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  • 2021-10-30但丁《神曲天堂篇》讲解欢迎来到《我是你的目标人群》Welcome to I Am Your Target Demographic and 欢迎收看但丁《神曲》三集短片的最后一集welcome to our last of three videos focused on the Divine Comedy by Dante. 这些视频只涵盖基本内容These videos will cover the bare basics, 所以别期望会是一个完整的框架so don’t expect a thorough outline. 这是一份简洁明了的概述This is meant to be a concise and brief summary. 为了让你跟上脚步…To catch you up… 但丁和向导维吉尔深入地狱 并出现在炼狱的底部 和那些想要忏悔的人们一起Dante and his guide Virgil went through the depth of Hell and emerged at the base of purgatory, climbing terrace by terrace 一阶一阶向上爬 现在他们已经到达炼狱之巅with those that are trying to repent and now that they’ve reached the peak of purgatory 我们的天堂故事由此开始our story Paradiso begins. 但丁见到碧翠丝并且他们将会冲出天堂的大气层Dante meets Beatrice and they are going to ascend through the spheres of heaven, 向着天堂越飘越高floating higher and higher towards paradise. 维吉尔——他的向导 直到现在还没有跟上Vigil,his guide until now, does not follow. 第一层大气是月球大气The first sphere is the Sphere of the Moon, 是给那些无法守约的灵魂的which is for souls that have been unable to keep their vow, (通常在需要向上帝起誓时) usually when it comes to a vow to God, 所以我们看到很多so we see a lot of 权威和宗教人物被革职authority figures and religious figures that were kicked out of their positions, 并不是因为他们自己的过错not of their own fault. 水星大气The Sphere of Mercury is 是为那些正直但被抱负所驱使的人准备的for those that were right and just but were driven by ambition, 所以他们并非完全无私的so not entirely selfless. 有时名利驱使他们 而且他们希望优秀的业绩被认可Sometimes fame drove them and they wanted recognition for their good works. 第三层是金星大气The third sphere, the Sphere of Venus, 是为所谓的情人们准备的is for quote unquote lovers, (热爱上帝且非常仁慈的人们)people that loved God and humanity so passionately, 只有那样 他们才能在天堂谋的一席之地that alone earned them a place in heaven. 第四层是太阳大气The fourth sphere, Sphere of the Sun, 是为那些聪明智慧 追寻教育并改变心灵和头脑的人准备的is for the wise and intellectual, who sought to educate and change hearts and minds, 所以但丁和一些睿智的领袖进行了讨论so Dante has discussions with a few of these wise leaders. 第五层是火星大气 是战士The fifth sphere is the Sphere of Mars, the warriors. 他们的灵魂举着类似十字架的东西 他们战斗并且给予自己信念Their souls are holding up a shape of a cross and these souls have fought and given their lives for the faith, 其中有很多十字军中的英雄们including many heroes from the crusades. 第六层 是木星大气In sphere six, the Sphere of Jupiter, 公正的统治者的灵魂组成了鹰的样子the souls of just rulers make up the shape of an eagle 告诉但丁完全公正的重要性telling Dante about the importanceof divine justice. 第七层是土星大气The seventh is the Sphere of Saturn, 这些人在祈祷和沉思中度过一生those who lived their lives in prayer and contemplation. 这些灵魂其实很愤怒These souls are actually angry, 对现在教会以及内部腐败感到生气angry at the current state of the church and corruption inside it. 但丁在这章节表达了对当时教会的不满Dante used this section to express his discontent with the church of the time. 第八层是恒星大气The eighth sphere is called the Fixed Stars, 它处在双子星座中which exists in the constellation of Gemini, 如同这就是他的终点as this is almost his final destination, 这样他就可以回头看到远处的地球so he’s able to look back and see Earth in the distance. 但丁碰见了很多在这里生活的伟大的圣人Dante meets the greatest saints to exist here, 包括圣母玛利亚和使徒们including the Virgin Mary and the apostles. 最后一层是宗动天The last sphere is called Primum Mobile and 这是他冒险的最后一站it’s the last physical stop on his adventure. 我们可以看到上帝身边的九位大天使We see nine order of angels surrounding God, 全身散发光芒和能量all appearing as bright lights and energy. 碧翠丝在这讲述创世纪:上帝是如何创造万物的Beatrice recounts the story of creation here, how God put everything into existence. 我们进入最后一个境界 超越物理存在 叫作最高天We enter the last realm, beyond physical existence,called the Empyrean. 但丁看到一朵玫瑰的形状 但它代表的是所有神圣的爱Dante sees the shape of a rose, but it represents all divine love, 而且他刚感受过的天堂出现在这朵花里and heaven as he just experienced exists inside this flower. 但丁还看到了上帝并用最美妙的言语描述他Dante also sees God and describes it as best as he could 三个交错的圈代表三位一体as three overlapping circles to represent the holy trinity. 诗歌到此结束因为但丁放弃了对它的描述The poem comes to an end as Dante gives up on trying to describe it 没有语言或想法来解解他在那儿看到的一切not having the words or the thoughts to understand what he saw there. 他说“那不是我的翅膀可以承受的飞行”He says “That was not a flight for my wings.” 诗歌到此结束The poem ends. 好了 你做到了 你看完了天堂篇 多好的旅程啊That’s it, you made it! You finished Paradiso. What a journey. 感谢观看这些视频Thank you for watching all these videos. 如果你想学习其他有趣的东西If you want to learn other interesting stuff, 如果你还不是粉丝 你可以点击这里订阅if you’re not a subscriber already, you can click here to subscribe, 查看这里会让你学到各种其他有趣的课题and check out this to learn about all sorts of other interesting topics. 每周三 我们会做一个类似这样的视频 谢谢!So every Wednesday, we do a video just like this. Thanks!
  • 2021-10-30极简主义风格PBS数字工作室 So you see a few cubes sitting in an art gallery,当你在美术馆里看到几个整齐的立方体时 and you think to yourself,你可能暗自想: “This is the greatest hoax that anyone has ever pulled off.”“这是个骗局吧 谁都能摆出这种东西啊” You immediately walk away, discouraged by the wide gulf你感到沮丧然后离开了 因为 between what you hope for when you walk into a museum这和你进来时想象中美术馆的样子 and what they’ve presented to you.相差太大了! How did we get here?为什么会变成这样? How could these cubes that the artist didn’t even make为什么这些甚至都没有由艺术家经手 with their own hands be important?的立方体这么重要呢? This is the case for minimalism.这就是一个极简主义的案例 First off, we’re not talking about minimalism首先 我们所讲述的极简主义 as a general sensibility不是一种整体带来的感受 or the life-changing magic of tidying up.也不是一种改变生活的收缀魔法 We’re talking about the art of a particular moment in time. 我们讲的是一种产生于特定历史时期的艺术 Namely, the 1960s, when all of a sudden,换句话说 也就是在上世纪60年代 there was a lot of geometric, abstract art.突然间产生的几何抽象艺术 Some of it was painting by artists like Frank Stella其中有绘画 代表画家有弗兰克•斯特拉 and Ellsworth Kelly,和埃尔斯沃思•凯利 but most of it was sculpture by artists但大多数是雕塑作品 代表人物有 like Donald Judd, Carl Andre, Dan Flavin,唐纳德·贾德 卡尔•安德烈 丹•弗莱文 Anne Truitt, Robert Morris,安娜·特鲁伊特 罗伯特·莫里斯 Tony Smith, Ronald Bladen, and Sol LeWitt.托尼·史密斯 罗纳德·布莱登和索尔·莱维特 Art critics called it ABC art, object art,艺术评论家们称之为ABC艺术或者物体艺术 primary structures, and cool art, 原始结构或者冷艺术 but the term minimalism prevailed.但极简主义这个术语最终盛行 These artists never called their art minimalism,他们从不用极简主义来形容自己的作品 by the way,nor did they like the term,而且他们也不喜欢这个术语 or the implication that the work was so reductive that it was minimally art.因为这暗示着作品太过简单才会被称为极简艺术 But minimalism was a rejection of what came before. 但是极简主义是对之前艺术风格的摒弃 Specifically, abstract expressionism,尤其是对抽象表现主义—— which dominated the art market in the 1950s.一种主宰了20世纪50年代艺术市场的风格 These new artists wanted to remove expression completely,这些新兴艺术家们想完全脱离艺术的表现形式 remove emotion, empty the work of idiosyncratic gesture,摒弃情感 清除作品中的古怪形式 make it resistant to biographical reading.从而使作品能够避免传记式解读 Their hard-edged, basic shapes and forms这些硬边画和基础图形 avoided allusion, metaphor, and overt symbolism.避免了暗示 隐喻和显性的象征主义 The forms were often repeated, one thing after another它们的形式经常重复或接续出现 in regular, non-hierarchical arrangements,以规则 无分层的处理 rejecting compositional balancing.打破了组合的平衡 No artist hemming and hawing over the canvas here.作这样的画 没有艺术家会在画布上犹犹豫豫 The objects were impersonal, many of them machine-made,这些物品是客观的 多为机械制品 fabricated from new and industrial materials.以新材料和工业材料制成 Sometimes this entailed ready-made units,有时则需要现成的部件 like Andre’s bricks, or Flavin’s fluorescent tubes.如安德烈的砖块 或弗莱文的荧光管 They didn’t want you to ooh and ah,艺术家们不想令你对作品表示惊叹 or admire the handling of paint.或只欣赏颜料的处理手段 As LeWitt once said,”It is best that正如勒维特曾言: the basic unit be deliberately uninteresting.”“最好的艺术就是在每一个基本零件上故作无趣” Robert Morris wrote that he could 罗伯特·莫里斯曾写道 当时 hear resounding no at the time.他能听到响亮的反对之声 “No to transcendence and spiritual values,“不去追求超越和精神价值 heroic scale, anguished decisions,史诗级规模和苦恼的决定 historicizing narrative, valuable artifact,历史化的叙事 有价值的作品 intelligent structure, interesting visual experience.”充满智慧的构造和有趣的视觉体验” But what they were saying yes to was a new and startling realness.但他们认同的是新的令人震撼的真实 Abandoning the pedestal to dismantle the separation between you and the art.弃用底座 来消除我们和艺术之间的隔阂 Judd claimed these works are neither painting nor sculpture,贾德称这些作品既非绘画亦非雕塑 but instead specific objects occupying real space.而是三维的物体占据了真实的空间 These objects aren’t pointing to anything or referencing anything.这些物体没有表明什么或参考什么 Andre called his work a kind of plastic poetry,安德烈称自己的作品为一种塑料诗歌 in which elements are combined to produce space.在他的诗里 各种要素联合起来制造出空间 So there is no illusion of space, it just is space.所以它不是空间幻觉 它就是空间 Minimalism had its haters from the start.极简主义从一开始就拥有反对者 In 1967, art critic Michael Fried1967年 艺术评论家迈克尔·弗雷德 attacked the work for being theatrical.就批评这些作品正在变得戏剧性 For him it was an object in a room that had presence before a viewer,对他来说 这仅仅是一个放在房间里的实物 but it did not have what good art has,但它不具备好的艺术品应有的东西 which is presentness,它只是当下存在而已 or,”an instant of aesthetic experience换句话说 它是“发生在非真实时空的 which occurs in no real space or time at all.”瞬间审美体验” But Fried really just ended up affirming exactly但弗雷德最终确切地肯定了 what the artists were trying to do:这些艺术家们正在努力做的事: proving how radical it really was.证明极简主义真的十分前卫 Despite its detractors, minimalism became all the rage.尽管有诋毁者 极简主义仍风靡起来 This geometric, unadorned style flowed throughout the worlds这种几何的 朴素的风格席卷了 of fashion, theater, and design.时尚 戏剧和设计等领域 In short, it was cool.简而言之 它很酷 And then because these artists were never然后 因为这些艺术家 trying to be minimalist to begin with,一开始也不是有意要往极简艺术发展 they moved on to other things于是转向了其他艺术形式 and other kinds of art had its day.因此 其他种类的艺术也随之兴起 But minimalism changed things.但是极简主义改变了某些东西 For centuries, art had been trying to trick you,几个世纪以来 艺术一直在试图欺骗你 convince you that the hunk of rock was something other than a hunk of rock.让你相信那是一大块石头不只是石头 而是别的东西 But not this.而不是像这样简单的石头 You feel like there’s gotta be some secret to it, but there isn’t.你感觉其中应该有什么奥秘 然而并没有 There’s nothing to interpret.没有深意 无需解读 This is what it is.它就是它 It wasn’t supposed to look like art of the past,它看起来不像过去的艺术 and it wasn’t supposed to function like it either.它也不该具备那样的功能 With minimalism, meaning doesn’t rest inside the object,极简主义中 waiting to be unlocked.物体本身没有意义 The meaning is in the context, and exists in your interaction with it.意义存在于不同的环境和你与物体的交流之中 But minimalism is a resistant lover.但极简主义是个顽固的爱人 It’s just not that into you.它不会让你对它很感兴趣 It encourages observation, but doesn’t draw you in,它鼓励你观察 却不让你着迷 and it was never trying to. 它也从不试图这么做 Remember these objects were supposed to be emptied of pretension of mastery,这些作品不需要考虑一些虚饰来 of the usual seduction between art and viewer,平衡艺术性与观众感受 and of the grand, glorious traditions that preceded them.也不应该为了领先而去遵循伟大而光荣的传统 But the fetishization and commodification of minimalist art但对极简主义艺术的盲目迷恋和商品化 has complicated and polluted these ideas.已经使这些观念变得复杂 污浊 What’s less real than million-dollar plywood boxes?什么东西能比价值百万美元的胶合板箱还不真实? And yet, for me at least,至少于我而言 minimalist art can still impart a strong feeling,极简主义艺术仍旧可以传递强烈的情感 a feeling for space, light, for presence and absence.一种关于空间感 光线 存在或者不存在的感觉 You’re aware of your own body in the gallery你能感觉到到自己身处美术馆 as you’ve never been before.就你能感觉到自己以前从没来过一样 You notice that your position in the room你感受到自己在房间中的位置 shapes your perception of the thing.形成了你对事物的感知 You appreciate the architecture and the spareness,你能感受到建筑和空间 and in a world filled with complexity and information 当身处于充斥着繁杂事物和信息 and lots and lots of stuff,以及很多很多事情的世界里 this is a balm.这是带有治愈效果的慰藉 This is a world more simplified than the actual world is,这是一个比真实世界更简单的 and that I can appreciate.我可以欣赏的世界
  • 2021-10-30阿米莉亚·埃尔哈特:神秘失踪著名女飞行员哦!我的小心脏 我是说阿米莉亚•埃尔哈特 1897年7月24生于堪萨斯州艾金森市 阿米莉亚•埃尔哈特是当时最优秀的女飞行员 成长过程中 阿米莉亚并不女孩子气 她更喜欢爬树 钻废弃车厢 用22mm口径的步枪打老鼠 天呐 你那时候啥都能干 高中毕业后 她去了女子精修学校 但没能毕业 而是在一战期间成了加拿大军事医院的助理护士 她与妹妹在马塞诸塞州学习班卓琴和机械 1920年12月28日 在一次航空展上 飞行员弗兰克·考克斯带领她第一次感受了天空 飞行结束后她写道:我需要飞行 6天后她开始学习飞行课程 从此沉迷其中 她用了6个月攒够钱 买了一架浅黄色双翼飞机 取名叫“金丝雀” 首飞后不到一年 她就取得了飞行执照 两天后 她又参加了航空展飞行表演 飞行这个爱好很费钱 阿米莉亚得倍加努力才能负担爱好和生活 她在哥伦比亚呆了一段时间 做过社工 销售代表和英语老师 但在1928年 一切都有了转变 她有机会成为首次飞越大西洋的女性 他们的意思其实是让她当乘客 然后由别人驾驶飞机 飞机于1928年6月17日离开纽芬兰 21小时后降落在威尔士 飞行员报酬2万美元 技师5000美元 而阿米莉亚的报酬只有经验和机会 但这是值得的 回到纽约后 来自美国大型出版公司的一位男子找到她 想写一本她的人物传 他叫乔治•普特曼 1931年 他成了她的支持者兼筹款人兼丈夫 她的下一目标是成为独自飞越大西洋的第二人和第一位女性 恶劣的天气让她迫降在了爱尔兰的奶牛牧场 但关键在于过程而不是终点 不是吗? 重点是她做到了 而这一切让人们为之疯狂 胡佛总统为她颁奖 国会授予她十字飞行荣誉勋章 这是大事件 接着她又创造了飞行海拔记录 她是首位独自从檀香山飞往加利福尼亚的人 首位独自从墨西哥城飞往纽约的人 她创造了好多第一次 呵 你永远不会忘了自己的第一次的 但实际上 飞行在当时是全新体验 所以才有这么多第一次 但阿米莉亚真正的心之所系 是成为首次环球飞行的女性 她有了新飞机Lockheed Electra和领航员佛莱得•努南 并计划了飞行路线 但是第一次行动就失败了 飞机还没起飞就严重损坏了 但阿米莉亚没有放弃 她筹钱修飞机 重新计划飞行路线 于是在1937年6月1日正式起飞了 航程基本没出意外 除了某人的地图不准确 就是佛莱得 这意味着航程不可能完成了 然而 她当然不可能停下来去询问航向 目标是从新几内亚飞往霍德兰 这是位于太平洋中心仅1平方英里的小岛 这简直是大海捞针 没有地图 她只好尝试天文导航 但阴天又让一切成空 近海有一艘海岸警卫队的船 是可以跟埃尔哈特通信的 但通信质量不佳 上午7点42 船上收到了这样的讯息 我们在盯着你 但是看不到你 燃油快耗尽 无线电联系不到你 我们的飞行高度为1000英尺 7月3日上午8点43分 美国海岸警卫队埃塔斯卡号收到了最后一次她的讯息 随即启动了耗资400万美元 覆盖半径25万英里海域的搜索 但再也没找到飞机 阿米莉亚没有成为环球飞行的首位女性 但她证明了飞行员不一定就是这样的男性 虽然她的故事以悲剧收尾 但她的人生是独一无二的 阿米莉亚告诉我们 有志向和激情的女性 如果不满现状 天空会任你驰骋
  • 2021-10-30如何在图像和视频中使用预设功能Photoshop 使用指南如何使用预设(在图像或视频中)Photoshop PlaybookHow to Use Presets(in Images & Video) 预设存在于整个Photoshop中Presets exist throughout Photoshop, 这些预设是用来打破常规的好工具and they are a really great way to break out of a creative rut. 你可以使用预设功能来极大地改变你的图片You can apply a preset and dramatically change the look of your image. 预设在下面这种情况下会更加有用Where they’re even more useful though 就是保存预设然后应用到你接下来的图片中is saving presets to use on your own followup images. 它们能帮你省很多时间They can be huge time savers. 那么 让我们来看几个在工作流程中运用预设的方法吧So let’s look at a few different ways to employ presets into your workflow. 我们现在在Bridge这里So here we are in Bridge, 第一个我想要谈论预设的地方是在Camera Raw里and the first place I want to talk about presets is in Camera Raw. 我没有Raw文件 我有一个Tiff文件I don’t have a Raw file, I have a Tiff. 让我们看一下如何用Camera Raw插件打开一个tiff文件So let’s look at how we are going to open that tiff in Camera Raw. 然后我来到这 点开我的“Camera Raw首选项”And I come over here to my Camera Raw Preferences, 选择自动打开所有支持的JPEG和TIFF图片and I am just gonna tell it to automatically open all supported JPEGs and TIFFs. 这样 无需使用本地Raw文件That way I can enjoy the benefits of Camera Raw 我就可以享用Camera Raw的好处了without having to use a native Raw file. 现在 在Camera Raw里面我们已经有了各种滑动条Now, within Camera Raw we’ve got all sorts of sliders, 这意味着我们可以做出各种对应的调整which means there is all sorts of adjustments we can make. 但如果我们想要复制一种特定的图形式样要记住的还有很多But it’s a lot to remember if we wanna replicate a particular look. 所以如果我把这张图片调到我想要的样子时So if I get this image looking the way I like it. 我所要做的 就是来到这边What I want to do is come over here, 然后保存一个预设and save a preset. 这样的话 在将来That way in the future, 就只要按下Option 或者 Alt键来重置just hit Option or Alt to reset this, 如果我点进来 想要运用那个式样If I come in and I want to apply that look, 我就可以直接点击我的“预设”I can just click on my preset. 你能看到我已经有了各种不同的预设了And you can see I’ve got all sorts of different presets 这些都是将变动可视化的好方法that are really great ways to visualize changes. 现在我自己已经建立了这些预设Now I’ve created all these myself 那真的不会花费多少时间really doesn’t take long to do this. 下次只要你来到Camera RawJust the next time you come through Camera Raw, 抽点时间保存你的预设take the time to save out your presets. 再一次地 我要通过按Option 或者 Alt键来重置Again I’m gonna reset this by hitting the Option or Alt key. 然后我们就要直接在Photoshop里打开这个的原文件And we are gonna open this image directly into Photoshop unchanged. 那么来谈一下Photoshop里的预设吧它们无处不在So let’s talk about presets in Photoshop. They’re all over the place. 我想要给你们展示几个使用它们的不同方法I just wanna show you a few different ways to use them. 在Photoshop中 有大量的预设内容可供使用There is a ton of preset content available wtihin Photoshop. 在不同的调整类型中都有它We will find it throughout our different adjustment types. 我们要确保我们正在用调整层We wanna make sure that we’re using adjustment layers though. 这样我们就可以使用或撤销掉效果So that we can turn things off or on, 然后弄一下混合模式and play around with our blend modes. 如果我们来到“曲线”So if we come here to Curves, 我能看到我已经有了所有常规调整项目 比如对比度I can see that I’ve got all of my common adjustments, like Contrast. 而且我还有一些特殊的效果 比如交叉冲印But I’ve even got special affects like Cross Process. 现在我来选择 我可以选择应用或取消效果Now I choose. I can turn this off or on. 那么 另外有一些我很喜欢的效果So, a couple more that I really like, 其中一个是照片滤镜one of them is photo filter. Photoshop没有暖色调或者冷色调工具Photoshop doesn’t know what warming or cooling, 也无法调整色温doesn’t know anything about temperature really. 但我可以用这些滤镜来假装有But I can fake it here with these filters. 我这有一大堆不同的照片滤镜I’ve got a whole bunch of different photo filters. 如果我想要让图片变成冷色调或变成暖色调If I wanna cool this or warm it, 我就能快速得到一个不错的效果I can get a really nice result quickly. 如果我用我的混合模式Where this gets even more powerful, 那么预设功能用在这里会更加强大is if I use my blend modes. 所以如果我来到这里 然后用正片叠底模式So if I come in and I multiply that 把不透明度拉低and then pull the opacity down. 如果我们切换到预览效果If we toggle that preview, 我们就看得出我们已经显著地改变了图片we can see that we’ve dramatically changed our image, 只是通过使用预设和一点点调整just by using a preset and a little bit of the control. 以上是静止的图片And that’s a still image. 再说一下 Photoshop中有很多供静止图片使用的预设Again there’s lots of content throughout Photoshop for still images. 让我们来看看怎么用在视频上吧Let’s look at using it for video, 因为工作流程基本上一样because the workflow is almost exactly the same. 那么在Bridge这里 我这有一个视频片段So here in Bridge I see that I’ve got a video clip, 我要把它拖过来and I’m just gonna grab that, 在Photoshop里打开and open it in Photoshop. 得到这个表示这是视频的时间轴I’ll get this time line that shows me that there’s video here 我按下空格键 画面确实动了I press the space bar, indeed there’s motion. 现在我可以做任何在静止图片上做的事Now I can do any of the things that I did with the still image. 我要先转换成智能滤镜I just want to convert this to a smart filter first. 使它始终应用于我的图片And that’s gonna put a wrapper around my image. 这样的话 我对视频中的一张静止图 一个画面所做的事情So that anything that is done to one image, one frame in my video 都会应用到整个视频中is applied to the entire thing. 那么比如说我们想要它变成黑白So let’s say we wanna make this black and white. 我们要用“自动”And we want to use Auto, 或许我还要用上抓手工具and maybe I wanna use my on-image control 来让这一部分稍微亮点to make this part a little bit lighter, 这一部分稍微暗点and this part a little bit darker. 同样再加上一层色彩and let’s just add a tint as well, 然后我们再改变那层色彩的颜色and then let’s change the color of that tint. 以一个预设为起点 对视频做了一堆处理Done a whole bunch of things to our video, starting with a preset. 现在我对这个效果满意了Now I really like the effect I have, 所以我要确保我保存好了so I wanna make sure that I save that. 来到这上面I come up here, 通过保存黑白效果预设I can save myself a ton of time 就能省了我很多时间by saving that black and white preset. 我也可以同样的方式来用其他预设And I can do that with most of those other presets as well. 所以无论你是在用预设来打破常规So whether you are using presets to get out of creative rut 还是用来节省时间or to save yourself a whole bunch of time. 它们都是你工作流程中非常重要的一部分They are really an important part of your workflow, 再说一次 我只展示了一小部分预设存在于整个应用中and again I’ve just shown you a few, they exist throughout the application.
