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  • 2021-10-30早餐,吃还是不吃?Lately I feel like I’ve become a target for people最近我发现自己成了某些人的攻击对象 who like to tell me that I’m doing my nutrition wrong.那些人总喜欢说我营养摄入不当 Evidently some of you don’t agree with my plea,显然你们有些人不同意我的请求 don’t judge when it comes to what others eat.不要随意评判别人吃什么 One of the things that horrifies people who know me closely了解我的人都对一件事感到震惊 is that I don’t eat breakfast.那就是我不吃早餐 I’m just not hungry in the morning.我早上就是不饿 A cup of coffee and that’s all I need until lunch.在午餐前 我只需要一杯咖啡就够了 And I’ve been that way for decades.而且几十年来我一直都是这样的 That means I’m subjected to periodic lectures于是 每隔一段时间就会有人对我说教 on how breakfast is the most important meal of the day.他们总是告诉我 早餐是一天中最重要的一餐 Yeah, that’s a myth.对 这是个有争议的话题 It’s also the topic of this week’s Healthcare Triage.这也是本周《全民医保》的主题 Let’s start with weight gain.我们从体重增加开始 There’re any number of people out there总是有很多人 who will be happy to tell you that if you skip breakfast,他们热衷于告诉你 如果你不吃早餐 not only will you not lose weight, you might gain weight.你不仅不能减肥 还可能增加体重 Undeterred by the logic that forcing yourself把这种强迫你吃一顿可能增加体重的没必要的饭的逻辑 to eat a meal you don’t want might lead to weight gain.丢一边去吧 They come up with some interesting hypotheses.他们提出了一些有趣的假设 They say that if you skip breakfast,他们说如果你不吃早餐 you just eat more latter.你后面会吃的更多 They say that if you skip the breakfast,他们还说 如果你不吃早餐 you screw up your metabolism and store more fat somehow.你的新陈代谢会紊乱 会以某种方式储存更多的脂肪 They say if you eat calories in the morning,他们说如果你早上摄入卡路里 you have more time to burn them off.你就有更多时间来消耗它们 They’re backed up with a lot of observational data.他们得到了大量检测数据的支持 For instance, a 2010 systematic review例如 2010年一篇发表在 published in Critical Reviews In Food Science And Nutrition《食品科学与营养评论》上的系统性评测 found that children and adolescents in Europe发现不吃早餐的欧洲儿童和青少年 who skipped breakfast had a higer BMI.他们的BMI(体重指数)更高 This is the kind of study that leads to headlines这类研究的主要观点是 that say that eating breakfast makes you thinner.吃早餐会让你更瘦 But as we’ve covered over, and over, and over, and over,但是正如我们在医疗诊断中 and over again on Healthcare Triage,一遍又一遍讨论过的那样 correlation does not equal causation.有相关性并不等于有因果关系 The University of York Center for Reviews and Dissemination约克大学审查和传播中心 summarized that study, and this is what they said.总结了这项研究 他们是这么说的 “The author’s decision to statistically combine the results of the studies“作者将研究结果进行统计合并的决定 in a meta-analysis may not have been appropriate.在系统分析中可能并不恰当 Results from cohort and cross-sectional studies are vulnerable纵向研究和横向研究的结果容易受到 to a large number of biases and confounding factors,大量偏差和干扰因素的影响 and pooling them may provide an overestimation of effect.而汇集这些偏差和干扰因素可能会高估研究结果 The authors correctly acknowledged the limitations of the review作者正确地认识到该评论的局限性 in terms of risk of publication bias,是存在发表偏倚风险 inclusion of observational studies风险包括观察性研究数据 and non-standard definitions of breakfast以及综述中涉及到的吃早餐和 and breakfast skipping used in the review.不吃早餐的非标准定义 The results should be interpreted with a substantial degree of caution对这些实验结果的解释应该相当谨慎 because of poor reporting of the review process因为关于审查过程的报告不齐全 and a lack of information on the quality of the included studies.”而且缺乏对相关研究的质量进行评估的资料” So, how can so many sources be wrong?那么 哪儿来的这么多错误信息源呢 As Julia Baloo’s pointed out on a recent Vox article,正如Julia Baloo最近发表在Vox的一篇文章指出 many of the reviews’ observational data are funded,许多研究结果的检测数据 wait for it, by the breakfast industry!其实呢 是由早餐行业赞助的 A 2003 review entitled,2003年 有一篇文章题为 the effect of breakfast type on total daily ernergy早餐类型对每日总能量摄入 intake and body mass index had the following to say in its conclusions:和体重指数的影响 文中总结了以下几点 “This analysis provides evidence“这项分析证明了 that skipping breakfast is not an effective way to manage weight.不吃早餐并不能有效控制体重 Eating cereal, ready-to-eat or cooked cereal,早餐吃麦片 如即食或煮熟的麦片 or quick breads for breakfast或者速食面包 is associated with significantly lower body mass index会显著降低体重指数 compared to skipping breakfast or eating meats and/or eggs for breakfast.”这是相比于不吃早餐或早餐吃肉和/或鸡蛋的结果” You know who funded that study?你知道是谁赞助了这项研究吗 The Kellogg company!凯洛格公司(谷类早餐制造商) Shocking!震惊吧 A 2014 study entitled,2014年 一项题为 skipping breakfast leads to weight loss不吃早餐能减肥 但也会导致 but also elevated cholesterol胆固醇升高的研究 compared with consuming daily breakfast of oat porridge对比了每天早餐吃燕麦粥 or frosted cornflakes in overweight individuals.或磨砂玉米片的肥胖人群 A randomized controlled trial这项随机对照试验 had the following to say:得出了以下结论: “In conclusion, although skipping breakfast led to weight loss,“总之 虽然不吃早餐可以减肥 it also resulted in increased total cholesterol concentrations但与吃燕麦粥或磨砂玉米片相比 compared with eating either oat porridge不吃早餐更容易导致 or frosted cornflakes for breakfast.”胆固醇浓度增加” You know who funded that study?你知道是谁赞助了这项研究吗 The Quaker Oat Center of Excellence!桂格燕麦公司 I’m serious!我是说真的 None of this is to say I’m demonizing breakfast.这并不是说我在妖魔化早餐 First of all, it’s delicious.首先 早餐很美味 Going out to a late morning breakfast with my family on a Sunday morning周日早上和家人一起出去吃早餐 is pretty much my favorite meal of the week.是我一周中最爱的一餐 Given the choice between breakfast food or a lunch food at a brunch,如果让我在早午餐中选择吃早餐食物还是午餐食物 I choose the eggs every time.我每次都会选择鸡蛋 But that’s because I like it, not because I need it.但那是因为我喜欢它 不是因为我需要它 I’m not hungry at 7:00 in the morning.我早上七点就是不饿 I don’t want to eat then.我不想吃早餐 If you offer me breakfast at 11:00, I’m all in.如果你在11点给我提供早餐 我肯定吃 But that’s pretty much lunch.但那差不多就是午餐了 If you’re hungry at 7:00am, then you should eat.如果你早上七点会饿 那你应该吃点东西 Enjoy your breakfast, just don’t force it on others.享受你的早餐就好 但是不要强迫别人 My wife Amy needs it.我妻子艾米需要早餐 So do my kids Noah and Sydney.我的孩子诺亚和西德尼也是 But my son Jacob doesn’t.但我儿子雅各布不需要 He’s like me. He just wants to go to school.他像我 他早上起来只想去学校 And we let him.我们也同意了 I can’t see the benefit of force-feeding him a meal我看不出强迫他吃早餐有什么好处 he doesn’t feel like he needs,他觉得自己不需要 especially since his school feeds him lunch at like 10:30.而且他在学校十点半左右就吃午饭了 This is when breakfast proponents will start throwing research around这时 早餐拥护者就会开始四处散布研究结果 that shows the kids who eat breakfast do better in school表明吃早餐的孩子在学校表现更好 and are more able to pay attention.而且注意力更集中 But it’s important to remember that a lot of those studies但重要的是要记住 那些研究有很多 involve kids who are economically disadvantage.都涉及到经济上处于劣势的孩子 They likely wanted breakfast and weren’t getting it.他们可能想吃早餐 但却吃不起 No one denies that hungry kids should eat.没人会否认饥饿的孩子应该吃东西 I’m certainly not.我当然也不否认 I have no doubt that kids who are hungry我毫不怀疑饥饿的孩子可能 will less likely to pay attention and will not do as well.不太集中注意力 表现也没有那么好 Hungry kids should be fed.饥饿的孩子应该吃东西 But this is different from forcing kids to eat if they don’t want to.但这与强迫孩子吃东西是不一样的 Don’t believe me?不相信吗 To the research.看研究结果 From Nutrition Research Review 2009,2009年的《营养研究评论》 “a systematic review of the effect of breakfast有一篇系统性评论是关于早餐 on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents.”对儿童和青少年认知能力影响的 And I’m quoting here.我在这里引用一下 “The evidence indicates that breakfast consumption“有证据表明 吃早餐 is more beneficial than skipping breakfast,比不吃早餐更有益 But this effect is more apparent in children但这种影响在营养不良的 whose nutritional status is comprimised.儿童中更为明显 There is a lack of research comparing breakfast type,目前还缺乏对早餐类型进行比较的研究 precluding recommendations for the size and composition这就阻碍了对影响儿童认知功能的 of an optimal breakfast for children’s cognitive function.最佳早餐的分量和组成成分的推荐 Few studies examined adolescents.很少有研究去调查青少年 Studies of school breakfast programmes suggest对学校开展早餐计划的研究表明 that such interventions can have positive effects on academic performance,这种计划可以对学习成绩产生积极影响 but this may be in part explained by the increased school attendance that programmes encourage.”但一定程度上 可能是由于该计划激励了入学率上升” In other words, what I said.换言之 正如我所说的 Here’s the thing.事情就是这样 If you’re hungry in the morning, eat.如果你早上会饿 那就吃吧 If you feel like you need to eat breakfast如果你觉得你需要吃早餐 in order to do well or be functional, eat.来保持身体健康 那就吃吧 If you believe breakfast makes如果你相信早餐 your eating over the course of the day more healthy, eat.能让你一天的饮食更健康 那就吃吧 But for those of us who don’t want to,但对于那些不想这么做的人 leave us alone.别管我们 Healthcare Triage is supported in part by viewers like you do PATREON.COM,《全民医保》一部分是由你们这样的观众通过众筹网站支持的 a service that allows you to support the show through a monthly donation.这是一个可以通过每月捐款来支持节目的服务网站 Your support makes this show bigger and better.你们的支持会让这个节目更大更好 We’d espesially like to thank our research associate, Joe Sevits,我们要特别感谢我们研究助理乔•赛维斯 give a special shout-out to Jonathon Dunn,特别感谢乔纳森•邓恩 and thank our surgeon admiral, Sam.还要感谢我们的军医上将萨姆 Thanks Joe and John, thanks Sam.谢谢乔和约翰 谢谢萨姆 More information can be found at更多信息请访问 PATREON.COM/HEALTHCARETRIAGE众筹网站或全民医保网站
  • 2021-10-30割伤出血急救艾哈迈德:再用力一点点 再……[AHMET]: Just give it a little bit, just… 加油 伙计 用力点!Come on, man, give it some! 杰:像这样 对吗?[ZED]: Like that, yeah? 艾:对 就像这样[A]: Yeah, exactly like that. 杰:它纹丝不动啊艾:它很紧[Z]: It’s not budging. [A]: It’s very stiff. 好吧 我这就去拿个抹布 好吗?Right, I’m going to go and grab some rags, okay? 杰(大叫):啊 我的胳膊![Z] (shouting): Ah, my arm! 艾:杰 好了 看着 压住它 伙计[A]: Zed, okay, look, put pressure on it, mate. 好吗?没事了 我们需要止住血流 好吧?Okay? It’s alright. We just need to stop the flow of blood, alright? 给你 看着 拿着这个 拿着那个 把它放到这上面Here you are. Look, take this – take that – and put it on there. 压住它好吗?你会没事的伙计 别慌Press that down okay? You’ll be alright mate, don’t panic. 好了 我这就给急救中心打电话 好吗?Okay, I’m going to ring for an ambulance, okay? 压着它呢 是不是?好Keep pressing on it, yeah? Okay. 嗯 对 你好 请接急救中心Er, yeah, hello. Ambulance, please. 我这有个小伙子 他把他的胳膊切开了个口子I’ve got a young lad who’s cut his arm open. 嗯 对 嗯 8公园路Er, yeah, er, 8 Park Street. 按压伤口Put pressure on the wound 尽快拨打999As soon as possible, call 999 在援助者到来前持续按压伤口Keep pressure on the wound until help arrives 记住:按压伤口Remember: Put pressure on the wound
  • 2021-10-30尝试用科学解释同性恋成因同性恋的成因是什么?大家正在尝试用科学解释这个问题 We don’t actually know the extent to which gender我们并不知道性别在多大程度上 is socially constructed是由社会建构的 because you can’t do an experiment where you remove因为我们在做实验时并不能移除 culture and see what happens.文化因素然后观察结果 So we don’t know所以我们不知道 to what extent what we see as gendered patterns我们所看到的性别模式在多大程度上 are the result of sex, biological sex, males and females.是由性别 生理性别即男和女决定的 We know that我们知道 gender differs according to culture,性别因文化而异 but we also know that there are patterns that但同时就性别角色而言 appear to be fairly universal in terms of gender norms.似乎存在一些相当普遍的模式 And the ones that are more universal are more likely to那么越普遍的模式 probably have a sex basis to it, an evolved sex basis,越可能具有一种性别基础 一种进化了的性别基础 that is to say a biological basis for males and females.也就是对于男女两性来说 具有生物学基础 So, for example, which gender serves a very important meal比如在一个非常重要的场合谁来做饭这件事 may be different by different cultures在各种文化中可能都不同 So in some cultures a man will serve a very important meal versus a woman.有些文化中 在一个非常重要的场合 就是男人做饭而不是女人 So for example, think about it in the United States that比如大家想想 在美国 historically speaking the father carves the turkey on Thanksgiving,按照传统 感恩节的时候一般是父亲切火鸡 but in general women prepare food historically speaking.然后通常是母亲做饭 So what we know is that these kinds of things can differ by culture,那么 我们知道这些事可能因文化而异 but that there are some “universals”.但有一些共同点 And one of the universals we find, for example, is in childhood play,比如在小朋友的过家家游戏中 that we find that我们就发现一个共同点 children who are girls tend to do more social play,女孩们过家家更喜欢模拟社交活动 they tend to do more social role-play.她们喜欢社会性的角色扮演 Children who are boys tend to do more competitive play,男孩们更喜欢玩竞争性的过家家 they tend to do more他们喜欢 play that mimics aggression or that mimics sport假装互相进攻或模仿体育运动 and mimics sometimes building,或者假装比赛搭建一些东西 and so there are these kinds of patterns.那么这些模式是存在的 But that doesn’t mean everybody fits them.但不是说这些模式可以概括每个人 And it’s really interesting actually too if you look cross-culturally如果你跨文化看这件事 同样有趣的地方是 scientists find evidence that科学家们发现一些证据表明 this may have – it’s not just gender,性别模式不仅跟性别有关 that there’s a sexuality component to it too.还跟性取向有关 So boys who are going to grow up and be gay,那些会成长为同性恋的男孩们 and we know who they are because of当然我们知道他们是同性恋 retrospectively they grow up to be gay,是回顾了他们的成长过程 they’re what’s called androphilic,他们被称为androphilic that is to say they’re attracted to males即被男性吸引的人 And the majority of females are also attracted to males,大多数女性也属于被男性吸引的人 so most females are androphilic所以她们也是androphilic and a small percentage of boys will grow up to be androphilic.以及小部分男孩会成长为androphilic We know that historically speaking, cross-culturally我们知道从历史和跨文化角度来看 they tend to be more feminine in terms of their interests,这部分男孩在兴趣方面通常偏女性化 they’re more interested in social role-play,他们对扮演社会性角色更感兴趣 for example, they’re more interested in helping their mothers,比如他们更喜欢帮妈妈做事 they’re more interested in associating with girls as young children小时候更喜欢跟女生在一起玩 and more interested in dressing as girls, for example.还有的更喜欢打扮成女孩 That doesn’t mean that they are girls,这不是说他们就是女生 but it does suggest to us that sexuality and gender have interplayed components in them, that但是这的确表明性取向和性别会相互影响 gender isn’t just about social role性别不只跟社会角色有关 but it has something to do with sexuality它还跟性取向有关 and that there’s a reason females end up男性和女性产生 with these kinds of patterns and males end up with these kinds of patterns不同的性别模式是有原因的 and when you have a male who’s attracted to males被同性吸引的男性 he ends up with a little bit more of the female pattern会偏向女性性别模式 and in some circumstances if you have a girl and she’s attracted to girls以及有些情况下被同性吸引的女生 she’ll end up with a little bit more of the male pattern in childhood.童年时会更偏向男性性别模式 So gender and sexual orientation seem to have sort of some connection to each other,所以性别和性取向似乎存在某种联系 but it’s not a perfect connection in terms of absolute correlation但它们并不是绝对关联的 and so we can’t say that所以我们不能说 we can easily predict what would be somebody’s gender role or sexual orientation我们只通过一些因素就能很容易地判断 simply by looking at some of the components.一个人的性别角色或者性取向 Evolution would naturally favor heterosexuality从进化角度看 异性恋是自然选择 because that’s how you get babies.这样才能繁衍后代 And so if we’re thinking about genes trying to produce genes所以如果基因要不断自我繁殖 it would make no sense to have genes that那些让人不育的基因的存在 would lead to people who don’t reproduce,是完全说不通的 because those genes would not be reproduced.因为那些基因都是不育的 That said, we know虽然这么说 但我们知道 cross-culturally gay people exist.同性恋的确存在于不同文化 So we know that that’s a natural variation in the population.因此这是人群中一种自然的差异化表现 And so then scientists ask the really interesting question,然后科学家们提出了那个有趣的问题 Why is that there?为什么呢? Why does that not disappear over time?为什么同性恋没有慢慢消失? Because at least in theory that should lead to lower reproductive fitness,因为至少理论上同性恋会导致生殖适度下降 which means it should lead to fewer babies,也就是会导致后代减少 and so it should fade out所以从进化角度讲 evolutionarily speaking.同性恋应该慢慢消失才对 One possibility is that it’s a side effect,一种可能是这是差异化的一种附带作用 that human variation is good for the species实际上差异化对人类是有好处的 and so evolution is responding to the situation not by所以进化的方式并不一定是 reducing necessarily everything that doesn’t work,减少所有对繁殖没有帮助的事物 but saying “Let’s keep throwing up variation,而是制造更多差异 and some of it will work in other environments.”不同环境下不同的差异化个体会生存下来 Being a varied species makes a species more resilient.差异化让物种适应力更强 So it may be the case that being gay if you’re born that way所以有可能天生的同性恋 is just a variation on a theme只是众多差异化的一种 and it will show up every now and then just because variations show up.他们为数不多的存在只是差异化的一种表现而已 But some scientists find some evidence that但有些科学家发现一些证据能证明 there may actually be advantages to a family一个家庭里有一部分同性恋小孩 of having a certain percentage of the children be gay.可能是有好处的 And this is work done, for example, by Paul Vasey at the University of Lethbridge.比如阿尔伯塔大学的Paul Vasey做过研究 And he’s been looking at the population in Samoa as well as other places,他在观察萨摩亚和其他地方的人口 but Samoa has a cultural system that actually但萨摩亚的文化体系 recognizes that a certain percentage of the boys are going to grow up to be androphilic,是认同一部分男孩会成长为androphilic这件事的 they’re going to be interested in men sexually.性方面他们会对男性感兴趣 And they actually have a whole cultural system for it.这背后还有个完整的文化体系 They have a third gender category called the fa’afafine他们有一个第三性别叫fa’afafine and when a boy it becomes evident is that kind of boy如果一个男孩明显表现出第三性别特征 the child is raised as a girl就会被当成女孩扶养 and becomes a woman culturally speaking并成长为文化意义上的女人 but doesn’t change her body at all but partners with men.她的生理构造不会改变但她会和男性结偶 So in our culture that would be called transgenderism,我们的文化会称之为跨性别主义 but in this culture it’s a third gender category但在萨摩亚这是第三性别 that absorbs what in our culture might这包含了我们的文化里 just turn out to be gay men.男同性恋的概念 And what Paul has found is thatPaul观察发现 when he looks at the families that have fa’afafine within them,在有第三性别家庭成员的家庭里 the fa’afafine are not using up a lot of resources,第三性别者不需要占用很多资源 because they’re not themselves having children因为他们自己不会有孩子 these are big-family cultures但是因为萨摩亚是大家庭文化 but they do take their own earnings and they direct it at their nieces and nephews.所以他们会把挣的钱花在侄子侄女身上 And that means you have more adults也就是说有更多成年人 producing more resources for a smaller number of children.为数量相对少的孩子们创造更多资源 So biologically所以生物学上讲 there may be an advantage for families to have a certain number of gay children有一定数量的同性恋后代对于家庭可能是有好处的 because those people will not reproduce因为他们不会有后代 but they will take care of the nieces and nephews.而且他们会照顾侄子侄女 And so overall所以总体上来讲 the population, the genetics of the family will be continued on 这个家庭的后代和基因会延续下去 because that family has a genetic advantage.因为他们有了基因优势 And you know when you think about it we have this sort of stereotype of思考一下 我们对照顾侄子侄女的 the gay uncle who takes care of the nieces and nephews同性恋叔叔有这种刻板印象 in terms of providing for them and providing extra resources,就是他们抚养侄子侄女还提供其他资源 and they’re not spending it on their own kids,以及不花钱在自己的孩子身上 they’re spending it on their sister’s and brother’s children,却花在兄弟姐妹的孩子身上 that might be a possible evolutionary explanation for why it is这样从进化意义上解释为什么 that we see homosexuality persist in the human system.同性恋长期存在于人类社会中 可能是正确的 It’s also the case, we know from work done by加拿大的Ray Banchard的研究揭示了 Ray Blanchard in Canada,另一种可能的解释 that a certain number of men who will grow up to be gay一定数量的男性成长为同性恋 get that way not through genetics per se,不是因为受到本身的基因影响 but they get that way in the womb.而是在母胎中受到影响 So it’s inborn but not genetic. And what happens is, apparently,所以这是天生的但不是基因决定的 well we know statistically from huge studies now统计上来讲 从大量的研究中我们发现 if a mother has lots of pregnancies of males如果一位母亲怀过多个男孩 every successive male will be a little bit more likely to be gay.越小的男孩是同性恋的概率就越高 So the father down you go in that sibling chain所以兄弟姐妹中 the more likely it is that the later-born males will be gay.越小的男孩就越可能是同性恋 This has been studied in many populations in the world, large numbers, and这个研究是基于全世界大量人口的 it’s rigorous. We know that this is true.是很严谨的 事实就是这样 So why would that be? Well, it looks like it’s a kind of side effect:但为什么呢?原因可能来自某种附带作用 the mother’s immune system appears to be reacting to male hormones似乎是母亲的免疫系统对雄性激素作出反应 and maybe dampening them down a little bit,并稍微抑制了其含量 and this results in something called the fraternal birth order effect,这导致了所谓的兄弟顺序效应的产生 which is that later born males也就是越晚出生的男孩 are more likely to be gay.越可能是同性恋 It’s a surprising finding这个发现还蛮惊人的 because it suggests to us that some men are absolutely born gay因为它表明有些男同性恋肯定是天生的 but not because of genetics,但这跟基因无关 they’re born gay because of the birth order而是由他们的出生顺序决定的 in terms of some sort of effect having on a woman’s system,是他们母亲身体里的某种效应 which is reacting to her children’s system,对孩子的身体产生了影响 and it only occurs in males, it doesn’t occur in females.并且这种现象只在男性中存在 女性没有 And that’s part of the reason why the theory is it’s an immune response该理论认为这是一种免疫反应的部分原因就在这 because it doesn’t occur with females and only occurs with males因为虽然他们是兄弟姐妹 但只有男性会这样 born out of the same womb.女性不会 So that’s something I’ve colloquially called womb-gay,所以我会口语化地称之为母胎同性恋 but it’s called the fraternal birth order effect.但其实这叫兄弟顺序效应 And I think the evidence is very strong that我认为的确很多证据都证明 a certain percentage of gay people are born that way.一部分同性恋是这么形成的 We do not have good evidence that straight people are born that way.但我们还没有充足证据证明异性恋也是这么来的 We don’t bother to look for that evidence.我们会继续寻找证据 Straight people have been less interesting to scientists对于科学家来说研究异性恋是怎么来的 than gay people in terms of where they come from.没有研究同性恋有趣 And that’s because there’s a heterosexist assumption that straight people这是因为异性恋都默认他们自己 “require no explanation” and gay people “require explanation.”不需要被解释 同性恋才需要被解释 I mean in terms of evolution gay people do require an explanation.从进化角度讲同性恋的确需要被解释 Logically speaking we should say “Well理论上我们可以说 that’s not a very ‘successful strategy,'” as it’s called in science同性恋在科学上是一种有点“不成功的策略” it doesn’t lead to a higher reproductive fitness因为他们不能提高生殖适度 meaning it doesn’t lead to more babies so即不能产生更多后代 logically you would want to explain gay people.所以理论上大家会想去解释同性恋 But it’s also a political issue that但这同时也是一个政治话题 basically straight people have required no explanation基本上没有异性恋需要被解释 and gay people have required explanation.但是同性恋需要被解释 And some of the explanations historically have been历史上的某些解释 rather unpleasant, like真的很糟糕 比如 blaming mothers who are frigid怪母亲冷淡 or overly clingy in the case of being gay或者太粘小孩导致他们成为同性恋 “over clingy mothers make gay boys.”“太粘小孩的母亲会让他们变同性恋” What we know from cross-cultural studies is that gay boys are跨文化的研究显示同性恋男孩 more interested in being with their mothers than straight boys,比异性恋男孩更喜欢跟着母亲 and so it’s not that the mothers are more clingy所以并不是母亲太粘小孩 it’s that the boys are more tolerant of time with their mothers.是他们更愿意跟母亲待在一起 So we’ve studied much more about gay people than we have studied about straight people,我们对同性恋的研究远远超过异性恋 and straight people remain largely a mystery as to how they operate.异性恋的成因现在很大程度上还是个谜 What makes them straight? We don’t really know.为什么他们是直的?不知道 We also don’t know why gay people are attracted to each other我们也不知道为什么同性恋会互相吸引 anymore than we know why straight people are attracted to each other.为什么异性恋互相吸引 We have hints about smells一些蛛丝马迹表示可能跟气味 and about genetic interactions and about facial symmetry,基因互作和脸部对称性有关 but we really know very little about不过关于异性恋和同性恋的成因 why straight people are straight and why gay people are gay我们真的还了解太少
  • 2021-10-30阿司匹林的人体之旅吞下一片阿司匹林片后 它将在你的消化系统中开启一段“旅行” 吸收 药片会沿着食道进入胃 在这里它被分解成更小的颗粒 这些微粒将继续它们的旅行 进入小肠 在这儿 大部分微粒会被吸收入血 小肠壁又叫肠腔 内壁分布有突起的细小绒毛 以增加小肠面积 吸收食物中的营养 仔细观察这些绒毛 可以看到绒毛的血液供应很丰富 且被一层薄薄的上皮细胞覆盖 阿司匹林分子通过上皮细胞进入血流 随血流到达全身各处 分布 血浆中有一种复杂分子 白蛋白 白蛋白是由肝脏合成的蛋白质 在体内运输营养物质 白蛋白也会与药物结合一起进入血流 这里你所看到的是一些阿司匹林分子和白蛋白的结合 所有与白蛋白结合的阿司匹林微粒 都将经过肝脏过滤出去 只有游离的阿司匹林分子会通过肝脏对身体产生作用 不同药物与白蛋白的结合量不同 取决于它们对血浆蛋白的亲和力 “旅程”的下一站则是肝脏 富含阿司匹林的血液通过底部的肝门静脉进入肝脏 并经肝静脉从顶部流出 在这个阶段 更多的阿司匹林通过“首关效应”被清除 肝脏就像过滤器 它会在药物到达其他身体部位前将其代谢掉 通过以下几个步骤 一相反应 首先 阿司匹林被水解 分解出乙酸 留下水杨酸 水杨酸不溶于水 所以它不能通过尿液排出 二相反应 然后一个离子基与水杨酸结合 形成水溶性的葡萄糖酰亚胺 并可以随尿液排出 少量阿斯匹林将继续去往体内其他部位 包括疼痛区 口服的阿司匹林最终只有68%发生作用 因为身体的过滤作用 这个百分比被称为药物的口服生物利用度 如果药物并非通过口服吸收 如静脉用药或者舌下含服用药 它们可以绕过小肠和肝脏 就不需要经过滤过 从而达到了100%的生物利用度 我们现在看到的是一些皮肤受损组织 皮肤组织产生前列腺素 导致炎症 前列腺素把信息传递给皮肤中的痛觉神经 当阿司匹林随血液供应到达该部位 就会阻止组织合成前列腺素 以减少肿胀 并阻止信息传递到痛觉神经 排泄 剩余的阿司匹林会随血流周而复始地循环 在肝脏多次来回 被利用或被过滤殆尽 它进入肾脏 然后到达膀胱 随后排出
  • 2021-10-30我们仍然能拯救地球一战的时候 我的祖父骑着马去打仗 我不知道So my grandfather went into World War I on a horse, on a horse. I don’t know if you’ve 你有没有骑过马 但是如果有人朝你开枪 马背上就不是最安全的地方ever ridden a horse but if people are shooting at you it’s just not the best place to be. 因为你离地面很高 他们一旦朝马开枪 你就不能动了You’re high off the ground; they shoot the horse and you’re now immobile and you may 有可能你还会死在马下 那真是非常糟糕 二十年过去了end up underneath the horse and it’s all very bad in that regard. Twenty years later, when 我的父母都参加了二战 那时没有人再骑着马打仗了both of my parents got involved in World War II, nobody who was fighting a war did it on 在短短20年里 交通方式全都改变了a horse. Everything changed in transportation in just 20 years so let’s do it again. Let’s 我们制造了很多电动车 也利用风能和太阳能发电make all electric cars. Let’s make all the electricity from wind and solar. 这些世界领导人全都出席了今年的巴黎气候大会 这是极好的事情Just that world leaders all showed up in Paris this year is a fantastic thing. Furthermore, 而且 就连美国总统也出席了 这位总统 不管你喜不喜欢他the United States President showed up there. The president, whether you like him or not, 他都是世界上最具影响力的一个人is the most influential single guy in the world, single person in the world and he went 他不辞辛苦地去了那里 并承诺美国在接下来几年会减少温室气体的排放to the trouble to go there, committing the United States to reducing greenhouse gas emissions 各国领导人一致同意 每五年开一次会议 互相监督检查over the next few years. And they all agreed to get together every five years and check 看其他国家是否坚守了承诺on each other, see if the other countries are holding to their commitments. Now the 但现在问题是 如果一个国家排放的二氧化碳量 超过了他们在2015年承诺的量trouble is if a country is making more carbon dioxide than they agreed to in 2015, then 那也仅仅如此而已 没有人能够为此做什么 除了世界的舆论 这非常重要it agreed to in 2015, there’s not too much anybody can do about it, except world opinion 世界各国领导人非常关心别国怎么看待他们is very important. World leaders are very interested in what people think of them and 以及他们的国家us or their country 就像我一直说的那样 如果美国率先使用高科技能源And as I say all the time, if the U.S. were leading, if the U.S. were out in front on 那么世界上的每个人都会跟着这么做 就像每个人energy technology everybody in the world would be following the same way everybody in the 都知道米老鼠是谁 如果我们有一种可再生能源的文化world knows who Mickey Mouse is. If we had a culture of renewable energy people would 人们也会欣然接受这种文化并使用可再生能源embrace that culture and use renewable energy. 我今年听过的最重大的科学新闻是The biggest news in science this year for me was the U.S., which is the world leader 作为世界领导者的美国在能源燃烧 化石燃烧和大量人均资源的使用上都是领导者in all this energy burning, fossil fuel burning and using a lot of energy per person, the 而美国现在有53%的人认为 人类正在导致气候变化U.S. now has 53 percent of our population who believe that humans are causing climate 所以53%的人已经足以竞选总统 或许气候变化change. So 53 percent is enough to get elected president. And so maybe climate change will 在下一届总统选举当中将会是一个重要议题be an issue in the next presidential election here in the United States and that will influence 而且这将会影响整个世界the whole world. 几周前 我在西弗吉尼亚州的时候 收到了一封来自某位发言人组织的邮件A few weeks ago I was in West Virginia and I got an email from somebody in the Speakers 这个组织雇佣我 让我在美国西弗吉尼亚州查尔斯顿讲话Organization, the organization that led to my being hired to speak there The Clay Center 并让我不要谈论煤炭in Charleston West Virginia here in the United States. And it said don’t talk about coal; 在那里这是一个非常敏感的话题 总统的政策极大地影响了煤炭工业it’s a very sensitive subject here. The president’s policies have greatly affected the coal industry 等等诸如此类的话 当你在那里的时候 他们有一种技术叫做and so on and so on. When you’re in that part of the world they have a technology called 山顶移除 他们将高的山丘及山脉的顶部去掉mountaintop removal. So they take off the tops of these very high hills, these mountains, 在西弗吉尼亚州的这种高度上 有煤炭资源 但是这破坏了and there’s the coal all at this level all over the state of West Virginia and it ruins 当地的生态系统 河流中满是这种煤渣 他们用这些泥浆the local ecosystems. The streams get full of all this crud. They use these slurries 来吸收周围的煤尘 还使用炸药 并且他们破坏了那里的森林to pump powdered coal around, use explosives and they destroy the forest that was there. 因此我不顾某人的警告 依然作此演讲So when I did this talk, despite this warning from somebody, I got a standing ovation when 当我出来站在台上时 观众起立致敬 我的演讲反响很好 演讲后观众再一次起立致敬I came out onstage. I did a talk, which wasn’t bad, I got a standing ovation after that. 之后有一个问答环节 并且在那之后观众又一次起立致敬Then there was a question and answer session like this, and I got a standing ovation after 这并不是因为我 我所讲的是西弗吉尼亚州的人民都讨厌煤炭工业that. No it ain’t about me, all I’m saying is people in West Virginia are also kind of 在西弗吉尼亚州有3万个和煤炭相关的工作 数量很多tired of the coal industry. There’s 30,000 coal jobs in West Virginia. That’s a lot. 但真是这样吗 如果你去一个典型的职业棒球比赛现场看看 人数有两倍多Or is it? If you go to a typical professional baseball game there are about twice that many 如果你去职业足球赛场看看 人数会比两倍还多people. If you go to a professional football game there are way more than twice that many 因此是有很多工作机会 但还不至于那么多 如果西弗吉尼亚州people. So it’s a lot of jobs but it’s not that many jobs. And if the state of West Virginia 或西弗吉尼亚联邦从燃烧煤炭改为使用风能or the Commonwealth of the West Virginia where to change from coal burning to wind energy 和太阳能 太阳光电板 吸收太阳能来发电 或者and solar voltaics, photovoltaics, soaking up sunlight to make electricity or even some 聚集太阳能来产生热量 在接下来的20年concentrated solar where you concentrate sunlight and make heat, they would have 50,000 jobs 中就会产生5万个工作岗位over at least the next 20 years. 我们不能继续燃烧煤炭了 这是不争的事实We cannot continue to burn coal everybody. I mean this is noncontroversial except here 但是我想说竟然有人警告我不要谈论煤炭 然而我还是谈论了and there. But what I’m saying is I was warned against talking about coal, but I talked about 而且大家都支持不再燃烧煤炭coal and people responded very favorably to not burning any more coal. So I think there’s 因此我认为政府在一定程度上没能跟上民意a little bit of a disconnect there in the politics. 许多市民不想破坏山脉和污染河流Many of the citizens would rather not be decapitated their mountains and destroying their streams, 而是想开发风能 顺便说一下 还有一件instead would like to exploit the wind that blows through. There’s another, by the way 重要的事情 由于山脉屹立于此another charming thing. Because the mountains are the way they are in that area it concentrates 它能将风聚集起来 因此西弗吉尼亚州比附近的州the wind in a few places. So West Virginia would have a slight advantage over nearby 更能利用风能优势 因此 请你们开放一下思路 而且如果我们counties for certain wind applications. So you guys just be open minded. And if we work 共同努力的话 我们可以改变这个世界 巴黎峰会就是一个重要的开始 是重要的第一步together we can change the world. The Paris Conference was a big start, a big step. People 在接下来的数十年里 人们都会谈论巴黎峰会 我相信这是一个转折点will be talking about the Paris Conference for decades because I really believe it’s 它就是一个转折点a turning point.
