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  • 2021-10-26你到将来旅行Fuzzy和Nutty的奇幻时间之旅 向我们展示了地球上出现过的最大的动物 史上最严重的天灾 以及最糟糕的战争 但他们的旅行即将到达终点 这个终点并不在过去 而是在未来 历史上的大部分时间里 人类一直过着乡村生活 但从二十世纪五十年代开始 大量人口从农村涌向日益发展的城市 到2020年 生活在城市中的人口 将在历史上第一次超过农村人口 而且城市人口数量还会继续增长 这将给城市带来严峻挑战 它们需要变得更加自给自足 在世界上的某些地方已经开始这样的实践 未来的城市建筑可能会采用 层层植被环绕在外立面四周 这样既有助于冬季保暖和夏季降温 同时也使得居住在高层中的市民 能够种植属于自己的水果和粮食 植被层还能直接从空气中吸收 数百万吨级的二氧化碳以抗击污染 这种做法将节约大量电费 不但使未来的城市更加宜居 也将使能源的利用更加有效 未来 纳米技术将引发医学革命 这是一种运用在分子甚至原子层面的技术 血细胞大小的机器人将在人体中巡视 搜寻感染和疾病的源头 在你察觉到自己生病前就将它们消灭 它们还能由内向外缝合伤口 替你治病 让我们将视线继续缩小 通过直接编辑DNA 我们将消灭诸如癌症之类的常见疾病 甚至还可以修改DNA来延长寿命 并使我们变得更聪明 更强壮 面对疾病时更有抵抗力 基因编辑技术将确保 婴儿出生时不会再携带常见的遗传疾病 只要你想 你甚至可以定制 孩子头发和眼睛的颜色 还远远不止这些 科技最终会像我们自身的血肉一般 与我们融为一体 可穿戴装备将通过监控皮肤和分析汗液 向我们发出高压力预警 或对糖尿病患者发出低血糖警告 各式的技术和装备最终都将 运用到我们的身体上 以保持健康 我们甚至可以将大脑与科技连接 以便我们仅通过思想就可以控制它 将来 打电话祝朋友生日快乐 将简单到只要想象他们的脸即可拨号 而完全不需要再用到手 人类天生就爱上下求索 并将最终挺进宇宙 虽然没有什么能赶得上光速 但科学家已经通过名为曲速引擎的技术 找到了突破宇宙速度极限的方法 通过扭曲自身周围的空间 曲速引擎直接在它前方创造出时空波 将前面的空间收缩 后面的空间扩张 以使飞船能有效地在失速状态下 通过时空波滑向目的地 由于飞船实际上并未移动 移动的是它周围的时空 因此 在并未违反物理规律的情况下 它的速度仍比光速快得多 这种非凡科技能使人类 仅用几天就到达最近的星球 从而打开探索和殖民银河系的大门 谁知道我们会在宇宙的深处 或完全陌生的外星球表面发现什么呢? Fuzzy和Nutty经历了漫长的时空旅行 我们感谢他们 一路上 我们了解了地球那令人惊叹的历史 以及我们人类自身的过去 了解到作为一个物种 我们是如何从几乎灭绝了地球所有生物 演变到差点把人类自身也毁灭了的 接下来 到了该好好休息的时间了 至少现在是这样
  • 2021-10-26如果你跳进洗手液池呢?It helps kill bacteria and viruses,可以消毒 可以杀菌 and it can even be set on fire.甚至能够燃烧 This is hand sanitizer.这就是消毒洗手液 This gooey substance这种粘性物质 is normally meant for the hands,一般在手部使用 but what if但是如果 we covered our bodies in it?我们置身其中呢? Specifically, by jumping into a pool具体来说 跳进一个满是 full of hand sanitizer?洗手液的池子里? what would submerging yourself把自己浸在洗手液里 in hand sanitizer feel like?会是什么感觉? could you swallow some of it?吞进去一点可以吗? And is this the best way to kill deadly diseases?这是杀死致病菌的最好方法吗? This is WHAT IF这里是《自然无常》 And here’s what would happened if you今天的主题是“如果你 jumped into a pool of hand sanitizer?跳入洗手液池会怎么样?” Hand sanitizer is made up of a huge list of chemicals,洗手液从原材料到变成霜状 from things that make it a gel再到制成润滑剂状态 to the moisturizers and lubricants.整个过程用到了多种化学物质 But its main ingredient但是它的主要成分 is ethanol.是乙醇 This is what kills the germs on your hands.也就是杀死你手上细菌主要成分 In order to be truly effective,为了真正有效 it should have over 60% ethanol.乙醇浓度应达到60%以上 So to kill all the deadly viruses on our bodies,因此为了杀死体表所有致命的病毒 let’s use something stronger.我们来点更猛的 A 95% concentration of ethanol.95%浓度的乙醇 Okay now that we’ve chosen our hand sanitizer,好了 既然我们已经选择了洗手液 what happens if we jump into a pool full of it?那么跳进洗手液泳池里会怎么样? As soon as you jump in,一跳进去 any cuts or open wounds you might have你身上的任何切口或开放性伤口 would immediately begin to sting.会使你瞬间感到刺痛 Have you ever had a hangnail on your finger and used hand sanitizer?你是否试过手上有倒刺的时候用洗手液? Remember how much that hurt?还记得有多疼? Now imagine the alcohol现在想象一下酒精 and other chemicals attacking every cut和其他化学物质攻击体表可能有的 or scratch you might have on your body.每一个伤口或划痕 Ouch!哎哟! If you don’t have too many of those,如果你没有太多这些伤口 you’ll be able to swim around in our pool full of hand sanitizer.就可以在装有洗手液的泳池内四处游动 But swimming in something like this但在这种物质里游泳 would be more like swimming in jelly than water.更像是在果冻中游泳而不是在水中 This gel substance这种凝胶物质 would be a gloppy, thick mess to swim through.黏糊糊的 很难游得动 And if you dunked your head into it,如果你把头浸入其中 it would fill your ears,它将会灌进你的耳朵 nose, and any other crevice it can make its way into.鼻子 和其他任何可能进入的缝隙 And while you’re under there,而当你在那里面的时候 don’t try opening your eyes.不要试图睁开眼睛 If you do,一旦这样做 you’ll immediately feel severe pain from the hand sanitizer.洗手液会让你瞬间感觉剧痛 And if you don’t wash it out immediately,如果不立即洗掉 you could go blind.你可能会失明 Yeah, alcohol is not good for the eyes.是的 酒精对眼睛不好 And let’s hope you don’t swallow any of this stuff.也希望你不要吞下去 If you did, it would taste pretty disgusting,那个味道会相当恶心 like an incredibly harsh alcohol with a strong chemical taste.就像难以置信的烈酒 有着强烈的化学味道 And if you drank enough of it,而且如果你喝的够多 you would be extremely intoxicated.会醉得一塌糊涂 That’s because a 240 ml (8 oz) bottle of hand sanitizer因为一瓶240ml(8盎司)的洗手液 contains the same amount of alcohol as about所含的酒精 five shots of hard liquor.相当于五杯烈性酒 Luckily, swallowing it is avoidable.幸运的是 吞咽还能人为避免 What isn’t is the damage these chemicals而难以避免的是 would be doing to your skin while you’re in there.这些物质对皮肤造成的伤害 If you’re in this hand sanitizer long enough,如果你在这种洗手液里足够久 it could filter through your skin and get into your bloodstream.它能够穿透你的皮肤进入血液中 The reason why we can put hand sanitizer我们之所以能把洗手液涂在手上 on our hands is that they have tougher skin than other parts of our body.是因为手皮比其他部分皮肤更粗糙 The skin on places like our faces像我们脸部和 and butts is pretty weak and soft.屁股的皮肤非常脆弱和柔软 So if your entire body was marinating in hand sanitizer,因此如果你整个身体浸泡在洗手液中 it could lead to alcohol poisoning.可能就会导致酒精中毒 And we know that hand sanitizer’s purpose is to kill bacteria.我们知道使用洗手液是为了杀菌 But it gets rid of both the bad但是它杀死了有害菌的同时 and good germs.也杀死了益生菌 Having small doses on your hands is OK,小剂量放在手上是可以的 but spreading it all over your body would kill但是涂抹全身会杀死 a lot of the good bacteria you have on your skin.你皮肤上的大量益生菌 This could make you very sick, or even kill you.这会使你非常虚弱 甚至致命 And hopefully, you won’t have any smokers standing nearby.希望你身边没有人抽烟 Because if they happen to drop a match or a lighter into the pool,因为如果他们碰巧将火柴或打火机扔进游泳池 the hand sanitizier would instantly burst into flames,洗手液会立即起火 and quickly kill you.然后瞬间致命 But if you managed to survive all this,但是如果你设法获救 and made it out of the pool,并得以从游泳池里出来 you’d need to shower immediately.你需要马上去淋浴 And after that, your skin would begin to feel tight and dry.之后 你的皮肤开始变得紧绷干燥 It would start to crack, and bleed,它会开始破裂 流血 and be incredibly painful.而且非常痛苦 Let’s hope you have another pool of skin lotion to jump into.希望你有另外准备一个润肤池可以跳进去 So it’s pretty clear that所以很明显 hand sanitizer is only good in small doses,少量的洗手液是好的 and only on our hands.而且仅能用在我们手上 Besides, if you really want to kill bacteria,另外 如果你真的想要杀菌 just wash your hands.去洗手吧 Trust me.相信我 It’s a lot safer, cheaper, and healthier.这更安全 便宜 和健康 And because washing your hands is so good for you,因为洗手这么有益 why don’t we try something really dumb,我们何不试试做点很蠢的蠢事 and not wash them for an entire year?试试一整年不洗手? Yeah, you know,没错 你懂的 that’s a story for another, WHAT IF.那就是下一集的 《自然无常》