  • 2021-10-30总统卸任以后的生活是怎样的“生活中没有什么比做前总统更可悲了”“There is nothing more pathetic in life than a former president.” 这句话及其变体These words, and variations of them, 是由前总统约翰·昆西·亚当斯所写authored by former President John Quincy Adams 出现在几乎每一篇有关这一主题的文章中show up in just about every major article on the subject. 但是如果你关注新闻But if you pay any attention to the news, 你就会发现事实并非如此you’ll see that’s probably not the case. 今天 我们来探索一下前总统的真实生活Today,we’re exploring what life is really like for an ex-president. 开始之前 Before we get started, 我们需要你订阅这个频道we have an executive order for you to subscribe to the channel 并且告诉我们你最喜欢的总统and let us know who your favorite president is. 先生们 女士们 Ladies and gentlemen, 美国前总统的真实生活the ex-Presidents of the United States. 政府将终生给你养老(不管你辞职与否) 即使在担任总统之前 你很年轻精力充沛Even if you were young and vigorous before your presidency, 但现在 你觉得自己正处于崩溃的危险中by now, you feel like you’re in danger of collapsing into a pile of dust. 巨大的工作压力往往会改变总统的身心The stress that transforms a president is a force of nature. 幸运的是Lucky for you, 你不需要思考生计方面的问题there’s really no need to recover from it to survive. 由于1958年的《前总统法案》Thanks to the 1958 Former Presidents Act, 美国将向前总统支付终生养老金the US pays ex-presidents a lifetime pension. 1958年 这个数字是每年2.5万美元In 1958, it was $25,000 a year, 相当于2019年的每年21.8万美元which works out to about $218,000 a year in 2019 money. 今天 他们实际上到手的钱没有这么多Today, they actually get a little less. 一位正常卸任总统的养老金The pension of an ex-president with a clean discharge from office 是根据在职政府成员的工资计算的is based on the salary of an active cabinet member– . 2019年21.07万美元$210,700 不错的数字A healthy sum, 尤其是与前总统遗孀的养老金对比especially compared with what the widow of an ex-president gets– 他们才区区两万美元a paltry $20,000. 看看这个Now, check this out. 那些不那么光彩退位的人Those who make, let’s say, a less glorious exit from office ——比如狡猾的迪克·尼克松——— tricky Dick Nixon, for example– 仍有机会获得丰厚的养老金still have a shot at that fat pension, 但前提是他们在被指控犯罪之前辞职but only if they quit before they could be impeached for the crimes. 倘若他们能及时辞职Provided they do resign in time, 他们在死前每年仍能得到21.07万美元they’ll still get $ 210,700 every year until they die, 这将是一段不短的时间 which won’t be for some time 如果他们能善用免费医疗和工费旅游if they put their free health care and paid travel to good use. 不管他们做了什么或没做什么 丢失工作都无所谓It doesn’t matter what they did or didn’t do to lose their job, 因为他们的新工作是保全面子because their new job is to save face, 而山姆大叔很乐意让纳税人来埋单and Uncle Sam is happy to let taxpayers foot the bill. 上帝保佑Bless his tiny little beard. 特工处无处不在 美总统行宫并不全是无尽的钱和彩虹高尔夫It’s not all endless money and rainbow golf at Camp David. 当上总统意味着Being president means 你将永远 永远不会再有私人空间you never ever,ever get to be alone 永远 永远ever, ever again, 即便你不再是总统not even when you’re done being president. 2012年通过一项法律2012 saw the passage of a law 撤消了1994年规定特工处对前总统保护10年的限制reversing 1994’s 10-year limit on Secret Service protection for former presidents. 截至2013年As of 2013, 特工处的任务是监视每一位前总统the Secret Service is tasked with watching over every ex-president 直到他们去世 until death do them part. 和养老金一样As with the pension, 这种保护并不适用于家庭this protection does not extend to the family. 孩子们在16岁以后就独自上路Children are inexplicably left on their own after they hit 16 你知道 这是他们有生以来and,you know,begin driving places on their own 第一次在公共场合for the first time in their lives, 无人护送 自己开车out in public, unescorted, 即使他们父亲在90岁时仍然配有武装警卫bearing the surname of someone who still merits an armed guard at 90. 如果第一夫人离婚和再婚First ladies are punished with the removal of all rights to protection 不管公众是否讨厌她们should they divorce and remarriage, 也不管她们的总统伴侣如何对待她们regardless of how much the general public hates them 她们都会受到惩罚 取消所有受保护的权利or how their presidential partner treated them. 这就是第22条的定义This is the very definition of a catch-22. 让我们统计一下总统离婚的人数? 没有Shall we count the number of presidential divorcees? No 不幸的梅拉尼亚 你被他捆住了Bad luck, Melania. You’re stuck with him. 尽管还有2万美元养老金值得期待Although there is that $20,000 to look forward to. 你将有你自己的图书馆(感谢罗斯福) 养老金 精英安保人员What with the pension, the elite security detail, 还有更多不公平的事情and more things that seem just a little unfair 在当前的经济形势下in this economy,or any other, 你自己的图书馆a library of your own 是这个国家负担不起的奢侈品 对吧?is a luxury this country can ill-afford, right? 实际上 这个比其他的更合理Actually, this one makes more sense than the rest, 但它需要一些背景知识but it requires a bit of background. 罗斯福 闻名于将字母汤应用于FDR,known for applying a veritable alphabet soup 美国法律改革to reforms to American law books, 安排了一个图书馆/博物馆来存档arranged for a library-slash-museum to archive 里面有许许多多的记录has many, many, many records. 《我们奇怪的历史》从这一传统中受益匪浅We at Weird History have benefited quite a lot from that tradition. 谢谢你 弗兰克Thanks, Frank. 政府官员过去常常把旧信件和垃圾丢进箱子Public officials used to dump their old correspondences and junk into boxes 然后塞进阁楼里 就像善良 理智的人一样and shove them into attics, like good, sane people. 政客们这种反常的行为This deviation in the normalcy on the part of politicians 实在令历史学家心碎is a real heartbreaker for historians. 乔治华盛顿的侄子报告说George Washington’s nephew reported that 他叔叔的文件被老鼠咬坏了his uncle’s papers were very extensively mutilated by rats 或者因为潮湿受损and otherwise injured by damp. 世界可能永远不知道有什么奇怪的历史被遗失了The world may never know what weird history was lost. 杜鲁门总统在离任后President Truman spent a great deal of time maintaining his library 花了很多时间维护他的图书馆after departing the Oval Office, 这是一件非常不错的事情which was a very decent thing to do 考虑到这些地方需要很多时间和精力 considering how much time and effort those places demand. 这里有一个非常好的动机There was a very good incentive 让总统保持他的笔记井然有序on the part of the president to keep his notes in good order, 我们接下来会看到 as we’ll see next. 他们可以通过卖书赚大钱 面对现实吧Let’s face it. 那是一个非常特别的人It takes a very special kind of person 不仅要期望自己成为to not only envision him or herself 一个拥有3亿多人口的国家的首领as commander-in-chief of a nation over 300 million strong, 还要下定决心完成这个任务decide to go through with it, 竞选总统并当选campaign for office,win that office, 在这个职位上呆4到8年and stay in that office for four to eight years 而且期间不发生严重的问题without getting into serious trouble. 我们大多数不是那个人Most of us are not that person. 我们很多人都想知道怎么样能成为这样的人A lot of us would like to know what it’s like to be that person. 乔治·W·布什的《抉择时刻》Decision Points,George W. Bush’s book, 卖出150万册 为他赚了700万美元sold 1.5 million copies and earned him $7 million. 比尔·克林顿获得了1500万美元预付款Bill Clinton got a $15 million dollar advance 这本书叫《我的生活》for his book, My Life, 它一共卖出了225万册which sold over 2 and 1/4 million copies 并以有声书的形式获得了格莱美奖and won a Grammy in its audio book form, 由克林顿本人亲自讲述narrated by Clinton himself. 到2017年By 2017, 奥巴马夫妇已经收到了书籍6500万美元的预付款the Obamas had already received $65 million in advances for their books. 吉米卡特 以真正的吉米卡特的方式Jimmy Carter, in true Jimmy Carter fashion, 写的不是一两本而是14本wrote not one or two but 14 books. 据历史学家詹姆斯·瑟伯说He was flat broke when he got out of office, 他卸任时身无分文according to historian James Thurber. 他们不准开车 如果你一直都对前总统和他们的农场评头论足If you’ve been all judgey about ex-presidents and their ranches, 请稍等一会儿hold your horses for a minute. 如果政府拿走了你的车钥匙You’d probably run off to live like a cowboy, too, 你可能也会像个牛仔一样生活if the government took your car keys. 当你任期结束时 你开车的日子就结束了When your term is up, your driving days are done, 除非你在乡下有个大农场unless you have, say, a big ranch out in the country 你可以在后院调制鸡尾酒 炸甜甜圈where you can make some rooster tails and donuts in the backyard 直到你去世until your heart gives out. 如果你想知道前总统是如何离开私人领地的If you’re wondering how ex-presys get around off private property, 那就看看那些穿着快活的黑色西装的家伙吧look no further than the guys in the happy, snappy black suits. 这就对了That’s right. 特工处也不只是四处逛等待坏家伙上门The Secret Service doesn’t just hang around waiting for bad guys. 他们也是你的私人武装司机They also become your private, armed chauffeurs 陪伴你度过余生for the rest of your life. 可惜没人告诉可怜的老拜登Too bad no one told poor old Joe Biden.that “竞选总统有很多理由”” There are a lot of reasons to run for president,” 他以拜登特有的方式说he said,in typical Biden fashion, “但有一个压倒性的理由不竞选总统“but there’s one overwhelming reason not to run for president. 我喜欢在3.4秒内把克尔维特Z06从0加速到60码”I like to get that Corvette Z06 from zero to 60 in 3.4 seconds.” 噢 乔Oh, Joe. 应该有人告诉他的Someone has to tell him. 不管怎样 我们对这个规则非常满意 Anyway, we’re really very OK with this rule. 让那些总统 副总统或其他什么人 离我们的街道远点Keep those presidents, vice or otherwise, off our streets. 77岁的他已经太老以至于开不动现在的车了At 77, the current model is already too doddy to drive as it is. 特工处监视他们所有的信件 这都不用想This one’s a no-brainer. 显然 一个在过去十年大部分时间里Obviously,a guy who’s spent the better part of the last decade 都收到死亡威胁的人是不会看自己信件的getting death threats is not going to check his own mail, 尤其是当他不再坐在白宫里时especially when he’s no longer sitting on four floors of the White House, 这让我们想到了黑衣人which brings us back to the men in black. 他们开车 他们收发邮件They drive. They sort mail. 他们做的任何事都是为了普通人乔They do everything that for an average Joe, 而不是乔·拜登 这是例行公事as opposed to Biden,Joe, is routine. 但千万不要把例行公事和无聊混为一谈But never confuse routine for boring in this field. 特工处截获的管道炸弹The Secret Service’s intercepted pipe bombs 原本是为克林顿夫妇 奥巴马夫妇meant for the Clintons, the Obamas, 和近年来其他大人物准备的and other big figures in recent years 这些炸弹被放置在分类前总统邮件的非现场设施中at the off-site facilities used to sort the ex-presidential mail. 2018年10月24日 特工处发布了一份关于邮件的声明A statement from the Secret Service made October 24, 2018 concerning the mail — 这些包裹将在常规筛选中被立即识别The packages were immediately identified during routine mail screening procedures 确定为潜在的炸弹装置as potential explosive devices 并得到妥善处理and were appropriately handled as such. 这两个包裹在被送到预定地点之前都被拦截了Both packages were intercepted prior to being delivered to their intended location. 一些前总统在找工作 在1958年以前的旧时代In the olden days before 1958, 当人们的工作还可以日结的时候when a man could do a day’s work for a day’s pay, 总统带着他们搬进白宫的东西离开白宫presidents left the White House with whatever they had when they moved in. 没有丰厚的养老金 没有保险No fat pension, no guaranteed book advance deals, 只有一套西装和美国能提供的最好的简历just a suit and the best resume America can give. 一些前总统用到了它And some of them used it. 我们之前提到过 哈里·杜鲁门花了大量的时间We mentioned before that Harry Truman put in a lot of hours 在他自己的密苏里州独立图书馆上at his own library in Independence, Missouri. 我们没有告诉你的是 他在那里有一个办公室What we didn’t tell you was that he had an office there 他在那里工作了19年where he worked for 19 years. 他的一生有过足够的热情He’d had enough excitement for one lifetime. 他的余生都在图书馆工作 这并不令人吃惊It’s not a shocker that he’d spend the rest of his life working in a library. 格罗弗•克利夫兰在他的非连续总统任期内Grover Cleveland, not having bombed even one country 没有轰炸过任何一个国家during his non-consecutive presidential terms, 他退休后决定炒股decided to play chicken with the stock market. 乔治·华盛顿拒绝了成为独裁者的机会George Washington turned down an opportunity to be dictator for life 他树立了自己的风格and set himself up in style, 在弗农山庄开了一家威士忌酒厂opening a whiskey distillery at Mount Vernon. 也许他的文件就是这样弄湿的Maybe that’s how his papers got all soggy. 前总统们经常成为好朋友 对于前总统来说 生活很奇怪Life is strange for an ex-president. 在最不可思议的权利之旅结束后After the most incredible power trip available is over, 你接下来的生活都必须与世隔绝you have to go and live in a bubble for the rest of your days, 被那些不让你开车 surrounded by people who won’t let you drive, 不让你拆邮件 不许你独自出门open your own mail,go anywhere on your own, 或者在推特上畅所欲言的人包围 or say whatever you want on Twitter. 没有多少人能理解这一点Not a lot of people can relate to that. 真的 只有其他前总统Only other ex-presidents, really. 因此 难怪许多前总统So it comes as no surprise that many former commander-in-chiefs 和他们的前第一家庭彼此友好and their former first families are friendly with one another, 即使他们来自不同的党派even if they come from different parties. 例如 乔治·W·布什George W. Bush, for example, 在2017年称比尔克林顿是他异母兄弟referred to Bill Clinton as his brother from another mother in 2017. 他们有员工 办公室和办公用品 除了养老金 医疗保健 保镖On top of the pension, the health care, bodyguards, 和带薪公务旅行and paid official travel, 政府每年为前总统预留15万美元的预算the government reserves an annual $150,000 budget 用于他们退休后的头30个月for an ex-president to spend on their staff for the first 30 months 也就是两年半的员工支出–that’s 2 and 1/2 years– of their retirement, 之后每年拨款9.6万美元after which they kick in $96,000 a year 因为很显然 前总统需要这笔钱because apparently they need that, too. 如果这还不够的话If that wasn’t excessive enough, 每一个前总统办公室房租也是由我们纳税人提供的every office space is comped courtesy of us, the taxpayers. 从现任总统的喜好来看Judging by the current president’s preferences and predilections, 我们可以合理的预计 他未来办公室的陈设和工作人员we can reasonably expect the furnishings and staff of his future office 将是一座纯金喷泉 里面满是金发女郎to be a solid gold fountain filled with blondes. 他们花多的惊人的时间规划他们的葬礼 前总统可以 而且经常Former presidents can, and often do, 会选择国葬choose to have a state funeral. 一切都很好All well and good. 这是能满足任何人的最好葬礼It’s as nice a funeral as anyone could ask for — 飞机在领空不间断的飞五天 five whole days of aircraft flyovers, 鸣枪敬礼和游行gun fire salutes,and parades, 当然 全国国旗降半旗and of course, flags remain lowered across the country, 即使我们不喜欢你even if we didn’t like you. 要计划的东西很多It’s a lot to plan for, 总统们花了大量时间来做这个计划and the presys spend an extraordinary amount of time doing the planning. 对理查德·尼克松来说 这是一个带着尊严死去的机会For Richard Nixon, it was a chance to die with dignity. 他选择离开 安静的葬在他的图书馆里He chose to opt out and be buried quietly in his library, 这与一位名誉扫地的前总统的身份相符as befits a disgraced ex-president 他去世前一直都在领取由税收资助的薪水who continued to draw a tax-funded paycheck until his death. 挺好 迪克 这不错Not bad, Dick, not bad. 演讲是前总统的生活方式 考虑到他们的工作有多少是在讲话Considering how much of their job is talking, 总统在完成工作后做大量演讲it seems a little incredible that a president can do the bulk of the speechmaking 这看起来有些不可思议after the job is done. 但这是真的 许多演讲都是由But it’s true. Many speeches given by those 担任过高职务的人在非在职期间发表的who have held that high office are given outside that office. 比如比尔·克林顿Take Bill Clinton. 从2001年1月到2013年1月He earned a whopping $104.9 million dollars 他发表了542次演讲from 542 speeches 收入高达1.049亿美元between January 2001 and January 2013. “在我离开白宫之前 我从未有过任何收入”“I’ve never had any money until I got out of the White House,” 他在2010年对沃尔夫·布利策说he told Wolf Blitzer in 2010, “但从那以后 我做的相当不错”“but I’ve done reasonably well since then.” 他们有巨额旅行预算 《前总统法案》又起作用了The Former Presidents Act is at it again. 我们已经谈到了旅游预算We’ve touched on the travel budget, 现在我们来告诉你目前的情况and now we’ll tell you just how things stand. 系好安全带Buckle up. 每位前总统每年都有权获得高达100万美元的费用Each and every ex-president is entitled to up to $1 million dollars 用于每年的安保和差旅费in security and travel expenses each daggone year, 另外还有50万美元给他的配偶with an additional half mil for his spouse. 唯一的限制甚至连限制都算不上The only catch is barely even a catch. 他们必须以美国政府官员的身份旅行They must be traveling as officials of the United States government, 这一规定诞生于《平安险》生效10年后and this stipulation came 10 years after the FPA was put into effect. 他们通过做慈善追求诺贝尔奖 在过去的四到八年里 你一直统治一个着第一世界的国家You’ve ruled a first-world country for the last four to eight years of your life. 现在你要问的是 接下来呢And you come to the question, what next? 你从权力顶点下来后该何去何从Where do you go from the top? 如果你不受爱戴 你还有机会让民众再次喜欢你吗And if you’re unpopular,is there a chance to make people like you again? 做慈善 得诺贝尔奖Philanthropy, the Nobel Prize. 那是通往不朽的金门票That’s the golden ticket to immortality, 是人民永恒的爱戴 是更美好的明天the eternal love of the people, and a better tomorrow. 或者他会适得其反 Or it backfires horribly 变成更多的政治和喜剧and turns into just more politics and a lot of comedy sketches, 就像戈尔告诉你的那样as Al Gore might be able to tell you. 吉米·卡特创立卡特中心Jimmy Carter founded The Carter Center 是为了保护民主国家的选举公正to protect election integrity in democratic nations, 调解外交纠纷 抗击疾病 以及一些其他了不起的事情mediate diplomatic disputes, fight disease, and other awesome things. 因此他当仁不让地获得2002年诺贝尔奖Or this– he justifiably won the 2002 Nobel Prize. 迈克尔·达菲 总统俱乐部的联合创始人Michael Duffy, co-author of The Presidents Club, 说卡特的慈善事业said of Carter’s philanthropic work, 让所有接替他的人都感到困难He’s made it difficult for absolutely everyone who’s come after him 因为谁能赶上他?确实没有 because who can keep up? Who, indeed. 除了米歇尔·奥巴马 谁还在努力?Who’s even trying,except Michelle Obama? 前总统的家从简谱到豪华不等 如果说我们今天学到了一件事If there’s one thing we’ve learned today, 那就是前总统的生活如影随形it’s that an ex-president’s life follows him. 当他辞职以后 这或许就不奇怪看到After the choices he made, it’s perhaps not surprising that 当哈里·杜鲁门离开白宫后 他直接去了岳母家里when Harry Truman left the White House, he went straight to his mother-in-law’s. 亲爱的 小甜心 温柔的吉米·卡特And dear, sweet,gentle Jimmy Carter 在乔治亚州有一套两居室的房子got a sensible two-bedroom house in Georgia. 另一方面 罗纳德·里根Ronald Reagan, on the other hand, 回到了他7000平方英尺的贝尔艾尔豪宅returned to his 7,000-square-foot Bel Air mansion. 奥巴马夫妇和克林顿夫妇也住进了豪宅The Obamas and Clintons settled down in some lavish lodgings, as well. 他们不一定有医保 医疗保健让人有点困惑Health care is a bit more confusing. 吉米·卡特的医保得益于埃默里大学Jimmy Carter gets his health benefits from Emery College, 他曾是那里的一名教师where he was once a teacher, 因为他没有连续五年在政府任职because he wasn’t a government employee for the minimum of five years requisite 那是获得医保必须的to gain health care benefits. 但是联邦计划局上涨的预算使得医保成为可能But the bloated budget of the FPA allows for health care. 什么导致的?What gives? 这是医保 所以它当然是陈旧的It’s health care, so of course it’s got to be archaic. 所有前总统及其配偶 寡妇和18岁以下儿童All former presidents and their spouses, widows,and children under 18 都有权免费在军事医院接受治疗are entitled to treatment in military hospitals free of charge. 他们也可以自费参加私人健康医保They can also enroll in private health insurance plans at their own expense, 如果他们想要的不仅仅是偶尔服用的止痛药 而且他们负担得起的话if they want more than the occasional Motrin and they can afford it. 前总统变得越来越富有Ex-presidents are getting wealthier, 在养老金 演讲 书籍between the pension,the speeches, the books,and the little odds 和我们没有时间处理的零星琐事之间and ends we didn’t have time to deal with. 像普通人一样生活和奋斗的唯一方法就是选择这样做And the only way to live and struggle like regular folk is to choose to do so. 吉米当然做到了 我们希望他得到更多的爱Jimmy certainly did, and we hope he gets a little more love for it 因为这是一个艰难的选择because it was one heck of a choice to make. 那么你认为前总统的退休生活是怎么样的呢?So what do you think of an ex-president’s post-presidential life? 在评论中让我们知道Let us know in our comments below, 当你在看的时候and while you’re at it, 看看我们《奇怪的历史》中的其它视频 check out some of these other videosfrom our Weird History.
  • 2021-10-30漫谈俄史俄罗斯是地球上最大的国家Russia is the largest country on Earth, 面积广达1700万平方公里spanning an incredible 17 millions square kilometers. 如果你像我一样But if you’re anything like me, 你可能想知道它为何如此广阔you’re probably wondering how it is so big 是如何变成我们现代社会中如此强大的政治社会实体的and how it can become sucha powerful political and social entity in our modern world. 它不仅拥有“欧洲最大且最受欢迎的国家和城市”的头衔It not only takes the title of largest and most popular country and city in Europe, 而且其国土覆盖远不止欧洲but also stretches far beyond Europe, 还横跨乌拉尔山脉直达亚洲across the Ural Mountains range into Asia. 占据了该大陆最大的部分Taking up the largest portion of the continent. 东欧的主要历史始于Principle history of the eastern Europe began with the people 一群被希腊作家称为“斯拉夫”的人the greek writers called “Slavs” 首个俄罗斯国家的成立是在882年的伏尔加河和第聂伯河流域间The first russian state was founded when a Group of eastern Slavs 一群后来被称为“罗斯”的东斯拉夫人late known as”The Rus'” elected a Viking chieftain to be their prince in 882 选举维京酋长作为他们的国王In the area between the Volga and Dnieper river basins 这个国家很快扩展到了那些The state was soon expanded into the lands 曾经被亚洲草原游牧民族所拥有的土地上once held by the nomadic steppe people from Asia 他们攻占的最重要的城市是基辅The most important city they captured was Kiev 这就是历史学家称此段俄罗斯历史为“基辅罗斯”的原因which is why historians refer to this part of Russia’s history as the”Kievan Rus'” 罗斯人讲的“原东斯拉夫语”The Rus’ spoke a Language called”Proto eastern-Slavic” 逐渐演变为俄语和乌克兰语which would slowly evolve into Russian and Ukranian 中世纪罗斯王国在998年接受了基督教The medieval Rus’ state adopted Christianity in 988 当时是弗拉基米尔一世从信奉正统基督教的拜占庭帝国引入了此教when Vladimir I introduced the religion from the orthodox christian Byzantine Empire. 这也是为什么俄罗斯人使用西里尔字母This is also why the Russians use the cyrillic 而不是天主教国家普遍使用的拉丁字母rather than the latin alphabet common in most catholic nations. 由于11世纪 智者雅罗斯拉夫之死的推波助澜The Rus’ state slowly fragmented into competing princedoms, 罗斯王国逐渐分裂成相互竞争的小国largely aided by the Death of Yarolsav the Wise in XI century. 罗斯经常与游牧部落发生战争The Rus’ were often at war with the nomadic tribes 我们将简称其为“草原民族”we will just call for simplicity’s sakes “Steppe Peoples”. 这些草原民族是亚洲史上不可或缺的一部分 These steppe peoples are integral to much of the history of Asia 你会看到在他们身上涌现出各种各样的特质and you’ll see various facts on them popping up on all over the place. 大多数草原民族起源于欧亚大草原Most steppe peoples originated from the Euariasan Steppes. 正因如此Go and figure. 他们非常擅长骑马和射箭And they were very good at horse riding and archery, 比如伏尔加保加利亚人 such as the Volga Bulgars, 可萨人Khazars 和钦察人and Kipchaks 因此我们可以转而来谈论一下So with that out of the way we can talk about the Mongols, 被罗斯称为“鞑靼人”的蒙古人who the Rus’ called Tartars. 在成吉思汗和拔都汗的带领下Under Genghis and Batu Khan, 他们一路入侵到西基辅罗斯they invaded all the way into Western Kievan Rus’ 并建立了拥有罗斯诸国为附庸国的and established a state called”The Golden Horde” 名为“金帐汗国”的蒙古帝国with the Rus’ princedoms as their Vassals 随着波兰 立陶宛和莫斯科大公国等The Mongol Empire quickly fracted into smaller khanates, 更强大的国家的崛起along for the growth of more powerful states 蒙古帝国迅速分裂成较小的汗国such as Poland, Lithuania, and the grand Duchy of Moscow. 到1480年 两个国家吞并了金帐汗国大部分的国土By 1480, both states absorded much of the Golden Horde, 相较于鞑靼国becoming more rivals with each other, 这两国更像是竞争对手 than with the Tartars. 到1547年 随着伊凡雷帝被加冕为第一位沙皇By 1547, Moscow had become a regional power 在俄语中称为“凯撒”with Ivan the Terrible being crowned the first Tsar, 莫斯科成为了当地一霸the russian word for “Caesar”. 毕竟他们自视是罗马的宗教继承者After all they did see themselves as the spiritual successors of the Romans, 并且是正统基督教的最后遗民and the last remnant of the orthodox christianity. 值得商榷的是Debatable. 在罗斯居住过伊凡也将国家改名为“俄罗斯”Ivan also renamed the state “Russia” after the Rus’, who inhabited it. 1580年 俄罗斯攻下了西比尔汗国In 1580, Russia conquered the khanates of Sibir, 标志着俄罗斯首次将乌拉尔山脉东部领土扩张到亚洲marking the first time Russia had expanded east of the Ural Mountains into Asia. 攻下汗国后 The Russians renamed the mysterious lands “Siberia”, 俄罗斯人将这片神秘的土地重新命名为“西伯利亚”after the khanate had conquered. 你觉得他们会就此收手吗?And do you think they stopped there? 剧透一下Well, spoiler alert: 不会NO. 1601年 在俄罗斯空位时期之初In 1601 the Russians faced a succession crisis 俄罗斯人面临着一连串危机as the beginning of the Time of Trobules. 国家处于无政府状态The country was in anarchy. 有着被波兰吞并的危险And in danger of being absorbed by Poland 高达三分之一的人口Up to 1 of 3 of population died, 死于战争瘟疫或饥荒either due to war famine or plague. 到1613年 俄罗斯人选举米哈伊尔·罗曼诺夫作为新沙皇By 1613, the Russiand elected Mikhail Romanov as the new Tsar, 在这个国家接下来的历史上建立了罗曼诺夫王朝establishing the Romanov dynasty for the rest of the country’s history. 米哈伊尔结束了战争Mikhail ended the wars 并开启了重建这个分裂国家的缓慢过程and began a slow process of rebuilding the fragmented country. 从此事起到19世纪 From this point until the XIX century, 俄罗斯的经济得到了农奴制的支撑 Russia’s economy was propped up by serfdom, 通过将所有的农民变成世袭的农奴effectilvely protecting Russia’s rich and powerful 有效地维护了俄罗斯的财富和权力by turning all the peasants into hereditary slaves. 是的 历史有时是很糟糕Yeah, history sucks sometimes. 到1667年 在已被征服的“哥萨克”草原民族的帮助下By 1667, Russia had become powerful enough to win the Russo-Polish war 俄罗斯已经变得强大到足以在俄波战争中取胜with the help of the subjugated steppe peoples called “Cossacks”. 他们将领土扩张到东南部和波兰的一部分They expanded their territory into southeast and part of Poland. 根据一个古老的斯拉夫词语“边疆”The poles in the Russia had informally nicknamed the area “Ukrania”, 俄罗斯的极地地区被非正式地称为“乌克兰”derived from an old slavic word, “Borderland”. 提到它 是因为它地处Get it because it was the border between 俄罗斯 波兰和哥萨克三国的交界Russia, Polands and the Cossacks. 不管怎样 它很有创意 Very creative, anyway. 俄罗斯最著名的沙皇之一是彼得大帝One of Russia’s most famous Tsar was Peter the Great. 彼得大帝是一个改革家Peter was a reformer. 他使军队现代化He modernized the army, 建立了帝国的第一支海军built the Empire’s first navy, 他游历西方并带回了启蒙运动的思想和技术traveled the west and brought back ideas and technology of the enlightenment 还有时尚的法式服装And also fashionable French cloathing. 他还扩大了俄罗斯在黑海和波罗的海的影响力He also expanded Russia’s influence in the Black and Baltic seas. 这家伙根本就爱上了西方The guy was basically in love with the west. 在大北方战争从瑞典帝国夺取了波罗的海港口后After capturing the baltic sea port from the Swedish Empire in the Great Northen War, 彼得大帝建造了一座新城市 Peter built a new city 并将其确立为国家的新首都and founded it as the country’s new capital: 圣彼得堡Saint Petersburg. 俄罗斯还在七年战争中Russia also fought in the Seven Years War 与欧洲邻国争夺政权vying for power with the european neighbours. 另一位令人敬畏的俄罗斯统治者是凯瑟琳大帝Another formidable Russian ruler was Catherine the Great. 她……呃……Who was… Well.. 根本就不是俄罗斯人not really russian at all. 她出生于德国She was born in Germany. 她杀了丈夫并为她自己夺取了王位And she killed her husband and seized the throne for herself. 她的当政是克里米亚汗国改革和统治中的一部分Her reign was one of reform and domination of the Crimean Khanate, 同时她也开放地采纳了启蒙思想as well as openly embracing the enlightment. 在18世纪中期In the mid XVIII century, 波兰政府因议会的软弱而垮台the polish government collapsed due to a parliamentary limber. 周围的奥地利 普鲁士和俄罗斯And the surrounding Austria, Prussia and Russia 在波兰分裂期间将这个国家分成三部分split the country in three during the Polish Partitions, 有效地将该国从下一世纪的地图上抹去了effectively wiping the country off the map for the next century. 彼时正逢拿破仑战争Just in time for the Napoleonic Wars. 俄罗斯Russia, 就像当时其他欧洲君主制国家一样just like the other europeans monarchies of the time, 害怕法国革命的负面影响feared the repercussion of the french revolution. 加入了反对拿破仑的第二 第三和第四联盟And joined the second, third, and fourth coalitions against Napoleon. 但是他们通常惨遭失败But they usually lost pretty badly. 1812年 法国军队占领了被废弃的莫斯科The french army captured the abandoned Moscow in 1812. 然而 俄罗斯人宁愿烧掉那片土地以期法国人离开However, the Russians would not surrender, 也不愿投降preferring to burn the fields that the French hoped to leave off. 等了几个月后After waiting a few months, 还没考虑如何让俄罗斯人投降Napoleon retreated from Russia due to lack of supplies 拿破仑就因为供给不足从俄罗斯撤退了before considering the Russians surrender. 当大雪降临并杀死了大部分法国军队时And when the snow set in and killed most of the french army, 局势就扭转为对俄罗斯有利了the tide was turned in Russia’s favor. 俄罗斯的领土扩张变得十分雄心勃勃Russia’s territorial gains had become so ambitious, 以致引发了与法国和英国的战争that it triggered a war with france and england, 两国还在克里米亚战争中帮助了奥斯曼帝国who helped the ottomans in the Crimean War. 1861年 在名为“解放”的事件中In 1861, Russia abolished serfdom 俄罗斯废除了农奴制in an event now known as The Emancipation. 同时 值得一提的是 在拿破仑与解放之间的时期Also, in the period between Napoleon and the emancipation, 俄罗斯将其领土扩大到it’s worthwhile to know that Russia expanded its territory into 土耳其斯坦Turkestan, 中国China, 南高加索the Southern Caucasus, 芬兰Finland 以及俄属北美洲and Russian America. 若不是因为克里米亚战争And were not for the Crimean war, 他们差点就会赢得整个黑海they almost certainly would have won the entire black sea. 他们真的很喜欢土地They really loved land. 1894年 沙皇尼古拉斯二世In 1894, Tsar Nicholas II and the mystic Rasputin, 和人们认为秘密控制着他的神秘拉斯普京who people thought secretly controlled him, 成为俄罗斯的最后一位皇帝became the last emperor of Russia. 几十年来 政治体制遭到反抗There were revolts against the political system for many decades 君主制正逐渐失去权力and monarchy was slowly losing its power. 作为塞尔维亚的盟友As an ally of Serbia, 俄罗斯力求在一战期间保护波罗的海斯拉夫人免受阿斯特罗-匈牙利的入侵Russia aimed to protect the Baltic Slavs from the Astro-Hungarian invasion during World War I. 战乱和饥荒引发了两次俄罗斯革命The chaos and famine of the war led to the two Russian Revolutions. 第一次是反对沙皇The first opposed the Tsar 并建立了受苏维埃高度影响的省政府and set up the provincial government highly influenced by the Soviets. 苏维埃基本上来说 是受马克思主义启发而形成的工人联盟The Soviets were basically workers unions inspired by Marxisism. 弗拉基米尔·列宁的布尔什维克政党在苏维埃上台执政Vladimir Lenin’s bolshievik party came to power in the soviets 并在十月革命中掌权 and seized power in the october revolution, 建立了俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国creating the R.S.F.S.R. 和红白两方对立的俄罗斯内战and the Russian civil war between the reds and the whites 内战导致 波兰 波罗的海各国和芬兰的分裂The civil war led to the breakaway of Poland and Baltic States and Finland. 1922年 俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国In 1922, the R.S.F.S.R. 改名为更为我们熟知的 苏维埃社会主义共和国联邦was renamed the U.S.S.R., a much catchier name. 列宁死后After the Death of Lenin, 俄罗斯最著名的共产主义时代独裁者上台Russia’s most famous communist era dictator came to power. 约瑟夫斯大林Joseph Stalin 斯大林出生于古老的俄罗斯帝国 就是如今的格鲁吉亚Born in the old Russian Empire now modern-day Georgia, 他是一个野心勃勃的扩张主义者Stalin was an aggressive expansionist, 可以想象go and figure. 他的目标是向全世界传播共产主义He had aims of spreading communism throughout the world. 他还对内战期间俄罗斯的领土损失感到愤愤不平He also resented Russia’s territorial losses during the civil war. 他杀死并流放了数百万他认为是反革命的人He killed and exiled millions of people he deemed anti-revolutionary 由于与西欧国家的失败外交With failed diplomacy with the western european nations, 斯大林与纳粹德国签订了互不侵犯条约Stalin entered into the non-aggression pact with the Nazi-Germany 以希望重获第一次世界大战中hoping to regain much of the land lost 在波兰与波罗的海失去的大部分土地in the first World War in Poland and Baltic Sea 在9月1日到17日On the 1st to 17th of September, 德国和俄罗斯入侵并分裂波兰 Germany and Russia invaded and divided Poland in two, 开始了第二次世界大战beginning the second World War 起初 在与希特勒的不稳定联盟中Originally, in an uneasy alliance with Hitler, 战争的局势随着希特勒入侵苏联而转变the tide of war turned with Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union. 这次入侵杀死的军队比其他战争都多The invasion killed more troops than any other theatre of battle 同时德国的军队距离莫斯科只有24公里and German’s armies came just 24 kilometers from Moscow. 然而 严冬的暴风雪来临了However the winter blizzard set in, 战势转变成更利于苏联的局面turning the battle in the Soviets’ favor. 在纳粹德国战败后After the defeat of nazi germanies, 斯大林保住了苏联攻占的领土Stalin held on to the Soviets occupied territories, 将它们变为苏联的一部分或者创建了共产主义傀儡国家enveloping them into the USSR or creating communist puppet states. 西方盟国对苏联地区存有疑心The western allies treated the Soviet block with suspicion, 在此期间苏联发展核武器in which Soviet developed nuclear weapons 并成为历史上最强大的国家之一and became one of the most powerful nations in history 在苏美太空竞赛期间The USSR was the first nation to put a man in space 苏联是第一个载人航天的国家during the American-Soviet space race. 经过数十年的贫困和政治动荡After decades of poverty and political unrest, 以及在与美国的代理人战争的投入as well as involvement in numerous proxy wars with United States, 苏联最终在一党制共产主义国家的重压下the USSR finally collapsed 解体了under the weight of the one party communist state. 俄罗斯联邦是作为一个近乎民主的共和国形成的The Russian Federation was formed as a nearly democratic republic 之后两个最重要的东部国家The two most important easter block states, 波兰和东德Poland and East Germany, 脱离了俄罗斯的控制broke away from russian control. 俄罗斯东部也随之脱离了And the eastern part of Russia also broke away, 形成了两个新的国家to form two new countries 白罗斯或“白俄罗斯”和乌克兰Belarus, or “White Russia”, and Ukraine 前克格勃官员 弗拉基米尔·普京的崛起The rise of Vladimir Putin, a former KGB officer, 成为俄罗斯的总理以及总统into the prime ministry and presidency of Russia, 给俄罗斯带来了新的外交政策brought with it renewed foreign policy. 普京参与了叙利亚内战Putin became involved in the Syrian Civil War, 乌克兰的东俄分裂主义运动the east Russian separatism movement in Ukraine 以及许多东欧国家的政治运动and the politics of many eastern-europeans countries. 照其领导人的动机来看 如今俄罗斯的未来仍无法确定Modern day Russia’s future is uncertain, as is the motives of its leader. 然而 国家正处于和平状态However,the nation is in a state of peace, 其将于2018年举办足球世界杯will be hosting the football world cup in 2018, 并还将再次成为世界超级大国and is emerging once again as a world superpower. 感谢大家的收看 请点赞并关注我们Thanks for watching everyone, please like and subscribe. 如果你对我的国家历史动画感兴趣的话If you’re interested in my animation of country history, 可以点击这里观看更多剧集you can click here to watch more episodes, 如果你有兴趣帮助像我这样的创业动画师and if you’re interested in helping a startup animator like me, 你也可以在patreon上打赏我一美元you can also pledge me a dollar over at patreon 保持频道的活力To keep the channel going. 记得照顾现在的草原民族Remember to always be on the lookout for steppe peoples on the horizon, 观众们 下次见until next time, guys.