  • 2021-10-30心衰(心脏衰竭)简介本期视频将介绍心衰 欢迎观看完整视频 了解相关知识 心脏是一个肌肉器官 它负责泵送人体所需的富含氧气和营养物质的血液 心衰意味着你的心脏无法向全身泵送足够的血液 一些情况下 心衰的影响是暂时性的 但在大多数情况下 心衰会造成永久的心脏损伤 心衰可能会影响整个心脏 也可能只影响心脏一侧 心衰会导致心脏无法向双肺泵送充足的血液 获取足够的氧气 或导致心脏无法向身体其他部位泵送足够的富氧血液 这可能导致水分在体内潴留 从而引发身体水肿和肺部积液 各种损害或加重心脏负荷的疾病都会导致心衰 这些疾病使心脏无法正常收缩 可能引发心衰的疾病包括 冠状动脉病 高血压 糖尿病 心脏瓣膜病 先天性心肌病 以及由感染和中毒引发的肌病 心衰有时不会有任何症状 尤其是轻度心衰 但一般而言 心衰会有如下常见症状 轻微运动后喘不上气 平躺时喘不上气 夜间阵发性呼吸困难 经常性疲乏 以及水肿 尤其是腿部 腹部和颈部血管的水肿 一旦症状加重 请务必立即联系医生 医护人员会要求你每天量体重 警惕体重的突然增长 因为这很可能是心衰加重的表现 为了确认你的症状是否是心衰导致的 医护人员会做一系列的检查 你可能要做心电图 检查心脏的电节律 你可能还要做超声心动图 它能用声波检测你的心脏功能 胸部X光可以看出你的心脏是否增大 以及肺部是否有积液 有时血检也能查出心衰的病因 医护人员可能还想了解运动时的心脏表现 你也许还要做其他检查 医护人员会针对症状 帮你找到最佳治疗方案 防止心衰进一步恶化 心衰的病因也需要进行治疗 生活方式的改变是治疗的重点 医护人员可能会建议你低盐饮食 同时还会要求你控制液体摄入量 你还需要控制饮酒量 减肥 多运动 戒烟也很有帮助 医生很可能给你开处方药来治疗心衰 利尿剂就是其中一种常见药 它可以帮助身体排出多余水分 医生可能还会开ACE抑制剂给你 ACE抑制剂是一种降压药 其他药物也有助于减轻心脏负荷 医护人员会根据心衰的病因 决定是否手术 向你提供更多关于最佳治疗方案的信息 记住以下几件事 心衰意味着你的心脏无法充分泵送血液 许多疾病都会导致心衰 你需要通过改变生活方式 吃药或手术来治疗心衰 积极配合医护人员进行治疗 做到以上几点 你就可以缓解症状 提高生活质量
  • 2021-10-30白日梦可以增强创造力,而不是冥想人类之所以不断进化,原因就在于人一直在两种不同的思维模式之间进行转换The way human evolution has worked is that humans are constantly toggling between two 一种是“当下思维”,这种思维专注于解决当下的生存问题main modes of thought, a mode of thought where we’re focused on the moment for survival issues, 如果你逃过了张牙舞爪的老虎的追赶,然后你还做白日梦的话because if you miss like a saber-toothed tiger coming after you and you’re daydreaming you’re 根本就不会做很久(这个例子主要是说生存问题的模式)not going to be daydreaming much longer, do you know what I’m saying? But, we also have 另外一种思维模式就是在我们不必为生存而奋斗的时候this other really important mode of thought on the downtime when we don’t have to be vigilant 我们就会计划未来。我们的大脑呢,about our environment where we’re constantly planning for the future. Our brain has evolved 已经进化成可以在这两种思维模式之间来回切换了,即“当下思维”和“未来计划思维”to toggle between two main modes of thought, the moment processing and future planning. 而“未来计划思维”成就了人何为人That’s actually what – the planning part is actually what makes humans uniquely human 因为动物们很难超越“现在”这个时刻,而我们人类却可以because other animals have a hard time transcending the present moment. So we’re constantly toggling 为了最大化“创造力”,你必须在两者之间寻求平衡between these two things. And I would argue that for optimal creativity you need to strike 也就是折中a balance; you need to come to what we call the middle way. And in the middle way is knowing 这种折中指的就是,该注重当下的时候就注重当下when it’s contextually appropriate to pay attention to the present environment for survival, 也要去思考as well as gathering information, and allow yourself when that isn’t necessary to dip 深入内心的自己,为未来做打算into your inner stream of consciousness and plan for your future. Two critical brain networks 在“当下思维”和“未来计划思维”之间进行转换需要的两个特别重要的大脑网络that are involved in this toggling process between the present moment and our future 一个是默认的模式网络,我更想说是“想象网络”planning is the default mode network, which I like to refer to as the imagination network 因为这种大脑网络负责的活动都跟“想象”有关because all the kinds of processes associated with this of brain network I think are associated 像我要猜一个人的时候,with imagination in someway. From like prospective the taking, and when I’m taking the perspective 我就要去想“这个人在想什么呢?”对吧?of someone else I’m imagining what that person is thinking, right? To daydreaming, to thinking 像做白日梦啊,计划未来啊,都需要想象about the future, you know, the future planning. It’s all imagination. A lot of it has to do 做这些事情都跟“社会性想象”有关,这种想象是一种特殊的想象力with social imagination, a particular kind of imagination but I think it’s definitely 当然也属于想象的一种。那么另外一种大脑网络就是”注意力网络”having to do with imagination. And the other major brain network is the executive attention (什么鬼!!)network. “注意力网络”对于脑存储尤其重要。比如在大脑中保存信息Executive attention network is really crucial for working memory, such as holding information 也有助于大脑运行以及更好地发挥它的支配作用in your mind and consciousness and processing and manipulating it, as well as focusing on 同时也可以帮助人关注外界。顺便说一下,“注意力网络”对于关注你的内心也挺有帮助的the outside world. It’s also important, by the way, for focusing on your inner world. 所以呢,你可以在做白日梦的时候同时保持警觉So you can be a mindful daydreamer, and when you’re a mindful daydreamer both of those 这种状态的时候,这两种网络其实是连接着的brain networks actually couple together because you’re focusing that limited spotlight of 因为当它们连接的时候,你的注意力焦点是在内心里面,因此你会更加专注于做白日梦attention inward and so your daydreams might become more focused when these two brain networks 因此这两种网络模式并不冲突are collaborating with each other. So these brain networks are all not always at odds 也有这样一种情况,就是这两种网络势均力敌,这时候就会出现一个神奇的状态with each other. There is a unique state of consciousness when both of those networks 那就是“创造力”的源泉啦are on the same level of the seesaw. Right? And that seems to be creativity. Really, really 讲真,冥想专家的“注意力网络”真的超级强大expert meditators have been shown to have an amazing executive attention network. They’re 他们“专注”的能力简直了,但是呢,并不代表他们富有创造力哈really, really amazing at being able to focus, but that doesn’t necessarily relate to creativity. 即使你是世界上最牛的冥想家,也有可能一点创造力都木有的说You could be the greatest most proficient meditator in the universe and not have one 这是实话。我曾经去过一些关于“意念”的会议,iota of creativity. I think that’s the honest truth. I go to some of these conferences, 我看到有好多人像僵尸一样呆滞地看着演讲者you can go to some of these mindfulness conferences and they’re all just like zombies like looking 他们的目光特别无神at paying attention to the speaker and you look at them and they’re all so laser focused 因为他们的注意力早就不在演讲者那里了。我看到了真的好抓狂的on the speaker because they’ve honed their mindful attention. And it drives me crazy 我他妈真的想吼他们,“你们可以睡睡觉,做做白日梦啊,何必呢?”sometimes because I just want to scream daydream! Like it’s okay! Like to go back in and make “这也是有意义的啊!”meaning out of that experience and then go back out. It’s that toggling process that 有创意的人真的很会调节这两种网络模式。我也不提倡两种极端化,一种是不断地做白日梦,creators are really good at. So I wouldn’t make a case that I think too extreme in either 这种人没有办法控制不做direction, either too extreme daydreamers, and there are chronic daydreamers, they need 他们需要外界的帮助,他们要看精神病医生来停止白日梦help. A lot of them like see psychiatrists because they can’t stop daydreaming. And I 另外一种极端就是我们不要整天警醒地活着think on the other end it too we can become a too mindful society where we lose fact of 有时候也要深入自己的内心,探索外界之外的意义the importance of dipping back in to create meaning out of that outer world that we’re (完。蛋蛋译)mindful of.
  • 2021-10-30你的大脑为爱连线—冥想帮你尽情表达对冥想初学者来说 最吃惊的发现Perhaps the most startling finding for meditation beginners 莫过于慈爱冥想或慈悲冥想comes with what’s called compassion or loving kindness meditation. 这是一种伴随着This is a practice that often accompanies 正念呼吸的练习mindfulness the breath for example. 举例来说 冥想结束后People will do at the end of the session 他们会想起对他们好的人they bring to mind people that have been kind to them 也思考自己they think of themselves 所爱之人they think of people they love 任何地方的任何人people they know everyone and everywhere 并祝愿他们and wish them well 平安幸福 健康may they be safe, happy, healthy 和免于受苦free from suffering. 事实证明 这种重复祝福的话语And it turns out that the repetition of those phrases 可以影响精神状态is psychoactive it actually changes 让大脑产生变化the brain and how 并从一开始就改变你的感觉you feel right from the get go. 比方说 我们发现冥想初学者We find, for example, that people who do this meditation 真的变得更善良who’ve just started doing it actually are kinder 更乐于助人they’re more likely to help someone in need 更慷慨they’re more generous 也更快乐and they’re happier. 大脑中的某些区域It turns out that the brain areas that help us 会让我们想要帮助在乎的人or that make us want to help someone that 这些区域与控制快乐感觉的神经回路相连we care about also connect with the circuitry for feeling good. 所以善良使人心情愉快So it feels good to be kind and all of that 所有这些感觉出现得很早shows up very early in just a few hours really 在做整个冥想练习前几个小时就出现of total practice of loving kindness or compassion meditation. 所以我们觉得从生物学上来讲So we feel that the brain is somehow 大脑已经准备好了更好地去爱biologically prepared to learn to love better. 大脑活跃度增强的那一部分The brain area that become stronger in its activity 与父母对孩子的爱是一样的is the same as a parent’s love for a child. 这是我们与其他哺乳动物共有的It’s the mammalian caretaking circuitry. 哺乳动物的照顾回路We share it with all other mammals. 对于人类来说And in humans it’s extremely important for 三种同理心的第三种极为重要the third of three kinds of empathy. 第一种同理心让你可以换位思考There’s empathy that allows you to understand better 更好的理解别人how someone thinks to take their perspective 从而让你做一个好的沟通者lets you be a good communicator. 第二种同理心是指情感上的连接There’s the empathy where you connect emotionally; 你可以立刻感受到别人的感受you feel what the other person feels immediately; 在自己身上感受you sense in your own body what’s going on 别人的情感in the other person. 这使人亲密或相互吸引 也是非常重要的This allows rapport and chemistry, it’s also very important. 但是第三种同理心But the third kind of empathy 叫移情关怀is what’s called empathic concern; 这是一种it’s the feeling 关心他人 想帮助他人的感受of caring about another person wanting to help them. 而这是同情的基础It’s the basis of compassion. 你可以只拥有前两种You can have the first two and 而不需要过于关怀not to be particularly concerned or caring 但如果三种都有but if you have all three 那你就有了完整的同理心then you’ve got the whole package of empathy 我们发现慈爱冥想and we find that love and kindness meditation 能够增强第三种strengthens that third, both in terms of 不仅改变行为 感觉how you behave, how you feel 还可以改变大脑反应and what’s happening in the brain. 但当我们进一步研究时One of the paradoxes we found when we started looking very closely 发现了一个悖论at all of the research 传统所说的that’s done on meditation was a kind of a disconnect 重要的方法between what the classic traditions 与科学研究出来的from which these methods come are saying is important 并不一样and what scientists are studying. 很重要的一点是:One of the most important things, 不管是基督教文学whether you’re looking in the Christian literature 佛教文学 犹太教文学还是印度教文学or the Buddhist literature or Jewish literature or Hindu literature, 无一例外doesn’t matter, all 那些传统思想学派of the meditative traditions within those 都认为classical schools of thought are saying the 冥想最重要的是most important thing is that 少关注自己you become less focused on yourself, 少在乎自己caring only about yourself, 以及少自私一点less selfish as it were 更关心别人的需要and more open to the needs of others, 更有同情心more compassionate, more caring 更关心他人 更和蔼可亲more pleasant to other people. 尽管传统观点认为And even though the classic traditions say 这些至关重要this is what counts 但是科学却认为作用很小in terms of the scientific interest it was minimal. 6000个研究中We found maybe three or four studies… 只有有3个或是4个remember out of 6,000… 在方法论的研究中that really were tight methodologically 提到了这些内容and spoke to this, 不过这仍然是个好消息but here again the news was good. 如果看一下长期冥想者If you look at the longer-term meditators, 那些在一生中people who have done more than say 1,000 or 2000 做过1000或2000个小时的人hours of meditation over their entire life, 这些冥想是很自然发生的and this happens naturally, let’s 比如每天早上出门前冥想半小时say you do a half hour of sit every morning 花个十年二十年before you go out for the day, well after a decade 时间就这么多了or two it does add up. 看上去似乎这种日积月累And it seems that that cumulative amount 确实会让人少一点自私does make people less selfish, less just caring 少关心自己并且对他人更坦诚 关心about me and more open to other people around them, more 更容易与他人和谐相处 更容易有同情心caring, more able to tune in, more able to empathize. 这点也在大脑改变上有所体现And this also shows up in a brain change, 我们认为这很重要which we think is quite significant, which 长期冥想者大脑中的位核is that the nucleus incumbents,which is the focus of craving 是我必须拥有某种东西的渴望聚集处of I got to have that, 举例来说 吸毒者的drug addiction for example, 位核实际上要比长期做冥想者要小actually become smaller in longer-term meditators.r 这似乎与人们在感情生活中缺乏了And that seems to be related to this lack “我 我 我”的of “I me mine” in how people behave and how 行为和思想有关they think in their emotional life. 当然 更令人吃惊的还体现在And we see it most strikingly, of course, 那些奥运级别的冥想者in Olympic level meditators where these are 他们做了10000小时或更多people who have done 10,000 or more… 10000到62000小时的冥想者10,000 to 62,000 hours of meditation 他们真的很无私and they are genuinely selfless people, but they’re 他们精神充实 相处起来也非常愉快very nourishing very enjoyable to be with 因为他们的注意力在你身上because they pay attention to you, they really 他们真的关注身边的人focus on the person they’re with and how they can be 服务于他们 关心他们的需求of service of service or what do you need now now 这使人精神振奋and it’s very refreshing.
  • 2021-10-30什么是生长痛?今天 我们将谈论生长痛 生长痛发生在哪个部位?是什么感觉? 也许我们能弄清楚 生长痛到底是什么 也许……吧 我们开始吧 《解剖研究所》 显然 一开始我并不知道生长痛是什么 当有人提议让我们研究生长痛时 我觉得这不成问题 谈论生长痛很容易 但之后我意识到 我对生长痛一无所知 因此 我花了大量时间深入研究儿科文献 我发现没人真正了解生长痛 我们知道生长痛的症状 我们能告诉你生长痛的感觉及其发生的部位 我们知道的只有这些小事 说到底 没人真正了解生长痛 但是一个普遍的共识是 生长本身并无害处 所以 “生长痛”可能并不是最佳术语 那我能做什么呢? 我会借助尸体为你们解说 各个肌肉 肌群 组织 以及身体最易受生长痛影响的部位 希望能让你们对生长痛有一定的了解 我们来看看尸体吧 关于生长痛 我首先要讲到的是大腿前侧 或者说股前 这里是股四头肌的位置 但是这里不全是股四头肌 这里甚至还有一根缝匠肌 讲个有趣的小知识 它是人体最长的肌肉 我们通常会在双腿上感受到生长痛 而且通常是在晚上 情况通常会在早晨好转 但并非都是如此 你会感受到来自大腿前侧 或者我们接下要讲的小腿和膝后 一阵一阵的钝痛 你们现在看到的是大腿后侧 膝盖后侧 小腿后侧和小腿区域 可以看到这里有两块肌肉鼓起 连接着跟腱 这就是腓肠肌 这里是腘窝 非常神奇 因为我们可以看到坐骨神经在这分成两条 我甚至还有一个完整的的小腿肌群 我们再次看到了两块腓肠肌 神奇的把它翻过去之后 可以看到比目鱼肌 它们二者构成跟腱 这里就是你会感受到一阵阵钝痛的地方 说不准在某一天 我们发现这与神经有关 或许也与跟腱发紧有关 但原因更可能来自骨骼内部 没错 这里就是你感到生长痛的地方 我们来看看身上哪些部位会感受到症状 我们来谈谈可能性 现在 我们仍不清楚 但这可能与心理有关 我想表达的正是你脑海中的想法 这就是答案 人们不愿听他们有体会的事 它就在你的脑海之中 可能就是事实 另一种可能性源于解剖学 这是最不可能的一种 文献正将其清除 现在的文献已经开始去掉这种说法了 但我想提一下 可能是平足 脚踝或膝盖的问题 因为如果你有这些问题 你的身体会以一种有趣的方式进行弥补 另一个可能性是过度疲劳 因为如果考虑有这些症状儿童的年龄段 通常在3-12岁 他们在做什么 他们在玩儿 精力旺盛 肌肉骨骼系统受到过多压力 在一天结束 他们上床休息时 他们的身体可能会作出剧烈回应 有这种可能 所以 我们必须考虑到很可能是骨骼疲劳 但也有可能是缺乏维生素D 生长痛的原因有太多可能性了 希望我有给到你们一个更好的答案 而不只是简单的一句 我们不知道 希望这个视频能帮助你更了解生长痛 如果有帮助到您 请点击订阅 在下方评论 让我们知道你们还想看什么 我们有很多想法 但我知道你们有更多 请留言让我们知道你们想看的 下期再会
  • 2021-10-30宗教信仰是进化优势吗?当你看着从洞穴壁画到Snapchat(阅后即焚社交软件)So when you look at the really unique bizarre things humans have come up with, 以及这期间人类所创造的所有奇特东西时ranging from cave paintings to Snapchats and everything in between, 你会发现 这其中最为独特而又广泛的东西probably the most unique and universal thing 可能就是宗教了we’ve come up with is this religion business. 我们讨论具有象征意味的思想We talk about the symbolic metaphorical thinking. 基本上 世界上所有地方的文化都创造出了Essentially there has been no culture on earth that has not invented some form of 各种形式的可以说是是超魔幻的想法what could be termed meta-magical thinking 来作为那些不可见事物的解释attributing things that cannot be seen, 这些都是类似的基于信仰的信念系统faith-based belief systems, things of that sort. 很普遍的 90-95%的人们都相信It’s universal, and 90-95 percent of people 某种无所不能的东西believe in some sort of omnipotent something 在每种文化中都存在着or other out there every culture has it. 人类无止境地猜测虔诚信仰的演变People have endlessly speculated about the evolution of religiosity, 最终 我们从西方宗教的角度and at least in terms of westernized religions 完美解释了它们为什么会发展壮大it makes perfect sense why they’ve evolved: 因为它们是极好的减压方法Because they’re wonderful mechanisms for reducing stress. 外部世界糟糕恐怖 发生各种不好的事情It is an awful, terrifying world out there where bad things happen 并且我们最终都要面临死亡and we’re all going to die eventually. 内心相信总有什么事物或是谁是造成这些的原因And believing that there is something, someone responsible for it 这至少让人们在明白因果关系的基础上减少压力at least gives some stress reducing attributes built around understanding causality. 如果在那之上 你相信不仅仅有事物造成所有的这些状况If on top of that you believe there is not only something out there 其背后还有更大的意图responsible for all of this but that there is a larger purpose to it, 那这就是减压解释的另一个层次that’s another level of stress reducing explanation. 如果在那之上 你相信还有一个仁慈的人物If then on top of it you believe that individual out there is benevolent— 甚至更有可掌控性和可预测性even more so control and predictability. 仁慈并且倾听人类的乞求?Benevolent and listens to human entreaties? 更具可控性More elements of control. 仁慈 倾听人类的祈求Benevolent, listens to human entreaties, 尤其愿意倾听和你一样的人的祈求and prefers to listen to people like you who look like you, 像你一样 和你一样祈祷 有和你一样的要求 甚至更多pray like you, request like you? Even more so. 他们完全可控 可预测 他们让你减少压力They’re just all these levels of control, predictability; they’re stress reducing. 让我这么一个彻底的无神论者感到十分恼火的是And what is infuriating to me as an utter complete atheist is a 那些宣扬虔诚信仰能够给健康带来的好处的顽固文学作品very very solid literature showing the health benefits of religiosity, 它们独立于你想加入的任何社会支持性组织之外independent of you tend to get a social supportive community. 当你拥有宗教信仰时 你就少了很多危险的生活方式When you’re religious you have fewer lifestyle risk factors. 这样的去认识因果关系 原因和仁慈——The mere ability to perceive causality, reason, benevolence— “如果我将单词拼写正确并且坚定的信仰它就能降临到我头上这样的仁慈”“Benevolence especially for people like me ——的微不足道的能力if I say the right combination of words and fervently believe in it” 具有极大的保护性并且有健康的好处—that’s wonderfully protective and there’s health benefits to it. 如果这是一个完全冷漠的无情世界If it is a totally heartless indifferent apathetic universe out there 你将更倾向于更有逻辑性的东西you are far more at risk for all the logical things 而它们将让你得出这是一个令人沮丧的世界的危险结论which is to conclude it is an utterly depressing universe out there. 数据显示抑郁的概率在无神论者群体中更高Rates of depression are much higher among atheists go figure. 因此我们可以对人们为什么So in terms of that it makes perfect sense why this is something 创造出这些东西给出完美的解释that people have come up with and rather than asking 而且比起思考95%的人类为什么创造出各种形式的宗教信仰why is it that 95% of humans come up with some form of religiosity, 对我来说更具有生物学趣味性的问题是a much more biologically interesting question to me is: 那5%的无神论者为什么没有这样做?What’s up with the 5% of atheists who don’t do that?
