeding on a seal that ate the fish?所以它是以吃鱼的海豹为食吗? And that gave us some exciting results.实验给了我们一些令人兴奋的结果 The specimens with unworn teeth had a signature牙齿未磨损的虎鲸与以哺乳动物为食的动物 that was consistent with them feeding on mammals,有相同特征 for example like seals or porpoise.比如那些捕食海豹或者鼠海豚的 Whereas those with the worn teeth had a signature of them feeding upon fish而牙齿磨损的则与以鱼为食的动物有相同特征 such as herring or mackerel.比如捕食鲱鱼或鲭鱼的 With some individuals also showing a signature that suggested但有些其中个体也表现出了 some of the time they’re feeding upon mammals.偶尔以哺乳动物为食的特征 So in other places, we find that killer whales that feed on different things在其它海域 我们发现不同虎鲸捕食不同食物 are actually genetically different as well.也是由于基因上的差异 Probably because the way that these behaviours are inherited,可能是因为这些行为具有遗传性 which has been passed on through mother to her calf through learning process,而这些行为是母虎鲸在技能学习中教给幼崽的 it sort of mimics the transmission of genetics as well from mother to calf.这有点像基因从母亲向幼崽的传递 And that was something that we wanted to see with these museum specimens as well.这些推论我们也想从博物馆标本中得到验证 We managed to extract a little bit of DNA,我们设法提取到一些DNA and when we looked we did find indeed that the animals with the worn teeth研究时我们发现有牙齿磨损的虎鲸 came from a really different genetic lineage to the animals with the unworn teeth.和无牙齿磨损的虎鲸有完全不同的遗传谱系 They would have diverged from a common female ancestor a long, long time ago.它们可能很久前就从一个共同的雌性祖先分化 What this study told us was that这项研究告诉我们 we have two different cultural lineages,虎鲸有两套不同文化谱系 but also that these cultural lineages are distinct genetic lineages.这些文化谱系也是不同的基因谱系 So we have quite a bit of diversity in the waters around the UK,所以在英国周边水域和宽广的大西洋东北 and in the broader North-East Atlantic.虎鲸的种类相当丰富 Around the world, at the moment,目前 在全世界范围内 we just consider the killer whale as a single species,我们只是把虎鲸看作是一个单一物种 but really we probably need to start但实际上我们可能需要 thinking of them as being different units.把它们看作不同的单位 And it’s interesting to try and project forward尝试预测该过程是否终将导致 whether or not this process eventually leads to them becoming different species.它们变成不同的物种 是非常有趣的
  • 2021-08-24会草船借箭的海蛞蝓This nudibranch is a little thief.这只裸鳃类软体动物是个小贼 It’s got no problem with helping itself to it’s neighbor’s stuff.从邻居那偷东西 它一点罪恶感都没有 Also called sea slugs ,这个小家伙也被称作海蛤蝓 they’re basically snails but without the protective shells.它和蜗牛差不多不过没长保护壳 They’re soft and squishy… and not exactly speedy.它的身体又软又黏 并且行动很慢 You’d think they’d want to keep a low profile.你可能误以为这种柔弱的动物应该保持低调 But they’re out there – showing off.但他们反而喜欢出去炫耀 Because their colors are actually a warning.因为他们色彩斑斓的颜色其实是警告色 Some of these nudibranchs have found a devious way to defend themselves,一些裸鳃类以不太光明的方式自保 by stealing weapons from someone else.他们把别人的武器据为己用 See this?看到了吗? It’s a hydroid.这是一只水螅虫 Friendly little seaweed, maybe?看起来可能有点像友好的小海草? Nope, it’s actually an animal related to jellyfish.不 它其实是水母的亲戚 And it has the sting to prove it.证据就是它也有水母那样的蛰针 Hydroids have tentacles they use to catch food floating by.水螅虫用触须来捕捉从身边漂过的食物 They’re covered in stingers that pack an excruciating, paralyzing venom.它们全身都是含有麻痹性剧毒的蜇针 they’re called nematocysts.这些蛰针学名叫刺丝囊 That’s them right there.就是视频中重点圈出来的那些刺状物 They’re the same type of potent weaponry它们也就是给水母 that make jellyfish so dangerous.冠以危险之名的有力武器 Mess with them and they explode,要是水母被惹怒 发动刺丝囊爆裂 shooting out tiny harpoons full of venom.就会发射注满毒液的叉状物 Which is why most creatures want nothing to do with them.这是大部分的生物对水母无可奈何的原因 But nudibranchs are all about it.但裸鳃类的目标就是刺丝囊 They devour hydroids.它们吞食水螅虫 Lots of those nematocysts fire off in the nudibranch’s mouth.水螅虫往裸鳃类的嘴中发射许多这种刺丝囊 But it’s unfazed.但裸鳃类并不担心 They seem to have a taste for spicy food.它们好像偏好吃辣 Here’s the thing though,其实事情是这样的 some of those nematocysts don’t detonate right away.有些刺丝囊不会立刻起作用 They aren’t mature enough yet.它们还太嫩了 And that’s the key to the nudibranch’s scheme.这就是裸鳃类的计划的关键之处 It swallows the immature stingers whole.它把未成熟的蜇针整个吞下去 And they travel through the nudibrach’s crazy-looking digestive tract which extends蛰针被输送到裸鳃类特殊构造的消化道里 into the spikes on its back, called cerata.消化道一直延伸进后背的尖刺结构 也称为露鳃 See that that dark area inside?看到里面深色的部分了吗? It’s part of the digestive system that connects to the gut.