  • 2021-10-17世界上收入最高的猫– Google the most beautiful cat in the world如果在谷歌搜索世界上最漂亮的猫咪 and the first and most frequent photo you’ll see is of this white-haired, blue-eyed cat.第一个以及搜索最多的结果便是这只蓝眼白毛猫 I’m Rebecca.我是瑞贝卡 And I’m John.我叫约翰 And this is Coby.这是克比 This all started in 2015.这一切开始于2015年 We had only been dating a few months我们当时在一起几个月了 and I really wanted a cat.然后我想要养只猫 Started looking online and fell in love with the British Shorthair breed.一开始在网上找猫咪时就爱上了英短猫 They’re just so cute, almost cartoonish looking they’re like,他们太可爱了 就和动画片里的一样 so round and expressive.他们脸圆圆的 脸上的表情很生动 And was sort of doing some research在做过一些调查后 and found a Shorthair breeder in the area我们在网上找到一只短毛猫 and immediately fell in love with a little cross-eyed, adorable Coby online.这只可爱的小猫克比有点斗鸡眼 它立马俘获了我们的芳心 He wasn’t named Coby yet, at the time.他那时候还不叫克比 – We drove up, it was in Delaware.我们开车前往它所在的特拉华州 One of his brothers actually caught my eye and I was like,原本吸引了我的注意力是克比的一个兄弟 然后我就说 “Oh look, have a look at this cat, he’s cute,”“哇 快看 快看这只小猫咪 它好可爱啊” and Rebecca’s like, “No.” – No way.然后瑞贝卡说 “不行 没门” No way, absolutely not.肯定不行 I knew Coby was the one.我要的是克比 He came right over to us, actually fell asleep in my arms,它慢慢走到我们身边 然后就在我的臂弯里睡着了 which makes just my heart melted.我的心都化了 And I was like, “I need this cat.”然后我就说 “我要这只猫咪” We always thought that Coby was so cute第一次见到它时 它还是个小奶猫时 when we first met him, as a kitten,我们就觉得克比很可爱 but as he’s gotten older, pretty early on, he started developing this, we call it guy-liner.不过随着他慢慢长大 它眼睛周围长出了眼线一样的轮廓 He has these very distinct outlines around his nose and his eyes,它的眼睛和鼻子的轮廓变得明显 and it just gives him this intense, beautiful appearance.这些赋予了它格外迷人的外表 His eyes themselves have this almost animate look to them.它的眼睛看起来炯炯有神 He looks like a cartoon, I always joke.我经常开玩笑说 它看起来好像动画里的猫猫 He looks fake, he looks like a stuffed animal.看起来就像一只猫咪毛绒玩具 More importantly, maybe, to us from the start, was how great he is, loyal and sweet.不过最重要的可能是它一开始给我们的印象就很棒 又忠心又温柔 And in a lot of ways, doglike.而且在很多方面表现得很像一只狗狗 I mean, he sleeps in my arms every night.它每晚睡在我的怀里 He is just the biggest sweetheart.就像个大号的甜心宝贝 – There’s also the sassy side.它有时也很会很拽 He wears his emotions on his face.一切情绪都写在脸上 He’s very vain, loves to look at himself in the mirror.它很爱美 喜欢在镜子前看着自己 We suspect that he might actually know how beautiful he is.我们怀疑它其实知道自己有多漂亮 – Yeah, the world revolves around Coby.是啊 克比可是全球焦点 So when Rebecca started posting pictures of Coby,当瑞贝卡开始发布克比的照片时 me in my head, I was like, “Rebecca, why are you doing that?我在心里想 “瑞贝卡 你为啥要这么做” “You’re just being another crazy pet owner who’s posting pictures.”“你这样很像那种疯狂晒宠物照片的主人” We all have that friend or two or 10.我们也有好几个这样的朋友 And she told me, she was like, “No no, no no no.然后她跟我说 “不不不” “Just don’t worry about this.”“别担心” She’s like, “Trust me, this is gonna be good. This isn’t that.”“相信我 我这么做是有好处的 跟那些不一样” And I was like, “Okay, it’s not that.”所以我就说 “好吧 是不一样” – It was kinda that. – Yeah, at the time, I thought it was.-是有一点像 -嗯 那时候我觉得就是那样 I think you maybe had some more foresight into things.我觉得你可能会更有远见 – But never expected that it was going to take off like it did.但从没想过它能变得这么出名 People started responding to his pictures the same way人们对于它的照片的评论 that I was when I first met him.就跟我对它的第一印象一模一样 And I was like, “Okay, we’re onto something here.”然后我说 我们发现了新大陆 It’s not just us thinking our cat is the cutest thing ever.不只是我们觉得自己家的猫咪是最可爱的 Other people are agreeing.别人也这么觉得 After I posted a few pictures of him,在我发布了好些猫咪的照片之后 Cats of Instagram, 9cats, some of those bigger, featuring accountsCats of Instagram 9cats 以及其他一些有影响力的大V started reposting and sharing pictures of Coby.开始转发并分享克比的照片 The next thing we know, he’s on the front page of Reddit.然后我们得知 它的照片被放在红迪网的首页 Then, we saw that he got this feature on Bored Panda,之后 我们看到在无聊熊猫这个网站上有一篇关于它的文章 but all of a sudden, we started seeing all these headlines突然 我们开始留意到这些标题 of, “Is this the most beautiful cat in the world,” and–有写着 “它算不算是世界上最漂亮的猫咪” – “His eyeliner is better than mine.”以及 “它眼线画的比我还好” – Yeah, there were all these memes going up online.是啊 这些文章图片等在网上疯传 We were seeing him across the internet.我们看着它风靡全网 – [Both] In “People.”(异口同声)在《人物》…… – He was in “People” magazine and I was like,它居然被刊登在《人物》这本杂志上 “This is crazy.”太不可思议了 – The fan art started coming in, as well.同时 陆陆续续开始出现各种粉丝艺术 Photoshop edits of Coby.用Photoshop给克比编辑照片 There were nail designs, graffiti.还有各种美甲造型 涂鸦 – Tattoos that people had gotten.还有人把它纹在身上 Permanent tattoos on their body of Coby.他们把克比的样子永久地纹在自己的身上 Makeup inspired by him to try to recreate his iconic eyeliner.还有人尝试画出它那标志性的眼线 Incredible portraits and paintings,令人惊叹的猫咪画像 and animate style, cartoons, stuffed doll versions.动漫形象 动画片 毛绒玩具 Everything you can imagine.任何你能想到的东西都有 – People put a lot of time into these things,大家花了很多时间在这些事情上 which, to us, was even more special.这对我们来说 有特殊的意义 – This was always just a side hobby for us,养猫只是我们的业余爱好 but we started hearing from brands.但我们开始接到品牌邀约 – Purina, 9Lives, Petco.普瑞纳 9lives 佩科 Started with cat brands and then,一开始都是与猫咪相关的品牌方找我们 other types of brands started reaching out.