  • 2021-10-30为什么我们怕失去控制权当我们想改变人们的行为时 我们常说When we want to change people’s behavior, we often say. “做这个 不要做那个”“Do this,Don’t do that.” 总的来说 我们 常常都会发号施令Basically we are, a lot of times, giving orders- 无论是对我们的孩子 家人 共事的同事whether it is to our kids, people in our family, people that we work with- 我们在掌控他人 至少是试图去控制他人we are exerting control over others or at least attempting to control over others. 但是我们发现 大脑正努力要……But what we find is that what the brain is trying to do… 想要尝试去掌控外部环境It’s trying to control its environment. 这是大脑想达到的主要目标之一That’s one of the major goals of what the brain is trying to do. 它那么做是为了趋利避害And it’s trying to do that in order to get rewards and avoid losses. 正因如此 在大脑控制中一直有好的东西 回报And because of that, in the brain control has been associated with something good, with a reward, 这正是人们想要的and it’s something that people seek out. 如果可以选择 当人们得到一块吃的 比如巧克力If people can make a choice, the same part of the brain that is activated when people get 或是有机会作出选择时 大脑的同一部分就会被激活a piece of food like a piece of chocolate is activated when people have the opportunity to make a choice. 当人们没机会选择 感觉自己丧失控制权时When people don’t have an opportunity to make a choice, when they feel they don’t have control, 焦虑就产生了what is triggered is anxiety. 这意味着 给人一种选择——And so what this means is that giving people a choice— 给人一种“一切尽在掌握”的感觉giving people a sense that they are in the control, 使他们感觉大权在握 更有可能激励他们that they have agency—is more likely to motivate them, 更有可能使他们成功而非失败is more likely to put them in the frame of a reward rather than a loss. 而且 因为控制本身是值得的And because control in and of itself is rewarding, 多数时候 为了拥有控制权a lot of times people will be willing to give up other kinds of rewards 人们会很愿意放弃其他奖励 如金钱like monetary rewardsin order to have control. 比如 在我和同事开展的研究中 对于会随机获取的奖品的形状For example, in a study that I conducted with my colleagues we gave people the opportunity 我们会给人们机会 让他们自己选择to either make choices themselves about random shapes that can give them rewards, 或是交给其他人 一个专家 替他们作选择or give another person, an expert, an opportunity to make a choice for them. 我们发现的是 人们作出的次优决定就是And what we found is that people sub-optimally make the decision 亲力亲为 宁愿坚持自己动手to keep the agency,to keep the choice themselves 也不愿专家为他们作选择rather than have an expert make the choice for them 即便专家更可能选择对的东西even if the expert was more likely to choose the correct thing, 为他们挣到更多的钱to choose a thing that will get them more money. 一种思考该问题的方式:有点像股票市场So a way to think about it: it’s a bit like the stock market. 许多人喜欢持有自己的股票So a lot of people like to pick their own stocks 而不是给其他人以机会 来为自己作选择instead of giving someone else the opportunity to choose for them— 专家甚至更棒 (因为他们)依指数来操作experts are even better, going according to an index. 人们喜欢自己持有股票是因为那给了他们And the reason that people like to pick their own stocks is because it gives them 一种控制感 掌控感 会给他们带来回报a sense of control,it gives them a sense of agency, and that gives them reward. 即使人们多次意识到可能会有金钱的损失And many times people realize that there might be a monetary loss. 有些人过于自信 自我感觉良好 认为自己是对的 这没什么Some people are overconfident, they think well I’ll pick the right thing, and that’s fine,but they still 但他们仍愿损失部分 金钱的损失 来自己作选择are willing to lose part, to have a monetary loss, to make the choice thenseles. 事实上人们通常更喜欢自己作出的选择So in fact in general people prefer to make their own choices, 但对有些事儿 人们宁愿放弃自己的选择but there are incidents where people would rather give away their choice. 例如 当选择很复杂 所花的心血……For example, when the choice is so complicated, the effort is so… 在上面花了很多心血…so much effort has to be put into it… 我宁愿不作选择 把机会给别人 让他们替我选I would rather not do it and give someone else the opportunity to make the choice for me. 又比如 在高压之下 人们有时会意识到Or for example, under high amounts of stress people sometimes realize 有个人为自己作选择更好that it’s better to have someone else make the choice for them. 再比如 作选择时 人们会担心Or for example, when making a choice people are afraid that 可能会后悔自己所作出的选择(比如医学决定)they will regret what they choose (such as in medical decisions) 事实上 他们有时更愿别人替自己作选择they sometimes actually prefer to have someone else make the choice for them. 在书中 我谈到人们最担心的事情And in the book I talk about the things that people are scared of the most, 这种担心不尽然合理and the fears that we have are not necessarily rational. 比如 很多人害怕坐飞机So people, for example, a lot of people are scared of flying; 因此 如果你看到这些数字 坐飞机并非so if you look at the numbers flying is not necessarily 你做过的最危险的事情the most dangerous thing that you do. 开你自己的车更危险 但人们害怕坐飞机Driving your own car is more dangerous, but people are afraid of flying 其中一个原因是 在飞机上你掌控不了什么because one of the reasons is that once you’re in the plane you don’t have control anymore, 你没有任何控制权you don’t have control over the plane, 你对自己所处的环境做不到任何控制you don’t have control of anything really of your environment. 身处该空间 完全失去控制力的感觉So the sense of being in this space where you’re losing control completely, 传递给其他人 焦虑就由此产生了giving it to someone else, is something that people feel anxious about. 现在 他们不想要掌控Now, they don’t want to take control. 我不想驾驶这架飞机 我知道I don’t want to fly the plane.I know I will 如果我驾驶它就会死掉 但依旧焦虑be dead if I fly the plane, but never the less I feel anxious, 我想在健康等其他领域亦如此and I think that’s true in other domains like health. 住院引发焦虑的一个原因One of the reasons that being in a hospital is anxiety-provoking, 不仅因为你生病了——那当然会非常焦虑not only because you’re sick—and that’s very anxiety provoking— 还因为 你再次没了控制权but also because, again, you lose control. 每个人都在替你决定 他们该做的:医生和护士Everyone is making the decision for you, as they should: the doctors and the nurses. 我是说人们应该有话要说 但他们意识到I mean people should have some say, but they realize that 专家为他们做了选择the experts are making the choices for them and 这种失去控制的感觉重新袭来 导致焦虑that sense of losing control, again, can cause anxiety. 研究表明 当我们变老And one thing that studies have shown is that as we age, 年华逝去 我们失去了一些控制权as we go into older age we lose some of our control 特别是 如果我们在疗养院?especially if we go to nursing homes.? 其他人为我们做决定 也对个人产生了压力Other people make the choices for us and that induces stress on an individual as well, 因为我们不再能选择做什么及什么时候做because no longer can I choose what will I do and when will I do it, 给人一种控制感可以帮助他们and giving people a sense of control back can help them. 强调下 对于孩子 家长倾向于准确告诉他们做什么Again, with kids, people tend to tell kids exactly what to do, 什么时候做等等 宝宝们对此很不开心when to do it and so on,and kids are not happy with that. 我们可以改变这一点:别说:“你该吃沙拉了”But we could change that: instead of telling the kids,“Well you have to eat your salad,” 而说“为什么不自己做沙拉呢maybe say“Well why don’t you create your own salad? 这有不同的配料 把它们放一起”Here are the different ingredients, and put them together—create them.” 我们做过的一项研究表明 当人们——And one study that we’ve done showed that when people— 不仅是我们 我们做了其中一个 有很多and is not only us, we did one example of this, there’s many, 很多研究表明 亲手做出某样东西时就会更珍视many studies showing that—when you create something you value it more. 我们在人们制作匡威鞋的地方做过调查So we did a study where people created their own Converse shoes 他们喜欢匡威and they liked the Converse shoes 他们制作的比匡威鞋还要多 看上去that they created much more than the Converse shoes which looked exactly the same 和其他人做的一样 同样的颜色款式 毫无差别that someone else created—same color or same shape everything was exactly the same— 但我会更喜欢自己做的but if I created it I liked it more. 此外 即便没做 但我认为自己做了 相信自己做了Moreover, even if I didn’t create it but I thought I created it, I believed I created it, 我错误地认为我做了鞋子 就会更喜欢它I wrongly had a memory that I created the shoe, I liked it better. 如果你觉得自己在某事上有控制权So if you feel like you have agency in something- 不管是对一种产品 还是某个创意whether it’s a product, whether is an idea— 你都会觉得它更具价值then you feel like it’s worth more. 而且实际上不必是一种真实的感觉And it doesn’t actually have to be a true perception, 你只需要有种掌控的感觉you just have to have a perception of an agency, 一种控制的感觉 为了更珍视那件东西a perception of a control in order to value that thing more, 这就是我们在研究中表明的and that’s what we’ve shown in our study looking at 看人们如何做鞋子并珍视它们how people create shoes and how they value them.
  • 2021-10-26地中海饮食是最健康的饮食吗?Okay, I love this question.好的 我喜欢这个问题 Is the Mediterranean diet the healthiest diet?地中海饮食是最健康的饮食吗? Kind of.有点儿道理 [hip upbeat music][嘻哈音乐] 地中海饮食 What is the Mediterranean diet?什么是地中海饮食? Lots of vegetables, lots of whole grains, fruits.大量蔬菜 大量全谷物 水果 They’re very unprocessed and also, 它们几乎未经加工 rich in olive oi, fish, healthy fats they’re getting in their diets,富含橄榄油 鱼类 他们从饮食中摄入健康脂肪 a little bit of red wine,再配一点红酒 which is always a fun thing to know about the Mediterranean diet,了解地中海饮食总是一件有趣的事 and they don’t eat a lot of added sugar,他们只吃少量的添加糖 processed foods, sweets, things like that.加工食品 甜食 诸如此类的食物 I’m trying the Mediterranean diet for the first time.我第一次尝试地中海饮食 Where do I start?我该如何开始呢? And so, anytime you’re making any dietary changes,任何时候 你想改变任何饮食 you don’t wanna completely overhaul your diet.但你不想彻底改变饮食习惯 You wanna start small and do things that you can stick with.你可以从一些自己能够坚持的小事做起 Carrot sticks as a snack are able to add胡萝卜棒可以作为蔬菜小食 a serving of vegetables to your dinner.添加在你的晚餐中 That’s a great place to start.那是一个很棒的开始 The other thing you can do is 可以做的另一件事是 use olive oil when you cook instead of other oils.在烹饪时用橄榄油代替其它油 So, if you’re cooking with a lot of butter or vegetable oils,如果你烹饪时使用大量黄油或植物油 go Mediterranean and use olive oil. 试试地中海饮食并使用橄榄油 Is the Mediterranean diet the healthiest diet?地中海饮食是最健康的饮食吗? Kind of.有点儿道理 It was just voted the number one diet this year在今年《美国新闻与世界报道》的评选中 for the first time by U.S. News and World Report,它首次被票选为最健康的饮食 which is a huge deal这很了不起 ’cause they look at a ton of different diets.因为他们评了很多不同的饮食 But of course, you have to eat in a way that works for you,但是当然 你必须选择适合自己的饮食 so adopt the principles you can and kinda make it work采纳那些适合你的原则并付之实践 and fit in your lifestyle.并且要符合你的生活方式 Can you eat pizza on the Mediterranean diet?在地中海饮食中可以吃披萨吗? Why, yes you can.为什么不呢 可以吃 So, pizza’s traditionally an Italian food比萨是传统的意大利美食 and Italy is part of the Mediterranean region.意大利位于地中海地区 The thing that we often misunderstand about the Mediterranean diet我们经常误解地中海饮食的地方是 is when we brought it over to America,当我们把它带到美国时 a lot of those Mediterranean foods很多地中海食物 have just a ton of cheese on them,上面覆盖着大量的奶酪 and the traditional Mediterranean diet actually has much less cheese.实际上 传统地中海饮食只含有很少的奶酪 I’m not saying you can’t have pizza.我不是说你不能吃披萨 You can definitely enjoy it.毫无疑问你可以享用它 You can definitely put cheese on it,你绝对可以在上面放奶酪 but you’ll also again want to incorporate meals但你需要增加一些食物 that use a lot of vegetables and whole grains, 包括大量的蔬菜和全谷物 and again, those fruits and healthy fats that we’re talking about.我们之前提到过的水果和健康脂肪 But definitely enjoy your pizza night,好好享受你的披萨之夜 and bonus if you can put some veggies on it.如果在上面放一些蔬菜就更好了 Is the Mediterranean diet better than Keto?地中海饮食比生酮饮食要更好吗? Yeah, such a great question!这是个好问题! Keto is a new diet.生酮饮食是一种新饮食 It’s very trendy, ultra low-carb, ultra high-fat,非常新潮 超低的碳水化合物 超高的脂肪 and it cuts out all those healthy foods that the Mediterranean diet is known for,排除了所有地中海饮食中我们熟知的健康食物 so lots of vegetables have too many carbs to be eaten on a Keto diet,很多蔬菜中含有过多的碳水化合物 没法用于生酮饮食 almost no fruits can be eaten on a Keto diet, and no whole grains.生酮饮食几乎不吃水果 也没有全谷物 There’s a lot of healthy foods that you’re eliminating when you do Keto,当你吃生酮饮食时 要排除很多健康食物 and the Mediterranean diet is really rich in those healthy foods.而地中海饮食十分富含这些健康食物 How do I follow the Mediterranean diet while eating out?外出就餐时如何遵循地中海饮食? Think about adding vegetables when you can,考虑如何尽可能多地添加蔬菜 so salads, roasted vegetables.沙拉 烤蔬菜 Is there a side dish of vegetables that you could add onto your entree if it doesn’t come with?如果主食中不带蔬菜 是否可以额外点一份蔬菜配菜? Look at the menu for whole grains.找找菜单上的全谷物 If there’s brown rice or quinoa on the menu,菜单上是否有糙米或藜麦 that could be a great option.那可能是个不错的选择 Is the Mediterranean diet good for people with diabetes?地中海饮食对糖尿病患者有益吗? So, the healthiest way for people to eat who have diabetes糖尿病患者最健康的饮食方式 is actually just generally healthy for all of us.其实也普遍适用于所有人 All of us should be eating a good balance of 我们所有人都应该均衡饮食 carbohydrates and protein and healthy fats,碳水化合物 蛋白质 健康脂肪 and the Mediterranean diet includes all that.地中海饮食包括所有这些 If you have diabetes,如果你有糖尿病 definitely talk to your doctor about what works for you,一定要和医生讨论怎样吃最适合你 but you can definitely eat a Mediterranean-style diet when you have diabetes.但有糖尿病确实是可以吃地中海饮食的 Can I do the Mediterranean diet if I don’t like fish?如果我不喜欢鱼 可以吃地中海饮食吗? Absolutely.当然可以 Seafood is one of the things about the Mediterranean diet海鲜是地中海饮食的重要组成之一 that’s associated with health benefits,它和健康福利紧密相关 but it’s not the only thing.但这不是唯一的选择 They’re also eating a lot of plant-based protein,他们也吃很多的植物蛋白 so those legumes,比如豆类 they’re getting whole grains in their diet,他们吃全谷类 but it is recommended to try seafood twice a week,但建议每周​​吃两次海鲜 so if you just haven’t found the right type of fish如果没有你爱吃的鱼 that you like, maybe try a different preparation.或许可以尝试其它种类 You could try some shrimp or some salmon on the grill,你可以尝试一些烤虾或烤鲑鱼 and if you just don’t eat fish,如果你不爱吃鱼 again, you can still get those healthy fats in.也可以从其它食物获取健康脂肪 Choose nuts often, choose avocados, olive oil.比如经常吃点坚果 鳄梨 橄榄油 Is the Mediterranean diet good for kids too?地中海饮食对孩子们有好处吗? Kids should be able to enjoy all foods孩子们应该享用各种各样的食物 and not be restricted.不应当有所限制 However, at the same time,但是 与此同时 you wanna also offer lots of healthy foods to your kids.你还想为孩子们提供许多健康食品 Whole grains, your fruits, your vegetables.全谷物 水果 蔬菜 Of course, kids can and should enjoy those foods.当然 孩子们会喜欢那些食物 Even if they think they don’t like them at first, keep offering,即使他们一开始不喜欢吃 不要放弃 and get those healthy fats and the seafood in your kid’s diet 在孩子们的饮食中加入健康脂肪和海鲜 is great for kids too.对孩子也有好处 What are the best Mediterranean diet snacks?最好的地中海饮食小吃是什么? Carrots and hummus would be a great option or cucumbers.胡萝卜 鹰嘴豆泥 黄瓜都是不错的选择 You could do any type of fruit.任何类型的水果 Apples paired with almonds.苹果配杏仁 You take your fruit 通过食用水果 and you’re getting that really nice high-quality carbohydrate你会得到非常优质的碳水化合物 pairing it with a healthy fat like a nut,搭配含有健康脂肪的坚果 which is gonna slow down that absorption of carbs into your bloodstream.它可以减缓碳水化合物吸收进血液的速度 It’s gonna help keep you fuller for longer帮助你长时间保持饱腹感 and avoid those blood sugar spikes and crashes.并避免血糖的大幅波动 If you’re really on-the-go,如果你真的出门在外 dried fruits also can be a great option果干也是一个很好的选择 ’cause it’s a little bit more portable.因为它更加便于携带 Oh, that was the last one.好了 本期的问答先告一段落 I hope you guys learned a lot about the Mediterranean diet我希望你们学到了很多关于地中海饮食的知识 and you feel ready to get started if you haven’t already.如果还没有开始 是不是跃跃欲试了呢 If you have any more questions, let us know in the comments.如果还有其他问题 请在评论中告诉我们 I’d love to answer them.我会很乐意回答 (hip upbeat music)[嘻哈音乐]
  • 2021-10-26工作压力如何影响健康?– Nowadays, more and more workers report feeling stressed.现如今 越来越多的上班族感到有压力 I can relate.我深有同感 Like most people, I get nervous when I’m being put on the spot at a meeting和大多数人一样 在会议上被要求当场发言 or need to respond to my editor’s criticism.或面对编辑的批评时 我会紧张不安 I’m about to go into a meeting that I’m stressed about.我要去参加一个让我压力很大的会议 I have two deadlines to meet.我有两个快截止的任务要赶 To learn how stress at work affects our health,为了了解工作压力如何影响健康 I’m enrolling in a scientific experiment.我报名参加了一个科学实验 Big sigh of relief.如释重负 Let’s see what the week brings.看看这周会发生什么吧 – There’s a whole cascade of physiological responses that occur under stress.人在压力状态下会产生一系列的生理反应 And each of us differs in the way in which we respond.并且每个人的反应机制都不同 有关工作的科学知识 压力造成的健康代价 – Columbia University professor Richard Sloan and his lab哥伦比亚大学的教授Richard Sloan和他的实验团队 developed a unique way to measure the impact of stress on our health.发明了一种独特的方法来衡量压力对健康的影响 Can you tell us about the experiment 你能给我们讲讲 that I’m going to be putting myself through for the next week?下周我要参与的实验吗? – What we’re interested in is trying to understand我们感兴趣的是弄明白 the underlying physiology of the experience of stress throughout the regular day.日常压力对应的潜在生理学机制 – [Daniela] For seven days, I’ll need to wear a small portable heart monitor在这7天时间里 我需要戴一个小型便携式心脏监测仪 and fill out a questionnaire on a modified iPod.然后在一个改装过的iPod上填写问卷 For this study, Richard Sloan’s lab has developed an app为了这项研究 Richard Sloan的实验室开发了一款应用程序 that will prompt me to log my mood,这促使我每天必须记录我的情绪 who I’m with, 我和谁在一起 and how stressed I am 12 to 15 times a day. 我的压力有多大这些数据12-15次 – With the combination of these two sets of data结合这两组数据 we’ll be able to get a pretty interesting picture我们会得到一个有趣的图像 of how your heart responds to a variety of different circumstances.呈现出心脏应对各种不同环境的反应 – [Daniela] Under stress, glands above the kidneys压力状态下 release stress-related hormones like adrenaline,肾上腺会释放与压力相关的荷尔蒙 如肾上腺素 which increases our heart rate.这会促使心率加快 We sweat more, and the way we metabolize food changes.人体出汗会变多 新陈代谢的方式也会发生改变 Our immune system goes into overdrive, and that can cause inflammation.我们的免疫系统会超负荷运转 会引起炎症 This response is meant to protect us against against an infection.炎症是为了保护我们免受感染 – That’s good, as long as the response, the inflammatory response, doesn’t outlast the challenge.那没有坏处 除非炎症持续时间比感染时间更久 – If our immune system is overactive for too long,如果免疫系统过于活跃 且持续时间太长的话 it won’t be able to protect us against a cold or an infectious disease.它将不能帮我们抵御感冒或传染病 Is stress always bad?压力总是不好的吗? – No.并非如此 Excessive stress is bad.过度的压力是不好的 – [Daniela] A certain amount of stress can help us be engaged and work better,适度的压力可以帮助我们更加专注工作 but chronic stress can have a negative effect on our health.但是慢性压力会对我们的健康产生负面影响 – One of the classic cases of extended stress is caregiving.慢性压力的一个典型来源就是照顾他人 Stressful work experiences, having a work environment that is…not supportive,工作压力大 缺乏鼓励的工作环境 having… a boss who is frequently… angry or hostile, critical易怒 不友善 爱批评人的老板 is another chronic stressor. 是另一个慢性压力源 – Chronic stress puts us at risk for developing a variety of diseases.慢性压力会使我们面临罹患多种疾病的风险 It changes the way our bodies release insulin,它改变了我们身体分泌胰岛素的方式 the hormone that regulate level of sugar in the blood,改变了调节血糖水平的激素 and that increases the risk for developing diabetes.这些都会增加患糖尿病的风险 The prolonged inflammation linked to chronic stress慢性压力引起的长期炎症会损伤血管 can damage blood vessels, and that can up the risk of heart disease.从而增加患心脏病的风险 My job is demanding, the hours are long,我的工作要求很高 工作时间很长 and I’m curious to know how I’m coping.我很想知道我是如何应付的 This is my first home video entry,这是我的第一个视频记录 and I’ve been wearing the heart monitor now for probably five hours.我已经戴了5小时心脏监测器 Logging and wearing a heart monitor only added to my everyday stress.定时记录和戴心脏监测器只会增加我每天的压力 I had to make sure the data and circumstances were recorded.但我必须确保数据和情况都被记录下来 I’m about to go into a stressful meeting.我要去参加一个令我压力很大的会议 Hopefully it’ll go well.希望一切顺利 But the experiment also helped me understand但这个实验也帮我搞清楚了 who and what stresses me out哪些人和事会让我有压力 and the impact of confronting personal challenges.以及个人挑战给我带来的影响 Knowing that scientists were going to sift through my data知道科学家们要仔细查看我的数据 made me work out harder.所以我更努力地锻炼 It also made me more conscious of my work-life balance.也更加注重工作与生活的平衡 I am basically gonna go back to work…我差不多要回去工作了…… seven hours after I left the office.在我离开办公室七个小时后 It’s Wednesday night at…9:04 p.m., 今天是星期三晚上9:04 and I’m still at the office.而我还在办公室 2:17 a.m. on Saturday, September…九月 星期六 凌晨2:17 It’s July.现在应该是7月 It’s July.是7月 Do I look like a stress case in this data?在这些数据中能看出我压力很大吗? – You don’t report a lot of stress.报告显示 你没有很多压力 Over the seven-day period when you were prompted过去七天时间里 about whether you were experiencing stress right now,在被问道你现在是否有压力时 only 12 times did you report yes to that out of about 70 or so.大约70次提问中 你只有12次说“是” – Overall, my cardiogram was perfectly normal.总的来说 我的心电图完全正常 But even though I wasn’t consistently stressed all week,但即使我的压力不是持续整个星期 I remember moments when my heart rate changed.我依然记得我的心率变化的时刻 For instance, when I had to pitch a new project,例如 当我要推进一个新项目 the heart monitor picked up on that.心脏监测器就监测到了这一点 I’m sitting in Bryant Park.我正坐在布莱恩特公园 A long walk outside after some weekend work一周的工作后 在外面散步 helped me cope with stress.能帮助我缓解压力 I feel pretty relaxed and energized.我感觉很放松 精力充沛 It’s really nice to be outside.外面真好 For my heart rate, it meant that variability went up,对我的心率来说 这意味着变异性增加了 which is good, because stress usually does the opposite.这是好事 因为压力通常造成相反的影响 For instance, when I was getting a story ready to publish,例如 当我准备发表一篇文章时 it felt like a pit in my stomach,感觉就像胃里有个洞 and my heart rate was still.我的心率很平稳 So are some of the traps of stress of our own making?那么 有些压力是不是自己凭空想出来的呢? – Yes, in a sense.是的 从某种意义上说 Some are, and some are not.有些是 有些不是 If you work in an incredibly stressful environment如果你在一个压力非常大的环境中工作 because your supervisors are nasty, and you have deadlines,因为你的上司很讨厌 而且任务有截止期限 and you have relatively limited control over your work experience but lots of demands,你能积累到的工作经验相对有限 并且工作要求一大堆 those things aren’t really not of your own making,这些原因并不是你凭空想出来的 and it’s generally much more beneficial and more effective这种情况下 如果可能的话 to change the environment if it’s at all possible.改变工作环境可能更有利 有效 – [Daniela] If changing environments or jobs isn’t an option, 如果无法改变环境或工作 then research suggests reframing your experience or even relaxation exercises研究表明 换种方法思考工作经历 或者做放松练习 might help reduce the impact of chronic stress.可能会有助于减少慢性压力的影响 It was reassuring to know my heart was resilient了解到我的心脏能弹性面对工作日遇到的挑战 to the challenges of my work week,这让我感到欣慰 or perhaps my workout balance stopped my stress.又或者是工作和生活的平衡缓解了我的压力 – You could argue the heart rate variability is a measure of resilience.你可以认为心率变异性是弹性的衡量标准 It’s a measure of the flexibility of the cardiovascular system to respond to a challenge,它衡量的是心血管系统应对挑战的反应灵活性 and that is what resilience is.这就是弹性 From an evolutionary perspective, having higher levels of heart rate variability从进化的角度来看 有较高水平的心率变异性 gives you more room to raise or lower your heart rate意味着在你经历挑战时 in response to a challenge that you might experience.心率加快或降低的空间可以更大 – Relaxing a little bit more today.我今天比较放松 I don’t have a pressing deadline.没有紧迫的截止日期 Hopefully no breaking news.希望没有突发事件 There are many ways to improve our resilience to stress.有很多方法可以提高我们对压力的适应能力 Science shows that mindfulness exercises like yoga and meditation can help.科学表明 像瑜伽和冥想这样的正念练习会有所帮助 Sleep is important.睡眠也很重要 Also, consider hitting the gym.此外 可以考虑去健身房 – Increasing your cardio-respiratory fitness增强心肺功能 is associated with an increase in heart rate variability.与心率变异性的增加密切相关 As a cardiology colleague of mine used to say,我的一位心脏病学同事曾说过 the heart is happiest when it dances.心在跳舞时最开心的