这是与肠道连接的部分消化系统 The stingers are collected at the very tip, where they mature.蜇针都聚集在尖刺顶端等待成熟以待命 Until the nudibranch feels threatened.直到裸鳃类感觉到危险时 That’s when this colorful little kleptomaniac pulls out the big guns.这个色彩斑斓的小偷就该掏出他的重量级武器了 It points its bristling cerata at its attacker,它会用露鳃对着敌人 squirts out the stolen nematocysts喷射它偷来的刺丝囊 and they explode, launching their venomous harpoons.紧接着刺丝囊爆裂 发射其带毒液的叉状组织 That’s enough to repel just about anyone looking for a quick bite.这一招足以驱赶几乎任何来 觅食的攻击者 Just goes to show –这一出戏告诉我们 if you’re not born with certain assets,如果不是天赋异禀 it doesn’t hurt to borrow them.去草船借箭也是不错的主意 Hey, It’s Lauren.嘿 我是劳伦 I’m back – and I missed you!我回来了 观众朋友们我想死你们了 First, a big thanks to all our Patreon supporters首先 十分感谢粉丝们对我们节目的支持 for making this show possible.你们是我们更新视频的动力 Click the link to sign up and点击链接报名 get behind-the-scenes content and Deep Look swag.能看到镜头背后的故事和我们《微观深望》 栏目的花絮 And check out Hot Mess,另外看看《Hot Mess》 a new show from our friends at PBS Digital Studios是我们PBS数字工作室的朋友制作的新节目 about how climate change is making the planet warmer and weirder主要关于气候变化如何让地球环境变得更加炎热和异常 And here’s a hint about what’s next on Deep Look.这里暗示了下期《微观深望》的内容 So subscribe Thanks and see you soon!订阅我们吧 谢谢 再见
  • 2021-08-24尘螨 ——皮肤上的住客PBS数据工作室 [Music playing][音乐播放中] Long ago, around the time很久以前 人类大约在 we started growing our own food,开始种植作物时 humans settled down.才定居下来 We were at home, inside.人类住进了房子 We built permanent shelters to protect us from the elements建造永久性的住所 以便保护我们免受 and keep the wild animals at bay.自然灾害和野兽的侵袭 Or so we thought.至少我们是这么想的 Surprise! The animals were right there with us.惊讶的是 某些动物和我们住在一起 They still are.它们还在那里 This is dust.这是灰尘 Zoom in and you find an ecosystem放大看会发现它们的生态系统 almost as elaborate as the one we left outside.与外界的一样复杂 But small enough for us to forget it exists.但是小到我们足以忘记它的存在 Dust is pretty much anything small.灰尘非常小 But the most important ingredient of dust,为了接下来的故事 我想说 at least for the purpose of this story is skin.房间里的灰尘主要是由人的皮肤组成的 Your skin. Her skin. His skin.你的皮肤 她的皮肤 他的皮肤 Tiny flakes that fall off our bodies all day long.每天 皮屑会从我们身上脱落下来 Researchers the California Academy of Science in San Francisco旧金山加州科学院的研究员 collect and study house dust收集并研究房间里的灰尘 to find out what exactly makes up this micro universe.试图弄清构成这个微型世界的真相 Even the cleanest homes are teeming with tiny就算最干净的房屋 也难逃这些 almost invisible roommates.肉眼几乎不可见的生物的入侵 And even more so if you have pets or kids家有宠物 小孩 或住在一楼 or live on the groundfloor.更是如此 Most homes have over hundred species,多数房屋 即便经常除尘 no matter how often you vacuum.仍潜藏100多种微生物 Not just these guys,不是这些 but these,而是这些 and these,是这些 and these.和这些 Most of these microscopic roommates are harmless.绝大多数微生物是无害的 Just freeloaders, basically.基本上都是些吃白食的微生物 But one can cause real trouble:然而有种微生物会引发问题 the house dust mite.屋尘螨 This is like the roommate who leaves his crap around像极了乱扔垃圾 and makes you sick.让你生病的室友 Dust mites don‘t bite people.尘螨不咬人 They don‘t need to.也没有这个必要 We feed them constantly.毕竟我们一直供养着它们 Skin flakes are hard to digest.毛发和皮革难以被消化 It’s like eating hair or feathers.皮屑也是如此 So dust mites have powerful digestive enzymes尘螨会分泌一种很强的消化酶 to break the skin down.来分解皮屑 Those enzymes turn up in dust dry poop.研究者在其粪便中发现了消化酶 And let’s just say you really don’t want to know很难想象你的房间 how much dust mite poop is in your house.会堆积多少尘螨的粪便 When people breathe dust,人们在吸入灰尘时 they breathe in the poop会带入尘螨粪便 and the enzymes, too.和消化酶 Which irritate the lungs and can aggravate asthma,这些会刺激肺部并加重哮喘 especially in kids.尤其是儿童 Like us humans,尘螨和人类一样 dust mites haven’t always lived inside, either.也不总是呆在家里 These tiny relatives of spiders and scorpions这些蜘蛛和蟹子的近亲 once lived in birds nests.曾住在鸟巢里 But then, some intrepid dust mites made the jump后来一些胆大的尘螨 from birds’ homes to ours.从鸟巢跳入我们家中 And as our society thrived and grew,随着我们的社会繁荣发展 so did theirs.它们也跟着发展 Hi, this is Amy.嗨 我是艾米 So why are you marvel at this lovely pyroglyphid?为何对可爱的尘螨感兴趣呢 I have a favor to ask.我想请你帮个忙 Our partner PBS Digital Studios我们的PBS数据工作室 wants to hear from you.需要您的建议 It’s a survey, so we can make even better shows.这份调查有助于我们提升节目质量 It’ll take a few minutes,会占用点时间 and a few lucky people部分幸运参与者 will get a PBS Digital Studios T-shirt.将获得我们工作室的T恤 Just click the link below.请点击下方链接 Thanks, and thanks for watching.感谢参与 谢谢观看