后来有其他类型的品牌方也找到我们 – Spotify with their pet playlist.Spotify是因为他们需要宠物播单 KVD Vegan Beauty ’cause of his inspiring eyeliner.KDV 素食主义美容因为受它的眼线启发 Seeing Coby on TV talking about blood donation, like a voiceover, was the coolest moment.看着克比如旁白一样 在节目里宣传捐血 是它最酷的时候 – Not enough people are giving blood.我们需要更多的人来捐血 And giving save 12,000 lives a day.平均一天可以拯救12000条生命 – And that was just such a awesome way to use his account for good.用它的名义来做好事是一件很棒的事情 We’ve made more from Coby than we ever expected克比带给我们的收益 to make in our wildest dreams.比我们最疯狂梦中都多 – We’re very unique and fortunate.我们很特别也很幸运 – We just think it’s important that he is always benefiting.我们觉得重要的是它一直在创造价值 We definitely try to give him the best life possible我们也绝对会尽可能给他提供最好的一切 and the best food, toys, and beds and–最好吃的食物 最好玩的玩具 最舒适的床 – Cat mansions. – Yeah, a tree.– 还有最棒的猫屋 – 对 像树一样的猫屋 You can imagine he is one spoiled cat.你们可以认为它是一只被溺爱的猫 Not force him to do anything he doesn’t wanna do.我们不会强迫它做不想做的事情 We really plan our shoots around him我们制定了跟它有关的拍摄计划 and his schedule and his moods.配合它的行程和心情 He has it pretty good.它也配合得非常好 – Obviously, making money and working with brands is a wonderful part,确实 既能赚钱又能跟品牌方合作是很棒的 but the better part, to us, is the joy that he spreads and how he cheers people up.但对我们来说 更棒的是它带给人们快乐和鼓舞 As far as what’s next for Coby, who knows?至于克比接下来会怎样 谁也说不准 If he’s gonna be featured in a James Bond movie,或许它有机会能参演007系列电影 we don’t know, maybe.我们也说不准 – We hope.我们希望有这一天 That would be pretty cool.那一定会很酷 – Call us. – Yeah.– 联系我们 – 是的 没错
  • 2021-10-17为什么不该把进水的iPhone放在大米里Liquid damage is a common an issue尽管iPhone这类设备已经提高了防水等级 for devices like the iPhone, despite its improved water resistance.但进水导致设备损坏仍然是个很常见的问题 But putting your wet iPhone in a bowl of rice isn’t the best solution.但把进水的iPhone放到一碗米里可不是最佳解决方案 And I’ll explain why right now.我现在来解释为什么 When your phone has been submerged under water for too long,如果手机泡在水里时间太长 moisture can reach the electronics inside. 水会进到内部电路 Causing the device to shut down.会导致手机关机 And it’s important to keep the phone turned off until it’s completely dry.至关重要的是要保持手机关机直到它完全干燥 Removing its case and SIM card tray will allow trapped water to escape, 把手机壳和SIM卡拆下来可以让积水流走 while wiping down any visible water on the exterior 还可以擦掉外面可见的水 will stop excess moisture from finding its way inside.这会防止更多的水进入手机 At this point, common knowledge suggests submerging your iPhone in a bowl of uncooked rice.此时 常识是建议把iPhone放入一碗生米里 But that’s not actually a very good idea.但是这实际上不是一个很好的主意 In fact, Apple specifically recommends against 实际上 Apple不建议 using any external heat sources or inserting用外部的加热方式 foreign objects to dry the inside of your iPhone.或者插入异物来烘干iPhone内部 This is because they’re likely to hurt more than help.这样很有可能会损坏设备 Things like cotton swabs and paper towels contain lint and dust that can introduce even像棉签和纸巾 它们含有绒毛和灰尘 more contaminants to the device’s internals.会让更多污染物进入手机内部 While uncooked rice contains starch and small grains 然而生米含有淀粉和小颗粒 that could easily enter your iPhone’s chassis.这会很容易进入iPhone机架 All while doing very little to actually help dry it out.这些操作对于干燥手机的帮助微乎其微 Instead of the rice approach, the best thing to do 与其用大米的方法 最好的办法是 is simply leave your phone out to air dry.把手机拿出来 自然风干 If you want to speed up the process, put a fan next to it blowing cool air如果想加快干燥速度的话 在旁边放一个风扇 directly into the lightning connector.直接吹冷风进耳机接口 It’ll evaporate moisture faster than rice, 这样比放进大米中干燥的更快 without running the risk of foreign contaminants finding their way inside.并且没有异物进入手机内部的风险 Once you’ve left your iPhone out to dry for 24 to 48 hours, it’s probably safe to一旦你把iPhone放在外面风干24到48小时 plug in and power on.就很可能安全地插上电源和开机 Hopefully you’ll see the familiar Apple logo你有望看到熟悉的Apple商标 and be able to use the phone without any issues.并且能够使用手机 而没有任何问题 This is Greg with Apple Explained, thanks for watching till the end, and I’ll see我是解说Apple的Greg 感谢收看 you in my next video.我们下次视频再见
  • 2021-08-24如果看到这个,请立刻下飞机!《这是阿诺德》 他准备去探望他那 刚刚出狱的 体重二百公斤的姑姑 惊不惊讶?整架飞机上只有你一个乘客 这架波音767来自世界上最危险的航空公司 骗子航空公司 公司刚刚创建之后 在2003年 他们的一架飞机在着陆时滑出了跑道 许多乘客都受了伤 但所幸没有人死亡 不久之后 该公司的另一架飞机 在着陆半小时前从雷达上消失 搜寻两天之后终于找到了它 一头撞到了山上 飞机上的104人遇难 只有微生物幸免 机组规定一:始终系好安全带 空气密度一直在变化 想象一下 在夏天时 你乘飞机飞过田野上方 热空气把机身向上吹 突然 燃料密度变大 飞机飞过一处冰冷的湖泊 一瞬间 没有了暖气流对机身的影响 那么你就将…… 气流会使飞机来回晃动 且这时飞机连3米都无法下降 而这还是在时速800km/h下发生的 如果你没有系好安全带 二倍重力加速度的负荷突然来临时 你就死定了 每一次与座位或机身的撞击 都会折断你的肋骨 扭断你的手臂 撞碎你的头骨 然后……我的天呐 从引擎中排出的稀薄气体将会引来闪电 这比陆地上的任何事物的威力都大 但最有趣的是 大型飞机通常自身会产生电流 从尾部释放出几十万安培的电流直冲云霄 从机头释放的电流直击地面 闪电会击碎挡风玻璃 并导致飞机上所有电子设备失效 抓紧了 阿诺德 着陆可比你姑妈脸上的茬子更糟糕 我的天呐 阿诺德 你似乎只有最后一次见你姑姑的机会了 那就是在你的葬礼上
  • 2021-08-24在冰岛用熔岩烘焙的面包Siggi Rafn Hilmarsson is an Icelandic bakerSiggi是一位冰岛的面包师 with an unconventional oven.他有一个不同寻常的烤箱 He bakes bread by burying it underground,他把面包埋入地下进行烘烤 where it’s heated for 24 hours by nearby hot springs.通过土壤附近的温泉对面包24小时加热 Siggi: It’s very common to see hot springs here in Iceland.温泉在冰岛这儿很常见 There is constant lava crawling under us.冰岛地下有不断涌动的熔岩 This lava is heating up water熔岩一直加热地下水 and this water comes boiling up on the surface.水温升高至沸腾后涌出地表 形成温泉 We could put it in the oven,我们也可以将面包放入烤箱 but this is much more fun.但这种方式更有趣 熔岩烘焙面包 《伟大的故事》 Iceland is one of the most volcanic regions in the world,冰岛是世界上火山最多的地区之一 with 30 active volcanoes at any one time.任一时期都有30座活火山 That helps create an abundance of hot springs,大量的温泉因此而形成 some with boiling hot water,其中有一些是沸泉 and Siggi uses them to his advantage.Siggi充分地利用了它们 He specializes in baking hverabraud,他擅长烘焙温泉面包 a traditional Icelandic rye bread recipe那是一道传统的冰岛黑麦面包食谱 that dates back hundreds of years.可以追溯到几百年前 I know for sure that in this village,我可以肯定 在这个村庄里 I can track it down as far as late 1800 something.