  • 2021-10-30维京人入侵英格兰878年 阿尔弗雷德大帝与维京人大战并惊奇取胜In our previous video we covered king Alfred’s surprise victory 这一点我们在之前的视频中提到过over the Vikings at Edington in 878 这场胜利使不列颠国土得以为继this victory both ensured the survival of his kingdom 还为西撒克逊人赢得喘息的空间and allowed the West Saxons the breathing room needed 使其能为下一次不可避免的入侵做准备to prepare for the next inevitable invasion. 尽管古斯鲁姆战后退回东安格利亚Though Guthrum retired to East Anglia after the battle 但韦塞克斯仍然面临来自其他地方的潜在攻击Wessex still faced potential attack from elsewhere. 古斯鲁姆在异教徒大军初到后的十余年Just as Guthrum had successfully carved himself out a kingdom 创立了自己的王国well over a decade after the initial arrival of the Great Heathen Army 其他人也很容易到来并做同样的事情another could just as easily come and do the same. 阿尔弗雷德在九世纪八十年代将王国的各种集镇转换成堡垒Alfred spent the 880s converting the various market towns of his kingdom 用作加强版的安全港和当地民兵的集合点into ‘burhs’ which would act as fortified safe-havens and meeting points for local militias. 阿尔弗雷德还和仍在盎格鲁撒克逊控制下的Alfred also forged a lasting alliance 部分麦西亚地区进行持久结盟with the portion of Mercia still under Anglo-Saxon control, 879年左右 西奥武甫国王死后now under the rule of a warlord of unknown origins named Æthelred, 该领土落入不知来历的埃塞尔雷德军阀手中after the death of King Ceolwulf in around 879. 880年代长女阿赛尔弗莱德和埃塞尔雷德的婚姻使结盟一锤定音The alliance was sealed by the marriage of Alfred’s eldest daughter Æthelflæd to Æthelred 而他女儿开始作为韦塞克斯的诸侯行使管辖权in the early 880s, who began to rule as a vassal of Wessex. 此时 阿尔弗雷德还和南威尔士王国缔结了同样的条约Alfred also achieved a similar arrangement with the southern Welsh kingdoms during this time, 而南威尔士王国的领土被持扩张主义的自己人分割了——whose rulers were hemmed in by the expansionist sons 格温内思郡和波厄斯郡的罗德里大帝of Rhodri the Great in Gwynedd and Powys. 北威尔士国王中最有权势的皇帝The most powerful of these northern Welsh kings, 阿纳拉德·阿帕·罗德里或许会在最终接受西撒克逊人的隶属之前Anarawd ap Rhodri may have allied himself with the Vikings 和与韦塞克斯对立的约克郡维京人进行合作of York against Wessex before eventually accepting West Saxon vassalage, 并由此牵制阿尔弗雷德的西部边境thus securing Alfred’s western border. 最终古斯鲁姆到890年死时都和韦塞克斯和平相处Ultimately Guthrum kept the peace with Wessex until his death in 890. 但是 仅两年后However, just 2 years later 堡垒系统将面临首次真正的考验the burh system would face its first real test 因为两支拥有300多艘帆船附载大艇的巨大舰队when two massive fleets of raiders comprising of over 300 longboats 在海洋之王哈施泰因的领导下抵达肯特海岸under a sea-king named Hastein arrived on the Kentish shore. 虽然过去十年风云变幻 韦塞克斯依然屹立不倒Yet times had changed over the last decade, and Wessex held out. 896年哈施泰因的手下只有两个选择By 896 Hastein’s men either left 要么完全离开不列颠 要么被驱逐到东盎格利亚Britain entirely or dispersed into East Anglia. 毕竟不列颠的堡垒系统生效了The burh system had worked. 899年阿尔弗雷德死时Upon his death in 899 Alfred left his kingdom to 把王国留给了大儿子兼继承人爱德华his eldest son and heir Edward. 然而继位之路并非一帆风顺The succession was not smooth, as Alfred’s 因为阿尔弗雷德的侄子阿赛尔伍德有心阻碍nephew Æthelwold also made his claim. 侄子北逃 逃入诺森比亚的丹麦控制地区He fled north to the Northumbrian Danelaw, 然后被被当地统治者热情地接受了where he was enthusiastically accepted by the local rulers, 因为这些统治者很明显非常乐意一劳永逸地who were apparently happy to finally conquer the last 征服盎格鲁撒克逊的最后一个王朝Anglo-Saxon kingdom once and for all. 阿赛尔伍德在诺森比亚聚集了军队Æthelwold gathered an army in Northumbria, 于901-902年往南航行到艾塞克斯and by 901 or 902 sailed south to Essex. 阿赛尔伍德获得了一个有价值的盟军He gained a valuable ally 即东盎格利亚地区的维京国王艾瑞克in the Viking king of East Anglia Eohric. 他们共同指挥了一场深入麦西亚的袭击Together they conducted a raid deep into Mercia. 902年12月 爱德华也组织了一支军队By December 902 Edward had also raised an army, 很可能由西撒克逊人likely comprised of West Saxons, 麦西亚人 肯特人组成Mercians and Kentishmen, 爱德华的武装力量and his forces finally succeeded in catching 在霍姆河附近沼泽低地的一次剧烈战役中终于成功俘获了阿赛尔伍德Æthelwold in a vicious battle in the marshy lowlands near the River Holme. 夕阳西下 丹麦人渐露胜势By day’s end it was the Danes who emerged victorious, 虽然他们为成功付出了沉重的代价yet they paid a heavy toll for their victory: 但东盎格利亚国王艾瑞克和阿赛尔伍德都被杀死East Anglian king Eohric and Æthelwold were both killed. 扫除了阿赛尔伍德 爱德华终于能够With Æthelwold out of the way Edward could now finally focus on consolidating 巩固自己国家的统治了his rule at home. 在麦西亚西部的阿赛尔莱德In the western portion of Mercia meanwhile Æthelred 和埃塞尔弗莱德也是一派繁忙and Æthelflæd had been busy too, 比如阿尔弗雷德加强防御工事following the example set by Alfred in fortifying the 丹麦律法区也尽己所能修建堡垒frontier with the Danelaw by building burhs wherever they could. 作为埃赛雷德和埃塞尔弗雷德婚礼嫁妆的一部分As part of Ethelred’s marriage arrangement with Æthelflæd, 阿尔弗烈德给了麦西亚人伦敦市的控制权Alfred had given the Mercians control of the city of London, 这是一个肥沃的所得物a hefty source of income. 两个统治者看管着这一方之地Together the two rulers oversaw a revival 以待麦西亚权力的复兴of Mercian power in a reduced area, 特别阿赛尔弗莱德在封地居民中变得极为受欢迎and Æthelflæd in particularly became extremely popular amongst her adopted people. 但是不久之后Yet soon enough the Mercians would 麦西亚人再次被迫进行自卫be forced to go on the defensive once again. 902年 爱德华一直与他的堂兄弟斗争Just as Edward had been fighting his cousin in 902, 大批维京人从爱尔兰离去a mass exodus of Vikings 导致殖民被大量流放到麦西亚北部from Ireland had led to the settlement of a large group of exiles in the lands 占据了切斯特城——just to the north of the Mercian held town of Chester, 一座旧罗马时代的堡垒an old Roman fortress. 麦西亚人希望这些爱尔兰维京人The Mercians may have hoped that these Irish Vikings to act as a buffer against 能够作为缓冲对抗丹麦人的威胁the ever-present threat of the Danelaw. 但是907年 维京人和丹麦人结成联盟But by 907 these Vikings had aligned 包围了切斯特themselves with the Danelaw to besiege Chester. 当麦西亚军队由阿赛尔弗莱德带领When the Mercian army went north to deal 开到北部解决这个新威胁时with this new threat, it was Æthelflæd 阿赛尔弗莱德却由于疾病丧失了行动能力leading them, as Æthelred was incapacitated due to illness. 接下来发生了什么并不清楚What happened next is unclear, 但是麦西亚人在切斯特被维京人打败了but the Mercians defeated the Vikings at Chester, and 而阿赛尔弗莱德和埃塞尔雷德受到严密控制now Æthelflæd, Æthelred who was firmly in control. 麦西亚人的攻势在无形酝酿The Mercians were going on the offensive. 那时爱德华的儿子阿赛尔斯坦还在麦西亚At that time Edward’s son Æthelstan was being fostered 由姑姑阿赛尔弗莱德收养by his aunt Æthelflæd in Mercia. 909年 他发起了一次突袭In 909 he led a raid deep 深入维京领土into Viking territory to retrieve the relics 企图恢复著名诺森伯兰郡国王奥斯瓦德的领土of the famed Northumbrian king Oswald. 他的军队还一不做二不休His army also took the opportunity to 趁约克郡的维京人反应不及pillage the lands of Lindsey for five weeks 在林德赛地区抢劫了7天before the Vikings in York could react. 下面的故事中We are going to talk about Æthelstan him 我们要更详细地谈论到阿赛尔斯坦in much more detail in the next episode. 910年 诺森比亚人开始了报复In 910, the Northumbrians retaliated, launching a massive raid deep 他们深入麦西亚 发起巨大袭击into Mercia. They ravaged the 他们毁坏了农村countryside and loaded up on plunder before 在返回北部时装满了战利品beginning the journey back north. 就在那时 在一个叫泰特豪的地方It was then, at a place named Tettenhall, that a 西撒克逊和麦西亚联军出其不意地俘获了维京人combined West Saxon-Mercian army caught the Vikings by surprise. 在接下来的大屠杀中 维京武装力量的领导阶层被全部杀死In the ensuing bloodbath the entire leadership of the Viking force was killed, 受损的约克郡几年才能振作起来crippling York for years to come. 从许多方面来看 泰特豪是一个转折点Tettenhall was a turning point in many ways. 终于埃塞尔雷德辞世了It was around this time that Æthelred finally passed away, 但在这个军国主义男性统治的社会and quite astonishingly, despite being a woman 作为女性 阿赛尔弗莱德身上发生了一件令人惊讶的事in a militaristic male-dominated society, 她被选取作为继承人Æthelflæd was chosen as his successor, 并以“麦西亚女王”的身份统治ruling under the title ‘Lady of the Mercians’. 但是 很快她就被迫将伦敦的控制权让给韦塞克斯However, soon she was also forced to relinquish control of London to Wessex. 虽然并没有继承人 但阿赛尔弗莱德也会长居王位Æthelflæd would continue to rule, though as she had no male heir, 不过自此独立的麦西亚开始走向终结了it was the beginning of the end for independent Mercia. 接下来的8年 阿赛尔弗莱德不遗余力地For the next eight years she tirelessly dedicated her 倾尽身心修建堡垒time to building burhs not only 其修建的堡垒从5个行政区到东部的边界along the frontier with the Five Boroughs to 还和西部的威尔士王国遥遥相对the east, but also against the Welsh kingdoms to the west. 这段时间东麦西亚的5个自治区之间A state of perpetual warfare existed with the Five Boroughs 长期处于战争状态of Eastern Mercia during this time, 历史记录显示莱斯特和贝德福德with occasional raids recorded from the towns 会对西麦西亚发动时不时的袭击of Leicester and Bedford into Western Mercia. 同时爱德华终于做好了准备Edward meanwhile was finally ready to 准备攻打在自己领土边界上的维京人go on the offensive against the Vikings on his own borders. 911和913年间 爱德华经由陆路 海路Between 911 and 913 he moved his forces 把军队开往艾塞克斯by land and by sea into Essex, 在莫尔登镇修建防御工事fortifying the town of Maldon and attempting to bring the area 并试图将这个地区完全纳入西撒克逊人的统治under full West Saxon control. 这是自从北方人的到来后第一次For the first time since the coming of the Northmen, 韦塞克斯获得了新的土地Wessex was gaining new lands 而莫尔登将变成爱德华进攻东盎格利亚的基地and Maldon would become a base from which he could attack East Anglia. 但是914年Yet in 914, 阿赛尔弗雷德和爱德华想要制造潜力攻击的计划any potential attacks Æthelflæd or Edward might have wanted to make 突然中断suddenly came crashing to a standstill. 因为在布列塔尼海峡处Across the channel in Brittany a massive 一只巨大的维京人舰队征服了整个地区Viking fleet had just conquered the entire region, 消灭了该地的统治家族extinguishing its ruling family, 此刻 在两大军阀罗尔德和奥提尔的领导下and now, under the leadership of two warlords named Rold and Otir 该舰队来到了不列颠was coming to Britain. 他们行经布里斯托尔海峡 进入塞文河Sailing up through the Bristol Channel they headed into the 试图出其不意地拿下麦西亚River Severn in an attempt to take the Mercians by surprise. 但是再一次Yet once again, 面对阿赛尔弗雷德的防备Æthelflæd was ready for them, 他们被赶出麦西亚 赶到威尔士pushing them out of Mercia and into Wales, 在战争中罗尔德被杀and killing Rold in the process. 爱德华追击奥提尔及其残余势力Edward pursued Otir and his remaining vessels all 一直追到加的夫附近的弗拉特岛the way to the island of Flatholme near Cardiff. 最终奥提尔放弃了英格兰 跨海退守爱尔兰Finally, Otir gave up on England and went across the sea to Ireland. 这就是战争的最终相持阶段The stage was now set for the final confrontation of the war. 914年 爱德华也入侵了By 914 Edward too was making 5个自治区inroads into the Five Boroughs, 迫使贝德福德和北安普郡的部分维京人投降forcing the submission of some of the Vikings of Bedford and Northampton. 917年 爱德华和阿赛尔莱德都做好了准备By 917, both Edward and Æthelflæd were ready for 要发动对维京人的最终攻击their final assaults upon the Vikings. 来自5个自治区的A large force of Danes from the southern 一大股丹麦势力portion of the Five Boroughs allied themselves 与东盎格鲁人结成联盟with the East Anglians, who finally 最终决定开始行动decided to make a move. 维京人试图搬照撒克逊人的胜利They attempted to mirror the success of the Saxons by 在贝德福德郡建立自己的堡垒building their own burh at Tempsford in Bedfordshire. 但几周后 爱德华的武装力量猛攻堡垒Within weeks however Edward’s forces stormed the burh, 杀了东盎格鲁国王 一路扫荡killed the East Anglian king, and swept onwards 拿下整个东盎格利亚和麦西亚东南部地区to take the whole of East Anglia and South-eastern Mercia. 阿赛尔弗莱德也没闲着Æthelflæd was also on the move. 917年年中 她齐集手下的精英军队In mid-917 she marched her now elite army 横跨边境 直达德比across the border and directly towards the borough 并在此地进行了围城of Derby where they laid siege to the town. 一次猛战后 城池被攻陷After a fierce battle, the town fell, 自此阿赛尔弗莱德收复了麦西亚的大片土地and with it, large swathes of eastern Mercia. 918年 斯坦福德的3个自治区——By 918, Leicester was the next to submit, 斯坦福德 诺丁汉 林肯投降了followed by the other three boroughs of Stamford, 莱斯特接下来也屈服了Nottingham and Lincoln. 在阿赛尔弗莱德的领导下Under Æthelflæd, Mercia had 麦西亚最终完成了它的复国之路finally completed its reconquest and now found itself 并将边境界限恢复到with nearly the same borders 维京人到来之前的状态as it had prior to the coming of the Vikings, 但阿赛尔弗莱德并没有止于此yet she didn’t stop there. 918年夏季In the summer of 918 约克郡的维京人同意向阿尔弗雷德投降the Vikings of York agreed to submit to Alfred. 而最终协议没有变现 因为阿赛尔弗莱德于同年去世了Ultimately, the deal never materialised, as Æthelflæd passed away that same year. 她最终留下的只有一个叫埃尔芙文的独生女She was succeeded by her only child, a daughter named Ælfwynn. 918年 亨伯河南部的英格兰全境都受控于盎格鲁撒克逊人By 918 all of England south of the Humber was under the Anglo-Saxon control. 爱德华挥师北上 到塔姆沃斯去逮捕埃尔芙文Edward marched north to Tamworth to seize Ælfwynn. 埃尔芙文的余生都被迫在修道院里度过She was placed in a monastery for life, and 而麦西亚最终融合进爱德华日益壮大的王国中Mercia was finally incorporate into Edward’s growing kingdom. 然后 就像父亲阿尔弗雷德一样Then, like Alfred before him, 爱德华也获得了5个威尔士王国的忠实投靠Edward achieved the fealty of the five Welsh Kingdoms, 由此在历史上爱德华首次统一了thus uniting most of the lands south of the Humber 亨伯河南部的大部分土地for the first time in history. 而英格兰残余的维京人统治地区就是诺森比亚All that remained in England under the Viking control was the kingdom of Northumbria, 它将变成爱德华的下一个目标and it would have become the next target of Edward. 虽然爱德华吞并麦西亚Though just as Edward was 把它纳入自己日益壮大的盎格鲁撒克逊领土annexing Mercia into his ever-growing Anglo-Saxon realm, the Dublin Norse, 都柏林的挪威人很快震慑于爱尔兰的伊瓦尔王朝members of the soon to be feared Uí Ímair dynasty 以一场闪电攻击吞并了约克郡of Ireland, annexed York in a lightning attack. 这对英格兰的统一造成了新威胁This created a new threat to the bourgeoning united England. 感谢你观看本系列的第三个视频——Thank you for watching the third video in our series 维京入侵英国系列历史on the Viking invasions of Britain. 别忘了订阅我们的频道Don’t forget to subscribe, 如果你不想错过这个系列的新视频if you don’t want to miss the new videos in this series, 你也可以点击铃铛图标you can also click the bell icon 我们将在每周日的早上to get the notification about the videos 为你推送相关视频的新动态as we always have something new for you on Sunday mornings. 在此感谢我们patron账户的赞助者We would like to express our gratitude to our patron supporters 因为你们的赞助才有这些视频who make the creation of our videos possible 现在你也可以直接通过youtube支持我们now you can also support us directly via youtube 只需点击视频下方的支持按钮即可by pressing the sponsorship button below the video or 或者你可以通过简介中的链接购买我们的产品or buy our merchandise via the link in the description. 这是帝王将相史频道This is the Kings and Generals channel 我们下个视频见and we will catch you on the next one.
  • 2021-10-26PS中的色调曲线使用方法PS教程—怎么样运用曲线Photoshop PlaybookHow to use curves PS中的色调曲线是非常有效的工具之一Curves are one of the most powerful ways 用来调整to adjust the tonality and the color of your image in Photoshop. 它们往往也有点吓人They also tend to be kind of intimidating. 用调节一条角线去产生适当的曝光不是很直观Something about wrangling a diagonal line to yield the proper exposure just isn’t very intuitive. 我想向你们展示一些非常好用的I want to show you some really friendly approachable ways 在你的工作流程中使用曲线的方式to use curves in your workflow. 我们先在Camera Raw里看一下曲线The first place we’ll look at curves is in camera raw. 我们可以双击一个原始文件 从而打开Camera RawWe can just double click on one of our raw files and that’ll open Camera Raw. 现在请记住 如果你有一个JPEG或TIFF文件想在Camera RAW里打开Now remember if you have a JPEG or TIFF that you want to open in the camera raw, 只需要进入你的相机首选项 “Camera RAW”just go into your camera preferences, ‘Camera Raw’, 并在Camera Raw里把它选成 “JPEG或TIFFS”and change that to ‘open JPEGs or TIFFs in Camera Raw’. 在CC版的Photoshop里 你可以进到“Camera Raw”-“过滤”In Photoshop CC you can just go into the ‘Camera Raw’ – ‘Filter’. 在Camera RAW里 我有很多不同的选择 而且我还有个曲线区域So here in Camera Raw, I’ve got a lot of different choices, and I have a curves area. 我知道这看起来有点吓人 其实没必要And I know that this looks a little bit intimidating, but it doesn’t need to be. 我只需要抓住滑块I can just grab the sliders, 把高光的部分加亮 阴影的部分变暗brighten the highlights, darken the shadows. 这样做的话 我们就可以创造出人们所说的s形曲线And in doing that, I see that I create what we call a s-shaped curve. 现在 如果我想重置这些值Now if I want to reset these values, 我可以双击滑块或者我可以同时按下option和Alt键I can double click on the slider, or, I could use my Option+Alt key 这将使得取消按钮变为复位按钮which will turn the Cancel button into a Reset button, 并且也会重置整个对话框and it will reset the whole dialog. 现在 我可以做的一个小技巧是我可以在我的方图底部抓住这些小指针Now, one of the tricks that I can do here is I can grab these little pointers at the bottom of my histogram. 我的方图只是高光和阴影的位置的图形化表示My histogram is just the graphical representation of where the highlights and the shadows are. 并且通过指向远边的指针 你将会看到高亮度滑块And by pointers over the far edges, you’ll see the highlights slider, 现在控制高亮度的极限部分now controls the extreme part of the highlights. 它在直方图的很远的边缘 与阴影滑块一样Just that one far edge of the histogram. Same thing with shadows. 它也只可以影响这个直方图里的最暗的部分It’s only going to affect the darkest values in my histogram. 所以现在我可以达到比你们之前想象的更精确一点的程度了So I can get a little bit more precision than you will think there’re. 所以我要再次重新设置So I’m gonna reset this again 并且告诉你们一个我最喜欢在Camera Raw里做出曲线的方法and show you one of my favourite ways to do curves in Camera Raw, 一个只需要使用锁定的调节工具的方法which is using the targeted adjustment tool. 这个方法就是我只是点击我想要调整的图像的区域And the way that this works is I just click on the area of the image that I want to adjust, 然后提起它 这样就可以提起这个区域内的曲线and I lift it. And that lifts the curve in that area. 当我想要使亮的地方更亮的时候 抬起它So if I want to make the bright part brighter, I lift that up. 如果我想要使中间色调变暗 我就把它拉下来If I want to make the mid-tone darker, I pull that down. 当我想使最暗的阴影变亮 我点击它然后提起它If I want to make the darkest shadows brighter, I click on that and pull that up. 真的很直观 也真的很容易掌握Really intuitive. Really easy to use. 这样一来你就可以用photoshop做许多同样的事情了And it turns out that you can do a lot of those same things over Photoshop. 让我们一起来看看Let’s take a look. 现在我将取消所有全部So I’m gonna cancel all of these. 然后我们在photoshop里打开一张图片And we’ve got an image open in Photoshop. 第一件我想提及的工作流程就是一个教你们如何去做色调调整的And the first thing I want cover is a workflow for how you want to do any tonal adjustments. 是的 我们可以在这里进入我们的图片调整菜单然后在里面任选Yes, we can come in here to our Image adjustments menu and choose any of these. 但是你真正要做的是使用调整图层But what you really want to do is use the Adjustment Layer, 你可以看到这是一样的目录 不同点是这个是非破坏性的You’ll see that’s a same list. The difference is they’re non-destructive. 它们是可修改的 图层可以被分享到其他文件 也可以被打开或者关闭They’re editable. They can be shared with other files. They can be turned off or on. 于是我们可以通过列表进入图层And we can get to those through the list there. 但是做到这个最简单的方法就是打开调整盘But the easiest way to do that is just right over here on the Adjustments panel. 所以如果我点击曲线 就会出现一个十分熟悉的界面So if I click on Curves, I’m going to see a very familiar interface here. 所以我将得到一群我可以使用的预先设置And I’ve got a bunch of presets I could use 所有这些各种各样不同的特效 对比一下 你也可以自行学习到许多不同的东西all sort of different special effects, contrast… lots of different things you can save your own there as well. 但是让我们试试刚刚我们在Camera Raw做过的 在图形控制中使用这个But let’s do what we just did in Camera Raw, use this on image control here. 如果我想要黑暗的区域变得明亮 我点击这个这个区域并且提起它If I want the dark area to be brighter. I click on that and lift it. 我想要一个中间色调的变的黑暗 我点击并且下拉I want a mid-tone value to be darker. I click on that, and pull it down. 我可以很轻易地接受这些I can adjust those really easily. 在这里仍然有一个很好的自动功能I also have a nice auto functionality here 帮助分析我的直方图that analyzes my histogram 然后与专业摄影师的直方图相对比and compares that to histograms of professional photographers. 所以我最后得到了自动适应So I truly get an adaptive auto 并且你可以发现and you will notice that it gives me points 这些建议是关于along the curve to play around with. 所以我真的推荐的做法So what I really recommend doing 使用预设 图像控制 自动化use the presets, use the on image control, use auto, 这样你会开始认识到曲线是如何工作的and you’ll start to learn how curves work, 然后你可以从那儿开始调整and then you can adjust from there. 现在 一旦你可以更高效的使用曲线Now once you get more proficient with curves, 你便可以开始下一步 打开混合模式a good place to go is playing around with your blend modes. 这对你的任何调整图层来说This is great with any of your adjustment layers 因为这允许你进入图层和because it allows you to come in and adjust 调整图层和how the adjustment layer interacts with the content beneath it. 有了这些 我们就可以开始玩转ps了So with any of these, we can play around. 然后你也可以对非传导层And then you can play around with the opacity as well. 这是一种很好的微调你的调节的方式This is a great way to fine-tune your adjustment, 所以如果你看到色彩和色调的调整都十分棒的曲线so as you see curves is really powerful for color and tonal adjustments, 不必害怕 这使用起来非常简单and it doesn’t need to be scary, it’s really quite easy to use.