  • 2021-08-24机智的孵蛋秘诀The bird is a gold crest.这是一只金冠戴菊莺 It is the smallest bird in Europe.它是全欧洲体型最小的鸟类 She weighs no more than a teaspoon of sugar.其体重只不过是一茶匙糖的重量 Her eight eggs may look tiny too,它产下的八枚蛋可能看起来很小 but in relation to her, they’re huge.但和其本身相比 这些蛋可不算小了 Each one weighs 16% of her body weight.每一枚蛋都重达戴菊莺本身体重的16% In human terms,就人类而言 that would be like giving birth to eight whopping 18-pound babies.这就好比产下了8个18磅重的巨婴 But her tiny body can only cover金冠戴菊莺体型小巧 two or three of her large eggs at any one time.每次身体能覆盖到的蛋只有两到三枚 Bird embryos develop at其幼鸟胚胎发育需要的温度 around 98.6 degrees,大约是98.6华氏度 so how will she keep them all warm?它是如何让蛋都达到孵化温度的呢? Well, the secret of her success is revealed我们关掉普通摄像机 when we turn our standard camera off打开了热敏摄像机 and our thermal camera on.继而发现了戴菊莺成功的秘密 She has hot legs.金冠戴菊莺腿部温度很高 She’s pumping extra blood through them to radiate heat,它将多余的血液输送到腿部发出热量 and now her actions have been caught on film for the first time.人们首次拍摄下金冠戴菊莺的这种行为 No other bird on Earth is known to do this.据了解 其他的鸟类都是没有这种行为的
  • 2021-08-24狼叔叮刺挑战——日本大黄蜂[buzzing][蜜蜂的嗡嗡声] I’m Coyote Peterson,我是Coyote Peterson and I’m about to enter this sting zone with接下来我要接受 the Japanese Giant Hornet.日本大黄蜂的蛰刺挑战 One,一 two,二 here we go, three.来吧 三 [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] Oh searing pain!啊 火辣辣地痛! Absolute searing pain!巨疼无比! [intense jungle music][节奏强烈的丛林乐] [lion roars][狮子的怒吼声] There are moments we have brought you on the Brave Wilderness channel《野性勇者》栏目已为您呈现过一些 that the world will never forget.令世人终生难忘的时刻 [Shrieked][惨叫声] Oh it’s stuck in my arm,it’s stuck in my arm.啊它扎进我胳膊了!! [yelling and grunting][惨叫声] Then there are the moments此外 还有一些 that we know the world is waiting for.我们知道世人正翘首以盼的时刻 I’m Coyote Peterson,我是Coyote Peterson and I’m about to enter the sting zone with接下来我要接受 the executioner wasp,刽子手胡蜂的蛰刺挑战 here we go.来吧 But before we get there, first,但在那之前 首先 I must face one more horrific sting.我得面对另一个更为毛骨悚然的蛰刺挑战 [grunts][吼叫声] The Tottori Prefecture鸟取县 is one of the most remote stretches of wilderness in all of Japan,是日本国内最偏远的荒野地区之一 and mysteriously hidden deep within its fog covered mountains.它深藏于云蒸雾绕的群山中 颇为隐秘 a world of giants stalk this ancient landscape.巨型蛇虫蚁兽游荡在这片古老的土地上 For days we searched in every place possible.几天来 我们搜遍了可寻之处 Yet much to our chagrin,但很让人懊恼的是 it seemed as if an encounter with Japan’s most notorious insect似乎日本最臭名昭著的昆虫 would elude us.避开与我们迎战 Then in our second-to-last day in country,就在我们离开该地区的倒数第二天 when it seemed as if all hope was lost,看似此行无望时 the very encounter I had been searching for我苦苦寻觅的毒虫对决终于来了 presented itself in the form of a giant hornet.对手是只大黄蜂 [gasps][喘气声] Hornet, hornet,hornet, hornet, hornet,大黄蜂 大黄蜂 大黄蜂…… right there, right there, right there,在那儿 就在那儿 right in the edge of that leaf, look at that, it’s huge,就在那片叶子边上 看呐 可真大只 right there, right there, right there.在那儿 就在那儿 [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] Got it, hornet! Hornet!抓到了 大黄蜂!大黄蜂! Giant hornet 100%.100%大黄蜂 -You caught one? -Yes, yes, yes, hold on a second.-你抓到一只? -是啊 是啊 稍等一下 Yes,right there, right there, right there.在那儿 就在那儿 Dude, you got it.伙计 你抓到它了 Got it, hold on I’m gonna put this Go-Pro down.抓到了 等下 我放下Go-Pro Wow that is a big hornet!超大的大黄蜂 Where is it, where is it, hold on.哪儿呢 在哪儿呢 等等 -It’s right here, it’s right here. -Right there, right there, right there.-在这儿 它就在这儿 -这里 这里 Let me trap it up against the front of the net.让我把它赶到网子前面 Where is it?它在哪呢? -It’s tangled up within all these plants. -Mario, look at that.-它和这些草缠在一起了 -Mario 看那里 -Where, where, where? -Look, look, look,-哪儿 哪儿 哪儿? -看这里 看这里 it’s biting right through the net.它正透过网想蛰人呢 You can barely see it.几乎看不到它 -Here let’s do this, I got to get it in the capsule. -Let’s get it in the capsule.-这样 我得把它装进小罐里 -好 把它装进去 -Hold on a second, here, uh. -Do you need help?-等一下 -要帮忙吗? Hold the end of that, hold the end of that.帮我抓住网后边 [mischievous laughter][顽皮的笑声] Yeah you guys will be able to see a lot better等我把它装进去 if I get it into here, hold on a second.你们就能看更清楚了 稍等 I don’t wanna get stung through the net.我可不想隔着网被蛰 OKay.好的 [suspenseful music][悬疑紧张的音乐] -I almost got it. -You’re sure it’s a giant?