  • 2021-10-26急救:心脏病你可以拿起这些袋子吗?[SYLVIE]: Are you alright with all those bags? (呼吸声明显)可以 没问题[AHMET] (breathy): Yeah… Fine… 阿哈迈德 你怎么了?[S]: Ahmet what’s wrong? (断断续续 大口喘气地说) 我的胸部……[A] (disjointed, breathy): Chest…is… 我马上过来[S]: I’m coming round. (阿哈迈德龇牙咧嘴十分痛苦)(Ahmet winces) 来吧 来吧 坐下 坐下 直接坐下[S]: Come on, come on, sit down. Sit down for me. All the way down. 对了 对了That’s it, that’s it. 抱歉 您有手机吗?能否叫一辆救护车来?Excuse me? Have you got a mobile? Can you call an ambulance? 我觉得我的朋友心脏病发作了I think my friend’s having a heart attack. 没事的 有人正在叫救护车了It’s alright. Somebody’s calling an ambulance. OK? (路人)急救中心吗 ?你好[PASSER-BY]: Ambulance, please. (阿哈迈德努力呼吸着)救护车马上就到了(Ahmet struggles to breathe) [S]: … it’s going to be here really soon 我们会把你送到医院and we’re going to get you to the hospital. 所以不要担心 不要担心So don’t worry, don’t worry. 我就在这里 我会一直陪着你 好吗?And I’m going to be right here. I’m staying right here with you, alright. 好的 不会太久 好吗?Okay, won’t be long, alright? 好的 好的Okay, okay… 帮助这个人坐下 并立即拨打急救电话Help the person to sit down and call 999 immediately 不断安慰病人Give constant reassurance 记住:帮助病人坐下 并立即拨打急救电话Remember: Help the person to sit down and call 999 immediately
  • 2021-10-2612个反映粑粑健康状况的良心干货So, today we’re talking about stools.我们今天讨论的话题是凳子 Now, I kind of like the four-legged barstool myself.我比较喜欢坐四脚的高脚凳 I find it is very stable.这种椅子很稳当 Er, it’s easy to sit on and坐起来很方便 what? Oh. We’re not talking about that kind of stool.什么?我要讲的不是“凳子” Ohhh…噢…… And now for a different kind of stool.原来是“粪便” Twelve things your poop says about your health.你的便便告诉你12个健康的小秘密 Well, as gross as it may sound,好吧 听起来可能有点重口 the color and shape of your stool而你大便的颜色和形状 can reveal a lot about your health.却能反映许多健康问题 Any changes you might notice你发现大便的任何变化 can be a sign of a serious disease.也许就是一种重症的症兆 Don’t ignore them.别忽视哦 Watch this video till the end.耐心看完本节目 to take another step towards good health.你就能多掌握一种保健措施 Poop color, as you probably know, the normal color of stool is brown.我们知道大便的颜色一般为棕色 It may vary slightly from time to time depending on what you eat.由于饮食的不同 其颜色可能会发生轻微改变 but a sudden color change for no obvious reason can be a warning sign.但颜色无故突变就是个危险信号了 So, let’s find out what’s what.我们来探究其原因所在吧 1.White1 白色 Whitish, greyish or clay color stool大便发白或呈灰白且较黏 indicate a lack of bile.可能在暗示你的胆汁分泌不足 Bile is what makes normal poop brown.正常情况下 胆汁会让大便呈棕色 Latter poop may hint and problems would the liver and gallbladder.大便能反映肝乃至胆囊的问题 As these are organs where bile is produced and stored.因为这些是分泌和储存胆汁的器官 It can be anything from blocked bile ducts and gallstones to cirrhosis.所以可能是胆管受堵 胆结石或肝硬化等各种问题 Gallstones can give you some serious abdominal pain.胆结石可能会引起某些剧痛 or show no signs of their existence.亦或是胆功能缺乏 making it trickier to diagnose.会让医生更难确诊病情 As for cirrhosis,至于肝硬化 it gives your liver irreversible damage.会带来无法恢复的伤害 So early detection of it could be lifesaving.因此早些检测出来对大家有好处 White mucus on brown stool may be a sign of a crohn’s disease.棕色大便附着白色粘液 可能是克罗恩病的前兆 which is a chronic and inflammatory bowel disease.这是一种慢性炎症性肠胃病 No.2 Green.2 绿色 Are you a fan of spinach, kale and broccoli?你是不是超喜欢吃菠菜 甘蓝和花椰菜 Or may be your diet contains avocados, cucumbers, zucchini,或是你日常饮食包含鳄梨 黄瓜 西葫芦 kiwis and other green foods.猕猴桃或其他蔬菜 Then you probably don’ t have a reason to worry about green poop.那你就不用担心这种绿色的大便了 A green color may be caused by大便呈现绿色 the consumption of vegetables rich in chlorophyll, which makes them green.可能因为蔬菜中富含叶绿素 Or green food coloring in drinks and iron supplements.或是由蔬菜饮料或铁补充剂颜色所致 If food is not the reason,若不是食物引起 it means your stool pass the digestive track too quickly那就意味着食物快速地通过了消化道 and didn’t have time to get them enough bile and bilirubin.还没来得及与胆汁和胆红素反应 Are you guys still with me on this track through the poop?你还在看吗~ Great.不错嘛 No.3 Yellow3 黄色 Have you noticed that your stool looks yellowish?你有没有见过大便变黄 Is covered in greasy film,外面附着一层油性的物质 and even leave drops of oil in the toilet bowl?甚至马桶上还有油渍 Yellow stool can be a sign of a blocked bile ducts and poor fat absorption.黄色的大便反映了胆管阻塞和脂肪吸收不良的问题 When your digestive system fails to break down food the way you should,当你的消化系统不能很好分解脂肪分子时 too much fat goes out with your stool.你的大便就会含有很多油脂 Another reason is a lack of enyzmes produced by the pancreas.另一个原因可能是胰腺分泌氨基酸不足 which may hint a chronic pancreatitis,引起的慢性胰腺炎 cystic fibrosis and celiac disease.囊性纤维化或乳糜泻 People who has celiac disease can’t eat gluten.患乳糜泻的人不能吃面食 so bread and pasta along with other foods rich in gluten像面包 披萨及其它面类食品 give their intestines a hard time.会让他们的肠子不堪重负 But don’t panic.但你不要太担心啦 Yellow poop can also be a sign黄色大便还有可能是因为 that you ate too many carrots.你吃太多胡萝卜了 and had a lot of yellow color drinks.或是喝太多黄颜色的饮料了 Yes. They could make your poop look golden.没错 这也会让你的大便呈现黄色 No.4 Black4 黑色 Number four第4个说的是 Black stool may appear because of medicine intake like黑色的大便通常是因为吃阿司匹林 like aspirin, ibuprofen iron supplements.布洛芬补铁剂等药物过多了 or bleeding in the intestines.也可能是肠内出血 The later is obviously a reason of contact your doctor immediately.要是后者那就要赶紧看医生了 More common cause again why is the food you eat.更常见的原因还是饮食 black and blue food, like blueberries, licorice,一些黑色或蓝色的食物 比如蓝莓 甘草 dark chocolate, cookies and grape juice黑巧克力 曲奇饼和葡萄汁 can give the shape to your feces.它们同时会影响到你大便的形状 Iron supplements and nicotine could also be the cause of that poop changing color.补贴剂还有尼古丁也会引起大便颜色的变化 If black and blue food, as well as iron supplements are not part of your diet.如果你日常的饮食不包含蓝黑色的食物以及补铁剂 then you should probably be a lot.那么就意味着你可能摄入过量了 No.5 Red5 红色 Red stool is usually influenced by your diet.红色大便一般由食物所致 Beets, jell-o, colored drinks, tomatoes.如甜菜 果冻 有色饮料和西红柿 just think about what you’ve consumed recently.想想你刚吃过什么 two bowels of tomato soup两碗西红柿汤 well you shouldn’t be surprised.那你就不会被吓到了 However, if food is not the cause,然而 若不是因为食物引起 it’s time to call your doctor.那你就得去看医生了 What in your poop is obviously an alarming sign这是一个危险信号 and may be anal fissure or something more serious like hemorrhoids.你可能患上了肛裂或痔疮 ulcerative colitis or even cancer.溃疡性结肠炎甚至肠癌的严重疾病 That’s the word no one likes to hear.这是个不幸的消息 Before you get really scared,但不要过于恐慌 know about cancer normally has other symptoms as well.你得再了解一下肠癌的其它症状 such as losing weight, feeling extremely tired and breathless比如体重骤减 乏力以及呼吸困难 and needing to strain as if you want to刚做完一件事紧接着做下一件事时 go number two even after you’ve just done it.会显得很吃力 像过度劳累一般 Shape.关于大便形状 If you still unbelieve that watching your stool as normal如果你看着自己的大便仍觉得它的形状不正常 some scienticfic research may convince you.一些科学研究或许能解决你的困惑 to distinguish the types of food and help people stay health.它们将食物分类 以促人们健康饮食 scientists from the Bristol Loyal Infirmary created the Bristol stool chair.布里斯托尔医院的医生发明了便椅 Wow. Say that five times really fast说是能让人上厕所的时间快5倍 It describes seven types of feces and what they mean.并反馈七种不同形状的大便隐含的问题 No.1第一种 If you see separated solid lumps如果你大便硬化分块 reminiscent of nuts are gold feces in your toilet ball,马桶里大便呈黄色的坚果状 it does likely a sign of a severe constipation.那可能就是便秘的症状了 This type of stool means your body lacks fiber .Deficit.这种大便大概是意味你摄入缺乏纤维了 Try to consume more fiber-riched products like尝试多吃些富含纤维素的食物 fresh fruit and vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds,如新鲜水果 蔬菜 谷物 坚果 瓜子 wholewheat pasta, beans and lentils. Yum.全麦面食 豆类还有小扁豆 According to the American Dietetic Assosiation,据美国饮食协会所说 Americans get about 0.5 ounces fibre a day.美国人每天一般摄入0.5盎司纤维(14.2克) which is much less than we actually need.比起我们的应摄入量少之甚少 The optimum amount is 1 ounce a day for women under 51对于51岁以下女性而言 1盎司(28.4克)是每日最佳摄入量 and 1.3 ounces a day for man of the same age.同龄男性则是1.3盎司(36.9克) Also if you experience constipation,如果你便秘 don’t forget about the natural laxatives-Prunes.别忘了吃点助泄梅子 Those dry plums have enough sorbitol in them for good desire effect.这些干李子富含山梨醇 效果不错 hemem嗯唔~ No.2第二种 Sausage-shaped large and fluffy poop speaks of constipation.香肠状大而蓬松的大便也是便秘的象征 This type of stool is also caused by a lack of fibre.这也是因为纤维摄入量不够 none dietary reasons for constipation may include long-term造成便秘的长期原因有 anti-diarrhea medicine intake and lack of physical activity.抗腹泻药摄入过多和缺乏运动 The advice is to eat more food and vegetables and perform exercises.给你们的建议是多吃食物和蔬菜 还有多运动 It will help you avoid constipation.能有助预防便秘 Because your body will need less time to move food因为这样能减少食物 all the way through the large intestine.在你大肠里停留消化的时间 Aerobic exercise like running, jogging or swimming有氧运动如跑步 慢跑或游泳 also makes your heart beat and beating faster.能促进你的心跳速率 which means better natural contraction of muscles involved in the digestion process.消化时 肌肉自然收缩能很好的助于消化 Don’t exercise right after a big meal though.但千万别吃饱饭后马上运动 Wait for an hour to avoid bloating and excess gas.缓上一小时 避免胀气或岔气 stretching, certain yoga positions and做拉伸活动或瑜伽 even simply walking at least 15 minutes a day哪怕每天简单的走上15分钟 can help healthy digestion.也能助于消化 No. 3第三种 If cracked sausage-shaped poop is what you usually have,如果你的大便像爆裂的香肠 there are no reasons to worry.那就不必担心了 that’s a normal stool. You’re doing just fine.因为这是正常的形状 说明你的状况不错 Don’t forget to walk and drink more water.记得多走走 多喝水 Since constipation is related to dehydration in the colon因为便秘和肠缺水密切相关 It is to make sure you’re drinking lots of water.确保喝足量的水 when your body is probably hydrated,让身体保持充水状态 Less water will be withdrawn from the colon少部分水会通过结肠排泄出 this will keep you still soft and easy to pass.让你的大便更软且更易排出 that’s what we all need.这是我们想要的效果 No.4第4种 If you stand with those whose feces are soft, sausage-shaped and smooth如果你的大便比较软像香肠状且表面平滑 Congratulations!那恭喜你! Your stool is as a perfect as a stool can be.这是理想的形状 Try to maintain a balance diet and avoid stressful situations to继续保持均衡饮食 不要压力过大 keep things as great as they are.保持良好状态 We all know that feeling when you can’t let yourself go in the bathroom break我们都能理解那种参加重要会议 during an important meeting exam or a family event或家庭聚会而不能在浴室好好放松的感觉 Suppressing your urge to use the your toilet is bad for you.抑制自己不去上厕所 这对你不利 Since if you keep it tight once and twice and thrice,因为你尝试过一次 两次 三次 constipation may become permanent.久而久之便秘就会变成永久性的状况了 Not to keep yourself that constipation,不要让自己经常便秘 try to avoid stress and keep healthy.尝试舒缓压力 保持健康生活 NO.5第5种 Soft lumps with clear edges软块状边缘明显的大便 or a sign of light diarrhea.或有轻微腹泻的症状 It could also mean that you are experiencing irritable bowel syndrome.这可能意味着你患上了肠易激综合征 The short name for it is IBS.简称IBS It is a chronic condition.这是一种慢性病 which needs long term treatment.需要长期治疗才可治愈 People with IBS can normally control it.患有IBS的人一般能通过规律的饮食 Thanks to a healthy diet and lifestyle.及规律的生活习惯来控制住病情 To make it better.要效果更好的话 try eating low fibre foods like bananas,crackers and potatoes.尝试吃一些低纤维食物 比如香蕉 脆饼和马铃薯 If you want to find out about the food combinations you should avoid.如果你想知道日常饮食 Because they’re really bad for your health.应避免哪些对你身体不好的食物组合 Watch this video.请看这个视频 NO.6第6种 If your poop comes in fluffy pieces with black edges如果你的大便松散且边缘呈黑色 It looks like you’re having a mild diarrhea.那你可能有点轻微腹泻 remember how we told you to have more fibre.记得我们刚刚说多摄入富含纤维的食物 Well, in this case, It is just the opposite.但这次正好相反 Maybe there is too much fibre in your diet.你可能已经摄入过量纤维了 Drink more to avoid dehydration多喝水以防身体脱水 and stick to boiled potatoes and bananas并多煮马铃薯来吃 多吃香蕉 You may want to try some OTC.吃点像盐酸氯苯哌酰胺制剂 like Imodium, more Pepto-bismol和碱式水杨酸铋的非处方药 They’ll have to slow down the movement in your intestines.这能减缓肠道蠕动速率 and shape more solid stools.避免你拉稀 If the problems last for more than two days, consult the doctor.如果病情两天内未好 记得去看医生 NO.7第7种 Liquid without solid pieces type of feces大便毫无固体全呈液态 is what no one likes to say.对谁来说都是个不幸的消息 It speaks of a severe diarrhea.这已经是严重腹泻了 It’s maybe a sign of food poisoning.有可能是食物中毒 乳糖不耐受 lactose intolerance, bacterial infection or medicine intake.或细菌感染的症兆 antibiotic, heartburn也可能因摄入抗生素或胃药 and acid reflux medications and chemotherapy drugs.反酸药或化疗 are often the cause of it.这通常是病因所在 drink plenty of water to fight dehydration.喝大量的水以防脱水 And try over-the-counter medications.并试试非处方药 Severe diarrhea normally doesn’t last long.腹泻一般不会持续太久 If the symptom don’t disappear in two days,若两周内病情没好转 Or if you feel pain and fever,觉得疼痛难忍或发烧 consult a doctor.请尽快看医生 So, do you take problem with your stool seriously?那么 你的大便有严重的问题吗? Do you consult doctors when needed?你有没有及时去找医生? Feel free to share and a comment section below请在下方讨论区自由分享吧 If you found this video useful, give it a thumb up.若视频对你有所帮助 就点个赞吧 When it gets 50,000 likes,集齐5万个赞时 we’ll share another important health related video.我们会发布另一个健康小视频 Subscribe your channel to be the first to see our updates.请第一时间收看我们频道上新的视频哦
  • 2021-10-26营养学101:#1 大量营养素Hey guys, welcome back to my channel.嗨朋友们 欢迎回到我的频道 If you guys are new here, welcome, my name is Becca,如果你是第一次看我的视频 十分欢迎 我是贝卡 and I am a registered dietitian.我是一名注册营养师 And I make lots of videos here on my channel about在我的频道里 nutrition and health, wellness and有很多关于营养和健康的视频 a little bit of lifestyle as well.也有一些关于生活方式的视频 But today’s video is actually going be the start of my new series 但是今天我们要开启一个全新系列 which is going to just be nutrition 101.叫做营养学101 So basically with this series,在这个系列里 I just wanna go back to basics我会谈到比较基础的知识 and just go through like very basic principles of nutrition,比如介绍一些营养学的基本原理 whether it’s food or just has to do with biology.既有和食物相关的 也有和生物学相关的 I feel like to me this is common sense,对我来说这都是常识 and it’s just ’cause I’ve been taught already.因为我学习过这方面的知识 And I now wanna teach you guys现在我想把这些知识分享给你们 so that you just have this, you know,这样你们也可以具备 basic knowledge when it comes to nutrition.基本的营养知识 So when you are going about your daily life当你在日常生活中 and making food choices and health choices,需要在食品和健康方面作出选择的时候 you can just maybe be a little bit better equipped你就会有能力 to make these decisions in an educated way.从更科学的角度做决定 So what I am gonna be talking about in today’s video,所以今天视频的内容 if you haven’t already seen the title,如果你还没看过标题的话 is macronutrients which are carbohydrate, protein and fat.是包括碳水化合物 蛋白质和脂肪在内的大量营养素 So we are going back to the basics.下面我们开始介绍基础知识 So our very first macronutrient is carbohydrate.第一个要讲到的大量营养素是碳水化合物 And carbs are basically made up of碳水化合物的基本组成包括 either mono-, di-, polyor- even oligo-saccharides.单糖 二糖 多糖以及低聚糖 And they are basically just sugar structures它们基本上都是糖类结构 that vary in complexity depending on the type of carbohydrate.其复杂程度取决于碳水化合物的类型 Foods that are rich in carbohydrate are gonna be any kind of grain product,碳水化合物含量比较高的食物包括所有谷物产品 whether that is something that is made from flour无论是用面粉做的食物 or just the intacted grain itself.还是未加工过的谷物本身 Fruit is also mainly just carbohydrates.还有水果也是主要由碳水化合物组成 Any kind of starchy vegetables, so your peas, or your corn,以及任何富含淀粉的蔬菜 例如豌豆 玉米等 those are very starchy, they contain a lot of carbohydrates.淀粉含量高的食物就会含有大量碳水化合物 So beans and…… or legumes, pretty much the same thing,所以豆子或者说豆科植物 成分都差不多 they contain a lot of starchyness as well,它们都含有大量淀粉 so therefore they contain carbohydrate.也就是含有大量碳水化合物 And also anything that is sugary,另外 任何含糖的食物 so whether it’s like baked goods or sweet beverages,无论是烘焙食品还是甜甜的饮料 anything that contains a lot of sugar任何含糖量高的食物 is also going to contain a lot of carbohydrates,也含有很多碳水化合物 because sugar is a simple carbohydrate.因为糖本身就是一种简单的碳水化合物 Probably the most important thing to understand when it comes to carbohydrates了解食物中的碳水化合物最重要的一点 is whether or not they are whole or refined.是判断它们是否经过加工 And this typically just refers to grain products.这通常是指谷物产品 So whole grains are obviously any kind of grain that is intacted.全谷物明显就是一种未经加工的谷物 So if it’s, you know, oats, or quinoa比如常见的燕麦或藜麦 those are whole grains that are completely intacted.它们是完全未经加工的全谷物 Hum……but we also have whole grain products.还有一些全谷物产品 So whether it’s whole grain or whole wheat bread,无论是全谷物还是全麦面包 or any kind of bread product that’s made from whole wheat or whole grain flour.或者是用全麦粉或者全谷物粉制作的面包 With whole grains or whole grain products,全谷物或者全谷物产品 they pack a much more nutritious punch,它们的营养物质要更多一些 because they are far less processed than their cousin “refined carbohydrates”.因为它们的加工过程远少于“精制碳水化合物” And therefore they still have a lot of their fibre所以它们的纤维含量很高 and their nutrients are intacted.营养成分也没有被破坏 Now when it comes to refined grains, 但是精制谷物 they are much more processed and refined down, 经历了更多的加工和提炼 and therefore have fewer nutrients它们的营养成分变少了 and also are basically like no in void of fibre. 且缺少纤维 So basically how they refine grains is, 比方说在小麦加工的时候 let’s just take like a wheat kernel for example,会把它们的外壳剥掉 it has an outer layer called the bran, 小麦的最外层叫做麦麸 it also has an inner layer called the endosperm,里面一层叫做胚乳 and then a germ in the middle,最中间是胚芽 which is kinda of like a nucleus,这有点像细胞核 this is how I like to think of it in a cell.如果把它想像成一个细胞 And germ is where like the nutrition is at,营养都集中在 that’s where all of the nutrients are.胚芽所在的位置 And also the bran has,uh……contains a lot of fibre.而麦麸中含有很多纤维 So when they make refined flour or any kind of refined grain,但是厂家在精制面粉或任何精制谷物的制作过程中 what they do is they take off the bran,会把麦麸去掉 and then they pull out the germ,然后把胚芽取出来 and they just leave the endosperm只留下胚乳 which is just like starchy, white, fluffy, 也就是那个白色 松软 富含淀粉的部分 doesn’t really have much going on.基本上就没剩下什么了 So that is how they refine grains down这就是精加工谷物的过程 and that is the reason why they are这也是为什么精制谷物 hmm…… have fewer nutrients and a lot less fibre.既缺乏营养又缺乏纤维 Carbohydrates are also the easiest to digest of all three macronutrients.在三种大量营养素中 碳水化合物是最容易被消化的 They are broken down in our bodies pretty quickly.它们可以在体内快速分解 The digestion of carbonhydrates actually starts in our mouth,碳水化合物的消化过程从进入口腔就开始了 which is the only macronutrient, hmm…… the breakdown starts in our mouth.它们也是唯一一种在口腔就开始消化的大量营养素 Just because they are basically simpler structures in comparison to protein and fat,这是因为碳水化合物的结构比蛋白质和脂肪更简单 and they can just be broken down and digested much faster,比较容易分解 消化起来也就更快 so they are not going to hold you over as longer as the other two.因此它不像其他两种那么耐饥 And on top of that, if it’s a refined carbohydrate另外 去除了纤维的 that has a lot of fibre taken out,精制碳水化合物 it’s gonna be able to be broken down even faster.它会(在体内)分解得更快 It’s gonna actually really negatively impact your blood sugar.这实际上会对你的血糖产生负面影响 Because the faster those carbohydrates break down into sugar,因为碳水化合物越快地分解为糖 which is their smallest most basic molecule,这些小分子 all of that sugar is just going to flood into your blood stream.就会全部涌到血液当中 But that is for another topic当然这是另一个话题了 cause I am gonna be doing a whole video on blood sugar.我后面会制作一个关于血糖的视频 So stay tuned for that.敬请期待哦 Next up we have protein, so protein is made up of amino acids.下一个是蛋白质 蛋白质由氨基酸组成的 There are 20 types of amino acids in total, 氨基酸共有20种 but there are actually 9 amino acids that are “essential”,但只有9种是“必需的” meaning that we can not create them in our body.也就是说我们体内无法合成这9种氨基酸 The other 11 amino acids we can shift some things around and create其他11种可以通过物质转化体内合成 but 9 essential amino acids we actually have to consume in the diet 但是这9种必需氨基酸 in order to have them in our bodies.只能从食物中获取 So protein is in so many foods, it really is in almost everything,蛋白质非常常见 几乎存在于所有食物 whether it’s a big amount or a small amount, it can be found in most foods.只是有的含量高 有的含量低 However the foods that are most concentrated in protein, 富含蛋白质或者说 or considered as protein food,被称为蛋白质食品的食物 would be animal products, so that would be meats, or eggs, or dairy,包括动物类产品 比如猪肉 鸡蛋 牛奶这些 and then also fish, any kind of seafood also is going to pack a lot of protein.还有鱼类 任何海鲜食品的蛋白质含量都很高 And then also good plant sources of protein would be nuts and seeds.另外 坚果和种子是比较优质的植物蛋白质来源 And then also legumes, which is like all of your beans.豆科植物也是 比如说所有的豆类 Unlike carbohydrates, proteins are more difficult for our bodies to digest and break down.不同于碳水化合物 蛋白质在体内的消化分解要更难一些 Therefore, they help us to feel fuller longer or you know, increase our satiety.因此 它能帮助我们长时间维持饱腹感或者说增加饱腹感 So when we eat protein at each meal or snack,所以当我们在每顿饭或者零食中摄入蛋白质的时候 it really helps to, you know, boost up that feeling of fullness它真的可以帮你增强饱腹感 and then it helps to last for a long time as well.并长时间维持饱腹感 Our third macronutrient is fats.我们要说的第三种大量营养素是脂肪 Fats seem to be getting a lot of attention nowadays,现在脂肪得到了越来越多的关注 and honestly for a good reason, our bodies need fat.老实说 我们的身体需要脂肪 Actually in every single one of our trillions of cells,事实上 我们有数以万亿的体细胞 our cell membranes are actually phospholipid bilayers,每个细胞的细胞膜都由磷脂双分子层组成 basically meaning they are made up of fat,也就是说它们是由脂肪组成的 they keep the water in and also out, so it’s how our cells stay intacted.它们可以控制水分子的进出 从而使我们细胞保持完整 That is just one of the reasons that fats are so integral这也只是脂肪在我们身体的结构 系统和功能中 in our body structures and systems and functions.不可或缺的原因之一 So all fats are made up of a what’s called glycerol backbone脂肪的组成包括一个甘油主链 and there are three fatty acids that are attached.和相连的三个脂肪酸 So the fatty acids that are attached could be相连的脂肪酸可以是 short chain, medium chain or long chain.短链 中链或者长链 And then fats in general can be saturated, 大部分脂肪都是饱和的 they can be unsatuated,也可以是不饱和的 they can also be trans fats.也可以是反式脂肪 So there is really a whole lot of variety when it comes to fat structures.因此脂肪结构有很多不同类型 Trans fats are typically man-made or lab-made,反式脂肪通常是人造的或实验室制造的 and they are almost completely eradicated from our food supply,它们不会存在于我们的食物当中 because they are just so terrible for our health, especially our cardiac health.因为它们会损害我们的健康 尤其是心脏 But saturated fats and unsaturated fats are still plentiful不过饱和脂肪和不饱和脂肪会大量存在于 in our diets and in our food systems.我们的日常饮食中 And if you wanna know more about that kinda of debate,如果你想了解关于这部分的一些争论 and also like long chain and medium chain fatty acids that whole conversation或者是关于长链和中链脂肪酸的介绍 I talked about that in depth in my coconut oil video,在视频你是否应该食用椰子油中 whether or not you should eat coconut oil. 我都有详细讨论 And I also looked all of the current research, regarding that whole debate. 根据这些争论内容 我查阅了近期所有的研究 So if you guys are curious about that, you can go watch that video所以你如果感兴趣的话可以去看看那个视频 cause it’s very in depth and thorough.里面讨论得很深入 I’m just not gonna touch on that here, cause I just already have done it.之前提过 这里我们就不多说了 and it’s a long conversation to be had.这会是个很长的话题 Similar to proteins, there are essential fatty acids 和蛋白质类似 有一些必需脂肪酸 that we can not synthesize in the body,也是我们在体内无法合成的 and therefore have to consume in the diet.因此我们必须通过日常饮食摄入它们 And those are linoleic acids (or our omega-6),他们是亚油酸(或者说欧米伽-6) and alpha-linolenic acids (or our omega-3).和α-亚油酸(或者说欧米伽-3) So some fat containing foods would be avocados, nuts and seeds,含有脂肪的食物包括牛油果 坚果和种子 nut butters, or oils, so like avocado oil or olive oil, coconut oil things like that.坚果黄油或油类 比如牛油果油 橄榄油 椰子油等 Also any kind of animal fats, so whether it’s fatty meats, or eggs or butter,此外任何动物脂肪 不管是肥肉 鸡蛋或黄油 anything like that, or even dairy if it doesn’t have the fat skimmed out.甚至是没有脱脂的奶制品都含有脂肪 Also chocolate is a pretty good source of fat as well.巧克力也是一种非常好的脂肪来源 And just like proteins, fats also are more difficult to break down in the body.和蛋白质一样 脂肪在身体里也是较难分解的 And therefore they give us that satiation,因此它会带来饱腹感 or that feeling of fullness for a long time.或长时间饱腹的感觉 Fats also take the longest to be recognized by the body during digestion,在消化过程中 脂肪被识别的时间也是最长的 so you’re not going to feel as full of a like,所以吃完高脂肪的食物 you know, a really high fat meal or snack不会像吃完高碳水或者高蛋白的食物一样 as quickly as you would off of something that’s full of carbohydrates or protein.很快感到饱腹 So you wanna definitely, you know, something keep in mind, something be aware.所以你一定要记住 If you’re having a meal or snack that is really fatty,如果你正在进行高脂肪饮食 you may want to scale back on the portion sides,你可能想切去一部分 or just eat extra mindfully so that you don’t overeat.或吃得时候注意一点 这样就不会吃太多 Because you’re just not gonna feel as full as quickly因为当你的一餐中有很多的脂肪时 when there is a lot of fat that’s involved in that meal.你不会很快地感觉到饱 So that is made for nutrition 101 of macronutrients.以上就是营养学101的大量营养素部分 I hope that you guys found this video helpful.我希望这个视频可以帮到你 Nutrition is complex and it’s complicated.营养学知识很复杂 And to make matters worse it’s always changing.而且作为一门科学 Because it’s a science. 它的内容也在不断更新 But I hope with these videos, I can just help you guys但我还是希望可以通过这些视频帮到大家 a basic foundation when it comes to just nutrition knowledge, 对营养学知识有一个基本的了解 understanding food and how it interacts with the body.了解食物和身体是如何相互影响的 Because it is so important,因为这很重要 and it is like my life’s mission to make everyone就像我的目标是让每一个人 just a more competent and educated eater.成为一个更有能力 更有智慧的食客 If you did enjoy this video, please give it a thumbs up,如果你喜欢这个视频 请给它点赞 because it helps me out and also因为这对我有帮助 let’s me know that you guys like this type of video.也能让我知道你们喜欢这类的视频 But if you have yet to subscribe,如果你还没有订阅(我的视频) I would absolutely love for you to join my little community here on Youtube,诚邀你加入我的油管社区 have you as part of the fam, I would absolutely love it.如果你已经加入 那我真的非常开心 And also you can follow me on Instagram and Snapchat.另外 你们也可以在Ins和Snapchat上关注我 I’m on there most days out of the week,我周内大多数时间都在线 and I would love to hang out with you on there as well.我很喜欢在ins和Snapchat和你们互动 But that’s all for today’s video,今天的视频到这就结束了 thank you guys for watching this video today,感谢大家的收看 and I hope to see you in the next one, bye!下个视频见 拜拜