  • 2021-10-26优化Photoshop的性能[前奏][intro music] PS教程:优化PS性能Photoshop Playbook: Optimizing Photoshop Performance 人们经常问我关于优化PS性能的问题People often ask me about optimising Photoshop’s performance. 你是否安装了一个旧版本或者买了一个新版本And whether you’re setting up an older machine, or buying a new one, 这有许多令人困惑的因素there’re a lot of confusing terms. 我想我可以帮助你理解它们到底是什么And I thought I’d help you out in understanding what they are, 它们的作用 以及它们和PS之间的联系what they do, and how it relates to Photoshop. PS是一个可以做很多工作的工具And Photoshop’s a real workhorse. 事实上 如果你看一看一架新机器的基准In fact, if you look at a benchmark of a new machine, 它们通常会用PS来展示它的功能they usually use Photoshop to show what it’s capable of. 这是一个64位的原生应用It’s a 64 bit native application, 意味着它可以利用所有你能使用的记忆体which means it can take advantage of as much RAM as you can throw at it. 充分利用你的处理器Takes full advantage of your processor, 甚至是你的通用处理器and even your GPU. 但是让我们看看这些东西意味着什么But let’s look at what those things mean, 在使用PS的情况下in a context of using Photoshop, 以及如何最大限度地使用它and how to get the most out of it. 现在我们有一个非常大的文件在PS里Here we are in Photoshop with a really large file. 你可以看出这是一个分图层的文件You can that it’s a layered file, 有着智能过滤with smart filters, 但这也是一个32位的文件but it’s also a 32 bit file. 这些是8位文件There are 8 bit files, 来自一般的相机和网络which come off of your normal cameras, and the web; 这些是16位文件there are 16 bit files, 可能来自你单反相机的原转换likely to come from a raw conversion off of your DSLR; 然后这些是32位文件and then there are 32 bit files, 这些是真的高动态范围图像and these are true HDR, high dynamic range images. 它们非常大因为它们由多个图像构成They’re really big because they’re made of multiple images. 这个由6个图像构成This one’s made from 6, 你可以在左下角看到and as you can see looking in the lower left, 它非常大 240兆字节it’s pretty big, it’s 240 megs. 所以让我们来谈谈怎么理解So let’s talk about how to understand, PS对于这个文件所进行的操作what Photoshop is doing with the file, 以及它的有效性and how efficient it is. 我们现在要转换为“效率”视图And to do that, we’re going to switch to our ‘Efficiency’ view, 在这的左下角in the lower left there. 我们现在是100% 也就是很好We’re at 100%, which is good. 我们可以做一些事情来改变这个数据There’re a few things that we can do to change this number. 其中一个是 改变它的大小One of them would be, altering the size. 让这个图像变得更大Making the image larger, 这样会让所有图层都变大which is going to make all of the layers larger. 所以让我们让它的分辨率从300变为600So let’s go from a resolution of 300 to 600, 让这个图像大小变为原来的两倍let’s double the size of this image. 我们可以看到 我们的“效率”界面上的数据已经减小了As we can see, our ‘Efficiency’ has dropped. 现在94%不是一个坏数字Now, 94% is not a terrible number, 但也不是一个理想的数字but it’s not ideal, either. 如果数字在90%以下的话If you’re getting bellow 90%, 你必须要在PS内进行一些操作来进行调整了you definitely want to do something within Photoshop to adjust that. 让我们来看看我们可以改变的一些东西So let’s take a look at some of the things that we can change. 如果我们看到“PS”、“预设”、“性能”If we come up to ‘Photoshop’, ‘Preferences’, ‘Performance’. 我们就可以看到我把我的记忆体设置得非常低We’ll see that I’ve set my memory really low, 根据系统预置值 我的70%的记忆体在PS里都是可以获得的by default, 70% of my memory is available to Photoshop. 剩下的通过操作系统The rest is shared throughout the operating system, 和其他的应用都可以共享and with other applications. 所以其中一件你可以做的事情So one of the things that you could do, 就是关闭一些其他的正在运行的应用is you could quit some other applications that are running. 但是 这样But, in this case, 我要将PS内的数据恢复为默认值I’m going to restore Photoshop to its default. 我把它调成那样是为了给你们示范I just did that for the sake of this demonstration, 因为我的机器里有大量的记忆体because my machine has a lot of memory in it. 所以 如果你的“效率”页面数据很低 你想要提高这个数字So, if your ‘Efficiency’ is low, you want to raise this number. 我不建议停止它I don’t recommend dropping this, 除非你在用许多其他的内存密集型应用unless your using a lot of other memory intensive applications. 现在 当你使用PS的时候 你可能可以看见一个水皮球在旋转Now, you may have seen a beach ball start spinning when you’re in Photoshop, 或者像是在停止运行状态下操作非常缓慢这类的事情or things just sort of, creeped with halt. 这意味着你已经耗尽了记忆体And what that means, is you’ve run out of RAM. PS从页面显示了记忆体的状态Photoshop is paged out of RAM, 并且在磁盘上记录信息and it’s writing information to disk, 并读取信息and reading it. 这是一个缓慢的过程And this is a slower process. 现在 如果你想要提速 你可以做的一件事是Now, one of the things that you could do to speed this up, 使用另外的暂存磁盘is use additional scratch disks, 或者更快的暂存磁盘or faster scratch disks. 在“性能”这个模块And within the ‘Performance’ panel, 就是你可以进行操作的地方this is where you would do that. 这是我的笔记本电脑This is my laptop, 所以就用已经有的预置硬盘so it’s just using my default hard drive that’s built in. 这是一个很快的固化硬盘And it’s a pretty quick SSD drive, 但是没有记忆体那样快but it’s not as fast as RAM. 所以如果我没有更多可用的记忆体So if I didn’t have more RAM available, 我可以外加一个外部的驱动器I could add an external drive, 把它作为一个暂存硬盘and use that as a scratch disk. 它就在手边 因为无论我们的鼠标经过哪This is handy in here, because wherever we mouse over, 你都可以看到在底部有一个描述you’ll see that we get descriptions at the bottom, 关于发生了什么of what’s happening. 这里有许多的信息 一件我将要讲到的事情There’s a lot of information here, the one other thing that I’ll cover, 就是下调你的“历史记录”次数is dropping your ‘History States’, 这是一个好方法来提高一点PS的性能is a great way to pick up a little more performance within Photoshop. 它会记住你之前的20步It’ll remember 20 steps back, 如果你不需要这所有的二十步 或者你需要加速if you don’t need all of that, or if you need it to speed up, 你可以降低这个数字you can drop that number. 只要你修改了这些Once you’ve committed these, 你下次使用PS的时候the next time that you launch Photoshop, 这些功效就会发挥作用these effects will take place. 所以如果我把它降为70%So if I drop it to 70%, 只有当下一次使用的时候我才有70%的历史记录I won’t have 70% until the next time I start. 好了 所以关于PS使用的一些事情Ok, so a couple of things in Photoshop, 这里有更多的资源给你and then some more resources for you. 你要记住它You’ll remember that, 我们有一些“历史记录”we have a few ‘History States’, 在我们的“剪贴板”上可能也有一些信息we might also have some information sitting on our ‘Clipboard’. 一旦你复制了什么Once you’ve copied once, 它的记录就在那里it’s just sitting there. 所以让我们看看这个So let’s take a look at, 清除其中的一些信息purging some of this information. 好了 我们“剪贴板”上没有任何的数据了Ok, we don’t have any ‘Clipboard’ data, 但是我们还有“撤销”but we do have some ‘Undo’, “历史”‘Histories’, 和“视频高速缓存”and ‘Video Cache’. 清除了这些信息就能够提速Purging that information is going to speed things up, 这就可以提高我们的效率and it’s going to raise our ‘Efficiency’. 所以让我们退出PSSo let’s pop out of Photoshop, 然后用谷歌搜索and do a quick Google search, 来得到更多关于PS性能的信息to give you a lot more information about performance in Photoshop. 如果我搜索“PS的性能”If I search for ‘performance photoshop’, 我将得到所有种类的信息I’m going to get all sorts of information. 而这里有两样我想展示给你们看And there’re really 2 things I want to show you here. 一个是我们的知识库文件One, is our own knowledge-based document, 这不仅仅包括所有我提到过的东西and this not only gets into depth with all the things I’ve talked about, 还有许多的关于如何调整PS的性能的信息but it gets into a lot more on how to tweak and tune Photoshop’s performance. 现在 如果这对你来说有点难以消化了Now, if this is a little too much for you to digest, 粉碎机杂志有相关的很好的文章Smashing Magazine has this great article, “10个优化PS性能的简单步骤”’10 Simple Steps to Better Photoshop Performance’. 它更加精确It’s a little more concise, 易于理解and digestible, 你可以看完这篇文章然后在PS内应用这些知识and you can read through this and apply these things within Photoshop. 我要说的最后一件事The last thing I’ll speak to, 是你的通用处理器is your GPU. 这是电脑里的另外一项设定It’s another computer sitting within the computer, 有点像是电子游戏and much like video games, PS可以利用这个设定Photoshop can take advantage of that. 如果你想要确定PS是最新版本You want to make sure it’s up-to-date. 实际上 你想要确定所有的数据等都是最新版本If fact, you want to make sure everything’s up-to-date, 你可以看看性能when it comes to performance. 你想确定PS已经更新了You want to make sure that Photoshop’s up to date, 你的通用处理器就是最开始更新的驱动器that your GPU, is the most up-to-date driver, 然后是你的操作系统更新and that your operating system is up-to-date, 因为它们是一起运行的because they’re all working together, 来给你尽可能最好的性能to give you the best possible performance. PS教程订阅 去看PS教程视频列表Photoshop Playbook,Subscribe, Go to PS Playbook Playlist.
  • 2021-10-26罗宾·威廉姆斯小传Robin Williams is known for his fast-paced knee-jerk comedy罗宾·威廉姆斯以“快节奏喜剧”而闻名 And those wild, unpredictable performances actually changed the way TV is made.他那狂热的 出乎意料的表演改变了电视节目的制作方式 This is “Biography.”这里是《名人小传》栏目 Robin Williams broke onto the scene in a big way,罗宾·威廉姆斯在热播剧《莫克和明迪》中 playing the zany alien Mork from Planet Ork 扮演了来自兽人星球的外星小丑莫克 on the hit TV series “Mork and Mindy.”彻底改变了片场风格 And when Robin stepped in front of the camera,当罗宾来到摄像机前 nobody had seen anything like him before.没人见过像他那样的人 He would throw himself around the stage,他在舞台上到处走动 grabbing props, speaking in alien tongues,拿着电影道具 说着外星语言 and almost never hitting his mark,几乎从来踩不上自己的位置 a mark being the spot an actor is supposed to stand to deliver their lines.“位置”是拍摄时演员说台词应该站的地方 See, filming TV shows was pretty much看到没 一直到七十年代末 down to a science by the late ’70s.拍电视都如一门科学一样精确 The actors would take the stage,演员们上台 and three cameras placed strategically around set 三台摄像机固定在设计好的位置 would film the action. 进行拍摄 That’s where the term three-camera sitcom comes from.这就是“三镜头法情景剧”一说的来源 And that style of filming meant that这样的拍摄手法意味着 actors had to be really precise in hitting their marks, 演员必须准确的站在规定位置上 standing in the same exact place take after take.每次拍摄都要站在同一位置 But Robin broke all the rules.但是罗宾打破了规则 His frenetic movements and constant improvising他夸张的动作和不停的临场发挥 meant that he was rarely in the same spot twice.意味着他几乎不会在同一位置出现两次 So the show’s director, Gary Marshall, changed the game.因此该剧导演加里·马歇尔改变了游戏规则 He added a fourth camera to catch all of Robin’s wild antics为了捕捉罗宾的所有滑稽动作 他增加了一台摄影机 and it caught on.随后变得流行起来 From then on, four cameras became the sitcom standard,此后 四个摄像机成了情景喜剧的标配 from “Seinfeld” to the ‘Big Bang Theory’从《宋飞正传》到《生活大爆炸》都一样 So remember, 所以要记住 Robin Williams might be known best for his big-screen roles,罗宾•威廉姆斯可能因其荧幕上的角色更为人熟知 but at just 27,但在27岁时 he changed the small screen forever. 他就彻底改变了电视行业
  • 2021-10-26拿破仑战争:1806耶拿会战法国皇帝拿破仑在第三次反法同盟中The French emperor napoleon Bonaparte 赢得了许多决定性战役managed to win a number of decisive battles 并完美展示了其在军事策略上and showed complete tactical and strategic dominance over his opponents 凌驾于对手之上的事实during the War of the Third Coalition, 但终究树大招风but brilliance often begets new challenges, 越来越多的国家为了抗击法国more enemies would join the alliance against the French 而纷纷加入第四次反法同盟大战in the war of the Fourth Coalition. 在一系列战争之中最为主要的是Among the central actions of this conflict were 发生于1806年的双子战耶拿-奥尔施塔特战役the twin battles of a Jena and Auerstedt fought in 1806. 拿破仑在1805年12月初的Napoleon utterly defeated the Allied Austro-Russian army 奥斯特里茨战役中彻底击败了奥俄联军at the battle of Austerlitz in early December of 1805. 因奥军已经没有余力可以继续交战A separate peace at Pressburg was signed by the end of the month, 奥地利于当月末在普雷斯堡与法国签订单独休战协议as Austria had no capacity to continuefighting. 奥地利必须承认巴伐利亚和符腾堡为独立王国Austria had to recognize Bavaria and Württemberg as kingdoms, 并割让德意志境内的众多省给予这两个王国ceding a number of provinces to them in Germany, 同时拿破仑作为意大利皇帝while Napoleon received the provinces 接收威尼西亚和达尔马提亚of Venetia and Dalmatia as the king of Italy. 法国也承诺了40万法郎的战争赔款France was also promised 40 million francs in war indemnities. 趁着法军因为太过疲惫无法继续追击The Russians were given a free pass to retreat through Austrian territory, 俄军顺利从奥地利领地撤退as the French troops were too tired to chase them anyway. 普鲁士在1805年计划加入反法同盟Prussia was planning to join the coalition in 1805, 但却迟迟没有向法国宣战but was delaying declaring war on France. 反法同盟在奥斯特里茨的败仗The Allied defeat at Austerlitz was alarming 对普鲁士国王腓特烈•威廉三世来说是个警钟for the Prussian King Frederick William III, 随后就在1806年初 威廉三世与拿破仑签订协议and in early 1806 he signed a treaty with Napoleon. 普鲁士必须割让几个省份给法国的德意志同盟The Prussians had to cede a few provinces to the German allies of France, 而普鲁士将获得原属于英国while they would receive in return French occupied Hanover, 后被法国所占领的汉诺威作为回报which belonged to Britain. 普鲁士也正式加入法国同盟对抗英国Prussia also formally entered the alliance with France against Britain. 与此同时 将法国指挥官马塞纳Meanwhile the Austrian forces, 困于意大利的奥军已经回到奥地利which were keeping French commander in Italy Massena occupied returned home, 奥军的离开让法军能集中兵力抗击那不勒斯王国and that allowed the French to concentrate their forces against the kingdom of Naples. 1806年2月 马塞纳侵入那不勒斯In February 1806 Massena invaded Naples. 尽管斯图尔特的英国远征军前来支援那不勒斯军Although the British expedition of Stewart supported the Neapolitans, 但他们还是输掉了在坎波泰内塞的决战they lost the decisive battle at Campo Tenese 而后在7月末and by the end of July, 国王斐迪南四世和斯图尔特将军不得不撤到西西里岛king Ferdinand IV and General Stewart had to retreat to Sicily. 意大利大陆的全部领土现在都处在法军掌控下All of mainland Italy was now under French control 而这一处境直到拿破仑战争结束后才会被打破and this situation would remain unchanged until the end of the Napoleonic Wars. 由于英国和俄国都不曾与法国接壤Since Britain and Russia did not share borders with France 也无意发起一次登陆and were not eager to start an amphibious invasion 所以第三次反法同盟实际上已经瓦解了The War of the Third Coalition was effectively over 于是拿破仑决定在德意志建立一个新秩序and Napoleon started forming a new order in Germany. 1806年7月 拿破仑建立了莱茵联邦In July 1806 he established the Confederation of the Rhine, 联邦由16个德意志邦国组成 并由拿破仑摄政consisting of 16 German states with himself as the protector. 这使拿破仑在法国与德国 奥地利与普鲁士之间This gave Napoleon a buffer between France 有了一个缓冲地带and the most influential German states, Austria and Prussia. 8月6日On the 6th of August 拿破仑宣布从公元800年就开始存在的he declared the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, 神圣罗马帝国正式解散which had existed since 800. 这行为对普鲁士来说形同侮辱All this was insulting for Prussia. 并且在拿破仑提议归还汉诺威给英国以求和平时And as Napoleon offered to return Hannover to Britain to procure peace, 战争变得一触即发war became inevitable. 普鲁士皇室分成两派The Prussian court was divided 由国王领导的主和派with the king leading the peace party 和由王后路易斯推动的主战派while his spouse Queen Louise was nudging the country into conflict. 最终主战派占上风Finally the war party won, 于是在8月10日普鲁士开始调动军队and on the 10th of August Prussia started mobilizing its army. 接下来两个月 普鲁士得以加入英俄的反法同盟in the next two months Prussia was able to enter the alliance with Britain and Russia. 拿破仑在九月初收到普鲁士调动军队的消息Napoleon learned about the Prussianmobilization in early September 于是下令5万人应征兵加入军队and ordered 50,000 conscripts to join the army. 法国的军队分散驻扎在整个德意志The French troops were stationed all over Germany, 而此时拿破仑还没有做好应战的准备and Napoleon was not ready to go on an offensive just yet. 普鲁士于是趁此机会进入萨克森并征召了2万当地人参军Prussia used that to enter Saxony and conscript 20,000 locals into its army. 拿破仑要求普鲁士军撤离萨克森Napoleon demanded that the Prussian army leave Saxony, 但在10月1日but on the first of October, 他反而收到让他离开驻地 撤到莱茵河东岸的最后通牒received an ultimatum to leave the lands to the east of the Rhine. 10月6日 第四次反法同盟战争开始On the 6th of October the War of the Fourth Coalition began. 法国和普鲁士都拥有大约20万大军Both France and Prussia had about 200,000 troops 然而普鲁士的军队太过分散however, there was no unity in the Prussian army 并同时有三个领导指挥and it had three formal leaders. 许多将军建议实施防御式阵型A number of generals advised the defensive approach 以缓慢的战术性撤退 希望可以拖延到with a slow strategic retreat in the hopes that Bennigsen would soon join them 指挥着10多万俄军的贝希格森加入他们with more than 100,000 Russians under his command. 然而这个计划被无视 最后采用的是由王子However this plan was ignored and a more ambitious plan created 布伦瑞克·查尔斯·威廉·斐迪南提出的更加宏大的计划by the Prince of Brunswick Charles William Ferdinand was adopted. 普鲁士决定进攻The Prussians were going to go on the offensive, 拿下位于符腾堡的斯图加特take Stuttgart in Württemberg and cut 并切断拿破仑与其部分军队和法国间的联系Napoleon from a portion of his forcesand France. 此时这个法国皇帝早已决定好如何行动Meanwhile the French Emperor had already decided on his moves. 拿破仑准备从西南方向进军He was going to move towards the Prussian capital of Berlin 直指普鲁士的首都柏林from the southwest, 这样他的军队可以在行军中避开大多数的河流which meant that his troops would be able to avoid the majority of the rivers. 宣战后没几日Just a few days after the declaration of war 拿破仑就已动身向柏林进发Napoleon was already on the move. 看起来双方都不确定对方军队所处的位置It seems that neither army was sure about the location of the enemy, 但拿破仑的计划更胜一筹but Napoleon’s plan was better 其计划是 切断普军与俄军和柏林之间的联系as it was cutting the Prussians from the Russians and Berlin, 这就迫使他们参战and therefore forcing them to fight. 根据斥候侦查报告 拿破仑现在很确定Due to scouting reports Napoleon was now sure 普鲁士军会在耶拿附近集结that the Prussians were concentrating near Jenna, 然而 后者才发现however, the latter finally understood that 法军已经不在符腾堡了the French army was no longer in Württemberg 并且法军正在快速行军以阻截去往柏林的路and was moving fast to cut the roads to Berlin. 一些普军开始动身向北方行进And some of the Prussian forces started moving to the north. 实际上 战役打响后仅三天Indeed just three days after the war began 拿破仑的军队就已经在普军的东面和南面完成了集结Napoleon’s troops ended up to the south and east of the Prussian army 并且由于法军的行动迅速and due to their faster movement 他们很快就在施尔茨和萨尔费尔德集结concentrated and defeated the Prussians 并在战役里的第一次战斗中击败普军in the first battles of the campaign at Schleiz and Saalfeld. 法军再一次抢得先机Once again the French were too quick for their opponents 两个军团在骑兵的掩护下and two corps alongside the cavalry reserve 最终到达普军东北部的阵地ended up to the northeast of the Prussian positions. 普军并没有被包围The Prussians were not encircled, 但是通往柏林的道路已经门户大开but as the road to Berlin was open to attack, 普军必须浴血奋战they had to stand and fight. 10月14日 双子战 耶拿-奥尔施塔特战役爆发了The twin battles of Jenna and Auersted took place on the 14th of October. 某种程度上 这其实是两个相距30公里In a way it was two distinct battles as 发生在不同地点的战役the two locations were more than 30 kilometers from each other 并且这两场战役从来没有混为一谈and the two battles never combined into one. 法军在耶拿的战役由拿破仑指挥The French had about 40,000 infantry, 拿破仑可以指挥的兵力有 大约4万的步兵8,000cavalry and 110 guns at Jenna 8000骑兵以及110门大炮under the overall command of Napoleon, 要对抗的则是有34,000名步兵 12,000名骑兵against 34,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry and 15 artillery batteries 和15个炮兵连 由普鲁士王子霍恩洛厄指挥的普军of the Prussian Prince Hohenlohe. 法军的中路由拉内指挥the French Center was commanded by Lannes, 左路指挥为奥什罗 右路则由苏尔特指挥the left flank by Augereau and the right by Soult. 拿破仑下令他的军队拿下Napoleon ordered his troops to take Land graefenberg, 整个战场里的制高点:格莱芬堡the plateau that prevailed over the battlefield. 一夜之间 法军就占领了高原的一部分Part of the plateau was taken by the French during the night, 但是他们需要更多的空间but they needed more space. 于是在早上6点 攻击开始了So at 6 a.m.an attack commenced. 法军中路攻占了克洛斯威思 而左翼则攻占了科斯佩达The French Center took Closwith while the left captured Cospeda. 普鲁士丢掉了山头The Prussians lost the hill. 霍恩洛赫现在才明白 他在与法军主力作战Hohenlohe now understood that he was fighting the main French army 于是向魏玛的预备队求援and asked for help from the reserves at Weimar. 普军努力在维也纳和伊思达塔特之间The Prussians managed to set the second line of defense 设置了第二道防线between the villages of Vierzehnheiligen and Isserstadt. 法军的进攻被挡住了French advance was halted. 然而 到上午11点However, by 11:00 a.m. 内伊的第六军团到达前线Ney’s 6th Corps was on the scene 拿破仑再一次发起进攻and Napoleon launched another attack. 奥杰罗占领了伊思达塔特Augereau captured Isserstadt, 内伊占领了维也纳 苏尔特转向了普军左翼Ney occupied Vierzehnheiligen and Soult turned the Prussian left. 下午一点By 1 p.m. 霍恩洛赫为了保持阵线完整 已经尽了全力Hohenlohe had committed all his reserves in order to keep his line intact. 急需魏玛预备队的帮助Reserved from Weimar were desperately needed. 拿破仑命令全军前进Napoleon ordered his whole line to advance 普军最终崩溃了and the Prussians finally collapsed. 到下午3点 普军已经完全撤退By 3:00 p.m.the Prussians were in full retreat 法军骑兵在持续追击with the French cavalry chasing them. 魏玛预备队最终到达了The reserves from Weimar finally arrived 法军在Kapellendorf Rüchel被挡住了and stopped the French at Kapellendorf Rüchel. 默克尔带领着15,000人的预备队Merkel who was leading the newly arrived 15,000 Prussians 在没有制定计划的情况下就准备展开反击didn’t set a proper line and decided to counter-attack. 尽管法军被暂时阻止了Although the French forces wereinitially halted, 但他们的骑兵很快包抄并击溃了敌人their cavalry soon outflanked and routed the enemy. 下午四点 耶拿的战斗结束了By 4:00 p.m. the Battle of Jena was over. 法军大约损失了6,500人The French had lost about 6500 men 同时普军大约损失了25,000人while the Prussian losses have been estimated at 25,000. 拿破仑确信他们已经击败了普军主力Napoleon was sure that he had defeated the main Prussian army, 他错了He was wrong. 这时 达沃元帅正在与普鲁士王子布伦瑞克作战At this point his marshal Davout was fighting the Prussian prince Brunswick. 在前一天 达沃斯接到命令前往南方On the previous day Davout was ordered to move to the south 拿破仑认为普军主力位于北方and attack what Napoleon considered to be the main Prussian army from the north. 达沃元帅还被告知要与伯纳多特会合He also was told to join forces with Bernadotte. 然而 他拒绝了并坚持继续留在多恩堡However,the latter declined and kept his position at Dornburg, 就像之前接到的命令一样as he was ordered to before. 一大早 达沃的28,000人就离开了他们的位置In the early morning, Davout’s 28,000 left their positions 沿着萨尔河 向奥尔斯塔特方向移动near the river Salle and moved towards Auerstadt. 然而他们被52,000名普军袭击 没有任何得到支援的希望Yere they were attacked by 52,000 Prussians with no hope of support. 战斗开始时 法军占领了HassenhausenEarly in the battle the French took the village of Hassenhausen. 法军将领在附近部署了三个师the French leader deployed his three divisions nearby. 尽管如此 他们依然不断被普军骑兵袭扰Despite repeated charges by thePrussian cavalry. 早上八点半By 8:30 a.m. 达沃的步兵设法击溃了敌人的骑兵Davout’s infantry managed to rout the enemy cavalry. 但普鲁士步兵正赶赴战场But the Prussian infantry was arriving to the battle. 法军防御住了一些普军的袭击The French stopped a number of Prussian attacks, 主要是因为普军以小队进攻mainly because the Prussians attacked in small groups 每个师互相独立前进with each division advancing in isolation. 因为早些时候普军将领遭受重创As their leader was mortally wounded early on, 所以他们缺乏协调的指挥the Prussians lacked any coordinated command. 上午十一点At 11:00 a.m. 普军已经用尽全力when the Prussians had exhausted their efforts, 达沃斯命令法军发动攻击 普军崩溃了Davout ordered a French advance and the Prussians collapsed. 在战役最后By the end of the battle, 达沃斯歼灭10,000人伤亡 俘虏3,000人Davout had inflicted 10,000 casualties and taken 3,000 prisoners, 同时他损失了7,000人while he lost 7,000. 在接下来的几周里 法军不断追击Over the next few weeks a relentless French 追击给普军造成了更多伤亡pursuit caused more casualties to the Prussians 并且在27日 柏林陷落and Berlin was occupied on the 27th. 在战争开始的头一个月内In less than a month since the start of the campaign, 拿破仑的军队歼灭了20,000普军Napoleon’s forces killed 20,000 Prussians 并俘获了140,000名俘虏and took more than 140,000 prisoners. 现在 普鲁士军将领已经朝着俄军方向撤退Still, the Prussian leadership retreated towards the Russian army, 第四次反法同盟战役才刚刚开始so the war of the fourth coalition was just starting. 感谢观看这期《双子战耶拿-奥尔施塔特战役》Thank you for watching our documentary on the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt. 两周后我们会讲述埃劳战役In two weeks we will be back to cover the Battle of Eylau. 诚挚地感谢我们的赞助者We would like to express our gratitude to our patreon supporters, 有你们才能有这个系列的视频who make the creation of these videospossible. 在参与众筹是支持视频的最好方式Patreon is the best way to suggest a new video, 并且能了解我们的更多消息learn about our schedule and so much more. 这里是王侯将相频道This is the Kings and Generals channel 下个视频见and we will catch you on the next one!