温泉面包的历史可以追溯到19世纪末 My grandmother taught my mother how to bake this bread,我的外婆教会我妈妈如何烘培黑麦面包 and my mother taught me.然后我的妈妈教会了我 In the hot spring rye bread recipe we have在温泉黑麦面包的食谱里 我们要用到 rye, flour, sugar, baking powder, salt, and milk.黑麦 面粉 糖 发酵粉 盐和牛奶 We put these in a pot, we put butter in the pot,我们把这些放入锅里 黄油也放进去 then we wrap it with plastic foil and然后用塑料薄膜把它包起来 we put it down in our hot spring hole for 24 hours.在我们挖好的温泉洞里放24小时 It’s very obvious to see if the ground is hot or not.土壤是否够热是可以明显看出来的 I never use a thermometer.我从不用温度计 If I need to check the heat, I just use this one.如果我需要检查温度 用一根手指就够了 Our biggest challenge is rain.我们面临最大的挑战是下雨 If it rains a lot, these holes that we are using如果雨水太多 我们正在使用的这些温泉洞 can cool down, and if they are not hot enough,就会冷却下来 若是温度不够高 obviously the bread doesn’t bake completely.显然 面包就无法完全烤熟 Siggi每周烤70条面包 他先和家人一起享用 剩下的再卖掉 Everybody eats our bread: our visitors, the locals.每个人都会来尝尝我们的面包:游客 当地人 Hot spring rye bread has a unique taste温泉黑麦面包有一种独特的味道 that you don’t get from ovens.是烤箱烤出来的面包没有的 The texture of this bread is quite special.黑麦温泉面包的质地相当特别 It’s quite heavy, it’s not the typical light bread.它十分扎实 不是那种常见的松软面包 When you show this to travelers that come to Iceland and当你向冰岛的游客展示这种面包时 you see their faces, they go “Wow!”,你会看到他们吃惊的表情 then you start to think that this is quite amazing, actually.然后开始觉得这面包的确十分特别
  • 2021-08-24《哈利·波特》——译者的噩梦In 1997, JK Rowling published1997年J·K·罗琳出版了 Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s stone.《哈利·波特与魔法石》 But most of her audience didn’t actually read that book.然而大多数读者实际上并未读过这本书 They read Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s stone.他们读的是《哈利·波特与魔术石》 or Harry Potter A L’Ecole des Sorciers或《哈利·波特在巫师学校》 Harry Potter va Sang-e Jadu《哈利·波特·瓦桑加杜》 Harry Potter y la Piedra Filosofal《哈利·波特与拉皮德拉·菲罗索法尔》 [cool humming of “Hedwig’s Theme” ][“海德薇主题曲”的清唱] Vox《沃克斯观点》 The bewitching Harry Potter books have reached readers令广大读者着迷的哈利波特系列 in over 200 territories in over 60 languages.已在200多个地区被译为60多种语言 The authorized translations came from separate publishing houses这些来自各出版社的译本 with little oversight from the author.很少经过作者的监管 So translators were not only tasked with adapting the text from因此译者不仅要将英文原文 English into their target languages and cultures,改编成目标语言和文化概念 but also making assumptions about Rowling’s intentions同时也要猜测罗琳的意图 and translating the spirit of her approach.翻译出她手法中的精髓 Their task was particularly challenging because the Harry Potter series is filled with这个任务极具挑战性 因为《哈利波特》系列作品充满了 invented words, alliteration, wordplay, and British cultural references.大量的新造词 头韵 双关语 英国文化典故引用 The main characters first names: Harry, Hermione,书中主角的名字 哈利 赫敏 and Ron mostly stayed the same across languages,罗恩 在不同语言中一般都保持不变 with small changes to accommodate different alphabets and phonetics.仅为适应不同字母系统和发音作微小调整 That’s easy enough for conventional names like Harry Potter.翻译像哈利·波特这种常见的名字很容易 But many of the other proper names in the book carry loaded meanings但书中其他很多特有的名字都有附加含义 meanings that would be lost if it’s not translated.这意味着如果翻译不出 这含义就会丢失 Take Severus Snape.比如西弗勒斯·斯内普 The name invokes severity and sounds like “snake.”这个名字有严厉的感觉 听起来像“蛇” So the Italian translator made the jump and named him因此意大利译者跳跃性地将其译为 Severus Piton —which is basically python.Severus Piton——基本就是巨蟒的意思 In French, he’s Severus Rogue在法语中 他是Severus Rogue which means Severus “Arrogance”.意思是西弗勒斯·“傲慢” As you can tell, both solutions sacrificed Rowling’s alliteration.如你所见 这两种方案都牺牲了罗琳的头韵 The name “Hogwarts” combines two English words,“霍格沃茨”结合了两个英语单词 but because the name stayed the same in most languages,但由于很多语言中这个单词保持了原状 those connotations were lost for those readers.读者无法领会到其内涵 In an attempt to preserve Rowling’s approach to the school’s name,为保持罗琳给学校起名的意图 the French translator used “Poudlard.”法国译者使用了“Poudlard” “Pou du lard” means lice of bacon or fat.意思是腌肉或肥肉上的虱子 The Hungarian version went with “Roxfort” a mix of the British university匈牙利版则用了“Roxfort” 这是英国牛津大学 Oxford and Roquefort—a well known blue cheese.和洛克福奶酪——一种有名的蓝纹奶酪的混合 The house names and founders, also experienced unique学院名称和创建者姓名 adaptations in some of the target languages.在有的目标语言中也经过了特别的调整 In Catalan the names became: Nícanor Griffindor,在卡特罗尼亚版中 它们变成了Nícanor Griffindor Sírpentin Slytherin, Mari Pau Ravenclaw, and Horténsia Hufflepuff.Sírpentin Slytherin Mari Pau Ravenclaw和Horténsia Hufflepuff There’s a ton of word play that happens in the Harry Potter books as well.像这样的文字游戏在哈利波特系列中有很多 The famous Diagon Alley, a play on the word “diagonally”著名的对角巷是“对角地”一词的变体 and the infamous Knockturn Alley from “nocturnally”.重名昭著的翻倒巷与“夜间地”同音 This type of pun is a real puzzle for translators,这种双关语对译者来说很难翻译 and most dropped it in favor of literal translations.因此他们大多选择了直译 放弃译出双关 The Spanish translator was able to rhyme at least with “callejón diagon.”而西班牙文版至少能在“callejón diagon”中体现韵律 And translators had several approaches to Quidditch,此外 对于魁地奇——一种融合了 an invented game made from the invented words Quaffle, Bludger, and Snitch—鬼飞球 游走球和金色飞贼的自创游戏 the 3 types of balls used in the game.译者们也有不同的翻译方式 In Spanish, the words were not changed.这些单词在西班牙文中没有变化 The French translator kept the word Quidditch but changed the names of the balls.法国译者保留了“魁地奇”但改变了其中三种球的名称 And others changed the game’s name altogether.有些翻译甚至完全改变了这个游戏的名字 In Dutch, quidditch is “Zwerkbal.”在荷兰文译本中 它是“黑球” In Norwegian, it’s “Rumpeldunk.”在挪威译本中 它是“朗普斯金” OWLS and NEWTS, standardized tests in the wizarding world,魔法世界的标准考试 普通巫师和高级巫师等级考试 weren’t always able to retain their animal acronyms.不总能在翻译时保留其有动物名称意义的首字母缩写 But in Swedish their implied meanings remained while the wording was changed.