  • 2021-10-26所有年轻人在年轻时都应做的一件事一生里最想做的是什么? 美国人有很多伟大的品质 我认为其中一点就是人们所共有的职业道德 我们国家有许多勤劳奋进的人 不过还是有点令人遗憾 有时候我认为 我们对年轻一代管的太多了 总是期盼着他们早点出成果 他们应该能够可以成为人们期许的那样 我认为人们可以从旅行中获得很多的智慧 当他们闲逛 任由自己漫无目的时 就像我之前一样 也许就找到真正的自己了 在我看来 旅行至少能够迫使你去认知这个社会 你必须找到方向 知道要去哪里 你要完全适应环境变化 应多去关注天气 打算住哪里 去哪里吃饭 不同的地方该怎么去 当到了目的地后 你想游览什么 如何找到一个刚好可以休息的地方 只是……只是一种经历 别无其他 我很喜欢旅行 也喜欢享受这种未知旅程 真的是很特别的一件事情我还有意地向我女儿传授过这种思想 她24岁了 不需要总向我通报行踪 就如我会去开车兜兜风或在不同的城市溜达 我爱人会问我 你知道要去哪吗我不知道啊 只是随便探索一些不同的地方 只要是你有方向感在 你会找到路的 你可以搞的定 在国外许多国家我也这样做过 就是漫步闲逛之类的 你只要相信自己 最起码为了不迷路 你得知道到哪该回去了 但我认为它是……不妨我们现在来找下16岁的年轻人 对他们说 你打算念哪所大学 以后想做什么 他们会厌烦的 他们还没完全成熟呢 怎么会知道这些 给他们点空间 可以说 我认为高中毕业后 休个一年假 两年假 去加入和平护卫队 去旅行 去多想多解决问题 或者只是开心的玩 因为这是他们生命中第一次成长 所以没必要呆在哪里 也不用告诉他们应该呆在哪里 要让他们习惯那种自由 习惯于 自我管控的需要 这样才能有运用自律的能力或者相反 哪天你发现 喔天哪 我真是太邋遢了 如果没有通知要去上课的话 我是肯定不会去的 我需要……你可能会发现自己的一些事情 我需要条理清晰 我需要这个并且我也喜欢 有些人爱说 这就是你该呆的地方 这就是你该做的事 你是那一类型的人吗 还是 想要更多自由的那种人? 我认为探险 旅游能给到这种生活体验 1976年 我大二学年刚结束 经历了一堂选修表演课后 我意识到 我不会去报考警校了 当时我以为我会做一名警察 如果我没有继续 学习两年多的司法专业的话 结果会更好 因为我已经知道我不想成为一名警察了 所以…… 我认为我最好弄清楚我想要做的是什么 所以我就跳上了一辆摩托车 我兄弟当时和我情况一样 确实是 额……两个年轻小伙 都不太确定会面临什么 他们应该走哪条路呢 当时我们就跳上了摩托车 启程离开了加州 记得我口袋里差不多就150元 很快钱就不够用了 我们不得不沿路找点事做 但非常好的是我们拥有非凡的自由 我们不知道具体要去哪里 也不确定在任何一个独特的小镇上呆多久 如果小镇足够有吸引力的话 我们会继续呆下去 探寻一些不同的地方 和历史遗迹 如果没有吸引力 我们就会去其他地方 我们会睡在一些公墓旁的高尔夫球场 太平间的后院 还有一些学校 睡在任何可以放置睡袋的地方 当时一小块草地都曾是我们一整夜的家 那时……那时我就19 20岁 而且感觉很有趣 确实你完全可以经受这些事 在那样的时期和年纪 你都会想去经历这样的事情 回想过去 我发现我开始的这场旅行 持续了整整两年 为了就是想任由自己漫无目的的游行 并在其中迷失 去弄清楚旅行的意义何在 以后的生活里我到底该去做些什么 所以我最终决定 任由自己在一些事上迷失 然后重新找到真正的自己 基本上就是这样来的 两年后 那次旅行让我突然明白 我真的很想成为一名演员 做一切力所能及之事 去寻找自己可以以此谋生的环境 希望以后成为一名专业演员 完
  • 2021-10-26为什么那么多公司都会犯招聘错误?在现实中 我们太关注正在建造的事物In this world where we focus so much on what we ’ re building, 以及如何建造how we ’ re building it, 我认为我们应该退一步重新思考建造的目的所在I think we need to take a step back and reconsider why we’re building 并且如何将科技变得人性化and really humanize our technology, 将我们多元化的团队really bring together diverse teams 与方法论以及人的思维方式结合起来of methodologies and people and mindsets 那样我们就可以让我们的科技so that we can take our technology and 更加适用于最基本的人类问题actually apply it to the most fundamental human problems. 众所周知 当今人工智能受到广泛关注Today the conversation is largely about artificial intelligence, 而我想讨论Fuzzie and Techie这本书中所提到的and one of the concepts that I like to discuss in the book The Fuzzie and the Techie 人类智能的概念is this concept of intelligence augmentations 即如何利用人工智能来扩大人类的能力so thinking about using AI but using it in a way that’s augmenting the ability of humans Kayak.com的创始人保罗·英格利什so Paul English who was the creator of kayak.com 他是一个彻头彻尾的电子迷 同时他也称自己是一名AI现实主义者he’s a techie through and through but he also calls himself an AI realist 他相信人工智能的潜力 但他也意识到he’s somebody who believes in the promise of artificial intelligence but also realizes 并不是明天或者明年甚至下一个十年that this is not something that tomorrow or next year or maybe perhaps in the next decade 人工智能就能完全拥有一个人is going to completely take away from sort of from the 所能提供的特征与品质the characteristics and the qualities of what a human can provide 因此他在波士顿建立了Lola公司and so he’s now creating a company called Lola 而Lola公司在某种程度上that’s based in Boston and Lola is 可以称为Kayak的2.0版本is sort of Kayak 2.0, Lola公司并不是发展线上旅游产业where rather than trying to take the travel industry and put it online 实际上 保罗将事务交回给旅游机构来管理he ’ s actually taking travel and putting it back into the hands of travel agents, 真人会通过电话real people that are working on the phones dealing with 来处理打电话预定旅游的人people that are calling in to book travel. 而他所做的就是将这些旅游机构与技术and what he’s doing is he’s supplementing those travel agents with technology 和人工智能结合起来 真正实现“字母的翻转” 并且with artificial intelligence, really “flippingthe letters” and trying to 作为一名AI现实主义者来利用人类智能use intelligence augmentation as an AI realist 去提升旅游机构提供的服务质量to sort of better the service that a travel agent can provide. 埃里克·科尔森 Stitch Fix 的首席算法官Eric Colson, who is the Chief Algorithms Officer at Stitch Fix, 他使用机器学习 也用人工智能he uses machine learning—he uses artificial intelligence, 却是用于增加人类设计师的数量but to augment the human stylist. 因此 他们有六七十个数据科学家正在致力于制造学习算法的机器So they have 60 or 70 data scientists working on creating machine learning algorithms, 但这些都用于补充这3400或3500个辅助设计的机器but those are used to supplement the 34 3,500 stylist who have 这些机器有着各自的倾向来顺应潮流their own propensity for delivering fashion they have their own biases as to the 这些倾向来自当地环境 年龄the geography or the age or the 和对象人群的风格喜好style preferences of somebody they might be servingclothing to. 因此 机器学习随着时间的推移的确能学习到人们的偏好And so the machine learning actually learns the bias of the human over time 并且尝试通过增加给特定设计师and tries to mitigate that bias by offsetting 的衣物选项来减缓偏向程度the selection of clothing that they provide to that particular stylist. 我认为这的确是对于AI应用的一个有趣的例子I think that’s a really interesting example of artificial intelligence not necessarily AI不必回避设计师 反而能够帮助他们做到更好taking away from that stylist but actually augmenting improving helping them perform better 而且我认为将字母A与I的翻转and I think that flipping the letters from AI to IA 即从人工智能到人类智能的转变确实是当今人工智能的争论中我们该多加考虑的问题is really something that we should be thinking more about today in the context of the AI debate. 我认为应该从就业需求和写出我们想雇用的工作描述开始I think it starts with job requisition and writing sort of the job descriptions that we want to hire for. 并且我认为 当我们被申请人And I think we are bombarded by applicants, 新简历以及数据的处理不断轰炸时we ’ re bombarded by new resumes and “ data driven processes ”, 快速的解决方法当然是利用自然语言处理并找出关键词and so the quick answer is to use natural language processing and screen for keywords, 将信息通过一个过滤器to run things through a filter and 来筛选出包含与你们团队有关的五个关键词的简历draw out the resumes that really hit the five key words that relate to your team. 而我认为这种做法造成了一种内部偏见And I think what this does is it creates sort of an “inside bias” , where you’re creating 即你将所有相同观点 相同背景的人聚集在一起and you’re bringing together people that all have sort of the same perspective the same backgrounds 这样就完全符合由丹尼尔·卡内曼and it can really sort of create in the the sense of what Daniel Kahneman 2006诺贝尔奖的获得者在行为经济学中所提到的内部偏见的意义the 2006 Nobel Prize winner in behavioral economics talks about is inside bias 我认为在某种程度上 可以同时考虑内部以及外部偏见and I think to the extent that we can think about inside outside bias 尝试使小组中20%的成员拥有不同的观点and trying to bring say 20% of the team from a different perspective 方向 方法或背景from a different vector from a different methodology or background 而这些确实可以使这个小组具有多样性that can really bring diversity to a team where, 假设你有一个数据科学小组if you have a data science team, 而在这个小组中 大约80%的成员拥有完整的数据科学学习背景80% of the people may make perfect sense to have them have complete backgrounds in 但对于剩下的20%的成员而言in data science—but what ’ s to say that 20 percent of the team 他们不应该是哲学家 心理学家或人类学家吗?shouldn’t be philosophers or psychologists or anthropologists? 并且我认为与其将它认为是谷歌的20%自由时间And I think that sort of mentality of almost Google 20% time but thinking about it for 不如将它应用于产生20%的不同方法或观点20% people time 20% difference of methodology or difference of perspective. 【音乐】【Music】
  • 2021-10-26宇宙是一幅全息图吗?黑洞的奇怪物理咨询一位天文学家 嗨 Michelle 为什么有些物理学家认为宇宙是一张全息图? ——Benjamin Black holes really are kind of getting to the very heart of our physics.黑洞确实有些触及到了物理学的核心 And I believe that they’re kind of showing us the way我觉得黑洞的存在向我们指出 that eventually we’re going to need different physics and new physics.我们总有一天会需要一种不同的全新的物理学 People ask questions like, “What happens inside a black hole?”人们问道 “黑洞内部会发生什么?” Or even, “What happens at the very boundary of a black hole,甚至是 “黑洞的边界 即事件视界 the event horizon, when light is absorbed?”在光被吸收时会发生什么?” And honestly, our physics is telling us a lot of contradictory things.老实说 我们的物理学上存在很多互相矛盾的事物 And our image of what an event horizon really is may be changing.我们对事件视界本质的认识可能正在改变 People like Stephen Hawking and Leonard Susskind have recently come up with this idea that史蒂芬·霍金和伦纳德·苏斯金德等人最近提出 a black hole should not be able to destroy information.黑洞应该不具备破坏信息的能力 O.K., what do we mean by information?我们所说的信息是什么呢? Information can be almost anything.信息几乎可以是任何东西 You know, all of the different atoms in my body have angular momentum,人体内所有不同的原子都有角动量 they have charge, they have mass.电荷和质量 There’s all sorts of little bits of information that make me me.所有的这些信息使我成为我自己 At the quantum mechanic level, the tiniest of levels,在量子力学水平 最微小的水平上 there are different amounts of energy,存在不同量级的能量 there are different probabilities在人的物质结构中 that are contained in the structure of my matter.包含着不同的可能性 And information, in some ways is a form of energy.信息在某种角度上是一种能量 It’s actually a way that you can describe something which is somehow,它实际上是一种描述事物的方式 in a strange way, a higher energy state that not being able to describe something.以一种奇怪的方式描述了一种无法描述事物的高能量状态 And so one of the questions is, “If energy really can’t be destroyed,因而产生了一个问题 “如果能量无法被破坏 energy itself is something that is intrinsic in the universe,因为能量本身就是宇宙中固有的东西 you can’t really created or destroy it.你无法创造或破坏它 Is it possible that information is the same way?那么信息是否也可能是这样呢? Is there really no way to actually destroy the information about真的无法破坏有关人体内亚原子粒子 what all of my subatomic particles are doing right now?”此刻状态的信息吗?” So black holes kind of stare you right in the face.黑洞就像这样摆在你面前 What a black hole supposedly does is it absorbs everything.据推测 黑洞所做的就是吸收一切事物 Space and time bend into a black hole so that nothing can escape.时空弯曲成一个黑洞 任何东西都无法逃脱 That means that any information about the material that fell in is gone.这意味着任何进入其中的信息都消失了 The only thing we know about is that as a black hole absorbs material,我们唯一知道的是 当黑洞吸收物质时 it gets more massive.它会变得更庞大 It actually adds that mass to the mass of the black hole.该质量会增加黑洞的质量 And as that mass increases, the event horizon becomes larger.随着质量的增加 事件视界也会变大 Basically, the area where space is so curved that you can’t get out基本上 黑洞的质量越大 begins to extend, the more massive a black hole is.空间弯曲而难以逃脱的区域越广 The most massive black holes we know of in the universe我们已知宇宙中质量最大的黑洞 are many billions of times the mass of our sun.是太阳质量的数十亿倍 And the physical extent of this event horizon is about the size of这个黑洞的事件视界的物理范围约有 our solar system, maybe like out to the planet Pluto.太阳系那么大 可能会延伸到冥王星那么远 So is it possible, then,那么有可能吗 if everything goes into a black hole and nothing ever comes out,一切都陷入了黑洞却从没有任何东西能从中逃脱 space and time go inside the black hole and don’t come out?那时空进入黑洞也出不来吗? What happened to that information?它的信息发生了什么呢? And this has begun to make a lot of people wonder这让很多人开始怀疑 if we really have thought of black holes the wrong way.我们理解黑洞的方式是否出了错 Maybe there isn’t an event horizon in the true sense.也许真正意义上的事件视界并不存在 I actually had a friend of mine that studies black holes say,我有一个在研究黑洞的朋友说 “Well, I’m not sure if they’re black.“我不确定黑洞是否是黑色的 They may be very, very dark navy blue.”它们也许是非常非常深的海军蓝呢” And what he meant by that is, maybe there are some tricks他的意思是 也许有一些技巧可以 to actually get information out of a black hole.从黑洞中获取信息 Maybe there really is some form of energy也许确实存在某种形式的能量 that can leak away from the black hole over time.会随时间流逝从黑洞中逃逸出来 Now, Stephen Hawking wondered史蒂芬·霍金怀疑 if quantum effects very near the event horizon事件视界附近的量子效应 could actually separate something called virtual particles,也许可以分离出被称为虚拟粒子的东西 the energy of space itself.即空间本身的能量 If you’re familiar with Einstein’s equation, E equals MC squared,如果你熟悉爱因斯坦方程式 △ E=(△m)c² energy equals mass times the speed of light squared.即能量等于质量乘以光速的平方 Energy and mass are the same thing.就知道能量和质量是一回事 They’re equivalent.它们是对等的 You can actually make mass into energy,你可以将质量转化为能量 and you can make energy into mass.也可以将能量转化为质量 Around a black hole, where there’s very hot gas, very high temperatures,在黑洞周围 有高热气体 极度高温 very strong magnetic fields, perhaps, there’s a lot of energy.超强磁场 也许还有庞大的能量 And that energy can actually manifest itself as particles, mass.而该能量可以表现为粒子和质量 And the energy always creates particle/antiparticle pairs.该能量会一直产生粒子-反粒子对 They’re called virtual particles.这被称为虚拟粒子 And matter and antimatter, the thing you know about is而关于物质和反物质 我们所了解的是 that it annihilates immediately.它会立即消失 So these tiny little particles come into existence,这些微小的粒子出现 then annihilate, and you’re back to energy.然后消失 从而产生能量 And this happens all around us all the time.而这每一刻都在我们身边发生着 So, if this happens near a black hole,因此 如果这发生在一个黑洞附近 it’s possible one of these little particles can go into the black hole则其中一个小颗粒可能会进入黑洞 and the other one escapes.而另一个会逃逸 And all of a sudden, there’s a particle that shouldn’t be there.一个不应该在那儿的粒子突然出现了 The universe basically has a new particle, energy from nowhere.宇宙中突然出现了一个能量来源不明的全新粒子 And how can that work?这怎么可能呢? And the information theory people say that what happens对此 信息论人士认为 is that energy has to come out of the black hole.能量一定来自于黑洞 The black hole’s mass begins to decrease if there is this poor little orphan particle如果出现了这样从一开始就不应该存在的小粒子 that shouldn’t have been there in the first place.那么 黑洞的质量会开始减少 So over time, tiny particle by tiny particle,因此 随着时间流逝 随着一个又一个微小粒子的出现 these black holes can evaporate away.这些黑洞会蒸发掉 And maybe there’s something about those virtual particles that contain也许那些虚拟粒子中包含一些 some information about the black hole and what fell into it.有关黑洞及陷入其中的物质的信息 It even gets stranger than that,比这更奇怪的是 because a lot of people think that time goes slower and slower很多人认为 越接近黑洞 as you approach a black hole,时间流逝就越慢 till, at the event horizon, time basically stops.到事件视界时 时间基本上停滞了 So instead of anything really ever falling into a black hole,因此 事件视界其实可能是一种信息外壳 what the event horizon may be is some sort of shell of information.而不是由真正陷入黑洞的事物构成 Things are stopped in time as they fell into the black hole.事物在落入黑洞时处于时间上的相对静态 And right at that boundary, there is almost kind of a sphere,在该边界处 有一个近似的球体 a two-dimensional surface一个二维表面 that somehow contains all the information about what’s inside the black hole.它以某种方式包含着有关黑洞内部的所有信息 And this reminded people of something that这使人们想到了 the humans invented, called a hologram.人类发明的一种东西 全息图 Now, a hologram is a two-dimensional object.全息图是一个二维物体 You can make it out of glass or a piece of film.可以用玻璃或薄膜制成 And you shine a light through it,当一束光穿过它时 and all of a sudden, there seem to be three-dimensional projections.会突然一下产生一个三维投影 And the idea is that 这个想法意味着 are we looking at some fundamental way the universe stores information.我们是在研究宇宙存储信息的一些基本方式吗? Around a black hole, where space and time have been crushed out of existence,在时空已经被粉碎而不复存在的黑洞周围 could there be a shell of information, something like a hologram?会不会有一个类似于全息图的信息外壳存在呢? And a lot of people began to wonder,许多人开始认为 maybe that’s the way the universe works on a larger scale.也许这就是宇宙在更大尺度上的运作方式 Maybe black holes are showing us, intrinsically,也许黑洞从本质上向我们揭示了 what the underlying nature of reality is,现实深藏的本质是什么 that there really is a two-dimensional surface of something现实中存在着某种二维表面 that contains all information about the entire universe.其中包含着整个宇宙的所有信息 Maybe in some way, we are part of this giant hologram.也许在某种程度上 我们是这个巨大全息图的一部分 And I should mention that the word, hologram,需要注意的是 全息图这个词 in no way implies that somebody made the hologram.并不意味着它是被谁制造出来的 We’re just talking about the universe may really be我们只是在谈论 宇宙其实可能是 information contained in a two-dimensional structure,包含在一个二维结构中的信息 not the three dimensions that we’re aware of now.而不是包含在我们如今所知的三维结构中 This all sounds incredibly strange.这听起来实在异常奇怪 I’m always a little bit afraid to even talk about it.我甚至总有点害怕谈论它 But I think that the thing to really kind of gain from this但我认为 我们从中真正收获的是 is that black holes are staring us right in the face.我们知道黑洞就摆在我们面前 We’re now observing them.我们现在正在观察它们 They’re right there.它们就在那儿 And we cannot really describe我们无法真正描述 how the universe should work with one of these things.宇宙是如何与黑洞一起运作的 They don’t make sense.黑洞难以理解 The universe shouldn’t be able to lose information.宇宙不应该会丢失信息 So how do you get information那么当空间本身产生了弯曲 when space itself are bent in and nothing comes out?却没有东西出来时 你该如何获取信息呢? Black holes may be the key to where the next physics has to go.黑洞可能是物理学进一步发展的关键 We all know that we need a next Einstein, a next quantum theory,众所周知 我们需要下一个爱因斯坦 下一个量子理论 something that actually describes我们需要知道 how gravity works in very intense situations like a black hole.重力是如何在黑洞这样的激烈环境中运作的 Now we’re actually observing black holes well enough我们现在已经能很好地观察黑洞了 that we really have to get on this.我们确信自己会继续进行下去 We really have to figure out我们也确信自己会弄清 how the universe works around one of these things.宇宙究竟是如何围绕黑洞运转的 And we may end up learning what the universe itself really is.我们最终也许能认识到宇宙真正的样子
  • 2021-10-26找到工作的意义其实没那么难找到工作的意义其实没那么难 我认为有些人找不到工作的意义 是很正常的 我认为找到自己工作的意义 是一个很严峻的挑战 甚至可以说 从很多方面来说 这个要求都过高了 尤其是对于那些刚毕业 开始工作的年轻人来说 重要的是记住 找到你自己工作的意义 不是说非得找一份能让你激情澎湃的事业 这也不意味着 领导者必须要分配意义 像发牌一样 把意义一个个分给团队成员 我觉得要走中间路线 要激发队员的兴趣 让队员去亲身体验 他们的工作成果能给客户带来什么 我举个例子 我曾经与微软公司合作 维也纳的区域经理是多萝西 她做的一件事十分值得关注 当她带队开始一个新项目时 他们会跟客户一起去现场 并非只有高级领导会去 整个团队都会去 有时人数多达15个 从编代码的程序员 到负责维护客户关系的客户代表 还有所有负责中间环节的工作人员 比如物流人员 运行调度的人 他们都会一起去 比如他们会去一家想要实现无纸化运营的医院 他们会去那里跟工作人员面谈 来了解无纸化过程的棘手之处 他们还去过特斯拉 不仅是和那里的工程师交流 他们还和财务部的人交流 和生产车间的人交流 甚至和运营部门的人交流 另一个例子是Xbox 他们去现场 了解眼下发货和快递过程中存在什么问题 这就是微软解决工作意义问题的方式 他们放弃了销售软件时那种”什么都要知道“的文化 转变为销售解决方案时那种”什么都要了解“的文化 这和下面这个观点是一致的 我们要让团队理解客户的问题 痛点在哪? 我们可以帮助解决什么问题? 多萝西的做法是带着整个团队去做实地采访 尽管有些员工职位不高 是非常普通的小职员 不担任高级经理 入职才一两年 多萝西也会带他们去了解 他们在为谁解决问题? 解决什么问题? 我觉得这个办法简单又经济 可以提升意义感 理解为何工作 这并不需要你有多高涨的热情 不需要你觉得好像如果不工作 就活不下去一样 只需要你觉得 反正我做程序员只是为了挣钱 不过我工作的组织 恰好让我明白了自己为什么要做这份工作 组织让我了解了这个程序的用户 让我明白 如果我做好这份工作 Xbox的员工就能准时发货 这样我就找到工作的意义了 订阅NEW VIDEOS DAILY @ 5 AM ET 迅速增长智慧