  • 2021-10-26为什么理发店外都有这个旋转的柱子This episode is sponsored by Wix本节目由Wix赞助 Go to wix.com/go/simplehistory现在就去wix.com/go/simplehistory下 to create a website now.创建一个网站吧 Why barbers have a pole outside their shop为什么理发店门外会有一根柱子? Barbers poles are a familiar sight today如今理发店的柱子已经十分常见 They can be static or revolving,它们可以是静止的 也可以是一直旋转的 are colored in red and white,它们上面的颜色是红白相间的 or in the United States red, white and blue.或者在美国 它们由红白蓝三种颜色构成 But do you know what the meaning behind the pole is?但是你知道这个柱子背后的故事吗? The barber’s pole goes all the way back to medieval times理发店柱子的历史可追溯到中世纪 when barbers were also surgeons那时理发师也是医师 In Medieval Europe在欧洲中世纪时 hairdressing and haircutting was just one of many jobs that barbers performed理发仅仅是理发师所从事的众多工作之一 barbers could perform surgery including leeching cupping enemas他们从事外科手术包括 水蛭吸血 拔罐 灌肠 amputations and bloodletting截肢和放血 which was the cutting and bleeding of the patients to release划开病人的皮肤并放血 排出那些 What was thought of as humors : blood, phlegm,被认为是体液的东西:血液 粘液 yellow bile and black bile黄胆汁和黑胆汁 Which needed to be in balance这些体液需要保持平衡 It was believed that letting out the bad blood人们认为排出坏血 would encourage healthy new blood to replace it会促进大量的健康的新血代替它 And this became the standard treatments for everything from the plague to a sore throat这成了用来治疗从瘟疫到喉咙痛的一切病症的标准治疗方案 The reason barbers became surgeons was理发师成为医师的原因是 because monks who had up to this point performed surgery and medicine were从事外科手术和药物治疗的僧侣们 Prohibited to do so anymore by Pope Alexander the 3rd in 1163在1163年被教皇亚历山大三世禁止了 He saw the function of letting blood as incompatible with the clergy 他认为放血这个职务和僧侣不搭 and physicians saw this too menial而内科医师觉得放血的工作不太体面 this opened up a market for barbers这就为理发师开辟了一个市场 To advertise their services and to remind people of their routine bloodletting 为了宣传他们的服务并提醒人们他们的放血疗程 barbers left bowls of customer’s blood out their shop windows他们把顾客的血一碗碗的放在店外的窗户下 Barber surgeons also performed dentistry理发师也从事牙医这个工作 and to advertise this they would string teeth in a row outside the shop为了宣传这个 他们会放一串牙齿在店外 In 1307 in London this form of advertising was banned这种宣传方式1307年在伦敦被禁止 with customers blood ordered to be disposed off into the Thames straightaway顾客们的血液也被直接处理到泰晤士河中 This made barber surgeons think of a new way to advertise their services这促使他们想一种新方式去宣传服务 During the bloodletting process the patients would squeeze a pole在放血过程的病人会用力抓住一根柱子 so that their veins would be more exposed这样使病人的血管暴露得更明显 Making it easier for the barbers to cut them以便理发师能更容易的 with a special tool called a fleam将一种叫做放血针的特殊工具扎进血管 This pole sometimes had a brass ball at the top to hold leech柱子顶部有时会有一个黄铜球用来装水蛭 and a basin was held underneath to collect the blood并且有一个盘子在下面收集血液 Bandages would be wrapped around the arm to stem the bleeding绷带被缠绕在手臂上用来止血 and then wrapped around the pole after use使用后就被缠绕在柱子上 After the barber surgeon was finished with the patients理发师给病人做完手术后 this pole along with the washed bandages tied to it这根柱子连同绑在上面洗过的绷带 was hung outside the shop to advertise his business一起被挂在店外以便宣传生意 soon barbers were placing a replica of the pole不久理发师们用一根 Painted in white and red stripes outside their shop instead of the real thing涂着白红条纹的模型柱子代替了原来的柱子 which has evolved into what we see today这个模型逐渐发展成了我们看到的柱子 The red represents the blood bandages红色代表血绷带 while the white represents the clean ones白色代表干净的绑带 the ends of the pole symbolized柱子的两端象征着 the ball that contained the leeches and the basin which collected the blood装有水蛭的球和收集血液的盆 The spiral may represent the way the wind sometimes blew the pole into a spiral pattern螺旋可能代表着柱子被风吹成螺旋状 or the downwards direction Which arteries carry blood或动脉运输血液向下的方向 When the barber-surgeons company was established in 1540当1540年理发医师医院成立时 the trade between barbers and surgeons was more defined理发师与医师的职业范围更加清晰 And barbers were now only allowed to extract teeth现在理发师只允许拔牙 They issued a statute他们颁布了一项法令 that required barbers to use a blue and white pole要求理发师用蓝白相间的柱子 while surgeons had to use a red and white pole而医师必须用红白柱子 By the 18th century medicine was changing到了18世纪医学界发生了变化 and in 1745 in England the trade of barber and surgeon was formally separated在1745年 英国理发师和医师的生意内容正式分开 Barber poles in the United States are red white and blue在美国 理发师的柱子是红白蓝三种颜色 one theory is that the blue represents the veins一种理论认为蓝色代表血管 and another theory is that the blue was added as a sign of patriotism另一种理论认为蓝色是爱国主义的象征 a naught to the nations flag与美国国旗上的蓝色无关 Barber surgeons advertise their services Using a pole with bandages back in medieval times 在中世纪 理发医师用绑着绷带的柱子来宣传他们的服务 and you can advertise your profile or business with wix,如今你可以用wix宣传你的信息或公司 go to wix.com/go/simplehistory赶快去wix.com/go/simplehistory网站下 to create a professional site regardless of your skill level创建一个专业网站 不论你的技能水平如何 Wix has great features to bring your site to lifeWix有强大的功能来把你的网站生活化 such as Wix videos Wix pro-gallery Wix bookings例如Wix视频 Wix Pro图库 Wix预订 and solutions for all kinds of sites以及适用于所有类型网站的解决方案 such as e-commerce, music, hotels, events, restaurants and more例如电子商务 商业 音乐 酒店 活动 餐厅等等 Build your own website and support our channel想建立自己的网站并支持我们的频道 by going to wix.com/go/simplehistory您可以访问wix.com网站 or simply click the link in the description below to get started或者直接点击描述里的链接来开始吧
  • 2021-10-26怀旧玩具展:以前的玩具长什么样?大家好 我是海因茨历史馆馆长安迪·梅森Hi, I’m Andy Masich, president here at theHeinz History Center. 欢迎收看 五十 六十 七十年代的旧玩具展Welcome to Toys of the ’50s, ’60s and ’70s. 这是我们最新的一场展览It’s our latest exhibit. 玩具对早期儿童发育Toys have been important in early 一直很重要 它刺激着想象力和学习能力以及childhood development since the dawn of time, stimulating imagination, learning, 创造力的发展and creativity. 我们请到了艾米莉·卢比Now here’s Emily Ruby, 她是“五六十及七十年代的旧玩具展” 管理人curator of Toys of the’50s,’60s and’70s. 她将带你们游览这个展区She’s here to give you a guided tour. 我们现在在二十世纪五十年代的客厅里Here we are in the 1950s living room. 现在展出的每一间客厅 都是根据Noweach living room in this exhibit is based 那个年代的玩具特征设计的on a toy from that decade, 所以五十年代的客厅是根据马克思玩具公司设计的so the 1950s is based on a Marx Toy Company toy house 当然它是一种西式的主题and of course it’s a Western theme, 这种主题在那个年代是很流行的which was very popular in the 1950s. 五十年代的许多玩具都是明确地Many toys of the 1950s were marketed directly 面向不同性别的孩子 这些玩具培养了to girls or boys so they were training children 孩子们作为父母或成年人的能力how to be future mothers or fathers or adults so 所以那个时候女孩的玩具是一些at that time for girls it was a lot of 家政指向的玩具 而男孩的玩具homemaking toys and for boys it was toys 则用来培养未来的建筑师training them how to be future construction workers 以及如何承担父亲的工作or how to take over dad’s job, 像一套化学设备或者其他类型的玩具like a chemistry set and things like that. 50和60年代是塑料的年代The ’50s and ’60s were the era of plastics. 传统的木质玩具和金属玩具都迅速被Traditional wooden or metal toys were increasingly 塑料玩具所取代 因为后者更为耐用being replaced by plastic toys as plasticsbecame more durable. 而且塑料是更便宜的生产材料 这也造成玩具更多的使用塑料They were also a cheaper material to produce toys with so again an increase in the production of toys. 娃娃一直是女孩们很青睐的玩具Dolls have always been a popular toy for girls. 在20世纪50年代 由于萨拉·李娃娃的生产In the 1950s, we saw a little bit of a different 情况发生了些变化take on dolls because of the Sara Lee doll, 萨拉·李娃娃是第一批以非裔美国女孩为which was the first mass marketed African 销售对象的娃娃 它为非裔美国女孩带来了更积极的形象American doll and provided a more positive image for African American girls. 因为越来越多的人在家中安装了电视Because an increasing number of people had televisions in the home, 50年代的许多玩具many toys of the 都是根据当时流行的电视节目设计的 例如Howdy Doody1950s are based on popular television shows such as Howdy Doody, 和米奇妙妙屋the Mickey Mouse Club, 那个年代最重要受欢迎的玩具and the most important popular toy 是戴维·克罗格特浣熊皮帽子of the era – the Davy Crockett coonskin cap. 我们观看的电视广告也增加了玩具的需求量We also saw television commercials, which were increasing the demand for toys. 第一个在电视广告中出现的玩具The first toy to be advertised on televisionwas the Mr. 是1952年生产的蛋头先生Potato Head in 1952. 我们这里收藏了一套原版蛋头先生Here we have one of the original Mr. 由设计者乔治·莱纳捐献给史密森尼博物馆Potato Head kits,donated to the Smithsonian by its inventor, George Lerner. 这套玩具里包含了可以长成真土豆的部件This kit consisted of pieces that stuck into an actual potato. 因此父母们都为房子周围发现的烂土豆抱怨不已Parents complained of rotting vegetables found aroundthe house. 在1964年 蛋头先生终于In 1964, Mr. Potato Head finally 有了自己的塑料身体 并变成了蛋头先生如今的形象got his plastic body and became the Mr. Potato Head we know today. 这里是六十年代的客厅Here we are in the 1960s living room. 它是根据那个年代最流行的玩具Nowthis is based on one of the most popular toys 芭比的梦幻之家 设计的of the decade – Barbie’s dream house. 事实上芭比是由露丝·汉德勒在1959年发明的Barbie was actually invented in 1959 by Ruth Handler, 她看见自己的女儿为小娃娃设定了角色who saw her daughter assigning adult roles to her baby doll. 于是她就发明了芭比娃娃 并交由美泰公司生产She invented Barbie doll and it was produced by Mattel. 而现在 为了超过美泰公司 孩之宝玩具公司决定Not tobe outdone by Mattel, Hasbro decided to invent 为男孩设计一种玩偶 但不能称之为娃娃a doll for boys, but you couldn’t call ita doll. 在1964年 “特种部队” 以能够活动的士兵形象初次登台In 1964, G.I. Joe debuted as an action soldier, 但是由于越南战争but because of the conflict in Vietnam, 在70年代他改名叫做“实干家”he became a “ man of action ” in the 1970s. 虽然芭比娃娃为女孩提供了Even though the Barbie doll offered 更多未来的工作选项girls more career options for their future, many 许多玩具仍然在强调女孩作为母亲或主妇的角色toys for girls still emphasized their role as a mother and homemaker, 例如简单烘焙烤箱such as the Easy-Bake Oven. 60年代的民权运动The Civil Rights movement 使当时的玩偶市场产生了更多的差异of the 1960s created some increased diversity in the doll market 克里斯汀是第一个非裔美国人芭比娃娃with the premiere of Christie, which was the first African American Barbie doll. 同类型的还有1968年的茱莉亚娃娃had the Julia doll, which premiered in 1968. 它是根据当时流行的电视节目She was based on the popular television show “茱莉亚”设计的 它的女主角是一位单身黑人妈妈“Julia,” which starred an African Americansingle mother. 1961年 肯尼迪总统发誓要把一个人送上月球In 1961, President Kennedy vowed to put a man on the moon. 随后与俄罗斯的太空竞赛The ensuing space race with 使人们的一切都沉浸在太空主题里 包括玩具Russia made people obsessed with all thingsspace-themed, including toys. 比如阿尔法一号导弹There was the Alpha-One Ballastic Missile. 和宇航员特种兵There was the G.I. Joe astronaut. 冷战中也出现了But the Cold War also 许多间谍密探类的玩具created many spy and espionage type toys based 它们以电视剧“秘密特工”及“007”为依据on shows like “ The Man from U.N.C.L.E. ” and 007. “火柴盒”或是“风火轮”?“火柴盒”吸引了忠于传统 低调有真实细节的车的车迷 而“风火轮”的车迷喜欢时髦的车身设计以及华丽的喷漆. 涂鸦磁性画板背后的魔法静电荷将一些铝粉混合物和微小的塑料珠吸附在玩具屏幕背后 打开旋钮 通过摩擦粉末划线. 你现在看到的七十年代的客厅 同样是根据另一个芭比小屋设计的The 1970s living room you see here is also based on another Barbie playhouse. 在70年代In the 1970s, 更多的女性参加了工作 玩具也不那么性别化了more women joined the workforce and toys became a little less gender specific. 我们就有了像麦当劳We had things like the McDonald’s “熟悉的地方”玩具系列以及“强尼”Familiar Places play set and the Johnny Horizon Environmental 环境测试仪 可以售卖给不同性别的孩子们Test Kit that could be marketed to both boysand girls. 七十年代出现了第一个地球日The 1970s also saw the first Earth 那时候人们的环境意识有所上升Day and with an increased awareness of the environment, 孩子们也可以参与环境保护kids were able to participate in this. 在七十年代 人们越来越关注In the 1970s, there was an increased concern 电视上卖给孩子们的商品with what was on television and being marketed 匹兹堡市儿童节目主持人罗杰斯先生to children. Pittsburgh’s own Mister Rogers debuted 在1968年登台 他拒绝在自己的节目中in 1968 and he refused to have commercials 投放商业广告 宣传玩具advertising toys during his show. 在1969年11月 “芝麻街”开播In Novemberof 1969, Sesame Street debuted and it became 它很快成了七十年代儿童最喜爱的节目one of the most popular shows of the 1970sfor children. 因此 许多玩具都根据Because of this, many toys were “芝麻街”中的角色进行生产produced based on the Sesame Street characters. 提到七十年代的玩具 你就不能You can’t mention toys of the 1970s 不提“星球大战” 它不仅是without mentioning “ Star Wars. ” Not only were 儿童喜爱的玩具 还开启玩具收集的市场they popular toys for children, but they also launched the collectible toys market. 计算机时代的开始改变了未来的玩具产业The dawn of the computer age changed the future of the toy industry. 对于七十年代 不得不提的是电脑游戏 比如西蒙游戏The must-have toys of the 1970s were computer-based games such as Simon, 说和写 以及雅达利的乒乓球Speak and Spell, and Atari’s Pong. 宾夕法尼亚的玩具制造商Pennsylvania toy makers, 包括匹兹堡的狼獾玩具公司including the Wolverine Toy Company here in Pittsburgh, reinforced 巩固了社会性别角色society’s gender roles. 有给男孩的“桑迪·安迪建筑装备” 给女孩的“快乐苏西”化妆玩具Sandy Andy constructionequipment for boys and Sunny Suzy play appliances 马克思兄弟制造了for girls. Marx Brothers made Rock ‘ Em, 战斗机器人竞技场 而在霍利迪斯堡Sock ‘ Em Robots while in Hollidaysburg, “机灵鬼”以风暴般的速度风靡全国Slinky took the nation by storm.
  • 2021-10-17用细菌作画This artwork is alive.这个艺术品是活的 Each one is made from fungi and bacteria.每一个都是由真菌和细菌组成的 Ew, gross, right?呃 很恶心 是吧 But this art is being used但是这个艺术品就是为了 to change people’s minds about microorganisms.改变人们对于微生物的看法 The person credited with pioneering the art被赞誉为艺术的先驱的人 is Alexander Fleming.是Alexander Fleming If that name sounds familiar,是不是听起来熟悉 it’s because he’s the scientist是因为他是一位 who discovered the antibiotic properties of penicillin.发现了青霉素抗菌特性的科学家 微生物艺术 The organization behind these particular artworks这项特殊作品背后的团队 is called Petri Dish Picasso,叫Petri Dish Picasso and it’s easy to see why.原因显而易见 They wanted to give people more access他们想让更多的人亲力亲为 to the interesting world of microbiology with a hands-on approach.培养关注微生物学领域的兴趣 Kids, especially, get a kick out of painting尤其针对孩子们 with these little things called microbes.了解有关微生物的绘画 Here’s how you paint with bacteria.接下来介绍如何用细菌绘画 Maria Peñil Cobo: Today, I’m gonna draw a dandelion, and those are my brushes.今天 我要用这些刷子画一个蒲公英 Narrator: Agar is a jellylike substance琼脂是一种产生于 made from red seaweeds红藻的果冻状物质 used to culture bacteria and fungus in labs.在实验室中被用来培养细菌和真菌 It’s also an ingredient in foods like gummy bears and Jell-O.它也是橡胶熊和果冻等食物中的成分 It’s sterilized into a liquid在250华氏摄氏度的高温下 at about 250 degrees Fahrenheit,加热灭菌成液体 poured into a petri dish, and left to cool and solidify.倒入有盖培养皿让它冷却凝固 This is the canvas and the life support for the microbiome.这是画布和微生物群落的生命支撑 A microbiome is defined as the microorganisms微生物组的定义是 in a particular environment (including the body or a part of the body).位于人体或人体某部分区域的微生物 步骤二 细菌 In separate containers, the paint, or microbes, must be grown.在不同的容器中 颜料或者说细菌会生长 A liquid broth of water and nutrients does the trick.富含水和营养物的液体培养基起着作用 A popular ingredient for making agar art is E. coli.大肠杆菌是制作琼脂艺术的重要成分 步骤三 培养 Each organism has different nutritional needs每个生物体都有不同的营养需求 and can produce different colors.能产生不同的颜色 A single cell of E. coli can grow一晚上一个大肠杆菌细胞 to over several billion cells overnight.就可以繁殖出几十亿的细胞 步骤四 上色 Using a few different tools, the cultured bacteria cells使用不同的工具 are taken from their stew and gently painted onto the agar.将取自不同培养基的细菌再轻轻涂到琼脂上 Peñil Cobo: And for the flowers, I’m gonna use a different technique with a pipette.画鲜花时 我要利用移液管使用一种不同的方法 Narrator: It’s almost like painting with invisible ink就像用隐形墨水画画 because the cells need to grow into mature colony clusters因为细胞需要生长成为成熟的细胞群落 for you to see them.那样你才能看见 They’re put in an incubator at their optimal growing temperature.细菌被放在恒温箱里 在适合的温度下生长 E. coli prefers to be grown大肠杆菌生长最适温度 at about 99 degrees Fahrenheit.大约为99华氏度 Depending on how fast the microbes replicate,依据微生物复制速度的差异 the incubation step can take anywhere from 12 hours to several days.细菌培养过程可从12小时持续至数日 步骤六 欣赏 Then it’s time to see if your agar art是时候看看你的琼脂艺术 is in the league of Pablo Picasso, or maybe Jackson Pollock.能否和毕加索或波洛克相媲美了 Agar art doesn’t last forever.琼脂艺术不能永存 As the cells run out of nutrients,当细菌耗尽营养时 they will begin to die.就开始死亡 Some agar artists try to preserve their work一些琼脂艺术家尝试用将作品保存在树脂中 by casting it in resin, but not Petri Dish Picasso.但这些艺术家比不上毕加索 As they say, all good things must come to an end.俗话说得好 好东西不会永存
  • 2021-10-17Ps教程:如何创建玻璃破碎效果所有存档的下载链接都在简介中All stock download links are in the description. 点击快速选择工具Head over and select the Quick Selection Tool. 选择整个人物Select the entire person. 按Alt键减去选区Hold ALT to subtract from selection. 完成后 按选择并蒙版When you’re done, head up to Select and Mask. 选择微调边缘画笔工具Select the Refine Edge Brush Tool. 选取头发Select around the hair. 输出到:带图层蒙版的新图层Output To: New layer with layer mask. 点击确定Then hit OK. 创建一个新的调整图层 纯色Create a new adjustment layer > Solid Color. 我准备选深蓝色 颜色编码000D18I’m going to select a dark blue. Color code: 000d18 点击确定Then hit OK. 拖动纯色图层置于男人图层下层Drag the solid color below the man. 点选顶层图层Then click on our top layer. 创建一个新的调整图层 色阶Create a new adjustment layer > Levels. 剪辑下方图层Clip to layer below. 向右拖动滑块阴影 值约8Drag the slider shadow to the right. About 8. 关闭Then hit close. 创建一个新图层Head down and create a new layer. 拖动其低于男人图层Drag it below the man layer. 重命名为LightI’m going to rename it to Light. 将混合模式改为柔光模式Change the Blend Mode to Soft Light. 前景色设为白色Have your foreground color set to White. 然后选择画笔工具Then select your Brush Tool. (B) 确保你使用的是带有柔边的画笔Make sure you’re using a brush with soft edges. 画笔不透明度100%Brush Opacity 100%. 像这样在男人身后加光Add light behind the man like so. 创建一个新图层Create a new layer. 重命名为CloudsRename it to Clouds. 前景黑色 背景白色Foreground black and Background white. 编辑 填充Edit > Fill. Contents: 黑色 确定Black. Then hit OK. 过滤 渲染 云Head up to Filter > Render > Clouds. 更改混合模式为颜色减淡Change the Blend Mode > Color Dodge. 按Alt键并选择蒙版Hold ALT + Click mask. 你的蒙版应为黑色Your mask should be black. 画笔工具Brush Tool selected. (B) 带有柔边的画笔Select a brush with soft edges. 我要在光的周围添加云I’m going to add the clouds back around the light. 降低画笔不透明度约为25%Bring your Brush Opacity down. About 25%. 在周围区域添加云 好了Add clouds to the surrounding areas. Alright, 看上去很棒that looks good. 画笔不透明度调回100% 接下来Bring your Brush Opacity back up to 100%. Next, 选择蒙版click on the mask. 修改前景色为黑色Change your foreground to black. 画笔工具Brush Tool selected.(B) 确保你使用的是带有柔边的画笔Be sure to use a brush with soft edges. 遮罩要应用效果的区域Mask the areas, where you want to apply the effect. 创建一个新图层Head down and create a new layer. 确保其在顶层Make sure it’s at the top. 重命名为SmallI’m going to rename this layer to small. 选择画笔预设Head up to the Brush Presets. 玻璃画笔Then select the Glass Brush. 画笔设置 间距 100%Then click on Brush Settings. Spacing: 100%100%. 形状动态Then click on Shape Dynamics. 大小抖动 30%Size Jitter 30%. 角度抖动 50%Angle Jitter: 50%. 创建新画笔Click on”Create new brush” 重命名为玻璃画笔I’m going to rename it to Glass Brush. 检查所有3个设置 确定Have all 3 settings checked. Then hit OK. 新画笔应被保存了Your new brush should be saved. 修改前景色为白色Change your foreground color to white. 添加玻璃Start adding the glass. 首先小块的玻璃Small pieces first. 创建一个新图层Head down, create a new layer. 重命名为MediumRename it to Medium. 加大画笔尺寸Increase your brush size. 添加更多玻璃Start adding more Glass. 创建另一个新图层Head down, Create another new layer. 重命名为LargeRename it to large. 再加大画笔尺寸Increase your Brush size again. 可以使用方括号键改变画笔大小You can use your bracket keys to change brush size. [ ] 创建一个新图层Head down and create a new layer. 重命名为Glass Motion BlurRename it to Glass Motion Blur. 添加更多玻璃 确保它是相当小的部分Add more glass, make sure it’s fairly small pieces. 滤镜 模糊 动感模糊Then head up to Filter > Blur > Motion Blur. 角度58 距离8像素Angle about 58| Distance 8 Pixels. 确定Then hit OK. 创建一个新图层Head down and create a new layer. 重命名为Glass Motion Blur2Rename it to Glass Motion Blur 2. 添加小玻璃碎片到左侧Add small pieces of glass to the left side. 滤镜 模糊 动感模糊Then head up to Filter > Blur > Motion Blur. 修改角度为-66Change the Angle to about -66. 距离8像素 确定Distance 8 Pixels. Then OK. 创建一个新图层Create a new layer. 重命名为OffsetRename it to Offset. 在周围区域添加更多Add more glass to the surrounding areas. 不同大小的玻璃Use different sizes. 创建一个新图层 重命名为Large Glass BlurCreate a new layer > Rename it”Large Glass Blur” 调大画笔尺寸Increase your Brush size. 选择橡皮擦工具Head over the select your Eraser Tool. 擦掉一些玻璃 所以只有少数是可见的Erase some of the glass. So only a few are visible. 滤镜 模糊 高斯模糊Then head up to Filter > Blur > Gaussian Blur. 模糊半径3像素 确定Blur Radius: 3 Pixels. Then hit OK. 选择顶层图层 按住CTRL+J复制一层Select the top layer. Duplicate it, CTRL + J. 点击移动工具(v)Select your Move Tool. (V) 移动到右侧Move it to the right side. 按CTRL+T选中 按需旋转角度CTRL + T to select it. Rotate it as needed. 完成后按回车键Hit Enter when you’re done. 创建一个新的图层Head down and create a new layer. 重命名为Small Glass ParticlesRename it to Small Glass Particles. 前景色白色Foreground color white. 画笔工具Then select your Brush Tool. (B) 定位粒子 灰尘刷Locate the Particle/Dust brush. 开始添加粒子Start adding the particles. 创建一个新图层Head down, create a new layer. 重命名为Particle Motion BlurRename it to particle motion blur. 添加更多粒子Start adding more Particles. 这些都将被模糊These ones will be blurred. 滤镜 模糊 动感模糊Filter > Blur > Motion Blur. 修改角度为90Change the Angle 90. 距离8像素 确定Distance 8 Pixels. Then hit OK. 创建一个新图层Create a new layer. 重命名为Camera CrackRename it to Camera Crack. 前景色白色Foreground white. 选择画笔工具Brush Tool selected. 选择裂纹画笔的一种Select one of the cracked brushes. 如你所想地添加相机裂纹Add the camera cracks as you want. 清理我们的编辑区域I’m going to clean up our work area. 选择顶层图层Select the top layer. 按SHIFT键选择底部Glass图层Hold SHIFT and select the bottom glass layer. 创建一个新组Then head down and create a group.. 重命名为GlassI will rename this to Glass. 选中组 复制Right click on the group > Duplicate group. 确定Then hit OK. 隐藏底层组Hide the bottom group. 右击顶层组 转换为智能对象Right click on the top group > Convert to Smart Object. 滤镜 锐化 智能锐化Filter > Sharpen > Smart Sharpen. 数量85% 半径1Px 确定Amount 85%. Radius 1.0Px. Then hit OK. 选择Levels图层Select the levels layer. 创建一个新图层Then head down and create a new layer. 重命名为CracksRename it to cracks. 前景色白色Foreground white. 画笔工具Brush Tool selected. 找一个漂亮的裂纹画笔Find a nice cracked brush. 简介中有这些画笔的下载链接Download link for these brushes in description. 选中这个I will selected this one. 轻轻旋转I will rotate it slightly. 按Alt键并在两个图层之间创建一个剪辑蒙版ALT + Click between the two layer to create a clipping mask. 如你所愿添加更多裂纹Start adding as many cracks as you want. 创建一个新的调整图层Color LookupCreate a new adjustment layer > Color Lookup. 选漂亮的蓝色 Crisp WinterI will select a nice blue. Crisp Winter. 调低不透明度约为50%Bring down the opacity to about 50%. 创建一个新图层Head down and create a new layer. 重命名为HighlightsRename it to Highlights. 修改混合模式为柔光Change the Blending Mode > Soft Light. 前景色白色Foreground set to white. 画笔工具Brush Tool selected. 带柔边的画笔Use a brush with soft edges. 为Highlights图层添加一些玻璃Add highlights to some of the glass. 完成 感谢收看That’s it! Thx for watching.
  • 2021-10-17在1502年,达芬奇如何绘制卫星地图?This map from 2019 was compiled这张2019年的地图 using satellite and aerial imagery.是用卫星和航拍图像绘制的 Leonardo da Vinci made this one around 1502 而大概在1502年 莱昂纳多·达芬奇绘制了这幅地图 while stuck on the ground而当时他却是在陆地上 How?他是怎么做到的? When infamous Italian politician Cesare Borgia当恶名昭著的意大利政客恺撒·博尔吉亚 brought Leonardo da Vinci把这幅肖像的作者 the guy who drew this portrait — to the city of Imola,莱昂纳多·达芬奇带到带到伊莫拉城时 it was as a military engineer.是将其作为军事工程师的 He’d already established a good military reputation当时达芬奇已经建立了良好的军事声誉 and painted several famous works.并且画了几幅著名的作品 When Leonardo was installed at Borgia’s newly acquired fort,当莱昂纳多被安置在博尔吉亚新获得的城堡时 one of his duties was to help Borgia learn the territory.他的职责之一就是帮助博尔吉亚勘查领地 At the time, a map like this was the standard在那个时代 一幅像这样的地图才是标准 with the birdseye and hillside view一般是鸟瞰图并在山上观测绘制的 Mythical creatures often poped up,神话人物经常在图中出现 not great for military operations.不符合军事行动的要求 The perspective also only showed some buildings,远景图也只能显示出部分建筑物 blocking the view of other ones.而把另一部分建筑挡住了 These maps could be beautiful.这些地图可以很美 But they lacked proper shape and scale 但是缺乏适当的形状和比例 and highlighted landmarks’ beauty at the expense of clarity.并且为了突出地标建筑的美感而牺牲了清晰度 Leonardo needed to show Imola as an “ichnographic” map 莱昂纳多需要将伊莫拉呈现为一张“平面地图” — an idea that Vitruvius — a Roman engineer 这个概念由一名叫维特鲁威的罗马工程师所描述 and the guy who inspired this — had described.而达芬奇受此启发 In practice, it’s a map where everything looks like实际上 平面地图所呈现的是 you’re directly above whatever you show.你在所有物体正上方往下看的景象 It gives you a clearer picture.它让你看的更加清晰 Look at the fort.看这个城堡 In Google Maps, the shadow effects change a bit,在谷歌地图上 阴影效果会有一点影响 but the fort’s perspective fundamentally stays the same.但是城堡的透视图基本上保持不变 That’s similar to a real view from far above,那就像从高空俯瞰的真实景象一样 where distance reduces the effects of shifting perspective.距离减少了改变视角带来的影响 But Leonardo didn’t have a satellite to get up that far.但是莱昂纳多并没有一颗卫星能看的那么高 His plan of Imola was a feat of symbolic imagination.他对伊莫拉的规划是象征性想象的壮举 And he had to make it accurate.而且他必须保证它的准确性 Based on sketches, previous work根据他的草图 以往的作品 and the design of his Imola map,以及他对伊莫拉地图的设计 we can guess at how Leonardo made it.我们可以猜到莱昂纳多是怎么做到的 He probably used a type of disk that could measure degrees 他可能使用了一种能测量角度的圆盘 and had a little pointer to mark the angles of streets 并由一个小指针来标记街道的拐角 in relation to a stable point, usually North. 与一基准点(通常是北方)之间的角度 He probably used a compass to 他可能用了一个罗盘 record the orientation of the town’s surrounding walls来记录镇子城墙的方位 He did this at every turn. 他在每一个拐角处都会测量 which helped him accurately translate the walls onto paper.才能让他准确地将城墙呈现在纸上 Note the circular shape here, overlaid on the map.注意这个覆盖在地图上的圆形 To establish scale,为了建立比例尺 Leonardo also needed to measure the distance between all of these angles.莱昂纳多还需要测量这些拐角之间的距离 He probably paced this out by foot,他可能是用脚步来丈量的 or maybe using an odometer,或者可能用了一种里程记录仪 with wheels that turned gears that measured distance by dropping a ball轮子带动齿轮 每隔一段固定时间就让一个小球掉进篮子 into a bucket at set intervals.从而测得距离 With the angles and distance together,达芬奇把角度和距离结合起来 he could create a plan,创作的一幅平面图 hundreds of years, before anyone could check if he got it right.几百年后才有人能检查他是否画得准确 The stunning map from 1551这幅令人叹为观止的地图 by another Leonardo,由另一莱昂纳多在1551年制成 shows the potential Leonardo da Vinci’s method had.展示了莱昂纳多·达芬奇的方法所蕴含的潜力 All these early ichnographic maps have asterisks.所有这些早期的平面地图都有需要注意的地方 This one was spotted with its own inaccuracies and artistic flourishes,这一幅也有其不准确或艺术夸大之处 a reflection of the scope of the project.反映了项目的宏大 In turn, Leonardo’s Imola had quibbles too.反过来 莱昂纳多画的伊莫拉也有缺点 He probably used parts of previous surveys他可能使用了一些以前的调查 and other artistic techniques.和其他艺术技巧 It also appears that he measured the town’s walls precisely,虽然看上去他精确地测绘出了城墙 but took more liberties with the angles in the town’s interior.但是镇子内部的角度则自由发挥了一些 But even with artistic license,但即使有艺术上的加工 this remains a map of more than a fort and town.这张地图的意义也远远大于堡垒和城镇本身 It’s a transition from a geography of myth and perception它是一个从神话和主观的地理到 to one about information, drawn plainly.客观信息的转变 It’s a map of Imola,这是一幅伊莫拉的地图 but in the early 1500s但是在16世纪初期 it was a map of the future, too. 它也是地图的未来