-就快好了 -确定这是大黄蜂? I’m 100% certain dude, it’s huge,伙计 我100%确定 它这么大 there’s no way this is anything else.不可能是别的 Look at it, it’s biting under the net.快看 它在网下发起攻击 Probably chew right through there if it could.如果可以的话 它也许从这儿就刺过来了 -Hasn’t stung yet. -Got it, got it, got it, got it, got it.-还没蛰到呢 -好了好了 抓到它了 Let’s see and look at it.-来 咱们瞧瞧 Look at that, that is it, yep.快看 是大黄蜂 没错 You got one! Man!你抓到了一只!厉害了! How about that right?快说怎么样? Oh my goodness, look at how big it is,我的天 看它有这么大只啊 -my hand is shaking. -How’d you find it?-我的手在抖 -你怎么发现它的? It was just on top of the plants,它就停在那片草上 I saw it was about ready to take off and I was like,我看它正要振翅起飞 我就 I don’t know if I got the shot on the Go-Pro,不知道Go-Pro有没拍下那一幕 just dropped it into the dirt.可就摔到地上了 I just had to make sure that I got it.我必须保证抓到它 I swiped down right on top of those plants,我抄起网子朝草丛猛地扑下去 got the plants, and got the hornet at the same time.把黄蜂和杂草一起扑进了网里 It is huge.它可真是太大了! Wow.哇哦 I guess that’s why they call it the giant hornet. Man.我猜这就是人们叫它大黄蜂的原因 天! Okay, well, we’re starting to lose light,天马上就要暗了 but we definitely still have time to get the scene.但我们绝对还有时间拍摄 Let’s hike back up this way, find a flat spot.从这边走回去吧 找个平坦处 Yes! We have got the Japanese giant hornet!太棒了 我们抓到日本大黄蜂了! Man!酷! Ho yeah!太棒了! [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] There it is, the Japanese giant hornet.就是它了 日本大黄蜂 And I would say the giant is an understatement.我得说 用“巨大”来形容都有点看扁它了 Not since the tarantula hawk继沙漠蛛蜂之后 have we encountered a more intimidating insect.我们再没遇见过更可怕的昆虫了 Look at that beast.瞧它那狰狞样 From its head to its thorax,从它的头部到胸部 down its legs, which end in grappling hooked feet,继而是腿 末端是带有抓钩的足 and then of course, that enormous pulsating abdomen.当然 还有那颤动着的巨大腹部 Everything about this creature screams这只生物浑身上下无一处不让人 run in the other direction.尖叫着转身逃跑 Yet here we are, on the doorstep of the executioner wasp.这是距离刽子手胡峰一步之遥的挑战 And what we’re gonna find out today,今天我们就来揭秘 is just how painful the sting of this hornet really is.被这只大黄蜂蛰一下究竟有多痛 Now on the insect sting pain index在昆虫蛰刺疼痛指数中 it only ranks as a two, can you believe that?它仅为二级 你相信吗? On a scale of one to four, this is only a two.量表等级由一到四 它仅为二级 Maybe its bark is bigger than its bite.或许它只是虚张声势 咬得不疼 Or in this case I should say its sting.或者更确切地说 蛰得不疼 Today, I’m going to be stung今天我要接受世界上 by the largest hornet in the world.个头最大的大黄蜂的蛰刺挑战 Alright, what we’re gonna do now is get a couple of really cool B-roll shots.现在我们先来拍几个酷酷的辅助镜头 I’m gonna walk around, address the Coyote Pack,我要四处走走 跟粉丝们说几句话 and then, we’re gonna enter the sting zone.那以后 我们就开始蛰刺挑战 [deep exhale][深呼吸] I am nervous.我很紧张 The Japanese giant hornet is considered to be日本大黄蜂被认为是 one of the largest stinging insects in the world.世界上最大的蛰刺昆虫之一 This nightmarish creature这个噩梦般的生物 is armed with a 6.25 millimeter stinger拥有一根6.25毫米长的螯刺 and it injects a venom known as mandaratoxin in a high dosage会大量喷射一种叫做曼德拉毒素的毒液 that can destroy tissue该毒素可破坏生物组织 and attack the nervous system of its victim.并攻击受害者的神经系统 And while a single sting is not likely to be deadly,虽然单独一次蛰咬不太可能致命 over 30 people die every year in Japan但在日本 每年有超过三十人 from taking multiple stings.死于多次蛰咬 [grunts][低吼声] In most cases,多数情况下 these deaths come as a result of anaphylactic shock.这些死亡是由过敏性休克导致的 But no matter how you break it down,但无论怎样阻止过敏性休克 this sting is incredibly dangerous.这种蛰咬都十分危险 [deep breath][深呼吸] That is a big hornet.那可是一只大黄蜂 That is a huge hornet.一只巨大的大黄蜂 The biggest hornet on the face of the planet.地球表面个头最大的大黄蜂 And I have a feeling that the sting is going to be intense.我有预感 这次蛰刺会疼痛无比 Now it’s rumored that the sting of this insect can kill you.有传闻说这种昆虫能蛰死人 Guys,a single sting is not going to kill me朋友们 只是蛰一下 我并不会死 unless I go into anaphylactic shock.除非我发生了过敏性休克 Now if you were to be swarmed by 30 or 40 bees,但如果你被三四十只大黄蜂团团围住 and be stung repetitively,蜇来蜇去 Yes, there is a good chance that you will die.没错 很有可能你就死了 Now I’ve also heard that the venom我还听说 这种毒液 is going to cook a hole in my arm.会在我胳膊上灼烧出一个洞 [deep breath][深呼吸] Not exactly looking forward to that, but,我绝不期待这事儿发生 不过 it all depends on how my body reacts to the venom.这全都取决于我的身体对毒液的反应 Everybody reacts differently,每个人反应都不同 you guys have to remember that.你们要记住这一点 So,I’m gonna go through with this.