  • 2021-10-26不良家庭的七个迹象《来吧!心理学》 Hey, thank you for joining us here at Psych2go.嘿 感谢加入《来吧!心理学》 References are listed in the description below if you want to learn more.若想了解更多 请参考下方的说明 Are there occasional disagreements within your family?你家里是否偶尔会争吵? Your sibling is driving you up the wall, and your parents are too harsh?兄弟姐妹快把你逼疯了 且父母对你太过严厉? If the answer is yes, no worries, you’re probably still good.若是如此 别担心 你的处境还不算差 There is no perfectly peaceful family.没有完全不争不吵的家庭 In the end, you can always count on them to be there for you-家人最终也是你永远的依靠 and you feel safe and loved.让你有安全感和被爱感 A toxic family situation, however, is more persistent and constant.而在不良家庭中 争吵则比正常情况更为持续 Psychological damage from growing up在这种不健全的环境中成长 in this dysfunctional environment breeds lasting stress,心理损伤随之而来 这使家庭成员间产生 anxiety, conflict, and fear among the family members.长久的压力 焦虑 矛盾 以及惧怕 Does this sound a little too close for comfort?听起来这是否有些过于真实 引起不安? To find out more, here are seven telltale signs-为进一步了解 下面有七个能说明问题的迹象 that you are indeed living in a toxic home environment.表明你的确生活在不良家庭的环境里 One: You feel invisible.一 无存在感 Having your needs neglected by a family需求被家人所忽视 can be incredibly damaging to your mental health and self-esteem.这对你的心理健康和自尊心可能有极大伤害 It’s easy to feel invisible when your parents always act as if they’re too busy for you当父母总是忙得不可开交 或兄弟姐妹也没空陪你时 Or none of your siblings can make the time to hang out with you.你便很容易感到被忽视 Nobody seems to care or notice how you’re doing,似乎没有人关心 或留意你的近况 what you’re feeling, or what you have to say.无人在意你的心声 你有口难言 Instead of communicating openly and honestly with one another like a healthy family,不像健康家庭彼此敞开心扉 坦诚交流 yours makes you feel isolated, alone and insignificant.你的不良家庭则让你深感孤独且毫无价值 Two: You feel pressured.二 你感到有压力 Have you ever felt crushing guilt, worthlessness,你是否有过无比内疚 妄自菲薄 or even fear from not getting 100%?甚至担心自己拿不到满分的时候? Did that piano recital only land you third place instead of first,那次钢琴演奏会 你是否得了第三名而非第一名 and now you wonder why you even bothered to try?而现在你在想当初那么努力到底是为什么? Your family might be imposing conditions of worth on you,也许是 你的家人将价值条件强加于你了 which is a toxic behavior.这样做有害无益 A famous psychotherapist, Carl Rogers,著名心理学家卡尔·罗杰斯说过 says the conditions of worth means that you only feel loved and accepted by someone-价值条件指 只有当你满足了人们对你的期望时 when you live up to their expectations of you.你才能得到他们的关爱与接纳 Parents are particularly guilty of this-而父母这样做尤其不对 while they may initially believe they’re doing it for your own good.然而他们最初可能认为 这样做是为你好 They then escalate,之后便慢慢提高要求 setting unrealistically high standards for you-对你设置不切实际的高标准 with constant criticism for every perceived tiny mistake.每每发现一个小小的错误 就经常批评你 This is toxic.这有害无益 Three: You feel misunderstood and discarded.三 你感到被误解和被抛弃 Maybe you’ve tried to talk to them,也许你试过与他们沟通 or give what you feel are obvious signs regarding what you’re going through.或通过表现让他们明白你正在经历什么 Yet, no one in your family seems to understand you or even care to.然而 家里似乎没有人理解 或关心你 Your feelings are dismissed,你的情感被忽视了 and nothing you’re going through is deemed important.你当下的经历都被认为是无关紧要的 Even though you’re crying out for help, they’re not supportive.即使你大声求助 他们也不会施以援手 Even though you’re struggling, they remain unsympathetic and indifferent.就算你在拼命挣扎 他们依然无动于衷 Four: You feel like you’re worth depends on四 你感觉自身价值取决于 what you can give, not who you are.你的贡献 而非自己家人的身份 Are your family members only nice to you你的家人是否向你索取时 when they want something from you?才会对你好? Do you know that when they act caring they’re gonna ask for something afterwards?他们假意关心后 是否就会向你索取? Saying yes to these questions is a definite red flag courtesy of a toxic family.若二者兼有 就表明你的家庭是不良家庭 Relatives who act this way will often manipulate you,如此处事的亲属经常会利用你 exploiting you for their own gain.为一己之利而压榨你 You’re nothing more to them than a means to an end.你只是他们达成目的的一种手段 So they’ll continually take without ever giving back.所以 他们会不断索取 却没有一丝回报 Even worse,更糟糕的是 giving in to their demands creates a positive feedback loop-满足他们的要求后 一个正反馈的循环便随之形成 encouraging them to take advantage of you even more.鼓动他们进一步地剥削你 Five: You feel forced to be around them.五 你感觉是被强制与他们呆在一起 Another sign of a toxic family is不良家庭的另一个迹象是 if you feel suffocated simply by being around them.要是你一与他们呆在一起 就感到窒息 You come home and spend time with them only because you feel you have no choice.回家跟他们在一起 也只因你别无选择 If you try to make your own life easy,如果你试着让自己过得轻松些 they’ll make you feel guilty,他们就会让你有负罪感 even ashamed for abandoning them.甚至因离开他们而感到羞愧 Painting you as the villain.把你当成恶人 You feel so helplessly trapped in their vicious cycle of negativity-无助的你陷入他们消极的恶性循环中 that you may resort to lying, just so you can get a breather.为了能喘口气 你可能会去说谎 But getting that little break results in a significant feeling of relief.但就是这点短暂的休息带给你极大的解脱感 Six: They play power politics chess, and you’re the pawn.六 你是家人强权政治棋盘下的一颗棋子 Power politics is defined as the struggle for power through deceitful and manipulative tactics.强权政治指 通过欺诈和控制的手段来获得权力 This is common for divorced parents who use their children as leverage against their ex-spouse.利用孩子来对抗前配偶 这在离异父母中很常见 Or, those in an unhappy marriage who constantly fight at home.婚姻不幸且常在家吵架的夫妻也如此 Although the toxic behavior isn’t usually directed at the children,虽然这些不良行为通常不直接针对孩子 it can still be emotionally traumatizing for them,但仍会对他们造成精神损伤 as it creates a disruptive,因为这些行为构建了一个 chaotic and unstable growing up environment.具有破坏性 混乱且不稳定的成长环境 Seven: You feel constantly unhappy being around them.七 在家人身边 你总是感到不开心 I know we have our occasional bad days,我知道 偶尔有些日子我们会不太顺心 days when being around anyone even your family is difficult.那些日子里 和任何人甚至自己的家人在一块儿都很难 That’s fine, that happens and it’s not unhealthy.没关系 这确实存在 且十分正常 In a toxic familial situation, this feeling is fairly constant.但在不良家庭里 这种感觉相对频繁 In fact, you might say it’s the norm with how you feel being around your family.事实上 你可能认为这是在家人身边的常态 They drag you down into their overwhelming and persistent negativity.你被拖入家人的压倒性的 持续性的消极状态 They are constantly whining and moaning about the unfairness of life,他们不断唠叨和抱怨着生活的不公 even when good things happen.即便在好事发生时 They find a way to make it a bad thing.他们也会设法将其变成坏事 Since they can never let themselves be happy or content,因为他们永远不会让自己快乐或满足 you can’t either.你也不行 If you’re not just as unhappy, they may resent you for it.如果你感到快乐 他们可能会因此生你的气 This toxicity can build over time-这种毒性会随着时间而增强 like layered rot until the point where the bad stuff is so unbearable,直到达到令人无法忍受的程度 就像层层的衰败腐烂物 you have to leave for self-preservation.为了自保 你不得不离开 Living with a toxic family生活在不良家庭里 puts your mental health at constant risk.精神健康将持续处于危险中 Moving away from your family远离家庭 does not necessarily reverse the damaging effects.不一定能消除这种破坏性的影响 You could be haunted for a long time-你可能很长一段时间都很困扰 with some psychological scars that might never heal without proper treatment.身负一些未被恰当治疗 且可能永远无法治愈的心病 So, if you are struggling to cut these people out of your life所以 如果你努力将这些人从你的生活里踢出去 and create healthy boundaries for yourself,并为自己创造健康的生活圈子 this is not wrong.这没有错 In fact, this is healthy.事实上 这有益于健康 You don’t have to suffer in silence, and you’re not alone.你不必默默忍受 你也并不孤单 Reach out to a mental health care professional, or social worker-主动接触心理健康专家 或社会工作者 to get the help you need to protect yourself from any future emotional damage.以获得所需的援助 来保护自己免受未来的情感伤害 The first step to recovery is simply recognizing the signs.恢复的第一步是 简单地辨别出这些迹象 Do any of these signs resonate with you?这些迹象是否引起你的共鸣? Do you know someone who may be in or was in one of these situations你是否知道有谁可能 或曾经处于这些处境中? We hope we’ve helped you understand the world around you a little better.我们希望能帮你更好地了解周围的世界 Please like, share and subscribe and let us know what you’d like to see next.请点赞 分享 订阅 并告诉我们下期想看的内容 Thanks for watching.感谢收看
  • 2021-10-17实地探访康复治疗中心你想知道康复治疗师是怎么工作的吗?Have you ever wondered what it’s like to work as a physical therapy technician? 我是伊丽莎白I’m Elizabeth. 今天就让我们与卡林顿大学康复治疗专业的毕业生一起Today we’re spending time with some physical therapy technology graduates from Carrington college 去了解“阿兹脊椎与运动康复中心”中普通的一天是怎样的to find out what a typical day is like here at AZ spine disc and sport. 康复治疗师一天的生活 阿兹脊椎与运动康复中心 我的名字是ShuwonMy name is Shuwon 我毕业于卡林顿大学的康复治疗专业and I’ve graduated from the physical therapy technology at Carrington college 毕业后我就被(阿兹脊椎与运动康复中心)雇佣了 这让我非常惊喜and right after I got hired so that was amazing. 我现在是一名阿兹脊椎与运动康复中心的康复治疗师I’m a physical therapy technician at AZ spine disc and sport, 我喜欢与人接触 我喜欢帮助人们恢复健康I love like people, I love making people feel better. 每天Each day, 每隔30分钟就有新的病人new patient comes in every 30 minutes, 所以我们要为此做准备so we get prepared for that. 我是康复治疗科的主任I’m a manager in the physical therapy department. 对于康复治疗师们For the physical therapy technician, 一般他们来了以后a normal day is they are just going to come, 就会找到休息室的病人 并开始治疗get the patient from the lobby, they’re gonna get them started. 当他们登记好以后I see that they are checked in 我会走上前and I go up to the front. 微笑着和他们打招呼I greet them, I was with a smile, 我喜欢看到他们and it’s always good to see them. 康复治疗师会做一个运动项目的清单The physical therapist kind of has a list of exercises 让病人按照清单上的项目去锻炼 可增强体质that she wants the patient to do, to build strength, 锻炼肌肉to kind of work up the muscle. 康复治疗师会告诉我需要做的每一件事Everything that I do the physical therapist tells me what to do 而我只需要按照要求照顾病人and I just mirror it on the patient, 无论康复治疗师要求做什么whichever the physical therapist wants to do. 我们做过超声波治疗 电击疗法 滚球治疗We get to do the ultrasounds, electrical stimulation, highballs, 有时候只是在他们背上进行简单的冷敷或者热敷sometimes it’s just a plain ice pack or a heat pack on their backs. 我们这有许多设备Yeah. So a lot of our equipment here in office 与卡林顿大学的非常相似is super similar to what’s at Carrington College. 当这些学生来到这里后So when the students come in here, 他们很快会学习到怎么治疗it’s…it’s a pretty quick learning curve. 所以当他们学完了治疗课程后So when they’re done with their therapy, 我们会让他们去治疗一线 并为他们重新制定计划we’re gonna walk them up front and get them rescheduled. 学生能始终参与理疗计划是非常重要的It’s super important that they are staying on a treatment plan, 那样他们可以不断地做到越来越好so they can continue to get better. 当我雇佣康复治疗师时When I’m hiring a physical therapy technician here, 我要寻找的就是I’m looking for somebody that is 快节奏 并且拥有积极的态度的人they gotta be fast paced, positive attitude, 在这里你需要一直保持阳光积极you always got to be positive here. 我对自己的工作有非常大的热情 因为我喜欢它I’m just super passionate about what I do. I just love my job. 我在这里接触过的The Carrington college graduates 卡林顿大学的毕业生that I’ve had come through here. 他们受到了良好的教育they’re well educated, 态度非常好they have good attitudes 并且也很努力and they like to work hard. 所以你还在等什么呢So what are you waiting for? 想了解更多卡林顿大学康复治疗技术项目的情况To learn more about the physical therapy technology program at Carrington college, 请浏览卡林顿大学网站visit Carrington.edu today. 卡林顿大学Carrington College, 医疗事业的起点the starting point for health care careers
  • 2021-10-17手机会导致唾液腺肿瘤吗?营养真相 许多研究都认为A summary of studies found 手机辐射不会带来严重后果no acute effects of cell phone radiation 比如恶心 头痛 头晕 疲惫like nausea,headaches,dizziness,fatigue 但他们只调查了短期影响but they were just looking at the short-term effects 并没考虑任何有关潜在的长期影响的数据not considering any of the data on the potential long-term effects. 没有严重的后果No acute effects 因此未来研究应致力于研究so future research efforts should concentrate on 可能存在的慢性影响possible chronic effects. 我研究了一些有关脑瘤的报告I’ve explored the studies on brain tumors 特别是听觉神经对耳朵的影响and on the effects of theauditory nerve in the ear, 但手机辐射并不只与你的大脑一侧有关but that’s not all there is on the side of your head. 还与你的大脑 耳朵There’s your brain, your ear, 和你耳朵旁大大的唾液腺——腮腺有关and your parotid gland the big salivary gland right next to your ear. 大约有1‰的人会患上唾液腺癌About 1 in a thousand peopledevelop salivary gland cancer in their life time. 所以问题是so the question is: 手机的使用会增加唾液腺肿瘤发生的几率吗?does cell phone use increase the chances of parotid gland tumor development? 如果你有一个装有100个if you have 100 people drool into a test tube, 每天使用手机超过一小时的人唾液的试管the saliva of those who use a cell phone more than an hour a day 与那些打电话少的人相比 他们唾液的抗氧化能力明显要低得多does appear to have significantly less antioxidant capacity than those who talk less. 考虑到抗氧化剂的主要作用So considering the major protective role of antioxidants 是保护DNA防止受到自由基的损伤to protect against free-radical-induced DNA damage 而自由基损伤会导致癌症that can lead to cancer, 这可能是手机增加唾液腺肿瘤风险的潜在途径this could be a potential route by which cell phone increases salivary tumor risk. 但这也仅仅是一种观测研究But this was just an observational study. 也许那些成天打电话的人Maybe those who are on their phones all day 不如那些打电话少的人吃得健康呢?tend to eat worse diets than those who talk less? 接下来的研究更令人信服And this study is a little more convincing. 研究发现They found that 收集同一个人打电话一侧的唾液saliva taken from the salivary gland on the side of the head 与不打电话一侧的唾液they were using the phone on had higher levels of inflammatory markers 相比较compared to saliva takenfrom the same person, 有着更高的炎症水平but just from the non-phone side of their head. 炎症水平的上升不是一定来自手机辐射Now this increase in inflammation isn’t necessarily from the cell phone radiation, 也可能来自由手机产生的热量but may just be from the heat generated by the phone. 仅是每天用一小时把热的东西按在脸上Just pressing anything warm against your face for an hour a day 就可能对你的腺体有害might not be good for your glands. 口腔中细胞氧化和炎症水平增加Does the increased oxidation and inflammation 所引发的细胞异常增生actually translate out into cytogenetic abnormalities, 是否意味着嘴中的细胞和染色体发生了突变?meaning cell and chromosomalabnormalities in your mouth? 那些手机用量多的人Those who use cell phones a lot do appear 舌头里发现了大量的破碎细胞to have an increased number of broken eggs in their tongues. 什么?What? 这种破碎细胞的现象是一种与癌症有关的细胞遗传异常学中相当好玩的描述That’s a rather playful descriptionof a cytogenetic abnormality associated with cancer. 但是 我们真正担心的是可能引发的癌症Ok.But what we really care about is cancer cancer. 手机增加了腮腺肿瘤发生的几率吗Does cell phone use increase the chances of parotid gland tumor development? 这是第一次针对已发表文献进行的综述This is the first systematic review ever published to evaluate that 手机的使用确实与各项风险增长有关and cell phone use does appear to be associated with increased risk. 这是探索绝对风险与相对风险的好机会This is a good time to exploreabsolute versus relative risk. 如果你被问到是否愿意每天吃药If you were asked whether you’d be willing to take a daily pill 来降低一半因死于心脏病的风险to reduce your chances of dying from a heart attack by 50% 你可能会急于接受you might jump at it 但如果你还年轻还健康but if you’re so young and healthy 你的患癌的风险可能仅是千分之二that your risk of that is only like 2 in a thousand 在接下来的十年或十二年里over the next 10 or 20 years, 吃大约五千颗药Then taken those five thousand or so pills 仅把可能性从千分之二降到千分之一可能对你并没用may not be worth it for you to go from 2 in a 1000 to 1 in a 1000. 降低50%听起来还不错50% sounds great, 但如果在已经很少的2‰的基础上进一步降低but if you’re talking a really rare event 那就没什么意思了then it’s less exciting. 即使手机的使用使风险增长了28%So even if cell phones did increase risk 28%, 接下来一生中手机的使用then a lifetime of cell phone use 仅使你患癌症的可能性would only increase your risk of getting such a tumor 从1/1400升高到大约1/1000from a 1 in 1,400 chance to about a 1 in 1,100 chance. 考虑到在很大程度上If you want to reduce your risk, 所有的热度和手机辐都是局部现象 如果你想降低风险though both the heat and cell phone emissions are largely a local phenomenon, 那么你可以使用so you can use of 喇叭扩音器或是头戴式耳机来减少直接接触手机a speakerphone or headset to reduce exposure, 或者你可以多使用打字的方式or you can do more texting. 基本上 在我们对这方面知识了解更多之前Basically, until we know more, 采用这些防范措施是有理由的the adoption of such precautions is not unreasonable, 特别是对年轻群体来说particularly among young people 研究者非常担心潜在风险对他们的伤害something that concerns some researchers 因此建议孩子们要尽可能减少手机的使用enough to recommend youngchildren consider minimizing their use altogether. 营养真相
  • 2021-10-1713种无饥饿减肥为什么节食不能减肥? 节食意味着禁令 这就是为什么我们更喜欢吃一些对我们不好的东西 节食意味着新陈代谢减慢机体开始储存能量并将重量“作为储备” 节食意味着饱腹激素水平的降低正因为如此 我们经常感到饥饿 节食意味着身体的压力这种压力之后 多余的体重会迅速反弹 怎样才能正确地减肥呢? 遵守四条简单规则 1.每天吃5–6次并且充分咀嚼食物 以便捕捉饱食的信号 2.坚持均衡饮食的配方:50/30/20 其中50%是碳水化合物 30%是蛋白质 20%是脂肪 3.有规律的身体锻炼燃烧比你摄入的更多的卡路里 4.健康的睡眠要想完全恢复身体 你需要7–8小时的睡眠 记住!暂时的节食是没有用的 减肥的最好方式 就是改变生活方式而不是一劳永逸 为什么锻炼不能减肥? 第一次去健身房就抓举哑铃 ❌ 从小设备开始–加强你的肌肉 ✔ 一直锻炼到精疲力竭 ❌ 最佳锻炼次数是每周3–4次 ✔ 节食意味着你不需要锻炼 ❌ 完美搭配是:锻炼+健康饮食 ✔ 有氧运动比肌肉锻炼更有效 ❌ 完美组合:有氧运动+肌肉锻炼+拉伸✔ 你不能吃任何甜食 ❌ 你可以每周吃一次甜点 ✔ 这样你就不会吃整个冰箱里的食物了 晚上吃东西是不允许的 ✔ 睡前3–4小时吃东西 五种非超重引起的腹部类型 一 “救生圈”型腹部 原因:1.久坐不动的生活方式 2.过量的糖分 碳水化合物 或者酒精 如何克服:1.少糖分和酒精 2.多蛋白质和良性脂肪(坚果 油性鱼类) 3.走路4.锻炼:刺蹲俯卧撑 二 压力型腹部 原因:1.长期的压力 2.饮食不规律3.肠易激 4.不健康的饮食习惯 如何克服:1.早睡 2.在饮食中加入镁3.平静下来:瑜伽 拉伸 菊花茶 三 小肚子型腹部 原因:1.最近生过小孩 2.单一的饮食3.脊柱弯曲 如何克服:1.健康饮食:更多的纤维 碳水化合物 蔬菜和水 2.平板撑3.循环训练 四 妈妈型腹部 原因:盆底无力 如何克服:1.增加良性脂肪 2.凯格尔练习3.拉伸 4.收腹5.午间小憩 五 晚上肿胀型腹部 原因:1.食物过敏 2.肠无力 如何克服:1.不吃淀粉类食物 酒精类饮品 奶制品 2.更多蔬菜 鸡肉 鱼肉 水3.丰盛的早餐 4.呼吸训练:躺下深呼吸10次5.饭后散步 为什么我不需要运动或者节食? 我有一只狗 公寓楼里的电梯坏了 公交汽车总是比我早到达站台 我的工作就是找时间做一切事 我的朋友爱吃甜食 我姐需要我帮忙照顾她的孩子 我男朋友喜欢… 玩乐 运动是如何改变我们身体的? 运动时: 我们的新陈代谢加强 血液循环得到改善 运动结束时: 蛋白质和碳水化合物的吸收速度是原来的四倍 内啡肽的释放改善了我们的情绪 运动数小时后: 我们的呼吸变得有规律 不再失眠 运动数周后: 心脏和血液瓣膜更好地运转 身体的耐力提高 运动数月后: 大脑开始更快地做出正确的决定 运动数年后: 预期寿命增加 衰老过程减慢 游泳是如何影响你的健康的 最初几个小时里: 压力和紧张程度下降 呼吸系统得到加强 全身肌肉都发挥作用 一周后: 血液循环得到改善 消除胆固醇的机制开始发挥作用 两周后: 你的情绪和睡眠都得到改善 两个月后: 身体的整体健康状况得以提高 姿态得到改善 抗感染力得到提高 半年后: 你会有一个苗条的身材并且健康状况良好 为什么步行对你有好处? 当你步行时:·代谢过程得到加强 ·呼吸系统得到改善·身体90%的肌肉都得到锻炼 步行之后:你的情绪得到改善 胆固醇水平降低血液流动得到改善 一周内:·耐力增加 ·血压正常化·心血管系统得到加强 一个月内:形体得到改善 免疫力得到提高身材看起来更苗条 两个月内: ·睡眠质量得到改善·衰老过程得到减缓 最重要的是:步行没有副作用 也不危险 北欧式健走的好处 跑步:45%的肌肉在工作 1小时燃烧300卡路里 骑自行车:50%的肌肉在工作 1小时燃烧500卡路里 北欧式健走:90%的肌肉在工作 1小时燃烧700卡路里 下背部和关节的负荷降低了35% 燃烧脂肪 加强背部肌肉 提高免疫力 减轻压力 锻炼腿部和臀部 改善体态 加强肩部和胸部肌肉 改善情绪 锻炼2–3个月后:有一个强大的身体内核 健美的肌肉 压力正常 体重减轻 体内充满氧气 你要跑多少才能消耗掉食物 一块巧克力饼干跑15分钟 即2.5km 一个鸡蛋跑20分钟 即3.4km 白面包做的吐司跑22分钟 即3.6km 一个香蕉跑23分钟 即3.6km 100g牛奶巧克力跑140分钟 即23.4km 230g牛排跑166分钟 即27.2km 一根芹菜跑0分钟 你的身体消化芹菜的卡路里比从它吸收的卡路里要多 10种减肥的自然方法 一天1–3颗鸡蛋少量卡路里和大量维他命 早上一杯柠檬水(半颗柠檬+1杯水)让你精力充沛 加速新陈代谢 白天1–2杯绿茶清除危险的腹部脂肪 晚上一杯苹果醋(1–2茶匙苹果醋+1杯水)加速新陈代谢 对抗感染 饭后清洁牙齿(牙膏或漱口水)帮你避免吃太多零食 体能活动(每天30–40分钟)燃脂塑型 非碳酸水(每天0.5L)帮助肠道工作 拒绝预先煮好的食物糖或有害添加剂 睡眠(一天7-8小时)稳定身体机能 燃烧脂肪 正确饮食而非节食减少分量 多吃不含脂肪的肉类和蔬菜 当我们减肥时脂肪去哪儿了? 是随着我们的汗水排出去了吗?不是 是变成肌肉了吗?不是 或者直接转化为能量了吗? 事实上脂肪被氧化了 在氧气的作用下脂肪细胞被分解成了二氧化碳和水 二氧化碳通过呼吸排出水通过尿液和汗液排出 如果你想燃烧10kg脂肪你需要: ·燃烧94000千卡·吸入29kg氧气 ·排出1.6kg水·呼出8.4kg二氧化碳 脂肪去哪儿了?它被呼吸掉了 所以 记住: 当你运动时 你的呼吸加快开始流汗时 就开始燃烧脂肪了 5个帮助你减肥的神奇的点 1.耳朵上的点 ·加速新陈代谢·减少疲劳 按摩3分钟一天两次 2.脸上的点控制饥饿感和焦虑感 按摩5分钟一天两次 3.腿上的点·改善消化 ·抑制炎症·减轻PMS期间的痉挛 做强圆周运动按摩3分钟一天1-2次 4.肘上的点 ·消除肿胀·改善肠道功能 按摩1分钟一天1-2次 5.脚踝上的点按住一分钟 一天1次 每天的这几分钟将在一个月内改变你的身体 如何不运动就缩小腹部 按摩这个点有助于减少胀气 清理肠胃 每天每侧按摩2-3分钟 按摩这个点有助于克服水潴留和胃痛 每天每侧按摩2-3分钟 按摩这个点有助于增加肠道活动 减轻负担 每天每侧按摩2-3分钟 每天早晨喝一杯温柠檬水 不要在早餐时喝牛奶或咖啡 不要空腹喝酒 不要吃太多油腻食物 喝姜茶 4个与饮食无关的超重原因 “肾上腺”式体重增加腹部和腰部脂肪堆积 “肝脏”式体重增加动脉血压 血糖和胆固醇水平升高 “甲状腺”式体重增加经常疲劳 皮肤松弛 抑郁 卵巢癌功能障碍的后果增重甚至出现在节食和运动时 科学家们揭示 一杯红酒相当于在体育馆里一小时的运动 在加拿大亚伯达大学的调查显示一杯红酒和一小时的锻炼一样健康 酒里有白藜芦醇 加快你的新陈代谢效率 加快心脏的收缩和肌肉的力量 它和运动对你的身体有同样的影响 红酒还能使我们的血糖水平规律化以及抗衰老 一天喝一杯红酒的人能减少得痴呆或癌症的可能性 五分钟的小技巧
  • 2021-10-17避孕药《核心医媒》 避孕药 A series of events called the menstrual cycle月经周期是连续性事件 happens about once every month大概每月发生一次 to prepare a woman’s body for pregnancy.是为女性身体怀孕做准备的 Changing levels of natural chemicals in the bloodstream血液中被称为激素的天然物质变化的水平 called hormones control these events.控制着月经周期 The reproductive organs affected by these hormones include:受这些激素影响的生殖器官包括 the vagina,阴道 cervix,子宫颈 uterus,子宫 fallopian tubes,输卵管 and ovaries.和卵巢 The ovaries produce two main hormones卵巢主要产生两种激素 called estrogen分别是雌激素 and progesterone.和孕激素 As the level of estrogen begins to rise,随着雌激素水平的升高 it causes the normally thick mucus inside the cervix to thin out.宫颈内通常厚厚的粘液会变薄 Estrogen also triggers other hormones雌性激素还会触发其它激素 to cause one of the ovaries to release an egg.促使一侧卵巢释放一个卵子 This process is called ovulation.这个过程叫做排卵 If a woman has sex during this time,如果女性在这段时间发生性行为 a man’s reproductive cells, called sperm,男性的生殖细胞 即精子 can pass through the thinner mucus to fertilize an egg.可以通过变薄的粘液使卵子受精 In the uterus,在子宫内 estrogen causes the lining to thicken,雌性激素使子宫内膜增厚 which prepares it to receive a fertilized egg.为接受受精卵做好准备 Rising progesterone levels cause glands in the lining孕激素水平升高刺激内膜腺体 to release fluid that feeds the fertilized egg.分泌液体以滋养受精卵 Progesterone also causes the thinned out mucus in the cervix to become thick again,孕激素还会使宫颈内变薄的粘液再次变厚 which prevents sperm from passing through.从而阻止精子通过 If an egg hasn’t been fertilized,如果卵子没有受精 the levels of both estrogen and progesterone begin to fall雌激素和孕激素的水平都会开始下降 This drop in hormone levels causes menstruation,激素水平的下降会导致月经 a process where the uterus sheds its inner tissue lining and blood through the vagina.即子宫经阴道排出脱落的内膜组织和血液的过程 Birth control pills are medications that a woman takes every day to prevent pregnancy.避孕药是女性每日服用以避免怀孕的药物 The most common and effective type of birth control pill is a combination pill.最常见且最有效的避孕药是复方避孕药 It contains both estrogen and progestin,该药含雌激素和孕激素 which is a man-made hormone similar to progesterone.这是一种类似于孕激素的人造激素 The estrogen and progestin from the pill该药中的雌激素和孕激素 mantain constant levels of these hormones in the body.使体内的相应激素维持在稳定水平 These levels prevent the body from releasing similar hormones that cause ovulation.这些激素可阻止体内释放致排卵的类似激素 Without ovulation, there is no egg available for fertilization,不排卵就没有卵子可以受精 so a woman can’t get pregnant.因此女性就不会怀孕 Progestin also prevents pregnancy by keeping the mucus in the cervix thick enough,孕激素还可使宫颈粘液保持足够厚度 so sperm can’t get through it.让精子无法通过而避孕 A third effect of progestin on pregnancy孕激素对怀孕的第三个影响 involves its influence on the lining of the uterus.是它对子宫内膜的影响 In contrast to natural progesterone,与天然孕激素相比 progestin is slightly different chemically.合成孕激素的化学性质略有不同 Over time, it makes the uterine lining thinner instead of thicker.随时间推移 它会使子宫内膜变薄而非变厚 As a result, if fertilization of an egg does take place,因此如果卵子受精了 the lining may be too thin for it to stay in the uterus,内膜可能过薄而使受精卵无法留在子宫内 so it passes out of the body with the next menstrual period.所以受精卵会在下一个月经期间排出 Combination pills usually come in 28-day packs.复方避孕药通常是28天药量包装 Depending on the brand of pill,根据避孕药的品牌 the first 21 to 24 pills are active pills前21到24粒是活性药 because they contain hormones.因为它们含有激素 The last four to seven pills are inactive or ‘reminder’ pills最后4到7粒是非活性药 或称“提醒药” that don’t contain any hormones.它们不含任何激素 Inactive pills allow the hormone levels in the body to drop非活性药使体内的激素水平下降 so that bleeding during the menstrual cycle can occur.从而出现流血形成月经周期 Even though the inactive pills don’t contain any hormones,尽管非活性药不含任何激素 the woman remains protected against pregnancy during this time.女性服用期间仍可避免怀孕 Inactive pills are also called ‘reminder’ pills非活性药也叫做“提醒药” because they keep a woman in the habit of taking a birth control pill every day.因为这样女性能养成每天服避孕药的习惯 Progestin-only pills or ‘mini pills’ only contain progestin.孕激素药或“迷你药”只含有孕激素 Like the combination pill,就像复方避孕药一样 the progestin in the progestin-only pills纯孕激素药物中的孕激素 prevents pregnancy by preventing ovulation,能够通过阻止排卵 thickening cervical mucus,增厚宫颈粘液 and thinning out the lining of the uterus.和使子宫内膜变薄来防止怀孕 Women may choose progestin-only pills出于副作用或其他医学原因 if they can’t tolerate the estrogen in combination pills如果女性不能耐受复方避孕药里的雌激素 due to side effects or other medical reasons.她们可能会选择服用只含孕激素的药物 All progestin-only pills are active.所有纯孕激素的药物都是有活性的 Menstrual bleeding with progestin-only pills may occur once every month,服用孕激素药 月经血可能会每月有一次 on and off throughout the month,整个月断断续续 or there may be no bleeding at all.或可能根本不会出血 For the highest protection against pregnancy,为了达到最好的避孕效果 it is important to take progestin-only pills at the same time every day.每天在同一时间服用纯孕激素药很重要 Both combination and progestin-only birth control pills复方避孕药和纯孕激素避孕药的 are about 99% effective at preventing pregnancy避孕有效率约为99% if used correctly.前提是正确服用 This means about one out of 100 women will become pregnant each year这意味着如果每天正确服用 if they use them correctly every day.每年100名女性中只有1名会怀孕 However, they are only about 92% effective with typical use,但一般情况下 仅有约92%的有效率 which means about eight out of 100women will become pregnant each year这意味着 如果她们不记着每天服用的话 if they don’t always remember to take them every day.每年100名女性中约有8名会怀孕