  • 2021-10-17第10周:秋天的重创1914年10月2日October 2, 1914 第一次世界大战已经肆虐了两个月 在这次空前血腥的战争中 无数士兵命丧于此The Great War has raged for two months with hundreds of thousands of soldiers losing their lives in some of the bloodiest battles in history. 但是一个始料未及的因素产生了 它将很大程度上决定战争的进程:But a new and unforseen factor now entered the war and would play a huge part in determining its course. 十月的雨 泥泞的路with the October rains came the mud. 我是印地·奈德尔 欢迎来到《第一次世界大战》I’m Indy Neidell. Welcome to the Great War. 上次我们讲到 西方的英国 法国 德国军队已在埃纳河战役中陷入僵持When we left off, the British, French, and German armies in the west had reached a stalemate at the Battle of the Aisne, 为了寻找新优势 交战双方展开了“奔向大海”的争先战 战壕开始向西北部蔓延and in the search for new advantages the trenches had begun growing to the northwest in the Race to the Sea. 俄罗斯人一方面迫使奥匈帝国军队退回奥地利The Russians were pushing the Austro-Hungarian army back into Austria 一方面向北进军波兰 与德国交战and were also heading north into Poland to engage the Germans, 空战和海战都日趋严峻and both the war in the air and the war at sea were getting serious. 现在是欧洲的秋天 我们看到的战争的一大特色It was now autumn in Europe, and one thing we see that was a regular feature of the war 是泥泞 无穷无尽的泥泞was mud. Endless mud. 奥地利12万人的军队 被陷在了要塞城镇普热梅希尔The Austrian army had barricaded itself in the fortress town of Przemysl, 120,000 strong, 现在完全落后于俄罗斯防线 俄国人于9月26日开始围攻这里now entirely behind Russian lines, and the Russians began a siege on September 26th. 一直以来奥地利人下定决心要守住普热梅希尔The Austrians had always planned and determined to hold Przemsyl, 但奥皇弗朗兹·约瑟夫的军备差强人意but the preparations were typical of the last minute ramshackle efforts of Emperor Franz Josef’s army- 一半枪支过时了 用的还是黑火药 许多炮弹是哑弹half of the guns were out of date pieces that still used black powder and loads of the shells turned out to be duds. 虽然他们建造了一大堆紧急关头的防御 包括30英里的新战壕And though they did build a whole bunch of last minute defenses, including 30 miles of new trenches, 但他们从未在要塞城镇附近砍树they never got around to chopping down the trees near the fortress town. 俄国人欣然将这些树作为藏身之处Which the Russians had the pleasure of using for concealment, 这次奥地利人将祸水引到自己身上了but the Austrians at least this time had the mud on their side. 你可能认为要塞城镇会很快速沦陷You might except the fortress to fall fairly quickly 因为目前为止 这场战争中没有堡垒能抵抗现代炮火的威力since so far this war no fortress on either front had been able to hold out against the power of modern artillery. 但是秋雨造成的泥泞 在堡垒外绵延了数英里But the Autumn rains had turned the ground outisde the fortress to mud for many miles, 泥泞又重又深 以至于俄国人的火炮不能靠得够近and it was too heavy and too deep for the Russians to bring their artillery close enough, 俄国人的首次进攻白白死伤了4万人and the initial Russian attack would do nothing except produce 40,000 casualties. 不过 俄罗斯将军伊万诺夫并没有全力对他们施压The Russian General Ivanov was not pressuring them with his whole force, though. 一周前 他往北部派出了30个师He had send 30 divisions to the north a week ago. 他现在决定要重组维斯瓦河东岸的所有军队 以攻打德国And he now decided he wanted to re-group all of those forces on the east bank of the Vistula River to launch an invasion of Germany. 就结果来看 伊万诺夫的这一决定是一次令人震惊的失策This turned out to be a stunning piece of incompetence on Ivanov’s part as it resulted. 真的 在数周的行军中 一场战役都没打过Seriously,in weeks of marching and no fighting at all, 在波兰泥泞的秋天 人和马都饥肠辘辘 摔到在路边with men and horses starving to death and falling by the roadsides during the march through the muddy Polish autumn. 所以一支军队在掘壕 一支军队在前进So you have one army digging in and one army on the move, 听起来跟西部战线类似 一些人被困在战壕里 其他人则继续移动which on the surface sounds similar to the western front, with some men stuck in the trenches, while the others were on the move. “奔向大海”的争先战仍在继续There the race to the sea continued, 德国人和法国人试图互相包抄 战壕线向海岸靠近with the Germans and the French trying to outflank each other and the trench lines growing and growing toward the coast. 9月26日 德国人开始轰炸安特卫普周围的堡垒Now, on September 26th, the Germans began bombarding the forts around Antwerp. 列日和那慕尔已经沦陷 安特卫普是比利时抵抗军的最后堡垒Liege and Namur had fallen and Antwerp was the last bastion of Belgian resistance. 事实上 协约国盟军非常需要 安特卫普尽可能长的抵抗Thing is, the allies seriously needed as long a resistance in Antwerp as possible. 因为一旦德国人攻克安特卫普 就能长驱直入到英吉利海峡的港口Once the Germans conquered it, they could quickly move to the ports of the English Channel, 这将迫使英国撤退到法国西部 对英国来说是一次非常真实的威胁which would force the British to retreat to western France, and which would represent a very real threat to Britain herself. 如果安特卫普能坚持哪怕一星期If Antwerp could hold out for even just a week, 英国就可以在弗兰德斯设置防线来守卫海岸the British could get in place a defensive line in Flanders blocking the coast, 从那里可以很理想地发动进攻 解放比利时 迫使德国人退回本国and from there could ideally launch an offensive to liberate Belgium and push the Germans back across their own border. 因此比利时人的士气低落是可以理解的The Belgians by this point were understandably demoralized 他们开始把自己的档案和国宝送到英国and began sending their archives and national treasures to Britain. 10月2日晚上 迎来了英国巨头的会议On the evening of October 2nd, came a meeting of British giants- 国务卿基钦纳勋爵 外交部长爱德华·格雷Secretary of State for War Lord Kitchener, Foreign Secretary Edward Grey, 还有温斯顿·丘吉尔 他在二战中的角色更深入人心 一战中他任英国海军部大臣and Winston Churchill, who you probably remember more from the Second World War than this one, but was at this point First Lord of the Admiralty. 他们认识到安特卫普的抵抗越长 对法国的战争努力来说是至关重要的Realizing that continued resistance in Antwerp as long as possible was essential for the war effort in France, 丘吉尔本人会前往安特卫普Churchill himself would go to Antwerp 然后在接下来的三天里亲临战场 或者和比利时政府会面and spend the next three days in the trenches or meeting with the Belgian government. 劝比利时人继续抵抗 总而言之这是一场硬仗But trying to get them to continue to resist in general was an uphill battle- 战争难打的主要原因是 比利时人不能挖战壕来庇护and one big reason is that the Belgians could not dig trenches for protection, 堡垒和城市之间的地面被雨水淹没 挖战壕是不可能的the ground between the forts and the city had been deliberately flooded and digging trenches was impossible. 再一次 我们看到10月的泥浆决定了战争的方向Once again, we see the mud of October determining the direction of the war. 这确实让安特卫普处在水深火热中It was dire straits in Antwerp indeed. 想象一下1914年的比利时Imagine being Belgian in 1914. 这个小国家 这个中立国已被蹂躏 变成战区 城市被轰炸 甚至被烧毁Your little country, your neutral country had been overrun and turned into a war zone and your cities bombed and in some cases burned, 你无处可逃and you had nowhere to run. 其它战乱国的状态可能没那么危急 但此处的确动荡不安While the war at home in the other warring countries might not have been in such a state of crisis, it was very much in a state of flux. 想一下——你的生活中突然有了各种新的规章制度Think about it- you suddenly have all sorts of new rules and regulations on your life, 而这些规则将伴随你四年以上rules which would continue for over four years. 例如 德国禁止在公众场所说英语 而俄罗斯则禁止使用德语Germany, for example, banned speaking English in public while Russia banned the German language. 即使在电话中说德语也要罚款3000卢布 并且说德语的人可能被流放到西伯利亚Even speaking German on the phone was a 3,000 ruble fine and you were liable to be sent to Siberia for speaking German in person. 是的 流放到西伯利亚Yep, Siberia. 欧洲各地的城镇都设立了救济厨房 为那些突然失去收入来源的家庭提供帮助Soup kitchens were established in towns throughout Europe to provide for families who’d suddenly lost their source of income. 法国在这方面做得很好:他们强行暂停房东收取租金France did a good thing here: they imposed a moratorium on rents, 并向军人家属支付津贴and paid an allowance to the families whose breadwinner had gone to the army 对许多家庭来说 这笔钱比战前收入还多that was in many cases more money than the family had made before the war. 法国政府认为津贴能鼓舞士气 花得很值The French government considered the price worth paying to sustain morale. 但如果你很穷 依靠某种形式的消费交易为生 你就倒霉了But if you were fairly poor and relied on some form of consumer trade for a living, you were out of luck, 当铺可能就是你的新好友and the pawnshop was probably your new best friend. 你也可以看到真正的社会分裂 例如 英国的劳工问题You can also really see the social divisions in, for example, Britain in labor issues. 在战争爆发时与雇主停战的工会会员Trade unionists who had made truces with employers when the war broke out 现在看到许多雇主赚取大量的利润 对自己没能分一杯羹而愤愤不平were now seeing many of those same employers making tons of new profits and wondered why they weren’t getting a share. 由此产生的摩擦会导致规模空前的罢工The friction that arose from this would lead to dramatic work stoppages, 1915年 由于劳资纠纷 英国失去了300万工作日的国民收入and by 1915, three million working days would be lost in Britain because of industrial disputes. 新产业如雨后春笋般涌现 许多人大发战争横财New industries sprang up like lightning to create nouveaux war rich: 铁锹 贝壳 帆布 皮革 炸药 罐头食品 笔和纸spades, shells, canvas, leather, explosives, canned food and… pencils and paper. 1914年大多数欧洲人都已有读写能力 因此战争中产生了大量的书信往来See, most Europeans were literate by 1914 and the war produced a colossal amount of correspondence. 如果你回顾40年前的普法战争If you look back at the Franco-Prussian war 40 years earlier, 整个战争期间 普鲁士军队接到了大约50万份邮件during the entire war the Prussian army received about 500,000 pieces of mail. 1914年 德国军队每天收到990万份邮件In 1914, the German army received 9.9 million pieces of mail EVERY DAY. 有这样一个奇怪的事实 是我从马克思·哈斯丁的《大灾难》里了解到的Here’s a weird fact that I got from the pages of Max Hastings’ book “Catastrophe” 关于基钦纳勋爵的:about Lord Kitchener: 战时你不指望会繁荣的产业是 饲羊业There’s an industry that you might not expect to boom during wartime, goat farming. 战时每个人都各司其职 在家里 在工作中 在战场上Everybody was playing some part in the war effort, at home, at work, or on the battlefield, 帝国的殖民地也不例外and in the colonies of the empires things were no different. 德国的殖民地 也就是现在的纳米比亚 可能是最有利可图的了 不是吗?The German colony in what is now Namibia was probably their most profitable colony, right? 那里有金刚石和铜矿 这个星期那里发生了桑德方丹战役(开始于1914年9月26日)With both diamond and copper mines. Well, this week saw the Battle of Sandfontein. 德国将军Heyderbreck才华横溢 他的1700人的军队主要由当地的火枪手组成The brilliant German general Heyderbreck, with a force of 1700 mostly native riflemen, 他设陷包围了近两倍于自己人数的南非军sprung a trap on the South African forces, surrounding and overwhelming nearly twice his number of men, 他早就切断了电话线 所以对方的援军不能收到呼救after cutting the phone lines so that backup could not be called in. 有趣的是 南非投降后Funnily enough, after the South Africans surrendered, 双方都冰释前嫌 Heyderbreck 格兰特上校 还有南非的领导人both sides all hung out together, and Heyderbreck and Colonel Grant, the leader of the South Africans, 互相祝贺 还在一起谈论战争Congratulated to each other and discussed the battle. 1915年 德国人在非洲西南部被迫投降By 1915 the Germans would be forced to surrender in southwest Africa, 但他们在1914年赢得了一连串的胜利 有效牵制了南非军队but they won a string of victories in 1914 that were really important in tying down South African troops 并阻止南非军队前往欧洲 在秋天的重大战役中帮助协约国盟军and preventing them from heading to Europe to help the allies in the major battles that fall. 因此在本周末 俄罗斯人在波兰的泥浆周围徘徊 并在奥地利的泥浆中围攻奥地利人So at the end of the week, the Russians were wandering around the Polish mud and laying siege to the Austrians in the Austrian mud. 在埃纳战役中 法国人和德国人仍在战壕中互相攻击对方The French and Germans were still shelling each other in the trenches at the ongoing battle of the Aisne, 德国正开往比利时的最后一个自由城市 安特卫普but the Germans were now pushing to take Antwerp, the last free city in Belgium, 而英国正赶去阻止德国and the British were rushing to defend it, 而在非洲西南部 德国人出其不意地牵制了南非军队while in Southwest Africa the Germans were being exceptional and tying down the South African troops. 1914年9月 速战速决的想法破灭了 因为持续战争打响了In September 1914, the war of rapid victories ended as the war of continuous battles in the trenches began. 10月的秋雨 把欧洲东西方的战场都变成了一片泥泞And as October began the autumn rains turned the battlefields of Europe to mud in both the east and the west, 让行军备受煎熬 让战壕里的生命备受折磨making marching excruciating and making life in the trenches torture. 接下来的四年 数百万军人会死在欧洲肮脏的泥泞里Over the next four years, millions of men would die in the filthy mud of Europe, 其中许多无名无姓 默默无闻 归于沉寂many of them nameless, faceless, and unsung. 下周见See you next week. 如果你想了解一战的前几周 请观看我们从7月28日开始的最早系列的视频If you want to know more about the early weeks of war, check out our first episodes from July 28 right here. 请把我们的节目推荐给你的朋友 甚至历史老师Please recommend our show to your friends or even to your history teacher 欢迎在评论中发表自己的见解and let us know what you think in the comments.
  • 2021-10-17万事皆有关联:艺术与阴谋万事皆有关键:艺术和阴谋 这是我所知道的第一个This is the first exhibition that I know 将艺术家们感兴趣的阴谋作为主题的展览of about artists interested in conspiracy as a subject, 它就如你想象的那样 内容丰富and it’s as much of a live wire as you would think it is. 这些天来 我们谈论很多有关阴谋的事情One talks a lot these days about conspiracy. 当我们制作这个节目时 才了解到We realized in the making of this show that 原来阴谋这个艺术主题已经存在很久了it’s something that’s been around for quitea long time. 这个展览展出了大约五十年以来 艺术家们的一些作品The exhibition covers about fifty years of artists’ practice. 这个展览回顾了六十年代至今的有关阴谋的艺术品The show is really an archaeology of these tropes from the sixties to the present. 作品涵盖了水彩画 模型 素描 印刷品 录像和装置等形式So, it’s paintings, sculpture, drawings, prints, video, installation. 这场展览从那些假想的The show begins with the sort 阴谋艺术品开始of platonic ideal of conspiracy art— 这些艺术家的主要关注点是事实调查和研究Artists whose main concern is fact-finding, research. 我们有一些马克·隆巴尔迪的后期作品We have the work of the late Mark Lombardi, 这些异常美丽的像是流程图的画作these extraordinarily beautiful, flow-chart-like drawings, 是无限的欺瞒和陷阱编织成的网infinitely complex webs of deceit and intrigue. 我们也有特弗雷拍摄的黑牢We have Trevor Paglen revealing black sites, 那是人们被美国政府关押the places where people are taken by the US 并施以酷刑的地方government for torture; 珍妮·霍尔泽 使用了真实的政府文件里的内容 进行创作和批判Jenny Holzer, who is using text from real government documents in outrage; 汉斯•哈克 利用了20世纪70年代的纽约不动产记录创作Hans Haacke,who used New York City real-estate records in the 1970s 披露当时恶劣房东的行径to uncover the practices of slumlords. 这些艺术家们作为平民记者These artists were working as citizen-journalists, 播报着另一种真实另类的新闻a kind of on-the-ground, alternative news. 埃默里·道格拉斯创办的《黑豹报》中的插图证明了这一点We have illustrations from the Black Panther newspaper by Emory Douglas. 潘瑟一家在那个时候The Panthers, at that moment, were under siege 是被美国政府封杀的状态from the U.S. government. 我们还可以看看那些关于艾滋病的艺术品Another moment we look at is the AIDS crisis. 沉默=死亡主题中 制作了一张关于Silence=Death Project created this poster about 到1987年为止 总统还没说出“艾滋病”这个词的时候how tens of thousands of Americans had died by the year 1987, 成千上万的美国人是如何死亡的事件的海报and the president hadn’t even said the word”AIDS” yet. 剩下的那部分展览设置在兔子洞The second half of the show is when we go down the rabbit hole, 在那我们见到了一群艺术家and we look at a group of artists. 有麦克·凯里 吉姆·肖恩 We have Mike Kelly, Jim Shaw, 托尼·奥斯勒 苏·威廉姆斯 Tony Oursler, Sue Williams—all friends from 他们都来自加利福尼亚艺术协会California Institute of the Arts—and they 他们表达了对于不为人知的事实display a more phantasmagoric response to 的一种更加变幻不定的回应the ways in which facts maybe don’t line up. 他们深入挖掘了美国文化里最黑暗的部分They are plumbing the depths of the darkest aspects of American culture. 你会发现这些令人惊叹的 梦幻风格的作品You get these amazing, dreamlike works that are uncovering 揭露了民主政治下复杂的生活真相the complicated truths about life in a democracy. 展会上所有的艺术家都是外来者All of the artists in the show are outsiders. 他们在边缘地带工作 They’re operating on the margins, and that mirrors the topic, 这也影射了展览的主题:which is all about exploring 探索文化中不为人知的部分the parts of our culture that are hidden or underground. 欣赏这些杰出艺术家的作品Looking at works by these fantastic artists, 我们能从中获取更多的知识 以及正视历史的力量we gain some more knowledge and some more power in confronting past history. 我想把以阴谋为主题的艺术找回来I would like to bring back the idea of art 以此来告诫人们 摆脱先入为主的思考方式as a way of jolting people to get rid 满怀希望地提出质疑of their preconceived notions and to hopefully question more.
  • 2021-10-17卡耐基的早期发迹史《历史往事》《How we got here》 1835年11月25日安德鲁·卡耐基出生于苏格兰Andrew Carnegie was born on November 25th 1835, in Scottland 他的父亲是一名手织机编制工 他的母亲织鞋补贴家用His father is a handloom weaver while his mother binds shoes for extra quid 卡耐基深受其母亲的影响Carnegie was really affected by his mother 她是一位坚强的女性she was a strong woman 卡耐基想好好照顾她he wanted to take care of her 他发誓绝不会在母亲在世时结婚he vowed not to get married until after she was dead 而事实上他也确实是这么做的and in fact he did carry that out. 当蒸汽织布机逐渐广泛应用于纺织业But the family business is hit hard 家族事业受到重创when the steam loom takes over the textile industry 动力织布机的出现使威尔·卡耐基失业Power looms come along and they drive Will Carnegie 也几乎让他的所有同胞失业and virtually all of his compatriots out of business 穷困潦倒的一家人坐船来到美国寻求发展The destitute family flees to America for a new start 1848年And in 1848, at the age of 13 13 岁的安德鲁·卡耐基来到匹兹堡Andrew Carnegie arrives in Pittsburgh 由于出产钢铁矿石Under an iron ore production, 这座城市是一个繁荣发展的制造中心 the city is a growing manufacturing hub 拥有超过900家工厂with over 900 factories 生产黄铜 锡 玻璃和纺织品producting brass, tin, glass, and textiles 他在纺织厂工作He goes to work in the textile mill 当时许多儿童也被雇佣从事这项工作A lot of children were employed doing this kind of work 因为工作非常简单because it was really simple 工作可以换取食物The job puts food on the table 但是是非常少量的食物but just barely 他曾说上帝就是我的见证人 我绝不会再挨饿He said as God is my witness, I’ll never starve again 他发誓等他成年后he’s vowed that when he got to be an adult 他将不再苦苦请求一份工作he would never have to beg for work 因为希望提升自己的社会地位Looking to improve his status 卡耐基来到亚特兰大和俄亥俄电报公司从事送信的工作Carnegie takes a messenger position with the Atlantic and Ohio telegraph company 这项新科技仅仅五年前才引进The new technology was introduced just five years earlier [按键声][click sound] 电报就是那个时代的互联网The telegraph was the Internet of its day 它使得与世界上各个地方的即时沟通成为可能it allowed instantaneous communications to varied places around the world 当卡耐基有能力进入这个行业时When it gave Carnegie the ability to literally have his finger on the pulse of business 超过90%的电报通讯都是与商业相关的Over 90% of all telegraph traffic was business-related 这使卡耐基得以展示自己的特殊才能It also allows Carnegie to exhibit the special skill 他锻炼出通过听摩斯密码就能将内容写下来的能力He develops the ability to just listen to the Morris code and write it down 并不需要转录and not have to transcribe it 他的这项才华吸引了托马斯·斯科特的注意力This talent catches the eye of Thomas Scott 他是宾尼法尼亚铁路西部地区的总监Western Division superintendent for the Pennsylvania Railroad 斯科特让18岁的卡耐基担任自己的私人电报操作员Scott hires the 18 year old Carnegie to be his personal telegraph operator 这份工作月薪35美元The job comes with a monthly salary of $35 宾尼法尼亚铁路公司是当时全球最大的公司The Pennsylvania Railroad was the biggest corporation in the world 1853年因一起铁路意外事件铁路被堵了Then in 1853 during a rail emergency when tracks are blocked 卡耐基以老板的名义下令将堵塞车辆全部烧毁Carnegie signs his boss’s name ordering that the obstructing cars be burned 这让他的老板托马斯·斯科特印象深刻and impresses his boss Thomas Scott -嗯 我也会这样做 看看这件事带来的困扰 做得好-Well I’ll be. Look at the gall on this one. Good job Scott 斯科特将卡耐基的工资涨为50美元一个月Scott gives Carnegie arise to 50 dollars a month 一年后 宾尼法尼亚铁路开通了一条匹兹堡和费城之间的线路One year later, The Penn railroad opens a line between Pittsburgh and Philadelphia 卡耐基前往费城学习 并从老板的建议中受益良多Carnegie is there to learn the industry and benefit from his boss’s advice 斯科特向卡耐基传授了经验 这让卡耐基年轻时就成为了一个富有的人Scott showed him the ropes made him a wealthy man at a young age 因为斯科特教授了他些投资经验because he showed him some investments 这些对卡耐基帮助很大that were very propitious and beneficial to him 安德鲁·卡耐基从一个贫穷的移民者成长为一个成功的商人仅仅用了13年Andrew Carnegie rises from poor immigrant to successful businessman in just 13 years 但当内战在1861年4月爆发时But when the civil war erupts in April 1861 卡耐基前途未卜Carnegie’s prospects are uncertain 他的故事将影响这个国家的未来How his story unfolds will shape the future of the country 建设现代大都会build the modern metropolis 并最终决定了美国在第二次世界大战的命运and decide America’s fate in the Second World War
  • 2021-10-17古埃及的衣着时尚You might know how to’Walk like an Egyptian’也许你知道如何像埃及人一样走路 but do you know how to dress like an Egyptian?但你知道如何像埃及人一样穿衣打扮吗? Hi my name is Amandine Merat 我是Amandine Merat I’m an Egyptologist and an expert in ancient Egyptian textiles一名埃及古物学者 也是古埃及纺织品专家 and welcome to my corner!欢迎来到我的专栏! Amandine Merat院长的专栏 So today if I tell you ‘Ancient Egypt’,如今 我和你说起古埃及人 you will tell me ‘Ohh, sculpture from pharaohs temples你会说:哦!就是那个法老雕像 埃及寺庙里的雕塑 or maybe’Walk like an Egyptian’ – The Bangles (1986).也可能会说《Walk like an Egyptian》 Well I’m going to introduce you我要向你介绍的 to another period of Egyptian history是埃及历史的另一时期 and also another kind of material.以及另一种考古素材 Today we are going to say dress like an Egyptian今天我们要讲的是像埃及人的穿衣打扮 and we’re going to talk about textiles in ancient Egypt也会聊聊公元7世纪~15世纪 from the 7th century to the 15th century AD.古埃及的纺织业 Egypt has a long tradition in textile production在纺织生产方面 埃及有着悠久的历史传统 which dates back to the first millennium BC.它可以追溯到公元前一千年 Where in other parts of the world textiles haven’t survived那时世界其他地方的纺织品没能完好地保存 thanks to Egypt’s dry climate textiles survive in abundance.多亏了埃及干燥的气候 大量的纺织品留存了下来 Today the British Museum collection现今大英博物馆收藏了 of ancient Egyptian textiles comprises around 500 textiles约500件古埃及纺织品 from the first millennium AD roughly.这些都是一千纪前后的纺织品 They mainly come from excavations lead at 它们大都出土于 the end of the 19th century and early 20th century.19世纪末 20世纪初 They come from graves because from the 2nd century onwards是在墓葬中发现的 因为2世纪后 Egyptians stopped mummifying their dead埃及人不再将尸体木乃伊化 to bury them in their daily clothes而是让死者身着日常衣物 wrapped into furnishing textiles.再用装饰织品包裹 So the textiles we’ll look at today are 所以今天我们看到的古埃及纺织品 both clothing items and furnishing textiles.既有衣物又有装饰织物 So this one here is a fragment那么这块碎片 of a shawl or a furnishing textile,究竟是来自一条围巾还是装饰织物 it’s difficult to tell.我们难以确定 It has been woven in linen这块碎片是亚麻织物 the main fibre used in Egypt since 4th millennium BC.公元前四千年 亚麻已然是埃及的主要织物 As you can see, it is decorated with a band here如你所见 这有一条装饰带 which has been woven with tapestry,上面织有各式各样的人和物 but this time not in wool as was mostly the case但和所谓科普特时期的大多情况不一样 during the so-called coptic period 它没有用羊毛编织 but in silk.它用的是丝绸 This is possible after the Arab conquest埃及被阿拉伯人征服后 这是可能的 because Arabs controlled the silk road因为阿拉伯人控制着丝绸之路 and so this makes silk more easily accessible in Egypt.也就让丝绸的获取更为便捷 It shows some birds and quadrupeds in vegetal interlacing.这里描绘的是枝叶交错下的鸟类和四脚兽 This iconography comes back from the classical imagery这样的插图源于一种古典意象 imported by the Greeks during the arrival of Alexander the Great它是公元前3世纪亚历山大大帝行至此处 during the third century BC. 由希腊人带入埃及的 However this piece dates to the 7th or 8th century但是这件作品却可以追溯到公元前7或8世纪 and shows the continuation of imagery and iconography它展示了埃及意象与图腾 throughout the centuries in Egypt.长达几个世纪的延续 So this piece shows a transition所以这张碎片展示的是一个过渡期 which will continue for example with this piece later on.而后续阶段 我们将以这张碎片为例 So this textile has 4 edges preserved.这件纺织品四个边都保存下来了 They have been sewn underneath这些边沿被缝在下面 and the shape indicates that this is a sleeve of a tunic.这个形状表明这是一件丘尼克的袖子 What is interesting here is有趣的是 that we can find the same iconography here我在另一张碎片找到了一样的图像 that we found here which means the vegetal interlacing and medallions 也就是说 植物交错和带有 which are housing some animal motifs here very much stylized.动物图案的徽章是非常经典的装饰 This inscription doesn’t read anything我们无法解读这些经文 it’s a pseudo-inscription这是伪铭文 a pseudo-kufic inscription which is an Arabic script.pseudo-kufic铭文 是阿拉伯文字 Such garments bearing such inscriptions are called tiraz.带有这种铭文的衣服 我们称其tiraz And’tiraz’ comes from the Persian word meaning embroidery.tiraz一词来自波斯语 刺绣的意思 and tiraz was used to describetiraz被用来形容 both the clothes produced at the time当时所制造的衣服 and also the workshops where they were produced.及其制造衣服的工厂 At first tiraz were easily identifiable织物上的铭文 because of their inscriptions.让我们一开始就能轻易辨认tiraz So the inscriptions was either naming the kalif铭文的内容要么是对哈里发的任命 or quoting the Qur’an.要么是对《古兰经》的引用 Later on, especially from the 9-10th century AD之后尤其公元9-10世纪 tiraz were also just identifiable by these pseudo-inscription lines根据伪铭文 我们依旧能够分辨出tiraz and they could also be not only embroidered but woven这些tiraz通过刺绣 还有编织的方式 in tapestry like this one.被缝制在这样一块挂毯上 Tiraz were produced to decorate furnishing textiles or garmentstiraz是用来装饰织物或服装的 They were mostly found tunics on the sleeves.大多出现在丘尼克的袖子上 And at the time the main item of clothing for men,当时男人 女人 小孩的 women and kids alike was the tunic主要穿的都是丘尼克 And the tunic could be of two types at this time当时 丘尼克有两种款式 it could be either the traditional tunic which was adopted一种是传统款式 after the Roman fashion from the second century AD借鉴自2世纪罗马的衣着风尚 which is a tunic which was woven in one piece in a T shape是一种先编织出T形的布料 folded and sewn along the edges然后沿边折叠缝制而成的外衣 or it could be a tunic which was imported另一种则是于7世纪引入的 from the 7th century AD after the Arab conquest那时阿拉伯已经开始 from eastern countries.侵略东部国家 And this tunic was made of several pieces of clothe sewn together.这种丘尼克是由好几块布缝制而成的 So to imagine how this was worn想象一下 这要怎么穿 if you look at my jacket for example比如说 你可以看一下我的夹克 this part would be that part这会在这里 and this would come up to here and这一部分会到这里 these two ends would be sewn along the edge here.然后两边末端沿着这边缝合 So we are now looking at textiles from the Mamluk period那么我们现在看到的是 马穆鲁克时期的纺织品 which is roughly 13th century to mid-16th century.这一时期大约是在13世纪到16世纪中期 So I have 3 textiles in front of me我面前有3件纺织品 and I’m sure you can already notice some differences我相信你们肯定看出了它们和 from the ones we just had a look at.之前纺织品的一些差别 The main difference其主要的差别 with the Mamluk is their taste for geometric decoration在于马穆鲁克时期 人们对几何装饰的喜爱 and that’s why at this time the main decoration这也是为什么马穆鲁克时期的 consists of geometric motifs.主要装饰图案都由几何图形构成 So for example you can see on this textile 举个例子 你看这块纺织品 tiny, tiny triangle motifs.它上面有小三角形图案 This textile is a pillow case 这是个枕头套 and it was found in a grave是在一个坟墓里发现的 as we can notice it 我们可以看到 through the stains coming from the humor of the body.这块污渍就是人类体液造成的 Geometric decoration can be found on furnishing textiles我们在装饰织品上 在衣服上 but also on clothing items.都能发现几何图案 So in front of me is another example我面前的这张又是 of a sleeve of a tunic丘尼克的袖子 This tunic is probably of the type 2 that we described earlier这个很可能就是我们之前所说的第二种 because under the Mamluk’s type 1 is slowly but surely abandoned因为在马穆鲁克时期 第一种丘尼克自然逐渐被淘汰 and men, women and kids当时的男女老少 only wore tunics made of several pieces of clothe cut and sewn together.都只穿这种由几块布缝制而成的丘尼克 But then you will tell me:’But hang on, here there is some patterns????’然后你可能会说:等会 那这里的这些图案呢? ‘AND IT’S NOT ONLY GEOMETRIC!’这可不仅仅是几何 This is true because under the Mamluk’s one没错 因为在马穆鲁克时期 of the most important signs of high rank in society象征着社会地位之高最重要的标志之一 became the blazon.就是纹章 So a blazon is basically a kind of logo所以从某种意义上来说 for an amir or a prince.纹章是埃米尔或王子的标志 For example this blazon has been woven in cotton这块白色纹章是用棉线缝制的 one of the most used fibres under the Mamluks棉线是马穆鲁克时期最常用的纺织材料 and it was made to decorate a tent of an amir这块纹章是用来装饰埃米尔的帐篷的 and it is decorated with a cup上面有杯子的装饰图案 and this cup helps us to know that这个杯子告诉我们 this amir was the’cup bearer’ at court这位埃米尔是宫廷中的斟酒人 which was a very, very high duty under the Mamluks.在马穆鲁克时期 那是个地位极高的职务 Thanks for watching my little introduction on fashion in Egypt感谢观看我对埃及时尚和纺织品制造 and textile production.的一些简单介绍 I hope you enjoyed it希望你喜欢它 and I hope you’re going to look for these textiles in museums now.也希望现在你就能去博物馆看看这些纺织品 If you want to see more Curator’s Corners you can find them here.如果你想看到更多有关馆长专栏的内容 看看这里吧