我就要去渡劫了 I know a lot of you are probably running to the comments section right now saying我知道你们不少人可能正冲往评论区 说 Coyote you don’t have to do this, you don’t have to do this,Coyote你没必要这么做 真不必 I do have to do this.我真得这么做 We have climbed the insect sting pain index,我们沿着昆虫刺痛指数榜逐级攀登 and this is the only one guys, the only one而这是唯一一只让我觉得 that I think we just have to find out how bad that sting is.必须要探究下它的蛰刺有多厉害的家伙 It’s so big, it’s such a dominant character它太大了 纵观整个日本文化 throughout all of Japanese culture,它可是个狠角色 and certainly when it comes to the insect sting pain index,说到昆虫蛰刺疼痛指数 I don’t think that we can leave this stone unturned.我们当然不能漏掉它 So if you guys are ready,如果你们准备好了 I think the crew is ready.我想工作组也就好了 It is time to enter the sting zone with the Japanese giant hornet.接受日本大黄蜂蛰刺挑战的时间到了 [deep breath][深呼吸] Here we go.开始吧 [heavy breathing][沉重地呼吸] Warning: never attempt to recreate the following scene警告:切勿尝试模仿以下情景 as a sting from the giant hornet has the potential to be lethal.因为大黄蜂蛰刺可能致命 Alright guys, this is it,好了朋友们 the moment that you all showed up for.众望所归的时刻到了 Now before we go through with the sting,在经历蛰刺之前 first let’s talk a little bit about the safety.我们先讲一点安全注意事项 We do have an epinephrine pen with us.我们有准备一支肾上腺素 Now a single sting from this hornet should not kill me.这只大黄蜂只蛰一次应该不会要我的命 However,like most stings,不过 像大多数蛰刺一样 you can go into anaphylactic shock.你可能会陷入过敏性休克 It just depends how your body reacts to the venom.只取决于你的身体对毒液的反应 I should be just fine.我应该没问题 I will experience some pain, discomfort,我会感到一些疼痛不适 potentially some pretty extreme swelling,可能还有些严重红肿 but I shouldn’t die from a single sting.但仅一次蛰刺应该不会致死 I do have my entomology forceps with me,我有带昆虫专用镊子 what we’re gonna do is get the insect into the net我们要做的是 把这只昆虫放进网里 and then I’m gonna get it under control.然后我会夹住它 Same way we’ve done all the sting videos in the past.跟之前录制的所有蛰刺视频一样 -Are you guys ready? -Sounds good, are you ready to do this?-你们准备好了吗? -听起来不错 你准备开始了吗? -Here we go. -Alright.-开始吧 -好的 Alright, net coming up.好的 网拿出来了 This is probably one of the most risky bits,这可能是风险最高的环节之一 we do not want to lose the hornet,我们可不想弄丢这只大黄蜂 and I do not want to get stung too early.我也不想太早就被它蛰到 Okay I’m gonna gently stand up here,我要慢慢站起来 put the basin of the capsule把这个玻璃罩 at the bottom of the net, alright,放到网的底部 好了 and hornet is going live inside the net.大黄蜂会在网内被放出来活动 Let me get the platform out.我来把底座拿出来 Here we go, platform is out of the net.好了 底座取出来了 And, come on guy, out you go.出来吧 伙计 Alright,hornet is out of the capsule, there we go.大黄蜂从玻璃罩里出来了 好了 Okay, so I’m gonna keep the capsule close,我要把玻璃罩放近一点 you guys know the goal is to always get the capsule你们知道 我的目标始终是 back on top of the insect before it flies away,在虫子飞走前把罩子扣回去 Place that there for just a second,先在旁边放一下 and now it gets intense.现在气氛紧张起来了 I have to figure out the best way to pick up this giant.我得找到取出这只大黄蜂的最佳方式 I want to grab right onto the back of its thorax behind the wings我想从它翅膀下方的胸部后侧夹住它 so I have full control.这样它就动弹不得了 Alright, you guys got a good shot.你们碰上了一次好机会 Alright,I’m gonna slightly have to maneuver myself just a little bit here.这里 我只需要稍微调整一下动作 Oh, it is not happy,唔 它可不怎么高兴 this is one angry hornet.这是一只愤怒的大黄蜂 Hold on, hold on, got to get it.稍等 我得捉住它 [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] Oh it’s turning, hold on a second.它在转身 等等 [deep sigh][吐气] My hand is shaking.我的手在抖 [grunts][低吼] Control your nerves Coyote, control your nerves.冷静 Coyote 冷静 My heart is racing a million miles a second我的心跳飙到了每秒一百万英里 and I can’t keep my hand still我的手一直在颤 to grab onto the insect, hold on.没法捉住它 稳住 Ah,the hornet is actually biting onto the forceps.大黄蜂正在咬镊子呢 [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] Okay,I’ve got it, I’ve got it, perfect hold,好的 我捉到它了 手法完美 that’s what we want.这正是我们想要的 [sighs][吐气] alright, everyone just take a moment to soak this in,大家花点时间来好好看看 that is an enormous hornet.这是一只极其巨大的大黄蜂 Look at its abdomen pulsating.看它的腹部在颤动 You look at the mandibles, those are used for chomping.看它的上颚 那是用来咀嚼进食的 I think I may also take a bite during this video as well,也许视频中我还会被咬上一口 which I’m kind of afraid of,这让我有点害怕 and if you zoom in on the legs,如果凑近了看它的腿 you can see that they have these little hooks,你能看到这些小钩子 they almost look like grappling hooks,看起来就像抓钩 And one thing that also scares me还有一件事让我害怕 there is the chance it’s gonna latch onto my arm,那就是它可能会钩住我的胳膊 and sting more than once.