  • 2021-10-17当夜猫子对你的健康有什么影响[音乐][♪ INTRO] 瞧 夜猫子生活不易Look, night owls have it rough. 除了生活让他们不能按时入睡外In addition to the fact that society refuses to let them follow their natural sleep schedule, 科学家也发表了骇人听闻的研究结果scientists also keep publishingall this grim research 告诫他们 可能会比早睡早起的人寿命短telling them they might diesooner than early birds. Well, 难怪他们难以入睡no wonder they can’t fall asleep. 但是根据最新睡眠型基因的研究But according to the latest studyof the genetics of chronotypes, 从学术角度来讲 不管你是that’s the technical term for whether you 早起的鸟儿 或是熬夜的夜猫子’ re an early bird, or a night owl, 还是介于两者之间or somewhere in between, 都会造成多种不同的结果the results are a little more of a mixed bag. 诸多外在因素会影响你的睡眠习惯Lots of outside factors can affect your sleep habits, 比如工作行程 或在有光线的地方睡觉like your work schedule or your exposure to light. 但你是否早起 很大程度But whether you’re a morning person can also be more 取决于内在基因of a built-in genetic thing. 本周公布于《自然通信》杂志上的最新研究This latest study, published this week inthe journal Nature Communications, 新发现超过300种与睡眠有关的基因discovered more than 300 new genes connected to chronotype. 研究也发现 早起的人总体上更健康It also found that morning peoplehad greater overall well-being 患某些特定精神疾病的风险更低and a lower risk of certainmental health disorders. 然而 出人意料的是But surprisingly, this research didn’t find 研究并未发现熬夜会导致that being a natural night owl could lead 肥胖和Ⅱ型糖尿病to obesity or Type 2 diabetes, 尽管其他研究表明even though other studies have shown 这些健康问题与睡眠习惯有关a connection between thosehealth problems and sleep habits. 团队研究了来自英国的一个研究数据库中的The team looked at nearly 700,000 participants, 近70万名参与实验者的drawn from a research database in the UK 他们将DNA送到私人医院分析的数据and people who had sent in their DNA for analysis by a private company. 这些人都要求报告了自己的睡眠类型All of these people also had also been asked to report their chronotype. 根据试验者的基因数据From the participants’genetic data, 研究人员能够发现351种the researchers were able to identify 351 与早睡或晚睡有关的基因genetic markers associatedwith being an early or late riser, 其中只有24种是早前就被发现的only 24 of which had been previously identified. 这些新发现的遗传性基因会影响These newly IDed genes wereinvolved with everything from 作息规律 神经元的生长和视网膜组织circadian rhythms to the developmentof neurons to retinal tissue. 至于这些基因的作用是什么There’s a lot more to explore 这仍有许多探索的空间when it comes to what all these genes do, 譬如 研究者认为 视网膜发生的变化but the researchers think changesto the retina, for example, 能影响光线对人体生物钟的调节could affect how light recalibrates your body clock, 还会影响你睡觉的时间点which could affect what time of day you get sleepy. 早期研究表明Previous studies had suggested links 睡眠类型与良好的精神状态 体重between chronotype and things like mental health, weight, 以及患Ⅱ型糖尿病的风险有关and Type 2 diabetes risk, 因此研究者选择重点关注研究结果中存在的健康隐患so the researchers chose to focus on those health risks in their analysis. 利用高级统计学原理Using advanced statistics, 不仅能分析这些隐患间存在的联系they were able to analyze more than just correlations, 还能预测某一行为是否会导致健康隐患they could actually calculate whether one thing was likely to cause another. 他们还发现早起的人And they found that being an early bird 在各方面都有更强的幸福感strongly predicted a better overall sense of well-being, 同时面临压抑症和精神分裂的风险也较低as well as a lower risk of depression andschizophrenia. 但并没发现遗传性睡眠类型与肥胖或糖尿病有关But they didn’t find that genetic chronotypepredicted obesity or diabetes, 尽管经常听说肥胖症 糖尿病和作息规律密切相关even though they’ve long been reported to be linked to circadian rhythms. 这些发现不代表睡眠与肥胖症 糖尿病完全无关These findings don’t mean those links are wrong, 那些晚睡晚起的人people who go to sleep and wake up 仍然很可能患肥胖病或Ⅱ型糖尿病later are still more likely to have obesity or Type 2 diabetes. 但肥胖症 糖尿病与But the connection could be less 正常晚睡关系不大about your natural tendency to sleep later and more about 与非遗传因素的关系较大 如你必须要早起non-genetic factors, like having to wake up early 尽管你是天生的夜猫子despite being a natural night owl. Or, 这些情况影响人们睡觉的类型these conditions could be affecting people’s sleep patterns, 而不是其它方式rather than the other way around. 对于这种情况的解释有很多There are lots of possible explanations for the association, 我们只是不知道而已we just don’t know. 因此我们还有很多需要研究的So we still have a lot more to learn, 但随着研究者收集的基因数据库越来越庞大but with the huge database of genetic data researchers are compiling, 我们开始能够解决以前不能解决的问题we’re starting to be able to answer questions we never could before. 说到重大的健康研究Speaking of really big health studies, 来自威奇托的堪萨斯州大学的医学院研究人员researchers from the School of Medicine at the University of Kansas in Wichita 提出了电子烟的弊端may have some bad news about e-cigarettes. 他们的研究 基于40万调查对象Their findings, basedn on what 400,000 survey respondents 所进行的关于各种各样的reported about a wide range 健康行为和问题的调查of health behaviors and problems, 发现使用电子烟会带来更大的健康隐患suggest that using e-cigarettes is linked to a higher risk 比如中风 心力衰竭和其他与心脏有关的疾病of stroke, heart attack, and just heart disease in general. 因为有许多对此持反对意见For those of you who have continued to Just Say No, 以及不明真相的人and also been hiding under a rock, 所以有关电子烟的争议从十年前就开始出现the kerfuffle over e-cigarettes began abouta decade ago. 电子烟被当作比香烟更健康的替代品 真是这样吗They were pitched as a healthier alternative to smoking tobacco, and they are? 电子烟或电子烟杆E-cigarettes or e-cigs,or vape pens 都是将含有尼古丁的液体加热heat a nicotine-packed liquid into a vapor 产生能够吸入体内的烟雾that can be inhaled by the user, 让烟民们有吸烟的体验which gives them all of the buzz 没有普通香烟产生的烟和焦油and none of the smoke and tar that comes from traditional cigarettes. 但正因为是新型香烟But since they’re so new, 相比普通香烟 我们对电子烟we don’t know nearly as much about the health effects of 会对健康产生的影响知之甚少e-cigarettes as we do regular cigarettes. 但我们都清楚But we do know that they’re definitely not better 不吸烟才是更好的than not smoking at all. 电子烟味道让人愉悦 且被当作And their fun flavors and reputation 安全产品 再加上炫酷有趣的烟尾设计as being quote-unquote “ safe ” and also cool fun hip 使得电子烟如今在初高中学生中designs has made them a little more popular these days 备受推崇with the middle and high school crowds. 2016年 11%的高中生吸过电子烟In 2016, 11 % of high school students reported having used e-cigarettes, 比2011年多出9倍9 times more than in 2011. 还有研究表明吸入电子烟的雾气There has also been research that suggests inhaling the flavorings 可能会造成中毒in e-cig juice can be toxic. 因此电子烟不是什么好东西So that’s not great. 这些新出的研究结果有And these new results could offer 更多例证表明吸电子烟even more evidence that vaping is just 与吸普通香烟不同 且好不到哪里去different from smoking, not necessarily better. 据研究人员分析Of the 400,000 respondents to the 参与2016年健康调查的40万人中2016 health survey the researchers analyzed, 将近6.7万人吸电子烟nearly 67,000 of them were e-cig users. 相比不吸电子烟的33.3万人Compared to the 333,000 non-vaping controls, 电子烟民中风的几率比非电子烟民高71%the e-cigarette users had a 71 % higher risk of strokes 电子烟民心力衰竭a 59 % higher risk of heart attack 或心血减少的几率比非电子烟民高59%or reduced blood flow to the heart, 电子烟民患冠心病的几率比非电子烟民高40%and a 40% higher risk of coronary heart disease. 已有超过4%的电子烟民中风A little over 4 % of the users had already suffered a stroke. 这明显是给电子烟民敲响了警钟While this certainly seems like adire warning for e-cigarette users, 但这还有很多重要的因素需考虑 首先there are a couple of important things to consider. First, 吸电子烟的人中 可能有超过两成的人the e-cigarette users were also twice 同时还吸普通的香烟as likely to be regular cigarette smokers. 这是一个很大的干扰因素Which… could be a pretty big confounding factor, 因为烟草也会since smoking tobacco also 引起中风 心力衰竭和心脏病puts you at risk for stroke,heart attack, and heart disease. 为了真正看到电子烟的消极影响To really see the effects of e-cigs on their own, 将来的研究工作需要future studies will have to do a better 更好地将电子烟民和普通烟民区分开来job of separating the people who use them from those who use regular cigarettes. 其次 这只是初步研究And secondly, this research is still preliminary. 到时会在下周的科学讨研会上提出来While it’s being presented at ascientific conference next week, 这个研究还没有公开讨论过it hasn’t been peer reviewed yet, 这就意味着仍然存在问题which means there could still be problems with it. 但很大可能不会影响它成为头条That probably won’t stop itfrom making the headlines, 这不代表不重视研究的结果and it does not mean theresults should be discounted. 但是在没有看到最终论文之前But it does mean we shouldn’t just accept them 不应该表面地就去接受这个结论at face value without waiting to see the final paper. 可以肯定的是尼古丁会使人上瘾What we do definitely know is that nicotine remains addictive, 千万不要掉以轻心so watch out for that. 感谢您观看本集科学秀快讯!Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow News! 如果你对If you’re interested in keeping up 突破性的研究发现感兴趣或者是with groundbreaking discoveries like these or 想了解更多精彩的科学you want to learn more about all the most fascinating science out there, 非这里莫属you are in the right place! 只需访问网址youtube.com/scishow动手点击订阅按钮Just go to youtube.com/scishow and click onthat subscribe button. [音乐][♪ OUTRO]
  • 2021-10-17地球升温两度甚至四度,会带来什么灾难性的后果地球气温升高两度将会变得很可怕 下面告诉你气温升高四度的地球是什么样的 DAVID WALLACE-WELLS: Well, I think when we look outside our windows every day,大卫·华莱士-威尔斯:每天当我们看向窗外 we see a world that is basically stable,我们看到的是一个基本稳定的世界 and even if we hear a lot about extreme weather,即使我们听说了很多关于极端天气的消息 see horrible news of wildfires and droughts and heat waves看到关于野火 干旱 热浪 that kill people all around the world,在世界范围内致人死亡的可怕新闻 we still reorient our emotional expectations我们依然在调整我们对 for what the world will be like in our own lives.我们所生活的世界的样貌的情感期望 And most of our lives have not been yet我们的大部分生活还没有 all that dramatically disturbed by climate change.受到气候变化的显著影响 But in the decades ahead, I think they will be.但未来几十年 我们的生活很可能会受影响 There’s basically no life on Earth that will be untouched未来几十年 在气候变化的影响下 by the force of climate in the decades ahead,地球上几乎生命能独善其身 and in most cases, that means大多数情况下 气候变暖意味着 deformed, damaged, transformed.生命会畸形 受伤 变形 I think most scientists would say that大多数科学家认为 the best case scenario is 1.5 degrees Celsius of warming.最好的情况是变暖1.5摄氏度 But personally, I think it’ll be practically impossible for us但我个人认为 若没有所谓的负排放技术 to stay below two degrees气温稳定升高2度 without what’s called negative emissions technology,对我们来说几乎是不可能的 which is fanciful tech that has been tested and is successful at a lab scale,负排放是一项经过测试并在实验室范围内取得成功的新技术 but needs to be deployed at global scale但需要在全球范围内部署 to make much of a difference.才能发挥作用 The UN says that to have any chance of staying below two degrees,联合国称 要想温度稳定升高两度成为可能 we need massive use of this technology,我们需要大量应用这种技术 which we don’t even know enough to trust.然而我们对其了解还太少 So for me, I orient my best case scenario at two degrees.因此 我认为气温上升两度是最好的情况 And unfortunately, that’s a level of warming that most scientists describe不幸的是大多数科学家认为 这种程度的升温 as the threshold of a catastrophe.是一场灾难的开始 Many island nations of the world describe it as genocide.世界上许多岛国称这会导致种族灭绝 That’s how vulnerable they are to especially sea level rise at two degrees.升温两度导致海平面上涨 而他们极易受此影响 But the impacts wouldn’t just affect the island nations of the world.但受影响的不只有岛屿国家 Many of the biggest cities in South Asia and the Middle East南亚和中东的许多大城市 would be lethally hot in summer at two degrees,两度的升温会导致其夏季高温难耐 which could happen as soon as 2050.这一切很快将在2050年发生 These are cities like Calcutta例如加尔各答这样的 5, 10, 12 million people.有500万 100万 甚至1200万人口的城市 You wouldn’t be able to go outside or certainly work outside你外出或是在外工作 without incurring a lethal risk.将面临致命的风险 And that could happen, again, just by 2050,再次强调 这种情况可能就在2050年发生 which is one reason why the UN expects that we could have所以联合国预计到2050年 200 million climate refugees by that same date, 2050.全球将有两亿气候难民 200 million.两亿啊 They think it’s possible that we get as many as one billion,他们认为气候难民有可能多达十亿 which is as many people as live today in North and South America, combined.也就是今天生活在南北美洲的人口总和 I don’t think those numbers are realistic.我觉得这个数字不现实 I think they’re too high.太高了 But even if we get 100 million or 150 million climate refugees,但即使有1亿或1.5亿气候难民也够我们喝一壶的了 it’s important to remember that the Syrian refugee crisis,要知道当时叙利亚难民危机 which totally destabilized European politics,完全破坏了欧洲的政治稳定 led in its way to Brexit,导致了英国脱欧 and has transformed our politics globally through the way it’s affected Europe,并通过其对欧洲的影响改变了全球政治 was the result of just one million Syrian refugees coming to the continent.这仅是一百万叙利亚难民来到欧洲大陆的结果 We’re talking about a refugee crisis而我们说的气候难民危机的规模 that is almost certain to be 100 times as large,几乎是叙利亚难民的100倍 and it comes at a time when most nations of the world而且 目前世界上大多数国家 are retreating from our commitments to one another,正背弃对彼此的承诺 retreating from our organizations and alliances,从共同的组织和联盟中退出 retreating from the UN, retreating from the EU,退出联合国 退出欧盟 and embracing xenophobia and nativism and nationalism.并抱有仇外心理 本土主义和民族主义 That’s especially concerning when you think about what’s ahead,在未来 这些情况尤其令人担忧 because there are going to be many more people因为在未来的几十年里 in much more desperate need in the decades ahead.会有更多人急需帮助 And if we don’t welcome them,如果我们不欢迎他们 we’ll be committing real moral crimes我们将真的成为道德罪犯 that from the advantage of today seem unconscionable,从今天的情况来看 那是不合乎情理的 but which may become more normal,但随着我们迈向新世界 as we move forward into this new transformed world.这种情况可能成为常态 When we talk about worst case scenarios,当我们讨论最坏的情况时 there are a couple of different factors at play.主要受两个因素影响 One is what humans do.一个是人类行为 This is the most important factor.这是最重要的因素 Will we change course?我们会做出改变吗? Will we continue to burn coal?我们会继续燃烧煤炭吗? Will we continue to produce fossil fuel emissions?我们会继续产生化石燃料排放吗? The UN says that the track we’re on now, the trajectory we’re on now联合国称 以我们现在的方式 is likely to take us to about 4.3 degrees Celsius of warming如果我们不做出改变 在本世纪末 by the end of the century if we don’t change course.很可能使气温升高约4.3摄氏度 4.3 degrees would mean $600 trillion in global climate damages.4.3度带来的全球气候灾害将产生600万亿美元的损失 That’s double all the wealth that exists in the world today.那是当今全世界财富总和的两倍 It would mean parts of the world could be hit这将意味着世界部分地区 by six climate driven natural disasters at once.可能同时遭受六场气候变化导致的自然灾害 It would mean more than double the warfare that we see today.这意味着战乱次数将是今天的两倍 And the impacts would be in our economic activity.其影响也将体现在我们的经济活动中 It would be in flooding and the refugee crisis.还会出现洪水和难民危机 There are so many impacts that we have not really been able to think clearly about,还有很多目前难以明确的影响 because all of us are so reluctant to consider these horrifying outcomes.因为我们所有人都不愿去考虑这些可怕的结果 But the fact that they are horrifying should not make us turn away.但我们不应该回避这些恐怖的真相 It should make us focus on them more intently.我们应该更关注气候变化 We all have all of these psychological reflexes我们所有人心里都会想回避 that make us reluctant to consider horrible possibilities.这些令人恐惧的可能 And for that reason, it’s more important for us to take seriously the science,正因如此 我们更应该认真对待科学 because we need to fight against those impulses to do better planning,因为我们需要对抗逃避的冲动 来做出更好的计划 to take more aggressive action than we would采取比故步自封时 if we allowed ourselves to slip back into complacency.更为积极的行动 But there are cases that are worse than 4.3 degrees.但是有些情况比升温4.3度还要糟糕 There are what are called feedback loops in the climate system在气候系统中存在所谓的“反馈回路” that could conceivably accelerate warming这可能使气候变暖速度加快 beyond what human action does.超出人类活动的影响 So there is what’s called the albedo effect,有一个词叫“反照率效应” which is a little complicated to explain.这解释起来有点复杂 But sunlight is reflected back into outer space by any surface that’s white;也就是阳光会被白色的表面反射回外太空 that’s why when you wear a white shirt, you’re cooler than if you wear a black shirt in the summer.所以夏天在太阳下 穿白衬衫会比穿黑衬衫更凉爽 The less arctic ice there is, the less reflective white ice there is at the top of the planet.北极的冰越少 地球顶部反光的白冰就越少 That means more sunlight is being absorbed,这意味着更多的阳光被吸收 which means that more warming would take place.继而引发气候持续变暖 So as arctic ice melts,因此随着北极冰层融化 the planet’s ability to reflect solar energy back into space would diminish,地球将太阳能反射回太空的能力就会减弱 and warming would accelerate.气候变暖将会加速 There is frozen in the Arctic permafrost a lot of methane,北极永久冻土层中有大量的甲烷 or I should say a lot of carbon,或者可以说是大量的碳 which could be released into the atmosphere as methane if that permafrost melts.永久冻土如果融化 就会以甲烷的形式释放到大气中 Methane is, depending on how you count,不管你怎么算 at least 30 and perhaps 80 times as powerful a greenhouse gas as carbon dioxide.甲烷的温室气体排放量至少是二氧化碳的30倍甚至80倍 And there is enough carbon in that permafrost永久冻土层中的碳含量 to double the concentration of carbon in the atmosphere that we have today.足以使目前的大气碳浓度翻倍 If that were released, it could accelerate warming by a couple of degrees all on its own.如果这些碳被释放 可以使气候加速变暖几度 There are many more feedback loops like this.“反照率效应”这样的例子还有很多 Just this past week there was a study about cloud formation.上周就有一项关于云层形成的研究 If we get to about 1,200 parts per million of carbon,如果未来大气中的碳含量达到0.12% which is much higher than we are today at about 410,比现在0.041%左右的碳含量要高得多 but it’s conceivable early next century,可以想象到下个世纪初 we would completely disrupt the planet system for cloud formation.这将会完全扰乱地球的云层形成系统 And that impact alone, scientists say in this study,科学家们在这项研究中说 仅这一种影响 would add 8 degrees Celsius of warming to the system.就会给地球带来8摄氏度的增温 So we’d probably be at already 4 and 1/2 or 5 degrees by then,所以到那时气温可能已经升高了4.5度或5度 and we could immediately be brought to 12 and a half or 13 degrees Celsius.加上这种情况 那时气温可能急增12.5或13摄氏度 And that really would make much of the planet literally uninhabitable,这确实会使地球上的很多地方不适合居住 not just the equatorial band,不仅仅是赤道带 not just the tropics,不仅仅是热带地区 but there would be places in the mid latitudes that would just be too hot to live.中纬度地区也会有一些地方因太热而无法居住 And we have not really begun to think about those possibilities.而我们还没有真正开始思考这些可能性 This is the world that we’re entering into now, at just 1.1 degrees,现在的世界只有1.1度的升温 but the whole range of possibilities stretches before us,但所有的可能都近在眼前 and even the quite optimistic outcomes are horrifying.甚至那些相当乐观的结果也令人恐惧 Two degrees is genocide, the island nations of the world say.全世界的岛国都认为气温上升两度会带来种族灭绝 Four degrees is at least twice as bad,升温四度的结果至少是原来的两倍 depending on how you count.这要看你怎么算了 And there are possibilities north of 4 degrees, which are even scarier,北极升温4度带来的可能性后果更可怕 because it would mean that the climate system had escaped human control.因为这意味着气候系统已经脱离人类的控制
  • 2021-10-17无神论和伊斯兰恐惧症大约3年前 我来到“大思维” 并且我很强烈地和富有激情地讨论了About three years ago I came in to Big Think and I talked very strongly and very passionately 无神论 关于我如何不相信神about atheism, how I did not believe in God. 在过去的三年中 我将我的心交给了上帝和救世主耶稣基督And over the past three years I opened my heart to our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ 神圣的光芒充斥着我的内心and the Holy Spirit filled me. 猛然间 我意识到不朽的生命And all of a sudden I realized that everlasting life is possible by following in the ways 可以以我们的上帝–耶稣基督的形式延续下去of Jesus Christ our Lord. 从那以后 我就将我自己奉献给了耶稣基督I have since then dedicated my life to Jesus Christ. 我加入了教会 我将愉悦的作为基督徒用余生侍奉我们的上帝–耶稣基督I have joined the Church and I will live the rest of my life and die as a Christian in 直到死亡service and in joy with Jesus Christ Our Lord. 哈哈哈哈 我是在开玩笑啦I’m just 你们有没有在某一分钟被我骗到 或者某一秒?Fucking with you. For a minute, just for a minute did I – just for a second did I have you going? 就一分钟?Just for a minute? 你们可以想象如果我改变我原来的思想 我会赚多少钱Can you imagine how much money I would make if I could just convert to re – I don’t 我就是不想改变have to convert. 而如果我假装我改变了If I just pretend to convert. 你们能想象如果忘记我的无神论 如果我放弃我的道德标准 然后Can you imagine if I just took and threw away my atheism, if I threw away my morality and 说我是虔诚的并且开始布道?said I was religious and went out and started preaching? 你们能想象我能赚多少钱Can you imagine the amount of money I would make. 但是如果一个人获得了全世界却丢失了他的灵魂能得到什么好处But what good if a man gained the whole world but lose his soul. 没有No. 我仍是一个无神论者I’m still an atheist. 而且我仍然过得很好I’m still doing fine. 我刚刚在美国青年自由大会 你们知道的 很多保守派I just spoke at a Young Americans for Liberty conference, you know, a lot of conservatives, 很多年龄低于穿西装年龄的人穿着西装a lot of people that are too young to be wearing suits were wearing suits. 我挺喜欢他们I liked them. 然后 一个大约20岁的男人来到我身边 他身材略健硕And afterwards a man came up to me probably 20 years old and he was slight in build, very 肤色很黑 然后他跟我说 他在我演讲的时候就想和我讨论dark complected and he said to me I wanted to talk about this during your lecture but 但是他非常非常害怕这里的相机I was very, very frightened that there were cameras there. 然后我对他说 既然这里有相机 至少你不用害怕外星人了And I said well there were cameras there so at least you’re not frightened by UFOs. 你会害怕蜘蛛 害怕某些真实存在的东西You’re frightened by spiders, something that’s real. 我会尊重I can respect that. 我开始并没有很认真的对待他的话I made this kind of light of his wording there. 但他让我不要讲话听他说 他说因为他的家庭来自巴基斯坦And then he shut me up because then he said my family is from Pakistan and everybody in 在他生活的社区每一个人都是虔诚的穆斯林my community is a devout Muslim. 他的父母也都是虔诚的穆斯林And my mom and dad are devout Muslims. 但是 他却是一个无神论者And I’m an atheist. 他说 如果他在我说话的时候举手And if I said that while you were speaking, if I raised my hand and said that with the 并对着那些相机的面说自己是一个无神论者cameras on, said that declared a statement I’m an atheist. 他的父母不会杀了他 但会和他断绝关系My mom and dad would not kill me but they would disown me, 并且永远不和他讲话And they would never speak to me again. 他将会成为一名背叛者 而他所属群体的人并非不可能杀死他And I would be an apostate and it is not unlikely that someone in my community would kill me. 他并没有用比喻And he didn’t mean that figuratively. 他并没有用开玩笑的形式描述“杀”这个字眼He didn’t mean that word kill like comedians mean it. 他真的在说那将“杀”了他He meant they would take his life away. 现在 我认识了阿让•谢阿利 所以我知道他不是骗子Now I know Ayaan Hirsi Ali so I know he wasn’t a bluffer. 然后 他跟我说了更加糟糕的事情 因为他深色的皮肤和黑色的直发And then it got worse because then he said and yet with my dark skin and my straight 非穆斯林派都认为他是穆斯林black hair the other side considers me Muslim and wants 他们想让他滚出这个国家 恶狠狠地对待他to get me out of the country and treat me badly. 当他听到川普针对他祖先的演讲时And I hear Trump giving his speeches against people of my ancestry. 他意识到 没有人可以为他说话And I realize that there’s nobody for me. 没有人Nobody. 然后他对我说 他想和我交流 这真的是他对我说的And he said I wanted to talk to you because – and this is him saying this – he said 我具备的某些特点使我成为唯一一个懂他的人 但这显然不是真的some stuff about me being some, you know, the only one who would understand, which is clearly not true. 每个人都懂Everybody understands. 实际上每个人都懂Virtually everybody understands. 但是 作为无神论者 克里斯托弗·西钦斯 我的朋友 我的偶像 我的导师But, you know, as an atheist, Christopher Hitchins, my friend, my hero, my mentor, even though 即使他不比我年长但是他比我聪明多了he isn’t much older than me but he’s so much smarter. 他常说 你知道么 佩恩 如果你不喜欢基督教文化世界 你一定更不喜欢伊斯兰教文化世界He used to say, you know Penn, if you dislike Christianity you must dislike Islam much more. 现在我想我会对此言论更加谨慎Now I want to be very careful about this. 伊斯兰恐惧症(islamophobia)是一个错误的单词Islamophobia is the wrong word. 伊斯兰教是一种思想Islam is an idea. 穆斯林是人Muslims are people. 你可以憎恨想法You’re allowed to hate ideas. 你可以不同意观点You’re allowed to disagree with ideas. 但你不可以因为他人的观点去憎恨他们You’re not allowed to hate people for their ideas. 这是一个错误的单词It’s the wrong word. 