  • 2021-10-175种父母教育风格及其对生活的影响In theory, there are only four styles of parenting.理论上 父母的教育风格只有四种 Authoritarian parents are controlling专制型父母会控制孩子 and demand obedience without considering the child’s point of view.要求孩子服从自己 不考虑孩子的意见 Permissive parents are loving, but don’t exert any control.宽容型父母是慈爱的 但不会施加任何控制 There are no rules.不定规矩 Authoritative parents who are firm but loving.权威型父母既严厉又慈爱 They encourage independence, within limits.他们鼓励一定范围内的独立 Neglecting parents are uninvolved and often uninterested in their own child.忽视型的父母对孩子漠不关心 不感兴趣 Recently a 5th style was proposed, but we will come back to that later.最近 有人提出了第五种风格 但我们稍后再讨论 The styles range from controlling and demanding, to complete freedom; 教育风格从控制和要求 到完全放任自由 and from cold and unresponsive to loving and receptive.从冷漠和反应迟钝 到慈爱和接受 Each, authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful parents, 权威型 宽容型 专制型和忽视型 have their place.各占一席之地 To understand what it means to grow up with parents from each end of the spectrum, 为了能理解和四种极端的父母一起成长意味着什么 we can imagine the lives of four children.我们可以想象一下四个孩子的生活 Sara’s parents are Authoritarian.Sara的父母很专制 They love their girl, but they believe that strict rules are important 他们爱自己的女儿 但是他们相信 制定严格的规矩很重要 to make Sara become well behaved and fit into the society.能让Sara举止得体并且适应社会 If Sara cries, she’s told to stop.如果Sara哭了 就制止她 If she talks back, she is sent to the corner for timeout.如果她顶嘴 就会被罚去角落反省 If she forgets to take care of her chores around the house, 如果她忘记整理房间 she is not allowed to play with her toys.就不允许她玩玩具 Sara learns that suppressing her emotions and following her duties Sara学会了压抑自己的情绪 履行自己的职责 is the way to get through the day.才能在家中平安度日 To get the love of her parents, and to avoid making them upset, she becomes obedient.为了得到父母的爱 不让他们心烦 她变得听话 However, because Sara was never allowed to decide for herself然而 因为Sara从来不被允许为自己做决定 or follow her intrinsic interests, 不能跟随她内心的兴趣 as an adult, she doesn’t know what she really wants.所以作为一个成年人 她不知道自己真正想要什么 She begins living a life that seems perfect to her parents and society,她开始过着父母和周围人眼中完美的生活 but might leave her unhappy on the inside.但内心可能并不快乐 Permissive parents , like those of Peter, enjoy their little boy so much Peter父母这种宽容型的 太爱孩子了 that they believe they should fulfill all his wishes,他们觉得应该满足孩子所有的愿望 give him full freedom and never say “no”.给他充分的自由 从不说“不” Peter enjoys full control over his parents and gets whatever he wants.Peter很享受完全控制他的父母 想要什么都能得到 If he doesn’t want to walk, he’ll be carried.如果他走累了 就能被抱着 If he wants ice-cream, ice-cream he gets.如果他想吃冰激凌 就有冰激凌给他 If he wants to play games, he’ll be playing them all night.如果他想玩游戏 他可以玩一整晚 Peter grows up completely without borders and does whatever he thinks is right.Peter的成长无拘无束 做一切他认为对的事情 He never coped with conflict and he did not learn to control his emotions.他从不处理冲突 也不学着控制自己的情绪 The fact that he always got what he wanted made him a bad loser.他总能得到他想要的 这使他成了一个糟糕的失败者 As he grows older he often acts inconsiderate and doesn’t know his limits.随着年龄的增长 他常常不体谅别人 没有自知之明 Arthur’s Authoritative parents respect their child’s needs, Arthur的父母是权威型的 尊重孩子的需要 but believe that kids need freedom within certain limits.但相信孩子需要在一定范围内给予自由 Arthur can freely play, but when he’s done, he needs to help tidy up.Arthur可以自由玩耍 不过结束后他要帮着收拾干净 He is allowed to eat ice cream, but only on Sundays.他可以吃冰激凌 但只能星期天吃 Screen-time is limited to 30 minutes a day.屏幕前的时间控制在一天30分钟 There may be conflict, but the parents listen to what Arthur has to say有时会产生冲突 但父母会听取Arthur的意见 and then lay down the rules.然后制定规则 Arthur learns that some things are difficult, Arthur知道有些事情是困难的 but his parents give him all the support he needs to get through it.但他的父母会给予他所需的支持 帮他度过难关 He develops the strength to endure hardships 他增强了面对困难的能力 and to continue following his interests and passions.并继续保持兴趣和热爱 In class he bravely expresses his own opinions in an appropriate manner.在课堂上 他以适当的方式勇敢地表达自己的观点 During breaks he can show his emotions and act freely.休息时 他能自由地表达情绪和做出行动 As an adult he agrees to rules only after they have been discussed 作为成年人 他只会同意经过讨论的规则 and he feels like he understands them.并且觉得能理解规则 Neglectful parents are usually not present in their children’s life.忽视型父母通常不会出现在孩子的生活中 Nora often feels completely alone in the world.Nara在这个世界上常常感到很孤独 She experiences full freedom to do anything she wants to and has plenty of imagination,她有充分的自由去做任何她想做的事 并且有丰富的想象力 but she never receives any feedback or even attention.但是她从来没有得到任何反馈 甚至没有得到任何关注 Nora realizes that it doesn’t matter what she does, because no one cares anyway.Nora知道她做什么并不重要 因为没人在乎 The lack of attention, leads to a lack of trust in herself and others.缺乏关注 导致了她对自己和他人缺乏信任 She becomes insecurely attached,她变得缺乏安全感 依附于他人 unable to form healthy relationships 无法形成健康的人际关系 and develops a negative image of herself.并塑造自己的负面形象 To stop feeling unworthy of love, she tries not to feel anything at all.为了不再觉得自己不值得爱 她尽量不去感受任何东西 In recent years, over-Involved parents, 近年来 过度参与型父母 who are present in every aspect of their child’s life,他们会介入孩子生活的方方面面 are often referred to as the 5th style.常常被称为第五种教育风格 These parents are also known as ‘snow plows’,这些父母也被称为“扫雪机” removing obstacles out of their kids’ path,消除孩子前进道路上的障碍 or ‘helicopter’ parents, who hover about或者“直升机”父母 时刻盘旋在孩子周围 and micro-manage every aspect of their child’s life.微观管理孩子生活的方方面面 Since they won’t let their children do anything alone, 由于他们不会让孩子独立做任何事 the children can’t learn to overcome challenges by themselves.孩子无法学会自己克服挑战 Research infers that these children don’t like to solve difficult problems, lack perseverance研究推断这类孩子不喜欢解决难题 缺乏毅力 and may even procrastinate in protest when something requires a lot of effort.当某件事需要很多努力时 甚至可能会拖延抗议 Since most research on parenting is based on self-reports因为大多数关于养育子女的研究都是基于自我报告 and was done in the US and Europe, 而且是在美国和欧洲进行 it is not clear how strongly the observed effects will hold up 目前尚不清楚 在受控观测实验或世界其他地区 in controlled observational experiments or in other parts of the world.这个观察结果有多大的可信度 The four parenting styles were first introduced by Psychologist Diana Baumrind.这四种育儿方式最早是由心理学家Diana Baumrind提出的 For good parenting she advised: “balance of demandingness and responsiveness”.为了更好地育儿 她建议在要求和响应之间保持平衡 Add to that the wise words of Maria Montessori to 再加上Maria Montessori的名言: “Never help a child with a task at which he feels he can succeed.”永远不要帮助孩子完成他觉得自己能够成功的任务 and parents should do pretty well.这样就差不多是个好父母了 What do you think?你怎么认为? Should parents resort to a specific style 父母应该选择一种特定的风格吗? or should they decide what’s best to do in a given situation — 还是他们应该在特定的情况下 决定怎么做最好 as long as they don’t neglect or abuse their child.只要他们不忽视或虐待他们的孩子 To download this video without background music 若要下载本视频不带背景音乐的版本 and learn more about the topic, 并了解有关此主题的更多信息 visit sproutsschools.com请访问sproutsschools.com For a free masterclass on attachment parenting, 有关亲密育儿法的免费大师班 see the link in the descriptions below.请参阅下方简介中的链接
  • 2021-09-15怎样选择焦点ps使用指南――用ps有选择地聚焦Photoshop Playbook — Using Photoshop for selective focus 快照和专业肖像照的其中一个区别是One of the things that separates a professional portrait from a snapshot 选择性聚焦或场景虚化的适合的深度is selective focus or shallow depth of field, 但问题是如果用移动设备 比如说用iphone手机 虽然这样很方便but the problem is if you’re using a mobile device like the iPhone while it’s very convenient. 但几乎不可能做出这样的效果It’s almost impossible to get that look. 如果用的是高端自动对焦产品And if you’re using a high end point-and-shoot, 除非它有高端精准快速镜头unless it has very high end precise fast lens, 也很难达到这个效果it’s very difficult to get that look. 即使有数码单反相机和快速镜头And even with a DSLR with a fast lens, 你也需要把它们配合装置的刚刚好 才能把场景虚化成那种深度you need to have it set just right to get that shallow depth of field. 所以我想给大家展示一种快速而又简单的方法 能给用任何设备拍的任何图像So I want to show you a quick and easy way to take any image from any device 然后用ps将图像放入一个适合的模糊的背景里and give it a nice blurred background in Photoshop. 这是一个我特别喜欢的图像So here is an image I really like. 颜色很多 而我的目光很自然的注意到中间的颜色There’s a lot of colour and my eyes are naturally led to the centre, 但这确实是一个杂乱的背景but it’s a busy backdrop. 所以这是一个很好的图像示例 需要一定程度的场景虚化So it’s a great example of an image that wants a shallow depth of field. 现在 不用任何遮罩和选择Now, without using any masks or selections, 我要先进入滤镜菜单 下移到模糊I’m gonna come up here to my Filter menu, come down to Blur, 然后找到光圈模糊and go over to Iris Blur. 然后我们就把这个图标的中心放在And we’re just gonna put the centre of this pin 我们要聚焦的地方wherever we want the image to be in focus. 我要把它放在这整一片地方And I’m gonna pull this all the way up, 这样我就能看到模糊效果是从哪到哪just so I can see where the effect begins and ends. 这些里面的图标是模糊开始的地方These inner pins are where the effect starts. 而这外环的椭圆形之内是模糊产生100%效果的所有区域And the outer oval is where the effect is at full strength. 其中两者都在的区域(椭圆形线)会产生羽化的效果And the area in between is kind of like feathering. 我可以同时移动它们 也可以根据选择键来移动I can move them all together, but I can also use my Option 也可以用Alt键独立地移动or Alt key to move them independently. 我只要涵盖这些我需要模糊的地方就行了And so I’m just gonna get these where I want them. 下一步是调节模糊的强度 把它调低And the next step is to take the strength of the Blur and pull that back down. 所以我其实只是把这个当做指导 防止我把它放的过高So I was really just using that as a guide when I had it turned up really high. 现在我觉得这看起来很棒 很自然 没有选择或遮罩Now it looks great to me, really natural, no selections or masks. 我甚至可以做一些相机不能做到的I can even do something that photographically impossible 比如点击图像另一个区域 把这个区域变成聚焦处like click on another area of the image and bring that into focus. 所以我想把他的手聚焦很简单So I wanna have his hand in focus, that’s really easy to do. 现在如果我按‘m’键Now if I were to hit the ‘m’ key, 会看到我用图标扫过的这个地方出现遮罩I would see that I’m creating masks as I go here. 现在这种遮罩可以被用于所有不同的ps里的东西Now this mask could be used for all sorts of different the things within Photoshop. 如果我想用遮罩If I want to use the mask, 我只要找到这儿的小复选框并把模糊保存到通道里I’m just gonna come up here to this little checkbox and Save Masks to Channels, 这样我就可以在ps里用它了that will allow me to use it through Photoshop. 所以 你会有一个快速印象:虚化场景的深度能有多强大So there you have a quick idea of just how powerful a shallow depth of field can be and 而且有多简单 我们不用任何选择 遮罩或图层面板 只要用光圈模糊就可以了how easy it is. We didn’t use any selections, masks or layers, we just used Iris Blur. ps使用指南订阅 去PS剧本播放列表Photoshop Playbook Subscribe Go to PS Playbook Playlist
  • 2021-09-15玩转Photoshop:怎样将照片转换成绘画效果玩转Photoshop:将照片变成绘画效果Photoshop PlaybookHow to Turn a Photograph into a Painting in Photoshop 我最初学习摄影技术的很大一个原因是 我不会画画A big part of why I got into photography to begin with is because I couldn’t draw or paint Photoshop和数码摄影刚好满足我的需要and so Photoshop and digital photography ended up really being a great spot for me. 它发布以后 很多人想知道如何将照片变成绘画效果Now as it turns out, a lot of people want to know how to turn a photograph into a painting Photoshop恰好提供了很多种实现的方法and luckily, Photoshop gives you a lot of different ways to do that. 我将演示几种我最喜欢的方法I want to show you a couple of my favorites. 这里我们有一张人物照片So, here we have a portrait 我们就从它开始吧and this is the first image that we are gonna start with. 通过利用这些工具 我将展示怎样高效地将一张照片变成绘画效果Now, with both of these techniques, I’m gonna show you quick ways to go from a photo to a painting 也有很多慢一些 更细致 基于笔刷的一些方法there’re a lot much slower, much more detailed brush-based ways 这些方法也都挺快的both of these are turned out to be really fast. 首先 我们需要对这幅照片做一些修整So, the first thing we want to do with this portrait is fix it up a little 展现更多的眼部细节and opened up the details in the eyes 一般我比较担心的是破坏了源文件和产生光晕Normally I’d be really worried about ruining the file and creating halos 但是我们现在就是要把它变成一幅画 所以我想做点好玩的改动but… you know we’re gonna make this a painting, I wanna have some fun with it “破坏”一下这幅照片and ,kind of trash the file as we go 所以我会用几个平常一般不用的方法So I’m gonna use a couple of techniques I don’t normally use 一个是“阴影/高光”调节 这个功能很强大one is Shadow/Highlights, which is really powerful 但是这样会产生光晕和人工修过的痕迹but it does create halos, and it does create artifacts 再强调一下 我们就是想让照片看起来失真 所以这么做没关系Again, that’s OK because we want this to be surreal. 现在你就可以看到眼睛这部分了So now you can see these eyes 第二个我要用的是“HDR色调”这个功能The other thing I’m gonna play around with is HDR Toning 通过这个功能 我们可以不用叠加很多照片 就能得到细节都很清楚的照片了and this is a way of getting sorts of a crunchy HDR static without using multiple images 我这里调整了以后就可以看到照片的细节了and the affect I’m after here is with detail 这跟用“高清”功能的效果比较像this is really similar to using clearly 事实上 它比”高清”功能的清晰度要更好in fact we even go further with appear that we could with clearly 现在这张照片的细节非常清楚 也很失真the images was really crunchy and really surreal 看起来几乎就是一幅画了it almost looks like a painting 其实我还没做多少改动before I even done anything to it 这时候我要复制一个图层at this point I’m gonna duplicate a layer 因为我要用一个滤镜效果 我要把它们混合在一起because as I apply a filter affect, I wanna blend them 现在已经复制好图层了and now there are a layer duplicated 来到菜单这里I’m gonna come up here 打开滤镜库to my filter gallery 再说一下 我平常是很少用这个功能的again, this isn’t the place that I normally go 但对于这张照片来说 这个功能很强大but for this static, it’s really powerful 这里有很多可以用的滤镜效果I’ve got a lot of different features I can use here we are gonna go with water colour 我们要用的是水彩效果we are gonna go with water colour I’m keep that shadow intensely really low 我把阴影强度调到最低值I’m gonna keep that shadow intensely really low 因为我要保留眼部的细节because I wanna protect these eyes 我可以左右调整一下纹理值 看看怎么样更合适I can play around with the texture and see how that’s gonna fix the image 现在这样看起来不错that looks nice 我要把”画笔细节”值调高 这样我可以看到照片的细节and I wanna keep the detail up, so I can see some of the photography detail 点击确定 整个照片看起来就很不一样了when I click OK, it definitely looks different now, 当我改变混合模式的时候 它看起来会更不一样it will look even more different, as I change my blend mod 我可以用”变亮”模式I could do a Lighten 或者针对这幅照片 我会用”叠加”模式or in this case, I wanna go with Overlie 我隐藏一下这个图层I just tucked that 你们就可以看到you can see 我们做的调整现在确实改变了照片的样子it really changes the look in filed 现在 我调低一点图层的不透明度now this point, I might cut down opacity a little bit 同时我要在这个图层上加一个蒙版and I think I like to add a layer mask 为了看清楚照片眼部细节 我要减淡上面这个蒙版的这一部分and cut through so I can see the eyes a little bit better 我用画笔工具 选好灰色前景色so I’ll just grab my paint brush and I’m gonna set to gray which I’m already done here 这样就可以减淡上面这个蒙版so I can just cut through a little bit 我会用”控制选项”或者[Ctrl]+[Alt]键I’m gonna use my Control Option or control alt 来调整笔刷的大小keys to get the brush the size that I want 只需要点击眼睛这里 就可以减淡蒙版了and just click on there too cut through that mask 如果我们在这里恢复原图so, if we rework here 我们就能看到 这是刚开始的照片 这是我们改好的效果that’s what we started and that’s what we ended up 非常非常不同pretty dramatically different. 我确实改变了这幅照片的感觉I will really change the looking feel of this portrait 好 现在看看第二张照片OK for this next image 我想向你们展示用”camera raw”这个功能的效果I wanna show you a technique using camera raw 用这个功能的好处是 我们可以保存预设效果 或者合并文件and the benefit of Camera Raw is we can save preset or we can sink files 这样我们就可以把这个效果应用到不同的照片上that we can apply the affects to a lot of different images 这个改变不是很明显 但是挺有趣的it’s not a significant of a change, but it is really fun 在CC版里 我可以直接在滤镜库里找到”camera raw”这个功能so in CC I can just pop in Camera Raws in filter 之前的版本 如果你想打开非raw格式的文件priority CC if you want to open none raw files 或者设置预设效果 可以安装压缩包you’d want set the preference to open jam packs or tips in raw 我们这里想做的就是让照片看起来夸张一点and what we wanna do here is make the file looks kind of rediculous 把饱和度调到最高 加大一些对比度bump the saturation way up, add some contrast 再调高一些阴影maybe open up the shadows a little bit 这样看起来已经很不错了 那种失真的感觉已经像一幅画了that looks good already, almost looks like a painting because it is so surreal 下一步是来到菜单这里and the next touch is to come over here 把降噪调到最大 再把锐化调到最小and max our noise reduction and minimize the detail 整个画面看起来都柔化了and everything gets really really soft 最后一步 先把这部分放大一点now the last thing to look at was just zoom in a little here 用这个”清晰度”的功能the affect clearly has 就可以让照片看起来非常不同and it gives a too entirely different looks 如果我向左调整 画面会更柔化 确实更像一幅画了if I go to the left, it’s gonna further soft an image ,it really does look like a painting when I do that 如果向右调整 对比度就会发生变化if I go to the right, it’s gonna through in some mid town contrast 还是看起来像画 但是有了更多细节still look like a painting, but with more details in it 为了本片的教学效果 可以把清晰度功能so for the sake of this tutorial, think of the clearly slither 看做前面提到的HDR功能as detail much like HDR toning before 我这就做好了 如果需要的话我也可以把它保存为预设效果now when I’m done here, if I want it I can save this as a preset 并把它应用到其他照片上 或者我可以把这个照片和其他照片合并and apply that other files or I can sink this files with other files 如果我用的是另一版的软件if I use a laster version of this 这还是一个磨皮和降噪的好办法it’s a great way to remove artifacts with skin or noise 你可以在两种效果中间随意调节you can go anywhere in between with either one of this effects 它可以让你的照片发生巨大的变化and pretty dramatically change your images 让它看上去更像绘画或者让一些东西看上去不是那么真实make your photos looks more like paintings or stock any more and live
  • 2021-09-15教你如何用PS实现背景虚化让我们开始吧Lets get started! 鼠标移过来选择这个“快速选择工具”Head over and select the Quick Selection Tool. 小心地将这个人全选Carefully select the entire person. 按住Alt键从选区中修去Hold ALT to subtract from selection. 这个部分很费时间 我得加速这一过程Since this part is time consuming, I will speed it up! 完成之后 鼠标向上点击“选择并遮住选区”Once you’re done. Head up to Select and Mask. 选择这个“调整边缘画笔工具”Select the Refine Edge Brush Tool. 这时候 只微调头发这里Only focus on the hair, at the moment. 输出到:新建带有图层蒙版的图层Output to: New layer with layer mask. 然后点击“确定”Then hit OK. 我们还需要一些润色We’ll still need to do a few touch-ups. 按住Alt键然后点击这个蒙版Hold ALT + click on the mask. 确定你的前景色为白色Make sure your foreground color is white. 然后选择这个“画笔工具”Then select the Brush Tool. (B) 现在 将笔刷模式改为“柔光”Change the Brush Mode: Soft Light. Now, 现在 重新润色头发这部分让它看起来更加自然go over the parts of the hair to reveal it better. 将你的前景色改为黑色Change your foreground color to black. 盖住剩下的地方Mask out any areas that are still left behind. 按住Alt键然后点击蒙版Hold ALT + Click on mask. 再显示背景层Turn back on the bottom layer. 按住Ctrl然后点击蒙版Hold CTRL + Click on the mask. 这将对人进行选择This will make a selection of the person. 选择背景层Select the bottom layer. 然后鼠标向上点击“选择”>“修改”>“扩展”Then head up to Select > Modify > Expand. 修改扩展量为5像素Expand by: 5 Pixels. 然后点击“确定”Then hit OK. 然后再向上点击“编辑”>“填充”Then head up to Edit > Fill. 更改内容为“内容识别”Change the Contents: Content Aware. 点击“确定”Then hit OK. 隐藏前置层的可见性Hide the visibility of the top layer. 正如你所见 效果不错As you can see it did a pretty good job. 按Ctrl+D选择CTRL + D to select. 再次打开背景层Turn back on the bottom layer. 确认背景层已经被选中Make sure the bottom layer is selected. 点击“滤镜”>“模糊画廊”>“移轴模糊”Head up to Filter > Blur Gallery > Tilt-Shift. 调大模糊量 我们可以看得更清楚Crank up the blur so we can see it better. 现在向下拖动整个导向框Now drag the guides down. 我将向上拖动这个滑块 以使模糊更好融合I will drag this slider up, to blend the blur better. 这样看起来更棒Right there looks pretty good. Next, 下一步 修改模糊量为50像素blur around 50 px. 为了保持逼真度 让它低于20To keep it realistic. Keep it lower than 20. 做好以后 点击“确定”Once you’re done. Hit OK. 鼠标移过来选择这个蒙版Head over and select the Mask. 这里我需要做一点润色There’s a few touch-ups I need to do. 选择这个“画笔工具”Head over and select the Brush Tool. (B) 确定是正常模式Make sure Mode: Normal. 前景色为黑色Foreground color black. 仔细地遮盖你不要的区域Carefully mask out areas you don’t want. 慢慢来Take your time. 开始看起来好一些了It’s starting to look pretty good. 确定这个蒙版被选中Make sure the mask is selected. 现在我们可以恢复一些阴影We can now bring back some of the shadows. 确认这个“画笔工具”被选中Make sure the Brush Tool is selected. (B) 设置前景色为白色White should be set as your foreground color. 只增加无需模糊掉的阴影Only add where the image is not blurred. 看起来好多了That looks much better. 点击“创建新的填充或调整图层”>“色彩平衡”Create a new adjustment layer > Color Balance. RGB值为(-19, 0 , 14)– 19 | 0 | + 14 然后点击“关闭”Then hit close. 选中色彩调整层Have the top adjustment layer selected. 按住Ctrl+Shift+Alt+E(合并可见图层)CTRL + SHIFT + ALT + E (Merge all visible layers.) 我将对这个合并层重命名I’m going to rename this to merged. 选中“滤镜”>“镜头校正”Head up to Filter > Lens Correction. 点击“自定”Click on the Custom tab. 然后设置这个晕染量为:-40Then change the Vignette Amount: – 40 然后点击“确认”Then hit OK. 我要加入杂色I’m going to add noise. 这会让图像看起来更加逼真自然This will make the image look more realistic. 按住Alt点击“创建新图层”Hold ALT + create a new layer. 我把它命名为“杂色”I’m going to name this > Noise. 将“模式”改为“柔光”Change the Mode > Soft Light. 选择“填充柔光中性色(50%灰)”Check fill with 50% Gray. 然后“确认”Then hit OK. 点击“滤镜”>“杂色”>“添加杂色”Head up to Filter > Noise > Add Noise. Amount: 修改参数 杂色数量:5% 高斯分布 单色5% | Gaussian | Monochromatic 点击“确认”Then hit OK. 然后(右键杂色图层) 选中“转换为智能对象”Right click > Convert to Smart Object. 点击“滤镜”>“模糊”>“高斯模糊”Head up to Filter > Blur > Gaussian Blur. 设置这个模糊半径为1.5像素I’m going to set the Blur Radius to 1.5 Pixels 点击“确认”Then hit OK. 缩小图片 看起来很自然Once you take a closer look. The image itself looks natural.
  • 2021-09-15给照片换一片天空[播放音乐][Music playing] Photoshop 教程如何给照片换天空——图片合成基础[Photoshop PlaybookHow to Add New Sky – Compositing Basics] 合成 就是将两张或多张图片合并在一起Compositing, which is really the combination of the two or more images, 这是Photoshop的核心is really the core of photoshop. 通过使用“选区”“蒙版”“图层”和“混合”Using “Selections”, “Masks”, “Layers”, and “Blending” 我们可以完成一些让人难以置信的事情We can do some pretty incredible things. 我想给你们简单介绍一下如何做这些So I wanna just give you a quick primer on how to do this. 在这个例子中 我们将替换一张图片的背景And in this case, we’ll swap the background of one image. 你自己做则想改多少张就改多少张But you could use as many images as you want. 在这里 我们有一张前景图片So here we have a foreground image, 我们准备把它的天空替换掉 而关于用于替换的天空and we’re gonna go ahead and swap the sky. And for the sky, 我选择另一张图片I’ve chosen this other image. 我想使用这张图片的顶端部分We wanna use the top half of this one. 你可以用不同的图片进行比较And you’ll sort of want to compare your images 确保前景和背景能匹配and make sure that they are going to work together. 首先 我注意到 我喜欢图中的鸟One of the first things, I notice, is I like the birds, 我也喜欢这个天空 但是这只鸟有点大and I like the sky, but this bird’s kind of big, 当我把它与前景合并时 看起来会很奇怪that’s gonna look strange when I drop that in there 那么 我要做的就是so, what I’ll do, 选取这个部分is I’ll select that, 大家都知道的 photoshopand, knowing photoshop, 我觉得“内容感知填充”I think that Content-Aware Fill 在这张图片中可能会出现一些问题might bump into some problems on this image 与选区相邻的区域有很多内容There’s a lot of neighbouring content 都有可能被替换到选区that it might pull in there. 我可以试一下 按删除键I can try it, I hit Delete, 起作用了 我决定就用它了 其实感觉还不错and it works, I will use it, and that’s actually all right. 但如果这样不起作用 我教你一个变通的方法If that doesn’t work for you, let me show you a workaround. 选区仍然是一样的With that same selection, 点击这里 “补丁工具”come over here to your “Patch tool”, 确定这里设置的是“内容感知”make sure that that’s set to Content Aware 然后只要拖动它and then just drag it over, 你可以选择从哪个区域得到样本内容and you can choose which area you want to sample content from. 一旦你松开鼠标 选定的内容就会被填充到选区once it’s dropped that content in there, 记得你也可以把这里改成“非常宽松” 看起来还不错remember that you can change it from the “Very loose” which looks pretty good, 改成“非常严格” 这样就会精确地复制to “Very strict”, which will copy it exactly. 我还是喜欢我们第一次做的效果I liked it where we first came in, 也就是“宽松”的那种which was loose 这样的效果挺好that works just fine. 好了 现在需要用到两个快捷键All right, now, a couple short cuts. 首先 我要演示的命令是“Ctrl+A”First one I’ll show you is “Command+A” 用来选择整张图片to copy the entire image. 下一个快捷键是“Ctrl+C” 这个你大概知道Next one is “Command + C”, which you probably know. 是用来复制你所选择的部分that’s going to copy what we’ve selected. 我们回到前景的文件We move over our foreground, 然后点击“Ctrl+V” 把背景放进去and hit “Command + V” to drop that in. 你将会注意到 它是作为一个图层被放进来And you’ll notice, it’s dropped it in as a layer. 当我输入快捷键“Ctrl+T”When I hit “Command + T”, 就可以来变换图层了to transform that. 在这一步有一个很重要的要点And this part is really important. 那就是确保你在拖动锚点时要按住“Shift”键Make sure you hold down the “Shift” key, while you’re dragging that, 以确保图片的比例不会改变so that the proportions don’t change. 我们把宽度调整到与前景图片一致When I get that about the width of our image 我们把它往上拉and let’s pull this up, 那么接下来我们将做什么 我们要降低图片的不透明度And then what we are going to do is, we gonna fade the Opacity 这样我们可以看到地平线是如何相匹配的so we can see how our horizon lines are matching up. 看起来相当不错Looks pretty good, 我们再把这个稍微拉大一些then pull this one so it’s a little bit 再低一点lower. 好的 很好OK, that’s great. 如果有需要的话 我会把不透明度再调低I can keep that Opacity turned down if it’s helpful. 我想看清需要擦除的区域I want to see the area that I’m gonna cut through. 确认转换 我们将在这里添加一个蒙版Commit that transform and we’re gonna add a mask over here. 我需要按下这个按钮So I’m gonna come down to this button, 加一个蒙版and add a mask 使用蒙版的关键是使用正确的笔刷and the key to using a Mask is having a correct Paint Brush. 黑颜色的笔刷可以擦除图片A black Paint Brush will cut through that, 让我们来到这里 确保我们的颜色选择器设置为黑色so let’s come over here, make sure our Colour Picker is set to black. 点击笔刷 确保模式为“正常”Take a Paint Brush, make sure that’s set to Normal. 我可以使用“Ctrl”+“Option”I can use the “Control”+”Option” 或者“Ctrl”+“Alt”键or “Control” + “Alt” keys, 来调整笔刷到合适尺寸to get the right size, 我仅仅想要擦除And I’m just gonna cut through 内容重叠的部分the overlapping content. 随着逐渐靠近地平线 我需要更加小心And as I get closer of the horizon, I wanna be careful 注意后面的图片是什么of what’s back there… 如果我想 我还可以拉近镜头I can zoom in a little bit more if I want. 就这样用笔刷涂抹Just painting through there. 通过不断调整不透明度by playing around with your Opacity 以及一点点的练习and a little bit of practice 应该就可以得到一个相当好的结果should be a little get a pretty decent result. 当你满意了 你就可以点击备份And when you like it, you see, back up 打开不透明度and crank the Opacity up. 整体来说 我喜欢目前的效果 我可以关闭这个图层看看 我已经改变了相当多And overall I like the look of it, I can toggle that, and see that I’ve changed it, quite a bit. 在这个部分 我可能选择更精细一点At that point, I might, choose to refine it just a little bit more 沿着边缘along the edges. 但是有一件事 依然困扰着我But there is one thing, it’s still bothering me, 那就是颜色不一样 我们的前景是这样的暖色调and that’s that the colour is just different, we’ve got this warm cast of the foreground, 但是我们的新背景的颜色and we got the slightly different colour, 有一点不一样on the new background. 所以我们要选中背景的图层So with that layer selected, 然后点击这里进入“过滤器”I’m gonna come up here to my Photo Filter, 我可以选择一个暖色过滤器 这儿有好几种暖色过滤器and I’m gonna choose a Warming Filter, got a couple of them. 我要增加它的密度And I’m just gonna increase the Density. 直到得到我想要的效果untill I get the look that I want. 我们再次关掉背景图层So again, if I toggle that layer, 可以看到修改前后有很大差异I can see a pretty significant difference there. 不仅仅是你的蒙版精细度匹配得很好It isn’t just the fidelity of your “Mask”, 背景贴图的颜色也匹配得很好It’s the texture on the colour, matching as well. 这就是我们介绍给您的一些小技巧So there you get a few tips that 关于“图层”introduce you to “Layers”, “蒙版” “混合”以及“选区”“Masking”, “Blending” and “Selections”.