一再蛰我 I can’t stop my hand from shaking.我的手抖得停不下来 I haven’t been this nervous since the tarantula hawk.继沙漠蛛蜂之后我还没如此紧张过 -Sure you wanna do this? -Yeah, there’s no turning back now.-确定要这么做吗? -对 没有回头路了 -Alright,you guys ready? -Ready if you are.-你们准备好了吗? -就等你了 I’m Coyote Peterson,我是Coyote Peterson and I’m about to enter to the sting zone with Japanese giant hornet.接下来我要接受日本大黄蜂的蛰刺挑战 One一 [Breath][呼气] two二 here we go, three.来吧 三 [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] [loud yell][大声痛叫] the stinger’s stuck in my arm.螯针扎进我手臂了 [loud grunt][大声痛叫] [painful noises][痛苦的声音] How bad is it?有多糟糕? Oh man, wave of dizziness really quick.哦 老天 一阵突如其来的晕眩感 [loud yelling][大声痛叫] searing pain, absolute searing pain.火辣辣地疼 巨疼无比 There’s where the stinger went in, right there,这儿就是螯针刺进去的地方 did you guys see how slow the sting was?你们看见刺进去有多慢吗? I see blood.出血了 [painful yelling][痛苦的叫喊声] Oh my gosh.哦 天呐 [painful yelling and grunting][痛苦的叫声] Oh my gosh.哦 天呐 I know it’s tough to describe, but you gotta describe it for us.我知道难以形容 但你得跟我们说说 Okay, okay, okay, okay.好好好 My hand is completely seized up and locked in place.我的手完全僵住 不能动了 This is like the tarantula hawk,就像沙漠蛛蜂那次一样 look at the swelling that’s beginning to form on my arm,看我手臂上正在形成的这个肿块 forarm, is incredibly total, only about 45 seconds have gone by.太不可思议了 总共只过了45秒左右 Careful,not to go over this cliff edge by the way.小心一点 别靠近悬崖 Let’s move over there.离那远点 Back up, back up,back up, back up.退回去 退回去 [painful yelling][痛叫] You gotta tell us if you’re in trouble.有任何不对就告诉我们 Are you gonna be okay?你还好吗? When the stinger went into my arm,螯针刺进我手臂的时候 I had this like wave,我感到一阵 like a wave came over me and I got super dizzy,潮水般涌来的超级眩晕感 almost didn’t feel what was happening,我根本来不及搞清楚状况 and then the pain just was like immediate,紧接着疼痛感马上就来了 immediately searing.猝不及防的剧痛 [grunting][痛叫声] Look at your arm, oh my gosh, look at that,看你的胳膊 天呐 看看 Look at that. Wow,快看 哇哦 You are swelling like crazy.你肿得不像样了 He’s swelling up bad.他肿得太厉害了 Hang on a second,坚持一下 let’s put a circle around where the swelling’s我们这就把肿胀部位圈起来 at to see the progression of it.这样就可以看到它变化的过程 [grunting][痛叫声] This is the outer,这是外围 and then that is the immediate right there.而这里是叮刺的核心区 [loud grunting][大声痛叫] Oh man, not a two,哦天 这可不是二级 far surpasses the tarantula hawk.远超过了沙漠蛛蜂 Far surpasses the tarantula hawk.远远超过了沙漠蛛蜂的痛感 [grunting][痛叫] Here,here,here,look at this,看这里 看这里 if I turn my arm sideways,如果我把手臂侧过来 look at the welt on my…看这个蛰咬的肿块 [grunting][痛叫] Okay, can’t touch near it,好吧 别碰那附近 sharp shooting pain if I touch near it.一碰就有尖锐的刺痛 -Wow. -Oh my gosh.-哇哦 -哦 我的老天 I can see that your wrist is starting to swell,我看到你的手腕都开始肿了 do you wanna take your watch off?要把手表摘下来吗? Need help?需要帮忙吗? I got it, I got it, I got it. Ah.我可以 我自己来 啊 [loud grunting][大声痛叫] No relief yet.疼痛还没缓解 It’s just a matter of harnessing the pain,就看你如何遏制疼痛了 controlling the level of pain,控制住疼痛的程度 and, rolling around on the ground这时在地上翻滚 and screaming at this point或大声喊叫 really isn’t doing me any good.并不能让我好过一点 Alright, let’s cut cameras.好吧 拍摄暂停一下 Come back in about five minutes.五分钟后继续 Let me get a drink of water.给我喝口水 [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] Alright man, well, I can definitely see that伙计 我可以清楚地看见 -Don’t touch it. -I’m not, I’m not gonna touch it.-别碰 -不会的 我没打算碰它 I just wanna show everyone at home,我只是想给观众们看看 the swelling has completely gone outside肿胀已经完全超出 of these initial marks, I mean,我们最初圈出的标记 and I don’t think you’re out of the woods yet,我认为这还没结束 I think that’s gonna swell a whole lot worse.我想它还会肿得更严重 Yeah, we are only 20 minutes in a this point.是啊 现在才过去20分钟 20 minutes since that stinger离我的手臂被蛰 went deep into my forearm.过去了20分钟 You can see the discoloration in my skin there,可以看到这块皮肤已经变色 the massive goose egg that has formed,隆起了鹅蛋大的肿块 the venom has worked its way up my arm.毒液在我的胳膊里起了反应 Can you show us the lump,可以展示下肿块吗? can you hold you arm up at all?你还能举起胳膊吗? Oh my goodness.哦老天 Wow.哇哦 I’m sure you guys wanna know我保证你们想知道 how this feels as compared to some of the other tops insects和刺痛指数榜上其他几种知名昆虫相比 on the sting index.