不过在瑞典译本中 这个意义以改变用词为代价保留了 OWLs became Grund Examen i Trollkonst高级巫师考试被译为Grund Examen i Trollkonst or G.E.T meaning goat in Swedish.缩写GET在瑞典语中意为山羊 And NEWTs were changed to Fruktansvrt Utmattande Trollkarls Test普通巫师等级考试被译为“Fruktansvrt Utmattande Trollkarls Test” or F.U.T.T. derived from “futtig” meaning measly or mean.缩写FUTT来自“futtig” 意思是微不足道的 The infamous anagram of Tom Marvolo Riddle’s name was altered邪恶的汤姆·马沃罗·里德尔的名字 by many translators to achieve the same revelation是“我是伏地魔”的变位词 of “I Am Lord Voldemort.”很多译者都为保留这个语意对译文做了改动 In Danish, Tom is named “Romeo G. Detlev Jr.”在丹麦译本中 它被译为“Romeo G·Detlev Jr” and in French he is “Tom Elvis Jedusor”在法语中他是“Tom Elvis Jedusor” which was extra clever because “Jeu du sort” means “fate riddle.”这个翻译尤其巧妙 因为“Jeu du sort”意思是“命运之谜” Culturally, the Harry Potter series is unmistakably British从文化角度看 哈利波特系列无疑是英国的 but translating that for a global group of readers wasn’t easy.但将其翻译给全球范围的读者并不容易 Some food items were changed to make them less foreign for the target country.为了减少外来感 许多食物名称都被替换 Sherbet lemons, a popular candy item in Britain,柠檬雪宝 一种很受欢迎的英国甜品 became Krembo, a chocolate covered sweet from Israel.在以色列译本中变成了Krembo 一种裹着巧克力的以色列甜品 Crisps became chips in the US在美国版中 薯条由Crisps改译为Chips and in the Arabic version, bacon became eggs.而在阿拉伯文译本中 培根变成了鸡蛋 Sometimes a foreign setting undergoes translation too.有时外国的陌生故事背景也相应地进行了转换 For the Ukrainian translation, the atmosphere of an English boarding school was swapped out for an orphanage.在乌克兰的译本中 英国寄宿学校被替换成了孤儿院 In the books and films, Hagrid has a provincial west country accent.无论在书中还是电影里 海格都有英国西部的乡下口音 Hagrid: “No? Blimey Harry, didn’t you ever wonder海格:“莫得?哎呦哈利 你就莫有想过 where your mum and dad learned it all?”这些你老子跟你娘是搁那达学的么?” “You’re a wizard, Harry.”“你是一巫师 哈利” For the Japanese translations, it was replicated by using Tōhoku dialect, which is a pastoral accent from northeastern Japan.日语译本使用了日本东北地区的方言作为替代 Other translators chose to have Hagrid simply speak more informally,其他译者只是简单地将他的语言翻译得不那么正式 while others dropped his accent entirely.有的甚至完全放弃了翻译他的口音 Despite translators’ best efforts to remain true to the text尽管译者们在保留文本原意上做出了很大努力 some things still were lost in translation.很多东西还是在翻译中流失了 In the mainland Chinese editions of Harry Potter中国大陆的《哈利·波特》译本 there were footnotes to explain puns and cultural references.附有解释双关语和文化内涵的脚注 The Spanish translator sometimes used italics to signal an invented word with no translation.西班牙译者有时直接用斜体标出原文的新造词 But in the end, it doesn’t matter if you’re reading Harry Potter and但是归根结底 你读的到底是原版《哈利·波特与魔法石》 Philosopher’s Stone or the many translations of it.还是它的译本并不重要 One thing that always seems to translate因为有一样东西总能翻译出来 is the love fans around the world share for tales of那就是全世界的粉丝对“大难不死的男孩” “The Boy Who Lived.”这一故事的热爱
  • 2021-08-24如果闪电雷暴永不停止会怎样?[Lightning][闪电声] Your body is shaking and you’re feeling nauseous.你的身体在颤抖 你也感到想吐 There’s a sharp pain in your chest,你的胸口剧烈地疼痛着 and with each passing moment, it gets harder and harder to breathe.每过去一刻 呼吸就变得愈加困难 And even harder to stop crying!甚至忍不住大喊! Don’t worry. It’s not a heart attack.别担心 这不是心脏病 You are just experiencing a bout of astrophobia.你只是在经历一阵雷电恐惧症 你并不孤单 Astrophobia is the third most common phobia in the U. S.雷电恐惧症是美国第三常见的恐惧症 但这有什么恐惧的呢? This is What If这里是《自然无常》 And here’s what would happen If lightening storms never stopped这里是 如果闪电雷暴永不停止会如何? If you couldn’t guess要是猜不出来 雷电恐惧症是对电闪雷鸣的恐惧 And while you might be able to keep your cool in a storm.你也许能够在一场风暴中保持冷静 Lightning is undeniably a force to be reckoned with.但闪电 无疑是一种不容小觑的力量 A single bolt of lightning can have up to 1 billion volts of electricity.仅仅一束闪电就有高达十亿伏的电压 That’s more than enough power to start massive fires,它的能量足以引起多场大火 destroy homes, and take lives.摧毁家园 夺走生命 As many as 24,000 people die from lightning strikes each year.每年多达2.4万人死于闪电袭击 But if lightning storms raged 24/7,但如果闪电雷暴每天持续不停地咆哮 the number of deaths would get a lot higher.死亡人数就会大很多 If you want to escape a lifetime of thunder and lightning,如果你想脱离永不停止的雷电 you should consider moving to Egypt,你就应该考虑搬去埃及 or the Patagonia region of South America, or Antarctica.或南美洲的巴塔哥尼亚地区 或南极洲 Those are the three places that are virtually untouched那3个地方基本不会 by the 8 million bolts of lightning that hit Earth each day.被那每天八百万道袭击地球的闪电影响 As for the rest of the world,至于世界的其他地方 a never-ending lightning storm would force us to rethink our priorities.一场永不停止的闪电雷暴会迫使我们重新思考优先事项 Wildfires would pose a constant threat,山火会是一个持续的威胁 and we’d likely be fighting several at once, the whole year ’round!而我们可能一整年都要时刻对抗各处的山火! We’d need to devote more resources to combatting these wildfires,我们会需要投放更多的资源来扑灭这些山火 not only to protect ourselves,这不仅是为了保护我们自身 but to preserve wildlife, ecosystems,也是为了保护野生动物 生态系统 and valuable natural resources.以及珍贵的自然资源 We’d also have to update the way we build buildings.我们也会需要更新我们的建筑方式 How could anyone learn, or get any work done,有谁能够在雷声轰隆不断的情况下 with the constant sound of thunder booming in their ears?学习或完成工作呢? We’d need to make soundproof walls and windows我们需要安装隔音墙和隔音窗 to block out the harsh noise.来隔断刺耳的噪声 We’d also put lightning rods at the top of every building.我们也需要在每座建筑物的顶端安装避雷针 And at the bottom, hopefully something better than sandbags.同时在底部 希望有比沙袋更有用的东西 Thunderstorms are almost always accompanied by rain, snow, or hail.雷暴几乎总是伴随着雨雪或冰雹 So if lightning storms never stopped,因此 如果闪电雷暴永不停止 constant flooding would be a huge issue.持续的洪水就会成为一大问题 And even below ground, never-ending lightning storms甚至在地表下 永不停止的闪电雷暴 would require a complete upheaval of our plumbing systems.将需要我们大幅度改变下水管道系统 You might already know that你可能早就知道 lightning tends to hit the tallest object in the area,闪电往往会击中一个地区内最高的物体 but its charge can travel in all directions.