  • 2021-09-15拿破仑战争:1805年特拉法加海战拿破仑·波拿巴的威名震慑整个欧洲十余年Napoleon Bonaparte kept the whole of Europe in fear for more than a decade. 尽管拿破仑战争主要是土地冲突And although the Napoleonic Wars were predominantly a land conflict, 但是他的许多政策和军事决定都many of his political and military decisions were informed 受到了当时支配大海的英国舰队by the dominance of the British fleet at sea 以及在战争中提前上演的海战的影响and the naval actions that were fought earlier in the war. 在诸多战役中最大的海战则是Among them was the last great sea battle fought under sail, 特拉法加海战the Battle of Trafalgar. 法国于1800年在马伦哥和霍恩林登取得胜利French victories at Marengo and Hohenlinden 迫使奥地利与法国单独媾和in 1800 forced Austria to sue for a separate peace, 徒留下第二次反法同盟的领导国英国leaving the United Kingdom as the leading member of the Second Coalition. 拿破仑军队占领着土地Napoleon’s forces dominated on land, 所以英国so the only way 可以继续战争的唯一办法就是引发海战for the United Kingdom to continue the war was via naval actions. 英国海军封锁了法国进口国外商品的海上渠道The British Navy was blockading France from receiving foreign goods 但这举动反而迫使普鲁士 俄国and in turn forced Prussia, Russia, 丹麦和瑞典联合对抗英国以此来捍卫贸易路线Denmark and Sweden to ally against Britain to defend the trading routes. 当俄罗斯海军还处于冬港无法出军时While the Russian Navy was in its winter harbors, 英军于1801年袭击了哥本哈根并强迫丹麦退出联盟the British attacked Copenhagen in 1801 and forced Denmark to leave the alliance. 沙皇保罗一世死后一个月When the Russian Tsar Paul I died a month later, 他的继承人亚历山大一世对于his heir Alexander I was more lenient 英国显得更加友好 随后反英联盟解散towards the United Kingdom and the anti-British union ceased to exist. 法国自身的统治也存在不少问题France had its share of problems. 其中一个殖民地海地在1791年发生暴乱One of its colonies Haiti had revolted in 1791. 1801年年末 拿破仑为了恢复法国在海地的统治Napoleon decided to send an expeditionary 以及其在当地高利润的产糖业force to restore French rule over the island 决定派遣远征军远征海地and its lucrative sugar industry in late 1801. 英国舰队横跨大西洋追捕远征军The British fleet chased the expedition across the Atlantic Ocean. 海地小岛已经被封锁 而法国也无法收到供给和支援The island was blockaded and the French received no supplies or reinforcements. 显然已经没有其他办法可以再给英国最后一击It was clear that neither side could strike the final blow 随后两国于1802年3月在亚眠签订了和平协议and a peace treaty was signed in March of 1802 at Amiens. 英国承诺归还The British promised to return the 法国殖民地并撤军马耳他和埃及French colonies and leave Malta and Egypt 但拿破仑必须解除对那不勒斯王国和教皇国的控制while Napoleon had to rescind control of Naples and the Papal States. 一直动乱的欧洲 十年内第一次获得了平和For the first time in a decade, Europe was at peace. 拿破仑派遣了新一轮远征军收服海地但却铩羽而归Napoleon sent a new expedition to Haiti but it failed. 长期统治殖民地显然并不容易Holding onto the colonies proved to 于是在1803年四月be extremely difficult so in April of 1803, 路易斯安那州的大部分领土被卖与美国the vast territory of Louisiana was sold to the United States. 海地远征军和拿破仑The Haitian expedition and the fact 宣称要控制瑞士的事实that Napoleon was asserting control over Switzerland 让英国很是烦忧was worrisome for the United Kingdom. 另一方面On the other hand, 由于法国要求英军撤军马耳他和埃及的要求被无视the French demands for Britain to leave Malta and Egypt were left unheeded. 拿破仑开始在布伦组建了一支新军Napoleon started preparing a new force 准备侵袭不列颠群岛at Boulogne to invade the British Isles, 但是在1803年五月but it was the United Kingdom who declared the war 反而是英国先发起了战争that would be later known as the War of the Third Coalition 也就是后来的第三次反法战争in May of 1803. 拿破仑没想到敌国战意复苏地如此之快Napoleon was not expecting the renewal of hostilities 而此时他的舰队还分散在不同的港口and his fleet was scattered across various harbors 21艘主力战舰分散在布雷斯特with 21 ships of the line in Brest, 12艘散布于土伦 9艘以上散落在大西洋12 in Toulon and 9 more in the Atlantic. 英国高级海军将两个港口都封锁了起来The superior British Navy blockaded both ports. 拿破仑计划在1804年夏天Napoleon developed a plan in the summer of 1804. 其中一支舰队需要在那时突破封锁One of his fleets needed to break the blockade, 驶向大海move into the open sea then 接着袭击英国海军所在地attack the part of the English Navy 封锁其他港口 然后联合部分法国舰队驻在当地blockading another harbor and unite with the portion of the French fleet stationed there. 这个行动可以让法国That would have allowed the French to get the army 在布伦获得军队然后跨越英吉利海峡at Boulogne across the English Channel. 法国的处境在10月变得更加明朗The situation changed for the better for the French in October, 当时英国人击沉了几艘西班牙船舶when the British sank some Spanish vessels. 这个举动激怒了西班牙This provoked Spain to declare war 西班牙向英国宣战 并于12月与法国结盟on the United Kingdom and ally itself to France in December. 拿破仑现在拥有充足的兵力可以实施他的计划Napoleon now had the numbers to implement his plan. 1805年3月末 驻土伦法国指挥官In late March of 1805, the French commander at Toulon 海军中将皮埃尔·维尔纳夫命令他的舰队出航Vice Admiral Pierre Villeneuve ordered his fleet to sail out. 他成功躲避英军指挥官海军中将He managed to evade the loose blockade set by British commander, 霍雷肖·纳尔逊的松懈封锁Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson. 看起来这位英国指挥官已经料到It seems that the British commander was sure 拿破仑将会尝试在意大利登陆一批军队that Napoleon would try to land a force in Italy 于是纳尔逊的大部分船舰都驶到了撒丁岛so the majority of Nelson’s vessels were around Sardinia. However, 然而维尔纳夫却成功实施了拿破仑的计划Villeneuve was implementing Napoleon’s plan. 他在四月初通过直布罗陀海峡He passed the Straits of Gibraltar in early April, 混进到一些西班牙船舶中 并继续向加勒比海前进was joined by some Spanish ships and continued towards the Caribbean. 纳尔逊直到四月末Nelson got this intelligence only 才得知这一情报 然后开始横跨大西洋追捕in late April and started his pursuit across the Atlantic. 法军在五月抵达加勒比海海盆The French arrived at the Caribbean Sea basin 并抓捕了几个英国前哨部队in May and captured a few British outposts. 纳尔逊虽于6月抵达当地但还是慢了维尔纳夫一步Nelson reached the area in June but was still one step behind Villeneuve. 尽管如此 法军还是无法Despite that, the French weren’t able 给当地英国的殖民地造成太多损失to inflict much damage to the local British 随后也动身返航colonies and started moving back to Europe, 并在7月下半抵达欧洲arriving in the second half of July. 海军中将考尔德的一支小型英国舰队被命令拦截维尔纳夫A smaller British fleet under Vice Admiral Calder was ordered to stop Villeneuve 但随后在菲尼斯特雷海角附近引发的战役其实无足轻重but the subsequent battle near Cape Finisterre was indecisive. 尽管如此 这次冲突还是阻碍了法国Still this encounter prevented the French 抵达布雷斯特消灭封锁线的计划 并且被迫返回到加的斯from reaching Brest to lift the blockade and they returned to Cadiz. 与此同时At the same time, 奥地利和俄罗斯加入第三次反法同盟Austria and Russia joined the Third Coalition 而此时拿破仑必须将他驻军在and Napoleon had to march his army 布伦的军队向东行军stationed in Boulogne to the east, 这表示着入侵大不列颠群岛的计划就此搁浅which meant that the invasion of the British Isles was postponed. 纳尔逊被任命皇家海军的最高指挥官Nelson was appointed the overall commander of the Royal Navy 当法西联军的无敌舰队集中在加的斯时and as the allied French-Spanish Armada concentrated in Cadiz, 他派遣了他的大部分舰队he sent the majority of his fleet off the coast 离开法国海岸围捕维尔纳夫of France to block Villeneuve. 到了九月末 他亲自加入了舰队指挥By the end of September, he joined the fleet personally. 维尔纳夫无视了拿破仑让其前往意大利的命令Villeneuve received an order from Napoleon to move towards Italy but ignored it. 10月18日On the 18th of October, 他收到新命令 要求他们停留在加的斯等待后援the French commander received a new order to stay in Cadiz and wait for his replacement. 再一次的 这项命令被无视了Once again, the order was neglected and 并且联合舰队还在20号出航大海the Allied fleet went to sea on the 20th. 在21号On the 21st, 维尔纳夫的海军逐渐接近直布罗陀海峡Villeneuve’s navy was getting close to the Straits of Gibraltar. 纳尔逊让法军尽可能的驶离加的斯Nelson allowed the French to move as far away 以防法军有机会撤退from Cadiz as possible to prevent them from retreating. However, 然而在黄昏时分法军探测到了英国船舶by dawn the British vessels were detected. 维尔纳夫没有想到纳尔逊的海军如此强大Villeneuve didn’t expect Nelson’s navy to be so strong, 于是他命令他的船舰返回海港so he ordered his ships back to the harbor. 这次战略失败源于缺少训练This maneuver failed due to lack of training 最后联合舰队以杂乱无章的战线收场and the Allied fleet ended up with an incoherent line. 当时普遍的策略是The usual tactic of the age was to 接近敌人然后展开火并approach a foe and enter a shooting match, 所以当时战役的决胜点取决于船舰的质量so the fate of the battle was decided by the quality of the ships, 海员素质以及运气了crew training and sheer luck. Instead, 纳尔逊将舰队平分两队去攻击联盟战舰的船舷Nelson divided his fleet into two halves to attack the Allies broadside. 他亲自指挥13艘He was personally leading the northern 驶向北方的船舰group that had 13 ships of the line 并在船前部升起他的胜利号旗帜with his flagship HMS Victory in front. 与此同时由海军中将科灵伍德分遣的While Vice Admiral Collingwood’s squadron of 14 ships 14艘船舰驶向南方of the line was to the south 并升着君权号旗帜led by the flagship HMS Royal Sovereign. 到了正午 两军海军的距离只有五千米By midday, the distance between the two navies was just five kilometers. 他们离开了特拉法加海角海岸线 随后纳尔逊下达了他最著名的命令They were off the coast of Cape Trafalgar and Nelson issued his famous order: “英国冀诸健儿人人各尽其职”“England expects that every man will do his duty.” 君权号最近重新修缮过 速度比其他船更快Royal Sovereign was recently repaired and was faster than most ships, 所以当大海上开始起风so the wind moved it 君权号危险地靠近到了联合舰队的船线dangerously close to the enemy line, 而此时分舰队与联合舰队的距离却大大落后while the other ships in the squadron were lagging behind. 12点20分 君权号向圣安娜号和弗高克斯号开始第一次攻击 并将船队击后At 12:20, Royal Sovereign fired the first volley upon Santa Ana and Fougueux and these vessels shot back. 而科林伍德的旗舰遭受到4艘敌军攻击Collingwood’s flagship was attacked by four enemy ships. 仅过了15分钟Only 15 minutes later, 贝丽岛号抵达战场并掩护君权号右方甲板Belleisle arrived and covered the right board of Royal Sovereign. 更多的英国船舶More English vessels moved 加入激战并试图截断联合战舰的船线into the fray and tried to cut the Allied line, 但是科林伍德在与敌舰最初的接触中处于劣势but Collingwood was outnumbered at the initial point of contact. 而联盟军也不可能让英军第二战列舰有机会进行增援Still the positioning of the Allied navy didn’t allow its second line ships to assist 14点 联盟军击沉或收服了 第一战列舰的大部分船只and by 14:00, the majority of the first line vessels were either sunk or surrendered. 转向北面 纳尔逊的分舰队于12点20分接近联盟军舰队To the north, Nelson’s squadron got close to the enemy line by 12:20 但此时海风逐渐平静下来but the wind was calming and 这让纳尔逊的行船速度非常缓慢that made Nelson’s ships a very slow target. 他否决采取传统战线策略的举动His refusal to fight using traditional line tactics 是此次战役策略中一大败笔was detrimental at this point of the battle 当他的船队没有一艘可以开火时as none of his ships were able to shoot 敌军开始了接连的炮火攻击while the enemy was sending volley after volley. 尽管伤亡惨重 胜利号旗舰队依旧前进Despite casualties, the flagship Victory was moving forward. 纳尔逊表面上下达一个假指令Nelson ordered a fake maneuver to make the enemy think 让敌军以为他的船队要形成一线that his ships would form up in a line 但是其实他又下达了另一指令让船队转向but instead he then ordered one more turn 胜利号最终处于法国旗舰船布森陶尔号和小一点的可畏号之间and Victory ended up between the French flagship Bucentaure and the smaller Redoutable. 这一处境让纳尔逊船身的两边大炮都能够使用This allowed Nelson’s ship to use the guns on both sides. 法国船舰需要转向 而胜利号此时The French ships needed to turn and Victory used 趁机击败布森陶尔号that to take Bucentaure out of the game. However, 但胜利号也遭受到可畏号的大量破坏Victory itself was taking massive damage from Redoutable. 法国船还使用了狙击手 13点15分 一名狙击手射伤了纳尔逊The French ship was also using sharpshooters and at 13:15, one of their shots wounded Nelson. 这一击对于纳尔逊来说显然是致命的It was clear that this wound was deadly. 可畏号船员意图登陆胜利号Redoutable’s crew attempted to board Victory, 但是英军成功阻挠了登陆but the British managed to stop them. 胜利号很快得到无畏号的增援Victory was soon reinforced by Temeraire, 无畏号穿过可畏号左甲板并开始射击which moved across Redoutable’s left board and started shooting. 到了14点20分 可畏号被无畏号的船员捕获By 14:20, Redoutable was captured by the crew of Temeraire. 战场转向北方To the north, 英国海王星号加入战场与西班牙圣三一号交战British Neptune entered into a battle with Spanish Santissima Trinidad 并成功将西班牙舰队打败and managed to take it out of the fight. 14点整 维尔纳夫越来越清楚他即将输了这次战役By 14:00, it was becoming clear for Villeneuve that he was losing the battle 于是他命令北方部分战线and he ordered the northern portion 行船至西南方向击溃英国舰队of his line to move to the southwest and collapse on the British fleet. However, 然而北方战线的船长没有收到该指令the captains of these ships failed to see the signal 这也成为了联合舰队的致命一击and this became the final mistake of the Allied fleet. 维尔纳夫的布森陶尔号已经残破不堪无法继续战斗Villeneuve’s Bucentaure was in no shape to continue fighting 于是他不久就投降了and soon he surrendered. 此时还剩下10艘船舰By the time the remaining 10 联合军船舰开始支援Allied ships started their move to assist 大部分处在中心的船舶不是被击沉就是被捕获most of the vessels in the center were either sunk or captured. 科林伍德此时指挥所有英国海军Collingwood took overall command of the British Navy 并命令纳尔逊的分舰队拦截法国的增援and ordered Nelson’s squadron to intercept the French reinforcements. 剩余的联合军舰船决定撤退The remaining Allied ships decided to retreat. 英军最后以捕获18艘敌舰取得大捷It was a complete victory with the British capturing 18 enemy ships. 纳尔逊在听到胜利的喜报后也逝世了Nelson passed away as soon as he heard the news of the victory. 法国在特拉法加的败役奠定了英国海上霸主的地位The French defeat at Trafalgar confirmed the naval dominance of the United Kingdom 也意味着拿破仑将再也无法侵袭英国and meant that Napoleon would not be able to invade Britain. 但是就在海上战役打的如火如荼时But while the battle was raging at sea, 皇家陆军也在向着德意志前进the Emperor’s Grand Army was moving into Germany 对抗奥地利和俄罗斯联盟军against the Allied Austrian and Russian armies. 感谢观看这期特拉法加海战Thank you for watching our video on the Battle of Trafalgar. 这个系列的第二期讲述The second video in this series that will cover the Battle 奥斯特里茨战役的视频将会在两周后发布of Austerlitz will be released in two weeks. 非常感谢我们的赞助者We would like to express our gratitude to 有你们才有这个视频our Patreon supporters who make the creation of these videos possible. 在众筹网赞助我们是对新视频最好的支持Patreon is the best way to suggest a new video, 同时了解更多信息learn about our schedule and much more. 本视频的旁白由我OD担当The video was narrated by me Officially Devin. 别忘了也去看看由我主讲的频道Let’s PlaysDon’t forget to stop by my channel for my narrative Let’s Plays. 这里是王侯将相频道This is the Kings and Generals channel, 下个视频见and we will catch you on the next one.
  • 2021-09-15维京之谜这一剧集由Wix赞助This episode is sponsored by Wix. 搜索wix.com/go/simplehistory 现在就可以创建一个网站Go to wix.com/go/simplehistory to create a website now. 维京之谜Viking Myths 当我们想到古斯堪的纳维亚 或维京人时When we think of Norseman or the Vikings, 会联想到很多神话many myths come to mind, 这些神话来自数世纪后的艺术家之笔created from the pencils of artists, stage productions 戏剧创作 以及好莱坞电影and Hollywood movie centuries later. 让我们来看看其中的五个 维京人戴角盔Let’s have a look at 5 of them. They had horned helmets. 一想到维京人 脑海里就会浮现出维京战士The Vikings conjure up the classic image of warriors 头戴魔鬼般的角盔打仗的经典形象going into battle with devilish horned helmets. 但是 考古学家们目前还未发现However, archeologists have not found any such 任何装角的维京头盔Viking helmets with horns so far. 这种形象是19世纪艺术创作的结果This image is the result of 19th century artistic license, 当时的艺术家和戏装设计师喜欢这样的造型when artists and costume designers love the look of it, 所以他们决定按照他们所想的去塑造so decided to give their depiction of the Norseman 维京人戴角盔的形象with horned helmets. 维京人很臭 而且很脏Vikings smelled bad, and were filthy. 当我们提到维京人 首先想到的就是Poor hygiene is one of the first things that come to mind 他们极差的卫生状况when thinking of the Vikings. 但是However, 维京人比我们想象中要卫生得多the Vikings were a lot more hygienic than we think. 考古挖掘中发现了梳子Archaeological excavations have found combs, 镊子 剃刀 水盆 和掏耳勺tweezers, razors, wash balls and ear spoons. 他们还制作一种强力肥皂 碱含量很高They also made a strong soap with a high lye content 用来把头发漂成金色that was used to bleach the hair blond. 还有 古斯堪迪纳维亚语中表示星期六的词Lagan DaggerAlso, the Old Norse word for Saturday Lagan Dagger 可以大致翻译为 梳洗日roughly translates as washing day. 维京人是身材高大的巨人Vikings were tall giants. 看了以前的作家们的作品 你可能会觉得From the writers of the time, you may have thought that 维京人是巨人Vikings were giants. 在921年 一个叫Ibin Fahdlan的阿拉伯旅者In 921, an Arab traveler Ibin Fahdlan 接触到罗斯维京人他写到came into contact with the Rus’ Vikings and wrote “我在罗斯人的贸易旅途中见到过他们“I have seen the Rus’ as they came on their merchant 当时他们正经过伏尔加河journeys and there comes by the Volga. 我从未见过拥有比他们更完美的体格的人种“I have never seen more perfect physical specimens.” 像椰枣树那么高 金发 肤色红润”Tall as date palms, blonde and ruddy. 但是考古学界发现的证据显示But archaeological evidence has found that 维京人的平均身高比当今要矮一点the average height was a little shorter than today. 维京男人站立高度大约在172厘米左右 或是5英尺7英寸Viking men stood around 172 centimetres tall or 5”7, 而女人则是160厘米或5英尺3英寸左右while women stood at 160 centimetres or 5”3. 不过这要比当时的英国人 法兰克人But this was a little taller than the average Englishman, 和阿拉伯人的平均身高高一些Frank or Arab of the time. 斧子是维京人最常用的武器The axe was the most common weapon. 战斧是维京战士最常用的武器Battle axes were one of the most common weapons 其中的一种used by Viking warriors, 不过更加常用的是矛but even more common was the spear. 制造斧子和矛的花费都要比制造剑少Both were cheaper to make than a sword. 但是一支矛需要的铁是最少的But a spear required the least amount of iron. 它被用来投掷和戳刺It was used for throwing or thrusting. 他们叫维京人They were called Vikings. 我们都很熟悉 维京人 这个术语Most of us are familiar with the term Viking, rather than 在它成为描述古斯堪的纳维亚人的词之前a word to describe Norseman as it has become. 维京多用作一个动词Viking was used more as a verb 用来表示袭击的行动for the activity of going on a raid. 只有一小部分参与袭击的人A small minority of people participating in raids 是战士were warriors, 而大部分人从事着和平的职业while the majority were in peaceful professions as 有农民 交易员 工匠 和商贩farmers, traders, craftsmen and merchants. 这一剧集由Wix赞助This episode was sponsored by Wix. 在Wix 不论你的技术水平如何Use Wix to easily create the sites that you dreamt off 你都可以轻松创建你梦想的网站regardless of your skill level. 搜索wix.com/go/simplehistoryGo to wix.com/go/simplehistory 现在就可以创建一个专业的网站to create a professional site today. Wix拥有能让你的网站焕发活力的特质Wix has great features to bring your site to life, 比如Wix视频 Wix画廊升级版such as Wix videos, Wix Pro Gallery. Wix预订服务和各种网站解决方案Wix bookings and solutions for all kinds of sites, 比如电商 音乐 酒店 活动such as e-commerce, music, hotels, events, 餐厅等等restaurants and more. 通过wix.com/go/simplehistoryBuild your own website and support the SimpleHistory Channel 创建你的网站并支持简史频道by going to Wix.com /go/ simplehistory or simply 或是轻点下方描述中的链接 开始你的探索click the link in the description below to get started.
  • 2021-09-1519世纪的奶酪布丁是怎么做的呢?今天 我要做的是奶酪布丁Today, I’m going to make custard pudding. 我会把这个方子记在我的食谱簿上I think I might add this one to my notebook cook book 从我年轻时开始烹饪起I start to keep it when I was young 我就把食谱记在本子上when I first started cooking. 这是我学到的最好的方法It was the best advice I was ever given 所以我总是鼓励年轻姑娘们这样做and I always encourage my maids to do the same. 通常我制作奶酪布丁会加入鱼胶Usually I make custard puddingwith isinglass, 但瓦尔顿的杂货店里买不到它But the grocer in Walden didn’t have any, 所以今天我得用吉利丁来代替so today I’m going to have to use gelatine. 希望制作出的效果一样I hope it works. 做奶酪布丁你需要的有For this recipe you will need: 鲜奶油Cream 吉利丁gelatine 蛋黄egg yolks 橙花水orange flower water 白兰地brandy 还有黑加仑果酱and blackcurrant jam 为了做出优质的卡仕达酱Now to make an excellent custard. 首先 我要取用¼的奶油Firstly, I’ve taken a quarter of the cream, 稍微加热后 加入吉利丁融化heated it a little and melted the gelatine. 现在开始搅打鸡蛋Now I’m going to whisk some eggs. 像这样的简单小甜点一般会作为第二道菜品尝Simple sweets like thisare eaten in the second course. 布雷布鲁克勋爵一家都特别喜欢奶酪布丁Lord and Lady Braybrooke are very fond of custard. [laughs] 事实上 布雷布鲁克勋爵无论吃什么 甜点总是它In fact, I think Lord Braybrookewould eat it with everything! 现在这些蛋都充分搅打好了Now these are well whisked, 我要把剩下的冷奶油都兑进来I’m going to add the rest of the cold cream. 然后是热奶油And now the warm cream. 为了把它搅打的更加浓稠And now to make this thicken, 我要用小火加热一下I need to put it over a low heat. 为了更加浓稠 你必须要加热它You need to heat it in order to thicken it 但是要小心 以防它结块but you must be careful not to curdle it. 等卡仕达酱彻底冷却后 就可以倒入白兰地Now the custard is thoroughly cool,I can add the brandy 和少许橙花水and a little orange flower water. 这是一款非常经典的风味It’s quite an old-fashionedflavour – and scent. 我只需要一点点就够了I’m only going to use a little 因为它的味道非常浓because it can be quiteoverpowering 我不想因用量过多而降低它的档次and I wouldn’t want to cheapen it. 现在可以把卡仕达酱倒入模具里了It’s now time to put thecustard into the mould. 我在它内部涂了一层杏仁油I’ve already lined it with almond oil 只需把卡仕达酱全都倒进去so all I need to do is to pour the custard in. 非常好very good. 再把它放进冰箱里I’m now going to put it in the icebox. 现在我的奶酪布丁基本成型 可以脱模了Now my custard is set it’s time to de-mould it. 我将兑入波特姜酒的黑加仑果酱加热I’ve heated up a little blackcurrant jam with some port and ginger wine 然后用过滤网过滤下and put it through a sieve. 现在我要把它倒在奶酪布丁四周I’m now going to pour it just around the side of the custard. 必须确保它没有很烫I must make sure it’s not too hot 否则会融化掉奶酪I don’t want it to melt the custard. 好了 大功告成 这就是我的独家奶酪布丁!And there we have it – my custard pudding!
  • 2021-09-14埃菲尔铁塔的内涵OK Cherubs, this is the Eiffel Tower.亲爱的朋友们 这是埃菲尔铁塔 You’ve seen it before,你肯定见过它 but right now I want you to imagine that you haven’t.但现在设想下没见过 It’s difficult, I know.我知道这很难 This structure has been a part of这个建筑早已成为 our cultural consciousness for a long time,我们文化意识的一部分 and it’s a visual synonym for its city and even its country.还是城市乃至国家的视觉代名词 But let’s go back to before 1889,但让我们回到1889年之前 before the Universal Exhibit that debuted this structure也就是这个建筑首次亮相于世博会前 and look at it with fresh eyes.用全新的目光看它 To do this effectively we’ll have to imagine为了做到这一点 我们得想象 ourselves in the epicenter of Impressionism;自己身处印象派的中心 in a city that prides itself on its artistic talent身处这座以其艺术天赋而自豪 that sees itself as a center of Culture.自视为文化中心的城市 And then, in this city of culture, and color and movement…在这座文化 色彩 运动之城中 this begins to rise.这座建筑拔地而起 It’s metal behemoth- an expression of Industrialism.它是个钢铁巨兽-也是工业化的体现 Gustave Eiffel wasn’t a sculptor古斯塔夫•埃菲尔既不是雕塑家 or even an architect也不是建筑师 He was an engineer,a bridgebuilder,他是个工程师 还是个桥梁建造师 and in a lot of ways this looks like a bridge going从很多角度看这座塔 straight up to the sky for no reason.都像是无端向天高耸起来的怪桥 If we keep our mental exercise going如果我们继续设想 and view this through the lens of a city in love with its own image as an artistic hub,从一座以其艺术中心形象为傲的城市的视角来看 this is ugly.它很丑 It’s nuts and bolts.全是螺母和螺栓 It looks like a railway,看着像条铁路 or an Erector set lighthouse.或者拼装玩具搭的灯塔 It’s no wonder it had so many critics.难怪有这么多人批评它 My favorite, by the way, is Guy de Maupassant我最喜欢莫泊桑的那句 who said that the French should,他说法国人应该 “in some future riot,“在未来的某场暴乱中 unbolt this tall, skinny pyramid of iron ladders,拆了这座又高又瘦的钢铁金字塔 this giant and disgraceful skeleton这就是个笨重又难看的铁架 with a base that seems made to support a formidiable monument of cyclops就像有个用来支撑独眼巨人纪念碑的底座 and which aborts into a thin ridiculous profile of a factory chimney.”托着一个滑稽的工厂烟囱” So good That dude knew how to throw an insult.好吧 那家伙损人确实有一手 A less poetic critique of the tower was有个不那么诗意的批评 simply, “What’s the point?”简单说就是 有什么意义? If it’s not pretty and it’s not functional,如果它既不漂亮也不实用 then… why?那要它干嘛? And, honestly, that’s a pretty good criticism.说实话 这批评挺有道理 Eiffel’s bridges were beautiful埃菲尔的桥梁很漂亮 in part because they were useful部分是因为它很实用 but this was impressive engineering for the sake of engineering然而在工程上 这座塔是个伟大的工程 A lot people just didn’t get it.有很多人不明白这一点 But here’s the thing:问题在于: If we’re going to look at this with fresh eyes,我们要想以崭新的眼光看 we also need to imagine ourselves in a world还需要想象自己在这样一个时空里 where the Washington Monument is the world’s tallest building.那时华盛顿纪念碑是世界最高建筑 With those eyes,这样看 this is nearly twice as tall as the tallest man structure in the world.它几乎是世界最高人造建筑的两倍高 Whatever your aesthetic apprehensions may be,不管你的审美理念是怎样 that’s cool, and it was cool.它确实很酷 It inspired awe in people.令人生畏 So is that the point?这就是其价值吗? Is that enough of a point to justify the visual space it takes up这足以证明它所占据的视觉空间 the amount of resources and man hours it used?以及使用的大量资源和人力吗? Those critics who felt as though feats of engineering need to have a practical goal那些觉得有实际目标才能称为工程技艺的批评家 still lined up to see the city from that height.仍然排着队从铁塔看这座城市 The pursuit of the seemingly useless inspired wonder,甚至那些反对者都惊奇于 even in the naysayers,这看似无用的追求 and that wonder could be a purpose in itself.可能令人惊奇就是其目标吧 So yeah, maybe that wow factor can be the point.没错 可能让人哇的感叹就是其意义所在 Maybe it does justify itself.也许它确实证明了自己 Just like the moon landing inspired young future scientists, this,就像登月启发未来的年轻科学家一样 no doubt this inspired more than a few minds.毫无疑问 这激发了不少人的灵感 Additionally in order to reach this height,而为了达到这个高度 innumerable engineering problems出现了许多工程问题 that had never been confronted before had to be overcome.它们是从未有过却必须克服的难题 No elevator, for example, had ever traveled at an angle quite例如 没有能在这样苛刻的条件下 like this and under these constraints以这样的角度运行的电梯 The precision to have these four legs come to a completely level first landing,这四条腿需要一次性地精确水平放置 and other similar tasks resulted in类似难题还有很多 engineers developing new techniques.工程师要开发新技术来应对 Eiffel didn’t wait for a practical circumstance埃菲尔没有等新技术出现之后 to confront these problems,才来面对这些难题 he solve them out with this project而是和团队一起 and solved them with his team preemptively当下解决了这些难题 So, in order to achieve new heights of knowledge为了达到超越人们所认知的新高度 That pun is both intended and I understand boring这是个双关语 我知道我很无聊 The people of Paris were asked to巴黎人民被要求 withhold their apprehensions and concerns for a brief time.暂时不要表现出忧虑和担心 As a result, the world realized塔建成后 世界才意识到 that the awe, inspiration, and curiousity一幅画所能激发的 a painting can inspire敬畏 灵感和好奇 can also be found in piece of innovative engineering-也能在一项工程创举中被发现 That the imagination of an engineer is no less spectacular than a sculptor.工程师的想象力不逊于雕塑家 The tower was only supposed to occupy this space for twenty years,这座塔设计使用寿命是二十年 but this lesson has proved more durable than that但事实证明 它远比设想的耐用 and it’s good to remind ourselves of this时不时地提醒自己 from time to time by looking at this with fresh eyes.用全新的眼光看待这件事是很好的 If you liked this video and feel I’ve earned it, please subscribe.喜欢这个视频 可以点击订阅支持 I put out a new video every month.我每月都会更新 Thanks for watching.感谢观看
  • 2021-09-14拿破仑战争系列预告片[开场乐][Opening theam playing] 我常说 没有机遇的能力是空谈I always say, ability is nothing without opportunity. 我有第一次机会I have the first 他们的嫉妒将会给我第二次and their envy will give me the second. 欧皇将会派来他们的上将The kings of Europe will send their generals 他们自己也会前来送死and will come themselves. 我将在海上I will fight them on the sea [炮火声][The sound of the cannon] 陆地上战胜他们and on land. 我将攻入他们的首都I will bring the fight to their capitals 烧毁他们的宫殿and burn their palaces. 我将使他们的王权摇摇欲坠I will shake their thrones 让他们摇尾乞怜and make them cower in fear. 现在 他们在笑For now, they laugh. 他们认为这只是一个空想They say that’s an ideally hope. 不可能实现They think it is impossible. 认为不可能的人都是愚昧无知的Would it impossibly is awared only the fools youth 历史将由我书写and history will belong to me. 拿破仑I am Napoleon 这是我的世界and this is my world. [片尾乐][Ending music playing]

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