这次大黄蜂挑战感觉如何 It blows the cow killer out of the water, no comparison.它比蚁蜂厉害多了 完全没有可比性 It definitely trumps the tarantula hawk.并且绝对胜过沙漠蛛蜂 And we’re talking bullet ant,说到子弹蚁 I would definitely say that我可以肯定地说 at this point it is on par就目前来说 不分伯仲 and in just one month,仅一个月内 the episode you have all been waiting for,在你们期待的下期视频中 the sting of the executioner wasp刽子手胡蜂的蛰刺挑战 will determine who the true kind of sting really is.将决定谁才是真的蛰刺之王 We’re gonna monitor this sting for the next 24 hours,未来24小时 我们会检测这处蜇伤 and see what happens,看会发生什么 I can promise you this much,我可以向你充分保证 I’ve got a world of pain ahead of me for the next few hours.接下来的几个小时 我会痛苦不堪 Alright, let’s get an outro and get back down to civilization,拍个结尾吧 然后重返人类文明的生活 you ready?准备好了吗? I’m Coyote Peterson, be brave,我是Coyote Peterson 勇往直前 [sighs][呼气] stay wild,保持野性 we’ll see you on the next adventure.下次冒险见 Man, Oh that was a bad one.天 这家伙太狠了 [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] The hours following my brutal sting这次惨绝人寰的蛰刺之后几小时内 we’re some of the most painful I have ever faced我的痛感达到了史上之最 and my arm continued swelling to nearly double its normal size.我的手臂持续肿胀 几乎到了正常的两倍 The trauma that my mind and body endured,我身心所承受的创伤 today seemed like a blur,如今已有些模糊 yet when we look back,但回想起来 there is a strange similarity to the scenario跟以前我遭遇子弹蚁的桥段 I faced with a bullet ant.竟异曲同工 Both insect’s stingers became lodged in my arm,都是被昆虫的毒刺扎进我的胳膊 and as a result they pump me with a higher dosage of venom结果它们向我体内注入大量毒液 than I had originally intended to take.剂量远比我预想的要多 When I compare the stings side by side,当把两种蛰刺放在一起比较 I am completely honest when I say我毫不夸张地说 that the Japanese giant hornet日本大黄蜂 is an overall more intimidating无论是恐怖程度还是蛰刺疼痛度 and ultimately more painful sting than the bullet ant.都足够甩子弹蚁几条街的 Absolute searing pain.火辣辣地痛 [grunting][痛叫] -You alright man? -Yep.-你没事吧? -没事 There’s no question about it, through my personal experience,通过我个人的经验 the Japanese giant hornet ranks as a four日本大黄蜂在昆虫蛰刺疼痛指数中 on the insect sting pain index,高居四级也是毋庸置疑的 and in this very moment,在眼下这一刻 I consider it to be the most painful sting in the world.我认为它是世界上最痛的蛰刺 But will it be able to hold onto its prized title但它能否保住“蛰刺之王” as the king of sting?这一尊贵称号呢? Stay tuned, we all know, what’s coming next.敬请期待 我们都知道 下期更精彩 Hey Coyote Pack,嘿 狼叔粉丝们 are you excited for the conclusion to my climb你们是否热切期待 up the insect sting pain index?昆虫刺痛指数挑战的大结局? If so, learn more about these thrilling是的话 了解下我的新书 and painful adventures in my new book The King of Sting,《蛰刺之王》里这些惊险而惨痛的冒险 it swarms into bookstores November 27th,该书将于11月27日在书店上架 but you can preorder your copy today.但今天你就可以预订一本 Look for the link in the description below.找到下方视频简介里的链接 And don’t forget, subscribe!不要忘记订阅哦! Then click the notification bell然后点击通知提醒按钮 so you can join me and the crew on the next wild adventure.就能加入我们 参与下一期的荒野冒险哦 I’ve never seen this species before guys,我从没见过这个物种 so we are actually going to take it back to base camp,我们要把它带回大本营 we’re gonna have to look this up.然后得查查资料 [animal calls][动物的叫声]
  • 2021-08-24狗狗睡姿大揭密狗狗的睡姿能很大程度上反映出他们的个性 健康状况和当前情绪 本教程将讲解狗狗最常见的睡姿 并分析狗狗睡姿隐含的科学原理 甜甜圈或团身式睡姿 你家的狗狗喜欢把爪子垫身下 团起身 头枕着尾巴睡吗? 嗯 这种睡姿就叫甜甜圈式或毛毛的面包圈式 当你的狗狗这样睡得时候 说明他想保存体温 并且保护自己的重要部位 野外的动物也经常团身睡 因为团身睡能够保存体温并保护重要器官 通常在冬天或秋天 狗狗觉得冷的时候会团身睡 但别担心 一些阳光的狗狗也这么睡 因为团身睡能使狗狗感到非常舒适和温暖 仰卧式或四脚朝天式 这也是一种最为可爱同时又有些奇怪的狗狗常见睡姿 通常狗狗四脚朝天会让人感到惊奇 如果你发现你的狗狗仰卧着 而且四肢以特定角度伸展着 这说明周围的环境使他很放心和放松 狗狗肚皮朝上是在表示他很顺从 没有设防 以特定角度弯曲的腿代表狗狗很信任你 并把这个地方当成了自己的家 另一方面 这种睡姿也表示狗狗可能很热 狗狗用这种姿势来更快的降温 狗狗肚皮上毛被稀薄而且脚掌上分布着许多汗腺 所以这种睡姿是散热的最佳姿势 喜欢这样睡觉的狗狗通常天性冷静独立 背靠背式或依偎式 如果你的狗狗喜欢睡觉时依偎着你 或是和你家别的狗狗背靠着背 这也是有原因的 狗狗喜欢依偎着睡觉是从小时候保留下来的习惯 依偎在一起睡也和体温有关 因为狗宝宝很难控制自己的体温 当狗狗长大后 背靠背睡觉就成了从童年延续下来的习惯 如果狗狗依偎着你睡 说明他们本能上把你当成了他的兄妹 并且他们很信任你 超人式 这也是种有趣的睡姿 超人式会让看到的人感到迷惑和好笑 这样睡觉时狗狗会趴在自己肚子上同时四肢外展 当你看到你家狗狗这样睡时首先想到的就是超人吧 这姿势 挺酷吧? 话说回来 狗狗这样睡觉也是有用意的—— 他们能够很容易站起来 因此 你会发现狗狗小睡的时候才用这种姿势 而他们在夜里睡觉就不会用超人式 另外 狗狗采用超人式睡姿还意味着他现在想玩耍 如果你也想玩的话 你俩将会欢度一番 这时候 你不会扫他的兴 对吧? 侧卧式 如果你的狗狗侧卧着睡 这说明他正无忧无虑着呢 周围的环境使他舒适放松 毫无焦虑 喜欢侧卧的狗狗通常富有爱心并和主人很亲密 狮式 这样睡时 狗狗的部分肌肉处于收缩拉伸的状态 这样 狗狗就不会睡的太深 所以 狗狗这样睡是想缓解一下疲劳 稍事休息 狗狗用狮式睡姿 有时是因为狗狗精力充沛 不想睡觉 这样 他们既在休息又能够很快爬起来玩 在你衣服上睡 如果你的狗狗在你衣服上睡 这说明他很爱你 你的衣服上有你的气味 狗狗睡在上面会感觉和你很更近 绕圈和刨坑 在狗狗睡觉之前 他们通常会在睡觉的地方绕圈 有时甚至刨坑 狗狗绕圈是为了把草踩平 睡在上面尽可能舒服 刨坑也有可能是为了保存体温 你愿意分享你家狗狗的睡姿吗? 如果和上面提到的睡姿不一样的话 敬请留言 求赞 和订阅本频道!