但它的电荷可以向各个方向传递 So when lightning strikes a house,所以 当闪电击中一所房子时 it can send an electrical charge all the way down to its metal plumbing pipes.它就会传出一束电荷一路直达房子的金属管道 To prevent this risk,为了预防这种风险 we’d be better off switching to PVC pipes for plumbing, which don’t conduct electricity.我们最好把管道改为不导电的PVC管 While never-ending lightning storms would be very inconvenient,虽然永不停止的闪电雷暴会造成极大的不便 and incredibly dangerous,和巨大的危险 “Why won’t it stop?”“为什么不停下来?” there’s a secret benefit to lightning that we don’t usually think about.闪电其实有一个隐秘的好处 我们通常想不到它 闪电能产生臭氧 which is an essential gas in our atmosphere那是大气层中的一种重要气体 that protects the Earth from the Sun’s harmful UV rays.它保护地球免受太阳紫外线的伤害 Bursts of lightning trigger chemical reactions一阵阵的闪电会触发化学反应 that release nitrogen-oxygen compounds.该反应会释放出氮氧化物 These compounds react with the oxygen in our atmosphere to create ozone,这些化合物与大气中的氧气反应产生臭氧 which shields us from solar radiation.它会保护我们免受太阳的辐射 So while lightning can be loud and scary,所以 虽然闪电可能很响 也很吓人 keep in mind that it’s also working to protect you.但是要记住 它也一直在保护你 We’ll never live in a world where lightning storms never stop,我们永远不会生活在一个闪电雷暴永不停止的世界 but with climate change on the rise,但随着气候变化的加剧 we might expect to see more lightning storms.我们可能会看到更多的闪电雷暴 一项研究表明 地球温度每上升1度 闪电活动预期会增加12% If that’s true, by the turn of the century,如果这真的发生 那在本世纪末 the U.S. could see a 50% increase in lightning strikes.美国看到闪电雷暴的次数应该会增加50% Then again, a newer study suggests that warming temperatures will actually但同时 一项更新的研究表明 到本世纪末 reduce the number of lightning storms by 15% by the turn of the century.温度变暖将减少15%的闪电雷暴次数 But whether we get more or less,但不管我们经历更多或更少的闪电雷暴 and whether you hate it or love it,也不管你喜欢还是讨厌它 the world needs lightning.世界需要闪电 And who says we couldn’t use a little spark every now and then too?而且谁说我们不会时不时想要有一点小火花呢? But if you want to see something that’s even more shocking,但如果你想看到一些更加惊人的事情 think about what would happen if a massive solar storm hit Earth!想想 如果一场巨大的太阳风暴撞击地球会发生什么! Well, that’s a story for another WHAT IF.呃 那就是另一个《自然无常》的故事了
  • 2021-08-24如果南极洲是雨林会怎样?About 90 million years ago,大约九千万年前 the frozen realm of Antarctica冰天雪地的南极洲 used to be a lush, swampy, temperate forest,曾是一片繁茂松软 气候温和的沼泽森林 similar to those found in New Zealand today.与现在于新西兰发现的森林相似 The rainforest managed to thrive,即使在有四个月极夜 even with four months of polar night,没有阳光的情况下 when there was no sunlight.雨林依然茁壮生长 What if this ancient rainforest假如 这片古老的森林 decided it was time to make a comeback?觉得是时候卷土重来 将会怎样? What if Antarctica became a rainforest?假如南极洲变成了雨林 将会怎样? Would this work out well for us?这会对我们有什么好处吗? Or be devastated for the human race?还是说会毁灭人类呢? This is WHAT IF这里是“WHAT IF”节目 a history would happen如果南极洲是一片雨林 if Antarctica were a rainforest.可能会发生的事情 Rainforests are the oldest living ecosystems on land,雨林是大陆上最古老的生态系统 and there is complex as they are diverse.它们既复杂又多样化 They’re home to over half of the planet’s plant and animal species它是地球上超过一半动植物的家园 while only covering 6% of the Earth’s surface.但却只占了地球表面积的6% Just 10 km² of rainforest只有10平方公里大小的雨林 can contain up to 1,500 flowering plants,就可以容纳多达1500种开花植物 750 different species of trees,750种不同的树 400 species of birds,400种鸟类 and 150 species of butterflies.以及150种蝴蝶 Antarctica has an area of 14 million km²南极洲占地1400km² which makes it about 1.4 times bigger than Europe,这代表它是欧洲的1.4倍大 and almost twice the size of Australia.而且几乎是澳大利亚的两倍大 Now, imagine all that frozen tundra现在 想象一下所有的南极冻土 was lush with plant and animal life.到处充满了的动植物 If Antarctica was a rainforest,如果南极洲是一片雨林 it could consume more那么它就可以消耗 of the world’s carbon dioxide,地球上更多的二氧化碳 reducing the amount in the atmosphere.减少大气中的二氧化碳含量 That could be very helpful这会非常有利于 in our fight against climate change.我们与气候变化作斗争 There could be new resources for us to exploit,那里可能会有新资源供我们开发 such as plants for medicines and food,例如可药用或食用的植物 more trees for buildings and fancy furniture.很多可用于建筑及高档家具的树木 Awesome, right?很棒 对吧? But there is a downside.但是这也不好的一面 Before we would be able to exploit these new resources,在我们可以开发 这些新资源之前 we would need to increase the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.我们需要增加大气中的二氧化碳 Carbon dioxide helps to heat the Earth’s atmosphere.二氧化碳会加快 地球的大气变暖进度 The current levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide目前大气中二氧化碳的含量 won’t be able to support a massive temperate rainforest in Antarctica.让南极洲变成大片的温带雨林 But as we know,但是我们都知道 increasing carbon dioxide is a bad idea.增加二氧化碳是个糟糕的办法 It would be extremely harmful这会是非常有害的 and only add fuel to the fire that is climate change.这只会是在气候变化上 火上浇油 And with Antarctica going through its green makeover,随着南极洲进行它的绿色改造 massive amounts of ice would melt.大量的冰将会融化 This means there would be a less white area to reflect sunlight,这意味着能反射阳光的白色区域将减少 and more dark area to absorb warmth.而吸收热量的黑色区域将增加 That would accelerate climate change这将加速气候变化 to the point that the Earth wouldn’t even be hospitable for us.甚至让地球变得不适合我们居住 But would the carbon dioxide consumed by the new rainforest但是 新雨林消耗的二氧化碳 balance out the increased warming?能否抵消全球变暖的影响呢? Well, here’s the problem.这 就是问题所在 We don’t know.我们不知道 Current studies haven’t been able to come up with an answer to this question.目前的研究还不能得到这个问题的答案 So, you feel lucky?那么 你觉得幸运? Well, do you?你会这样觉得吗? The loss of ice would also impact冰川的消失也会影响到 the species that currently inhabit that area.目前居住在这一地区的物种 Oh no, not the penguins!哦 不 不要是企鹅! And to make matters worse,更糟糕的是 ice doesn’t just disappear,冰不会凭空消失 It melts.它会融化 All that water would have to go somewhere.所有的水都要流向某个地方 The Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition南极和南大洋联盟预估 estimates that sea levels would rise at least 60 m (200 ft).