它就是一个错误的单词It’s just the wrong word. 我们对此都要谨慎使用We have to be more careful. 伊斯兰恐惧症不是种族歧视Islamaphobia is not racism, 或是说穆斯林的不是Saying anything against Muslims is. 你可以说基督教是错的 但是你依然有基督教徒朋友You can say Christianity is wrong and have friends who are Christians. 你可以非常尊重基督教徒You can show full respect for Christians. 你没有基督教恐惧症You’re not Christianityaphobic, you know, 你只会说 不 我有不同的想法You’re just saying no, I have a different idea. 这就是美国That’s what America is. 我相信当我听到那个男人对我说的话的时候 我作为无神论者的感受多少改变了一些And I believe my feelings as an atheist change somewhat when that man speaks to me because 因为我的心of my heart. 是的 伊斯兰教是错误的Yes, Islam is wrong. 是的 基督教是错误的Yes, Christianity is wrong. 是的 犹太教是错误的Yes, Judaism is wrong. 我相信这些正如我相信呼吸一样I believe that like I believe I breathe. 我从不质疑I don’t doubt that ever. 但是现在 穆斯林 那些相信伊斯兰教的人们真的需要我们的帮助But right now Muslims, those who believe in Islam really need our help. 那些难民正经历着磨难There’s refugees who are suffering 如果我们忽视这些磨难 天理不容in away that history will not be kind to us for ignoring that. 我们要爱他们We must love them. 我们要拥抱他们We just embrace them. 我们要帮助他们We must help them. 即使他们相信着我们认为是错误的东西Even if they believe things that we know are wrong. 恐怖分子相信伊斯兰教的几率是很高的The chances of a terrorist believing in Islam are pretty good. 但是相信伊斯兰教的人变成恐怖分子的几率是极低的The chances of someone who believes in Islam being a terrorist are very, very bad. 非常低Very little chance of that. 我们拿内华达州举例 我住在内华达州We took into Nevada – I live in Nevada. 我们整个内华达州接受了9名叙利亚难民We took nine people from Syria in the entire state of Nevada. 那就是我们乐意接受的数目That’s how many we welcomed. 9名Nine. 杰瑞·加西亚手指的数量–9The number of fingers Jerry Garcia had – nine. 9 是的 如果这是杰瑞·加西亚 我确定是9Nine – actually if it’s going to be Jerry Garcia I think it’s nine. 9?Nine? 不 是这只手-9No it’s this hand – nine. 杰瑞·加西亚在这个讨论中不重要 佩恩Jerry Garcia is not important in this discussion Penn. 继续Get on with it. 9?Nine? 不 不是9么?No isn’t it nine? 杰瑞·加西亚 9Jerry Garcia – nine. 9Nine. 不是9个家庭Not nine families. 是9个人Nine people. 内华达Nevada. 这是一个州 你知道的It’s a state, you know. 我们需要去帮助这些人We’ve got to help those people. 现在 作为无神论者 我该怎么对穆斯林说你们的宗教信仰是错的 你们的恐怖分子是Now how do I as an atheist say to Muslims your religion is wrong, your terrorists are 疯狂的 这是危险的 忘记它吧 然后说我爱你们 我欢迎你们 ?crazy, this is dangerous, get over it and then say I love you and you’re welcome. 真的 真的很难Really, really hard. 我必须告诉你们 我知道没有上帝 而且正因为没有上帝 我们才必须I’ve got to tell you I know there’s no God and because there’s no God we have to 去帮助穆斯林reach out to Muslims. 我们必须去做上帝的工作 因为上帝不会去做的We have to do God’s work because God’s not going to. 而且 不会出现来自真神阿拉的爱与怜悯And that love and that compassion is not gonna come from Allah and it’s not gonna to 不会出现来自耶和华的爱与怜悯come from Yehovah, 也不会出现来自耶稣基督的爱与怜悯It’s not gonna come from Jesus Christ. 爱与怜悯只会来自于我们That love and compassion is gonna come from us. 那么拥抱穆斯林危险吗 因为他们之中的一些人是恐怖分子?Is it dangerous to embrace Muslims because some of them will be terrorists? 是的 真的危险Yeah, it’s really dangerous. 我们必须保护自己吗 ?Do we have to protect ourselves? 是的 我们非常需要Yeah, we really do. 这儿有个艰难的问题There’s hard problems here. 非常艰难的问题Really hard problems. 我没有针对它的任何答案And I don’t have any of the answers to it. 但我可以告诉你什么不是答案But I’ll tell you what the answer isn’t. 答案不是顶着像小便制成的棉花糖似的头发站起来说The answer isn’t standing up with hair that looks like cotton candy made of piss and saying, 你们知道的 我们必须要让这些人离开这里you know, we’ve got to keep these people out of here. 我们必须要让这些人离开这里We’ve got to keep these people out of here. 宣扬恨根本没有帮助I cannot find any way that preaching hate helps that situation. 而且 无论你多害怕恐怖分子 我谅你也不敢正视那个男人And I defy you no matter how afraid you are of terrorists to look at that man. 我很高兴我不记得他的名字了I’m so glad I don’t remember his name. 我很高兴我不记得他从哪里来 因为当时I’m so glad I don’t remember where he’s from because in the incident that I talk about 因为当时我脑子一团乱him because I’m such an idiot I spill everything that’s going through my head. 我可能真的危害到了他的生命 但我不知道他是谁 所以我们是安全的I might actually jeopardize his life but I don’t know who he is so we’re safe. 我不知道他来自哪里 所以我们是安全的 除了巴基斯坦I don’t know where he’s from so we’re safe, except for Pakistan. 不 他出生在美国 出生在–那不重要No, he was born in the USA, born in–it doesn’t matter. 我们应该怎么做?How do we do that? 我们要怎么去帮助How do we help 我们要怎么帮助那些有着错误的宗教信仰的 但不会杀掉我们的那些人How do we help people that have a religion that’s wrong but that aren’t going to 使他们成为我们中的一员 并避免 你知道的kill us to be able to be part of us without, you know, 我们在法国看到了We see it in France, 我们在比利时看到了We see it in Belgium. 我们在这些地方看到了这些保持孤立的群体 你知道的We see it in these places these communities that stay insular, you know, 那个人说我所在的群体会杀了我 这些孤立的社群This man says to me that my community would kill me, these insular communities. 我们必须回到美国是一个大熔炉的思路当中We’ve got to get back to the idea of an America that was a melting pot. 我们需要有那个在我演讲后跟我说话的男人We have to be able to have that guy that talked to me after my lecture. 我们可以让他成为另一个人We’ve got to be able to have him just, you know, be another guy. 我说的这些冗长的 富有激情的 没有答案的疯狂的话That all of this, this long winded passionate craziness that I’m spewing out with no answers 是想表明我们必须停止通过别人的肤色和just comes down to we’ve got to stop judging people by the color of their skin and 祖籍来评价别人Where they’re from. 难道我们没有从爱尔兰裔那里学到什么吗?I mean didn’t we learn that with the Irish? 难道我们没有从波兰裔那里学到什么吗?Didn’t we learn that with the Polish? 难道我们没有从非裔那里学到什么吗?Didn’t we learn that with the Africans? 难道我们没有从每一个被我们唾弃和嫌弃的群体中学到什么吗?Didn’t we learn that with every single group of people that we’ve spit on and not welcomed? 我想说,正如约翰·列侬和大象的回忆组合的在一首名为《纽约市》的歌里唱的那样I mean John Lennon said in a song called New York City with the Elephant’s Memory Band 如果有人想把我们清除出去 我们会跳着咆哮if the man wants to shove us out, we’re gonna jump and shout. 自由女神像说来吧The Statue of Liberty said come. 纽约是多么酷的城市啊New York City such a fucking badass city. 是的 你知道的Yeah, you know. 美利坚合众国是个多么酷的国家啊The United States of America is a fucking badass country. 我们坚强 我们勇敢 我们充满爱意 并且我们必须停止And we are strong and we are brave and we are loving and we’ve got to stop acting 懦夫的做法like cowards. 我们必须停止草木皆兵的做法We’ve got to stop acting like in every single cupboard is a Muslim terrorist. 是的 恐怖主义是个问题Yes, terrorism is a problem. 是的 我们必须保护我们的家庭Yes, we have to protect our families. 是的 这些死亡的噩梦是无法原谅且无法想象的Yes, the nightmare of these deaths is unforgiveable and unthinkable. 但是我们必须记得人是善良的But we have to remember that people are good. 如果你去看看这个星球上70亿人口 就看看这70亿人口If you look at the seven billion people on this planet, just about seven billion of them 他们几乎都是善良的are really good. 我们可以相信他们We can really trust them. 我们可以从拉斯维加斯学到点什么Can we please learn something from Las Vegas. 比如学点关于赌博的东西 对吧Learn something about gambling, right. 我们知道赔率是如何计算的We know how the odds work. 我们知道庄家总是会赢We know the house always wins. 在这种情况下 赔率总是照顾善良的人In this case the odds are always on someone being good. 如果一个有着深色皮肤和直发 看上去像是来自If someone walks up to you with dark skin and straight hair looking like they’re from 巴基斯坦 或是埃及 或者甚至是伊拉克 阿富汗的人走向你Pakistan or Egypt or even Iraq, even Afghanistan and they’re walking towards you the chances 很有可能这些走向你的人是善良的人are overwhelming that that person will be good. 你不是在拍《脂粉市场》You’re not trying to film an Inside Straight. 你的机会是–你有很大可能遇到的都是好人Your chances are way – in your advantage they’re good people. 所以 我的无神论如何发生变化的呢?So how did my atheism change? 世界上没有上帝 我永远相信这一点Well there’s no God and there’s never a doubt about that ever. 但是 我们必须确保 当我们呐喊世界上没有上帝的时候But we have to make sure that when we’re screaming that there’s no God we don’t 我们不能声音大到听不见那些有宗教信仰的人的求救的哭泣声scream it so loud that we can’t hear someone who is religious crying for help and know 记着 我们要去帮助他们that we have to help them.
  • 2021-10-17幸福 动力以及人生意义的解读当我们想到人生的动力是什么时 首先想到的可能是So when we think about what motivates people maybe the first think about is 我们所认为可以给人以动力是什么,以及我们不能理解却能激励人们又是什么what we think motivates people and what we don’t understand motivates people. 可能首要的误解就是关于快乐的原则And maybe the first misunderstanding is about the pleasure principle. 所以我们就产生了我们有权力寻找快乐的想法So we have this idea of we have the right to pursue happiness 并且我们试图变得开心因为快乐真的是我们所追求的and we are trying to be happy andthat’s really what we’re pursuing – happiness. 但是思考一下But think about it. 什么会用一种浅显的方式令你快乐?What gives you happiness in a waythat is observable? 或许是坐在沙滩上喝着鸡尾酒Maybe sitting on the beach drinking a mojito 又或是坐在沙发上看喜剧or maybe sitting on the sofa watching a sitcom. 但如果你做任何一件有用的有意义的 并且是你为之自豪的事But if you do almost anything that is useful, meaningful, that you take pride of. 你得到的快乐会更多It’s not the same things. 如果想象一下你一生都坐在沙滩上喝着鸡尾酒But imagine you have a whole life of sitting on the beach drinking mojitos. 生活能有多开心?How happy would that life be? 所以说 首先我觉得这是错误的我们追逐转瞬即逝的快乐So the first I think mistake is that we pursue momentary happiness 而不是长久的快乐rather than longer term happiness. 我们做那些使我们现在能开怀大笑的事情So we do the things that will make us laugh out loud today kind of. 并非要总是开怀大笑 但也有几分相似Not always laugh out loud but kind of like that. 我们不去做困难复杂且富有挑战性的事情And we don’t do the things that are difficult and complex and challenging 即使会给我们一种别样的快乐but give us a very different sense of happiness. 考虑一些情况比如进行一场马拉松赛跑Think about something like running a marathon. 你看到的每个人都不开心You don’t see anybody happy 如果你作为一个旁观者去想象他们的想法Like if you came as an alien and you image peoples’ brains 你看见他们如同在跑一段马拉松的面部表情and you looked at their facial expressions as they’re running a marathon 你会说有人在惩罚他们you would say somebody is punishing them. 仿佛他们在为自己曾做过的一些糟糕的事情而赎罪Like they are paying for something terrible they’ve done 并认为这就是他们还债给社会的方式and this is how they’re paying their debt to society. 这是有点儿痛苦的 但同时也是意义非凡的But it is kind of miserable but it’s also meaningful 并且可以给人带来成就感and creat a sense of achievement in someone. 所以我们追逐瞬间的快乐却没有真正明白So we’re pursuing momentary pleasure rather than truly understanding 快乐的深意 或者说快乐究竟是什么the depth of what happiness is or what meaning is. 第二个错误则是我们在尝试理解And then the second thing is that we’re trying to figure out 怎样从外部激励他人 我们通常使用一个简单的等式how we externally motivate people and we have usually a very simple equation 那就是说动力等于金钱that says motivation equals money. 如果你没有非常努力地工作或做事And if you’re not working hard enough or doing something and 而他们仅仅是没有给你足够的报酬或者没能给你满意的奖金they’re just not paying you enough or not giving you a bonus in the right way 我们只在奖金和报酬上忙活 我们会说then we just jigger around bonuses and payment and we say 噢 让我们这样或那样来改变一下报酬oh, let’s change the payment this way and change the payment this way 然后弹性是这儿一点奖金或那儿大量奖金and give is slightly big bonuses here and slightly big bonuses there 我们将为评估甚至所有的事情制定分数制度and we’ll create point systems for evaluation and all kind of things. 人类本性之美在于很多事物激励着我们The beauty of human nature is that lots of things motivate us. 成就感 头衔 工作的关系A sense of accomplishment and achievement, our title, our connection to work 工作的人脉 与他人的竞争our connection to people at work, competing with other people. 所有的这些都激励着我们All of those things motivate us. 所以我们写下一个动力等式So we write a motivation equation. 我们会写动力相当于 对 金钱很重要We would write motivation equals yes, money is important 但成就 进步感以及竞争等等也同样重要but so is achievement, sense of progress, competition, dah, dah, dah, dah. 问题是我们怎样运用它们来创造动力And the question is how do we use all of them to create motivation. 在物理上人们寻找永动机And in physics people look for the perpetual motion machine. 我们怎样不获取能量且同时持续成长?How do we get energy from nothing, right, and continue growing. 从动力上来说存在这样的事情 想象一下两种交易In motivation there is something like that.So imagine two businesses. 一种不考虑积极性In one of them the business doesn’t care about motivation. 而另一种非常在意In one of them they care deeply. 在第一种生意中人们非常痛苦这个生意也很悲惨In the first business people are miserable and the business is miserable 他们赚不了多少钱and they’re not making lots of money. 而在第二种情况下人们会开心一点管理者也会开心一点In the second one people could be happier, management could be happier 他们会更加多产 更加高效and they could be much more productive and efficient. 当我们投入高的积极性时每个人都能获利Everybody wins when we invest in deep motivation. 为了研究意义的重要性问题我们所做的第一组实验是其中之一One of the first experiments we did on the question of meaning. 它并没有什么深刻的意义 甚至毫无意义It wasn’t like big meaning, it was little meaning. 下面便是我们所做的And here is what we did. 我们让人们进入实验室 然后问We got people to come to the lab and we say 你是否愿意搭建一个积木模型?would you like to build a bionical 为此我们会支付三美元and we’ll pay you three dollars for this bionical. 然后人们搭建了他们的积木And people built their bionical. 我们拿走它 放在桌子下We took it, we put it under the desk and 然后问他们是否愿意为两美元七十分再做一个we say would you like to build another one for two dollars and seventy cents? 如果他们同意我们会给他们下一个If they say yes we gave them the next one. 之后每下一个的报酬会以三十美分递减And then the next one for thirty cents less and less and less diminishing wage 直到他们决定停止 不再继续until they decide stop, no more. 我们告诉所有人当他们完成这个任务时And we told all of those people that when they finished the task 我们将拿走所有模型we’ll take all the bionical 我们将把它们全部拆成碎块然后准备给下一个参与者we’ll break them into pieces and prepare them for the next participant. 这就是我们称为有意义的情况That was what we call the meaningful condition. 它并不是真正有意义但与另一种情况比较起来它是有意义的It’s not really meaningful but it is meaningful compared to the next condition. 在我们私称为西西弗斯情况的另一种情况中In the next condition which we internally called the sisyphic condition 它用相同的方式开始it started the same way. 我们问实验者们是否愿意为三美元的报酬来搭建一个积木模型We said to people would you like to build a bionical for three dollars 他们开始制作and they started doing it. 当他们完成后我们将模型拿走When they finished we took it from them. 我们将之放在桌子上然后问We kept it on the desk and then we said 你是否愿意为两美元七十美分来制作另一个?would you like to build another one for two seventy. 如果他们同意并且开始制作第二个模型 在他们制作If they said yes they started building the second bionical but as they were building 第二个模型时我们从第一个模型上取了一些材料the second bionical we took the pieces apart from the first bionical. 所以我们是在他们眼前破坏了它So we destroyed it in front of their eyes. 然后我们将它放回盒子里And then we put it back in the box 询问他们是否愿意制作第三个 报酬降低三十美分and then we said would you like to build a third one for thirty cents less. 如果他们仍然同意我们会把他们做好的第一个即我们破坏的那个还给他们And if they said yes we gave them back the first one that they assembled and we broke. 这种方式我们继续重复第四次And this way we continued back and forth. 我们称这为西西弗斯情况And we called this the sisyphic condition 因为 如你所记得的西西弗斯神话传说because if you remember Sisyphus from the mythology 他被判处将一块巨石推向山顶he was sentenced to push a rock up the hill 而每当他快要到达山顶时巨石会滚下山坡而他则必须重爬同一个山坡and he almost got to the top and the rock would roll back and he had to do the same hill. 有个想法是如果能有不同的山丘And the idea was that if there were different hills 是的 如果是在翻越不同的山丘 或许他能稍微感觉有所进展right, if you were just going over different hills maybe he would feel some progress. 但是被迫一遍遍爬上同一个山坡是最让人丧失斗志的But having to do the same hill over and over was the depth of demoralizing of people. 那么发生了什么呢?And what happened? 一些有趣的事情Kind of a couple of interesting things. 首先是人们在西西弗斯情况下会更快地停止The first one is that people stopped much faster in the sisyphic condition. 其次我们问他们一般有多喜欢乐高积木The second one is we asked people how much they enjoyed Legos in general. 我们想知道And we wanted to see 在他们享受乐高积木的程度whether there’s a correlation between how much they enjoyed Legos 与这个任务的持续时间之间是否存在关联and how much they persisted in this task. 我们所观测到的是在有意义情况下存在一个关联And what we saw was that in the meaningful condition there was a correlation. 喜欢乐高积木的人会搭建更多的积木People who loved Legos did more bionicals. 而不喜欢乐高积木的人则不这样People who didn’t like Legos internally didn’t like so much. 在西西弗斯情况下这种关联为零 这意味着In the sisyphic condition the correlation was zero which means 我们似乎吸走了搭拼乐高积木的快乐that we have sucked away the joy of assembling Legos. 因为你可以看到喜欢乐高积木的人并没有Because you see the people who love Legos did not 比那些不喜欢搭积木的人做的更多do any more than the people who didn’t. 不知为何它的快乐消失了Somehow the joy of it just went away. 这个实验的另一个有趣的结果是The other interesting insight from this study is 我们做了另一个版本的实验we did another version of this experiment. 实验中人们并不参与搭建积木in which people did not engage in building bionicals 此外我们在商业学校进行这次实验but we did this in business school. 我们要求学生们来预测and we asked the students to predict 人们在那两种环境下将如何行动how other people would behave in those two environments. 所以我们说 好了 你们有一个So we said okay, you have an 更有意义的环境和一个几乎没有意义的环境environment with more meaning and an environment with less meaning. 在这两种环境中人们会搭建积木数量会有怎样的不同呢?How many bionicals will people build differently in those two environments? 我们根据他们预测的精确度来支付报酬And we paid people for the accuracy of their predictions. 发生了什么呢?What happened? 他们预测不同之处会是People predicted that the difference will be 在有意义情况下人们会制作更多in the meaningful condition people would build more. 但是他们预测它仅仅只会多一个积木But they predicted it would be only one bionical more. 所以我们以为意义有影响 但不那么重要So we understand that meaning matters but we think it matters very little. 事实上 它很重要In fact, it matters a lot. 人们大概搭建了四个更多的积木模型People built almost four more bionicals. 所以这有一个巨大的差距 人们并不理解意义的重要性So there was a big gap and people don’t understand how meaning is important. 你想象一下作为一个经理 事实上作为任何人And if you think about it as a manager actually as anybody 如果你尝试去激励人们if you’re trying to motivate people. 可以是一个学校老师 一个家长 无论是什么身份It could be a school teacher, it could be a parent, whatever it is 如果你在尝试激励人们 你必须明白意义有多重要if you’re trying to motivate people you have to understand how big is meaning. 如果你认为意义只有一点非常小的影响And if you think that meaning has a very small effect 你不会在它上面耗费太多you would not invest much in it. 只有你明白了它是多么重要Only if you understand how big and important it is 你才会关注它you will invest in it.
  • 2021-10-17怎样通过饮食来战胜抑郁过去十年以来,我们有非常多的相关数据显示For about ten years we’ve had very strong correlational data showing that, for example, 当你的饮食习惯不好时,你患抑郁症或者类似于抑郁症的疾病的几率when you eat poorly your risk of depression and illnesses like depression just go up 70/80 会增加78%percent. 但如果你的饮食习惯更为传统 比如地中海的饮食习惯或者日本的饮食习惯And when you eat a more traditional diet like a Mediterranean diet or Japanese diet your 那你患抑郁症的几率就会减小50%之多risk of an illness like depression can go down by as much as 50 percent. 所以第一批最新的临床试验报告显示And so that’s now led to the first clinical trial that is just being reported showing 有红肉的地中海饮食其实能够治疗临床的that a Mediterranean diet augmented with some red meat actually can treat clinical depression, 重度抑郁障碍major depression disorder. 这对于营养精神学来说也是令人兴奋的And it’s a very exciting moment for nutritional psychiatry. 现在我们有更多的科学论证了在心理健康方面It’s a time when we have more science that tells us food should really be part of the 食物起到了很大的作用conversation when it comes to our mental health. 我们正处在一个非常好的研究心理学术的时代We are facing an incredible mental health academic. 我在纽约做精神学家已经有16年了I’ve been in New York as a psychiatrist now for 16 years and the amount of distress and 这期间受病症折磨和致死的人数是无法想象的the amount of mortality that we’re seeing is like levels we’ve never seen before and 我们需要运用很多种已知的方法 其中食物是很重要的一种方法we need as many tools in our toolbox and food is very much there, both from just common 从常识上来说也是sense. 我们都知道要感觉良好的前提就是要有一个好的饮食 现在We all know that to feel right we need to eat right, but then also backed up by now 也有大量的科学实验显示 营养中的一些核心元素an incredible amount of science showing that a core set of nutrients actually have very 在预防和治疗疾病clear data that can help in the prevention and the treatment of illnesses, again, like 比如抑郁和痴呆上有很大的作用depression and dementia. 所以我们鼓励人们去吃含有这些元素的食物So we want to encourage people to eat those foods that have most of these nutrients and 并帮助他们这样做 这是心理健康恢复治疗计划中很重要的一部分then help them do that is really part of a mental health care plan. 我们在吃的时候会考虑到很多疾病 比如说心脏病 癌症 糖尿病We think about a lot of illnesses when we eat, heart disease, cancer, diabetes and it’s 但事实上 你在吃东西的时候最应该担心的always struck me that really the illness you should be worried about or the organ you should 疾病或者器官应该是你的大脑 因为这是你至今为止最大的be worried about when you’re eating is your brain because that is by far your biggest 财富asset. 它比其他器官消耗了更多你从食物中摄入的能量It consumes more of your energy in your food than any other organ you have. 所以关注你的大脑需要的营养会引导你吃一些不一样的食物And so focusing on the nutrients your brain needs guide you to a slightly different set 如果你关注的是这些东西 比如说卡路里 饱和脂肪或者是预防一些of foods that if you focus on just things like calories or saturated fat or preventing 比如癌症之类的疾病something like cancer. 所以令人高兴的是这些科学数据开始和常识相吻合了And so it’s an exciting moment as the data begins to catch up with common sense. 对大脑最好的饮食就是传统饮食The diets that seem to do the best in terms of brain health are traditional diets. 举个例子来说 最典型的科学例子就是地中海饮食法So, for example, the most science is about the Mediterranean diet. 地中海饮食是一种以蔬菜为基础的饮食法Mediterranean diet is a plant-based diet. 你注意到地中海饮食中有很多的坚果和种子 全麦食品You’re going to see lots and lots of nuts and seeds, whole grains, you’re going to see 海鲜 肉和奶制品有不同的做法seafood, you going to see meat and dairy treated differently. 有趣的是 在所有的地中海饮食法中 比如说希腊酸奶I mean it’s interesting that all Mediterranean diets, Greek yogurt, for example, they have 在一些奶制品 发酵奶制品和肉类中 他们被用的频率和香料一样高some dairy and fermented dairy products and meat, but they’re used more as flavorings. 你不会在地中海饮食里看到西方饮食的影子 比如说大块的牛排和烤土豆You don’t see what we see in a western diet of a giant steak and a baked potato. 地中海饮食里有很多香料和新鲜的药草You see a lot more spices in the Mediterranean diet and fresh herbs, these are very, very 这些是非常有效的药物 经常被用来治疗疾病powerful medicine that have always been used to treat illness. 所以我最喜欢的介入治疗方法之一就是帮助人们种植And so one of my favorite interventions is helping people do like even a little herb 哪怕只是一小盆药草在他们的火坑或者是前院 这样子早上你走出房门pot on their fire is scape or in their front yard because you can just walk out in the 就可以摘取到西洋葱 罗勒 把它们碾碎 撒在你的炒蛋上morning, grab some chives, grab some basil, chop it up, have it with yours scrambled eggs. 这样一来早餐的营养价值就变高了You’ve just increased the nutrient density of that meal and you’ve made it a little bit 你的饮食就和地中海饮食有那么一点儿像了more like the Mediterranean diet. 接下来我要说的是地中海饮食主要由单一不饱和油脂和What you’re going to see is in the Mediterranean diets mainly monounsaturated and polyunsaturated 多元不饱和油脂组成fats. 地中海饮食中有很多的鲜脆的蔬菜 摆在盘子里就像彩虹一样You’re going to see, again, a lot of crunchy vegetables, a lot of rainbows on those plates 也有很多的海鲜and lots and lots of seafood. 这和西班牙饮食有很大的不同 所有的西班牙小菜中I mean that’s really one of the main differences if you look at a Spanish diet, all those tapas 都有一点小银鱼 乌贼 章鱼with little anchovies and a little bit of squid and a little bit of octopus where we’re 因此具有很高的营养价值 由此 我们可以知道这些营养元素getting these very, very nutrient dense seafoods that, again, we know how these molecules that 对大脑健康的重要性了are so important for brain health.

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