  • 2021-08-24狗狗肢体语言的解释如何更懂你的狗狗: 沟通线索 正如人类一样 狗狗也会有情绪 也会尝试着与你沟通 但只通过看他们的肢体语言 很难理解他们在说什么 狗狗们好的一点是 包括所有犬种 他们不会隐藏情绪 他们会尝试告诉你发生了什么 作为一名狗的主人 能够读懂狗狗的交流语言 并注意到狗狗透露给你的信号是很重要的 基于狗狗的肢体语言 可以将这些交流信号分为几类 比如说:尾巴 眼睛 耳朵 脸和姿势 尾巴 尾巴是最简单的需要留心的交流方式之一 当狗狗的尾巴垂下但仍在摇摆 这意味着他/她很开心 激动 或者意味着他们知道你是老大 如果尾巴下垂并摇动缓慢 可能是他们在等你告诉他们怎么做 从而理解发生了什么 如果尾巴翘高却在颤动 可能意味着你的狗狗在挑战你和你的权威 如果发生这种情况 意味着狗狗认为自己掌管当前局势 并且比你更有权威 最常见且最容易识别交流形式是 当尾巴夹在两腿中间 这是狗狗十分常见的信号 表示对你当前所处的局面 或甚至对你本人 感到害怕 恐惧或者不适 如果你没发现引起狗狗不适的原因 而且你的狗狗常发生这种情况 最好带他们去看兽医 眼睛 眼睛比尾巴稍难辨别 但狗狗的确会通过眼神传递很多情绪 因为这是他们与你交流的主要方式之一 当狗狗的眼睛大睁并处于警觉状态 他们通常是在试着吸引你的注意 有时狗狗这样做是在向你发出质疑 并希望你以一种坚决的方式回应他们 若狗眯眼 眨眼 甚至对你使眼色 这意味着狗狗感到很好玩儿 如果狗狗频繁眨眼或眯眼则需要注意 因为这可能是眼病症兆 这需要兽医检查 耳朵 耳朵变化有点儿微妙 肯定需要更多时间来理解和适应 因为所有狗狗都会用不同的耳朵变化 来进行真正的交流 如果耳朵耷拉在脑袋后 要么是轻微垂头丧气 要么是严重受挫 意味着狗狗很恐惧 同时也要注意狗狗仅一只耳朵下垂的情况 通常是左耳 因为这是对不熟悉的环境和人 感到害怕时的反应 面部 你将遇到的最易识别的信号之一是 你的狗狗打哈欠 多数人更易于相信狗狗只是累了 大多数情况下的确如此 但如果你的狗狗在新环境 或在其它狗狗旁边 要注意狗狗的哈欠 因为这可能意味着紧张 这种情况常发生在小狗崽身上 当他们周围有不熟的狗时 如果宠物在你打完哈欠之后立马跟着做 这就只是依恋的标志 如果狗狗舔自己的脸 他可能是在清理食物残渣 或者是在告诉你他很有压力 如果狗狗露出牙齿 但不吠或者咆哮 这通常是保护领地的标志 这种情况只有当你在狗狗进食时拿走食物 或者其他动物在他们进食时靠近才会出现 姿势 这个方法比面部或耳朵更易识别 因为你在看狗狗的整个身体 当狗狗向你露出肚皮时 要么躺下要么翻身 都是信任的标志 当你抚摸或拍他的肚皮时 表明你和狗狗在一起很开心 你将经常见到狗狗 会把脸放在你的膝盖或腿上 这是“求关注”的表现 意思是他们需要你 同理 若狗把爪子放在你膝盖或腿上 这是一种支配你的技巧 因此请确保坚定地移开它的爪子 如果狗狗整个身子抖动 这通常是为了摆脱压力 比如 洗澡之后 他们将会甩掉多余水分 如果狗狗没有受到一点刺激 比如水 却经常这样 带他们看去兽医 因为他们可能压力山大 最后 如果狗狗背对着你坐 他们在表达对你的信任 关注上述线索是十分重要的 因为这可以帮你更好地了解狗狗 与其交流 狗狗的确会表达自己的各种情绪 并能很好地与你交流 只要你知道他们的需求
  • 2021-08-24蜜獾是聪明物种吗?Honey badgers are really cool.蜜獾真的很有能耐 They have these really complex ecological lives,它们的生态生活十分复杂 these very broad diets.饮食也很多样化 So they need to climb, they need to dig.为此它们得爬树 挖洞 They do these behaviors that indicates a high level of intelligence.它们的行为体现了高水平智商 but we haven’t actually tested that yet.但目前我们尚未证实其真实性 Stoffel’s more obliging son, Stumpy,Stoffel更乐于助人的儿子Stumpy and another rescued honey badger, Julius,和另一只获救的蜜獾Julius are taking on the challenge.接受了一项挑战 So far, the honey badgers have shown problem solving skills and adaptability.在前两次实验中 蜜獾已经展现了问题解决能力和 适应能力 But in the third and final test,不过在第三次与最终实验中 can they do something that would mark them它们可以做出 as one of the most intelligent animals on the planet?高智商动物的标志性行为吗? Use tools.使用工具 We’ve hung the box from a tree,我们在树上挂了个箱子 so the honey badger can’t reach it from the top,确保蜜獾从树顶够不着 they can’t reach it from the bottom.在树底下也够不着 The only way they can reach it它们能够到的唯一办法 is by dragging either a tire or their cage under it就是拖过来轮胎或是笼子放在下边 so that they can then step up这样一来就可以站上去 and reach the food that is inside.然后够到箱子里的食物 If, in fact, honey badgers can use tools,如果实际上蜜獾会使用工具 this puts them up there with some of the smartest animals in the animal kingdom那么就可以和动物王国里顶聪明的 like chimpanzees or elephants.猩猩和大象相提并论了 So it would be really exciting.那会很令人振奋吧 Every single one has had that ability to escape,每一只蜜獾都有本事逃脱 to take an object to the side of the wall and climb out.有本事把东西带到墙边再爬出去 So definitely the potential’s there.所以这种潜力肯定是有的 So he seems to be just jumping它好像只会跳起来 and trying to get to the box,看能不能够到箱子 but not making that connection而不是想到另一个办法 that he needs to bring the crate or the tire over.就是把笼子或者轮胎搬过来 He really wants it,它很想要里面的吃的 but he just can’t seem to figure out how to get to it.但就是不知道该怎么做 You see, he knows there’s something there.看 它知道那儿有什么东西 Mm, he’s looking at it.对 它在盯着看呢 He pushed his crate closer to the box,它把笼子推近悬挂着的箱子 so that he could then climb on top of the crate这样就可以爬到笼子上 and get to the box.然后够到箱子了 Which indicates tool use and is really exciting.这说明蜜獾是会使用工具的 太令人兴奋了 – Stunning.真是不可思议啊 That is pretty cool.太棒了 Yeah, I must say.真的很棒 我得这么说 Giving them this puzzle box is confirming此次实验证实了 what we’ve long suspected,我们一直以来的猜测 that honey badgers are very good at solving problems,蜜獾的确很擅长解决问题 that they’re very exploratory and adaptable.它们有着非凡的探索能力和适应能力 From what we’ve seen they’re up there从我们所观察到的情况来看 with the top innovators in the animal kingdom.它们绝对是动物王国里顶级的创新者 Is this intelligence,是不是就是这种 often misread as calculated and cunning,常被误解为精明和狡猾的智慧 that gives these animals an edge in the wild.提高了这些动物野外的生存能力?

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