海平面将上升至少60米(200英尺) Florida,佛罗里达 the Amazon river basin,亚马逊河流域 and Central China,和中国中部 they’d all be underwater.它们都将沉入水中 Between one and two billion people would be displaced.大约有10亿到20亿人将会流离失所 That is, unless they want to go the way of Atlantis.除非他们想重蹈亚特兰蒂斯的覆辙 Well, it can’t get any worse, can it?不能再糟了 对吧? Uh呃 Our ocean currents would be disrupted by the influx of water.我们的洋流会因水的涌入而中断 So what does all this mean for you?那么 这一切对你来说意味着什么呢? Well, the changing ocean currents could洋流的变化可能会 seriously mess up the Earth’s weather patterns.严重扰乱地球的气候模式 Agricultural land that we depend on for food could be turned into deserts.我们赖以生存的农田可能会变成沙漠 Deserts could be turned into flooded plains.沙漠可能变成洪水泛滥的平原 “dogs and cats, living together, mass hysteria!”“简直就如猫狗同住 混乱不堪!” “Enough, I get the point!”“够了 我明白你的意思了!” We can only guess where these changes might occur由于地球天气系统的复杂性 because of how complex the Earth’s weather system is.我们只能猜测这些变化可能发生在哪里 So, could Antarctica turn into a rainforest?那么 南极洲会变成热带雨林吗? Well, it’s already starting to happen.其实这已经开始了 Climate change is currently turning Antarctica green.气候变化正在使南极洲变绿 If we don’t curb our greenhouse gas emissions,如果我们不控制温室气体的排放 our planet is going to continue to heat up,我们的地球将继续升温 and ice is going to continue to melt.冰川将继续融化 It is possible that eventually,可能 最后 we could turn Antarctica into a green continent.我们会把南极洲变成一个绿色的大陆 But it may lead to devastating consequences for our survival.但它可能会给我们的生存带来毁灭性的后果 And if Antarctica did become a rainforest,如果南极洲真的变成了雨林 that would mean a lot of uncharted territory to explore.这意味着有很多未知领域需要探索 In the Amazon Rainforest alone,仅仅在亚马孙雨林 a new species is discovered every other day.每隔一天就会发现一个新物种 What could be hiding in a new Antarctic rainforest?在一个新的南极州雨林里又隐藏着什么呢? Could we finally find some long lost creatures,我们最终能否找到一些失踪已久的生物 like Bigfoot?比如大脚怪? Well, that’s a story for another WHAT IF.好吧 这又是另一个“WHAT IF”的故事
  • 2021-08-24为鲸所吞,尚能活否?Something is lurking in the water.有东西正潜伏于水下 Do you see it?你看见了吗? Close calls like this happen with whales more often像这种从鲸鱼口中死里逃生的几率 than you might expect.比你想象的要高 And although the people in these videos尽管这些视频中的人 got away relatively unscathed,都相对毫发无损地离开了 there’s no denying that they were just meters但不可否认 稍有差池 away from being a whale’s lunch.他们就会成为鲸鱼的午餐 如果他们没这么幸运呢? 人类能被鲸鱼吞下后幸存下来吗? has it ever happened before?这种事儿在之前发生过吗? this is what if这里是《自然无常》 and here is what happen if you were swallowed by a whale下面就是你被鲸鱼吞下后会发生的事情 If you’ve never seen a whale up close,如果你从未近距离观察过鲸鱼 it’s hard to comprehend just how monstrous they can really be.就很难想象鲸鱼有多么巨大 To put it in perspective, the blue whale is the largest animal on the planet!事实上 蓝鲸是地球上最大的动物! Its tongue alone weighs as much as an elephant, and仅舌头就和一头大象一样重 it can fit anywhere between 400 and 500 people in its mouth.它的嘴能装下400到500人 But we wouldn’t have to worry about one of these guys swallowing us anytime soon,但是我们无需担心会被某条鲸鱼吞下 because their anatomy makes it nearly impossible.因为从蓝鲸的生理构造上看 这几乎不可能 Instead, we should be more concerned我们反而更应该注意 with their smaller cousins, sperm whales.比它们体态更小的亲戚:抹香鲸 In 1891,1891年 reports emerged that a man had been swallowed by one of these whales,据报道 有个人曾被抹香鲸吞食 and although he lived to tell the tale,尽管他活了下来并讲述了自己的经历 he would never be the same again…却再不想“重蹈覆辙” According to the story, James Bartley was swallowed故事声称 詹姆斯·巴特利 when a whale attacked his ship,是在鲸鱼攻击他的船时被吞下的 and he wasn’t retrieved until the following day.直到第二天才被发现 When the crew found and killed the whale,船员找到并杀死这只鲸鱼后 they quickly brought it on board their ship and cut it open,迅速将鲸鱼抬上船并剖开它的肚子 revealing an unconscious but very alive James Bartley.才发现失去意识但仍活着的詹姆斯·巴特利 His face and arms were bleached white, and he was blind,他的脸和手臂都变白了 同时他也失明了 all thanks to the stomach acids of the whale.全都是因为鲸肚子里的胃酸 However, as the years went by,然而 随着时间流逝 people started poking holes in this story人们开始发现这个故事的漏洞 and questioned whether James had really been swallowed by a whale.并质疑詹姆斯是否真的曾被鲸鱼吞下过 I mean, wouldn’t the stomach acids do more damage than just bleaching his skin?胃酸难道只漂白了他的皮肤而已吗? Well, with the power of science, we took a closer look,利用科学技术 我们做了近一步的分析 and we quickly discovered that if you get swallowed by a whale,我们很快发现 如果你被鲸鱼吞了 coming back out with shiny white skin would be the least of your worries.皮肤变白是最不需要担心的 Okay, so the first thing you’d have to worry about首先要担心的就是 once you were swallowed would be getting shredded to pieces一旦被抹香鲸吞下 by the sperm whale’s impressive set of teeth.你会被它锋利的牙齿撕成碎片 Each tooth is approximately 20 centimeters long,每一颗牙都接近20厘米长 that’s about the length of an average chef knife,差不多是一把厨师刀的长度 and whales have anywhere from 40 to 50 of these.而抹香鲸拥有40-50颗这样的牙齿 Let’s say you’re lucky enough to make it past all of them,假设你运气好 躲过了所有的牙齿 next you’d begin your descent down the throat.接下来你会滑到它的喉咙 Not only would it be dark and slimy down here,那里不仅又黑又黏 but you’d also find it hard to breathe还会让你呼吸困难 due to the lack of oxygen and an increase in methane gas.因为那里缺少氧气且甲烷众多 As the whale’s throat muscles constricted in and out to help force you down,随着鲸鱼的喉部肌肉收缩 你会加速向下 you’d also start to feel hydrochloric acid beginning to eat away at your skin.你会开始感觉到盐酸腐蚀你的皮肤 I know what you’re thinking,我知道你在想什么 we just got into this whale, and我们只是刚被鲸鱼吞下 James Bartley’s story already seems pretty fishy.詹姆斯·巴特利的故事仍然充满疑点 Well, you’re not wrong, but what would be the fun in stopping now???你没错 但是接下去会发生什么有趣的呢 So, next you’d be dropped into the first,接下来 你会掉进鲸鱼四个胃中 and largest, of the whale’s four stomachs.第一个也是最大的胃 You’d probably be in there for a while, but你可能会在那里待上一会儿 the bright side is you might have some light好消息是 你可能会看到一些光亮 in the form of a bioluminescent squid or two being noshed on after your arrival;这是在你后边进来的一两条发光鱿鱼发出的光 sperm whales love the neon flying squid.抹香鲸喜欢这种游动发光的鱼 You’d better enjoy this brief light show, because你最好享受一下这短暂的灯光秀 after this you’d just be tossed from one stomach to the next,因为接下来 你会从一个胃冲到下一个 with the acids breaking down almost all of your body那里的酸几乎可以分解你身体的每个部位 until you’re just a bunch of bones直到剩下一堆骨头 being unceremoniously ejected from the whale’s anus.被鲸鱼毫不客气地排泄出来 So yeah, it’s pretty safe to say that所以 可以很确定的说 there’s no way you could be swallowed whole by a whale你是不可能被鲸鱼吞下了 and live to tell the tale.还活着出来讲故事的 Sorry, James. You may have been able to fool people in the 1890s,抱歉詹姆斯 你也许可以忽悠19世纪90年代的人 but we’re on to you now.但我们不会相信你 As vast as they are and as monstrous as they might seem to us,尽管鲸鱼对我们来说很大很可怕 whales actually have no interest in eating humans.实际上它们对吃人不感兴趣 And if they could talk, they would probably make a point of telling us that.如果能说话 它们可能会告诉人类的 But that’s a topic for another WHAT IF.但那是下期《自然无常》的话题了
  • 2021-08-24如果美元变得一文不值怎么办?You decide to go out and do some shopping.你决定外出购物 All you really need is some bread, milk,你真正需要的是一些面包 牛奶 cereal, some toothpaste and some toilet paper.麦片 牙膏 厕纸之类的东西 Ok, so ,first things first,you have to load up your wheelbarrow with bills,那么 首先你要把你的手推车装满钞票 like really stack the thing, because your currency has lost its value.真的需要装满 因为你的货币已经贬值了 This happened in the 1920s in Germany20世纪20年代德国发生了这样的情况 and people did quite literally go shopping with wheelbarrows full of cash.人们的确用装满现金的手推车去购物 It was down to something called hyperinflation, and it made the German mark pretty much worthless.这归因于恶性通货膨胀 德国马克也因此大幅贬值 Back then, one dollar was worth 1 trillion marks.那时 1美元相当于1万亿德国马克 Could this ever happen to the dollar,美元会发生这种情况吗? and what would happen if it did?如果美元贬值会发生什么呢? That’s what we’ll find out today.那就是我们今天的主题 First of all, this hasn’t just happened in Germany.首先 这不仅仅在德国发生过 Currency collapses have happened in Argentina,货币崩盘曾发生在阿根廷 Ukraine, Iceland, Hungary, Zimbabwe and Venezuela.乌克兰 冰岛 匈牙利 津巴布韦和委内瑞拉 It basically involves a country’s currency being deemed as having very little value.它基本上意味着人们认为一个国家的货币价值很小 There’s no trust in that currency, and so it becomes almost worthless.人们不信任这个货币 因此它几乎变得一文不值 So, if we take a hypothetical situation in which the dollar suddenly started losing its value所以 如果我们假设美元突然开始贬值的情况 what would follow is anyone who owns dollars would want to sell them随之而来的就是任何拥有美元的人会想出售美元 but no one of course would want to buy them.但是 当然啦 没有人想购买美元 People would start panicking.人们会开始恐慌 Foreign governments that owned dollars in the form of Treasury bills, notes, and bonds,以国库券 票据 债券等形式拥有美元的外国政府 would want to get rid of them.会想处理掉美元 Investors would also scramble to off-load their dollars.投资者也会争先恐后地转手他们的美元 This would be the beginning of a collapse, and the worst possible scenario is这将是崩溃的开始 最坏的可能就是 the dollar becoming pretty much worthless.美元变得几乎一文不值 If the dollar was worthless, imported goods would cost more.如果美元不值钱 进口商品将花费更多美元 When imported goods start costing more, the price of things goes up.进口商品花钱更多 物价就会上涨 This is called inflation.这就是通货膨胀 So, when you have hyperinflation, a loaf of bread might cost a million dollars.当出现恶性通货膨胀时 一条面包可能花费一百万美元 It sounds a bit crazy, but it’s happened in other countries.这听起来有点疯狂 但已经在其他国家发生过 People might then start getting paid millions and millions, just so they can buy things.那时人们可能会花费数百万美元才能购买商品 Outside the country, the currency is down on its knees.在其他国家 美元也贬值了 There are two scenarios in which this could happen to the dollar.如果美元发生贬值 将有两种可能的情况 Before a total collapse, the dollar would have to weaken somehow在彻底崩溃前 美元必须以某种方式贬值 which is kinda the start of the crisis.这也是危机的开端 It’s the match that lights the fire.如同导火索 The dollar has declined before,美元经历过贬值 and in the years between 2002 and 2018, it lost 6 percent of its value.在2002年至2018年间 美元贬值了百分之六 That basically made it weaker,那基本上让美元更弱了 and so you could get more dollars when buying them with another currency当你用另一种货币购买美元时 你能得到更多美元 such as the Euro.比如欧元 You might ask why it lost its value during that time period,你可能会问 为什么美元在那个时期贬值呢 and the reason was because the U.S. debt went up from $6 trillion to $22 trillion.因为美国的债务从6万亿上升到22万亿 At the end of 2019 it was $23.2 trillion.2019年底为23.2万亿美元 The dollar could become weaker if the government decided to weaken the dollar,如果政府决定削弱美元 美元可能会更加疲软 so it could pay off its debts.这样政府就可以偿还债务 There’s another reason why the dollar could suddenly lose lots of its value.美元会突然贬值的另一个原因是 As you may know, the dollar is the world’s reserve currency.你也许知道 美元是世界储备货币 That’s good for the strength of the dollar其他国家使用美元作为世界货币 since countries use it as a global currency.对于美元的霸权地位是有好处的 In fact, about a half of border to border transactions are made with the U.S. dollar.事实上 大约一半的双边贸易都是以美元结算的 For this reason, the Central Banks of the world must have a reserve of dollars.因此 各国的中央银行必须要有美元储备 This includes entities such as the U.S. Federal Reserve System, the Bank of England,包括美联储 英格兰银行 the Bank of Japan, the European Central Bank and more.日本央行 欧洲央行等 About 61 percent of foreign reserves are in U.S. dollars.大约有61%的外汇储备是美元 The Euro is the next favored currency,第二受欢迎的货币是欧元 but it only accounts for about 30 percent of foreign currency reserves held in Central banks.但欧元大约仅占各国央行外汇储备的30% Okey dokey, that’s all fine and dandy, but what if the dollar loses more value这很好 但如果美元大幅贬值 and countries holding it start thinking, hey, our currency is better持有美元的国家开始想 “我们的货币更好 and can be trusted more than your dollar.比美元更值得信赖” 将会怎么样呢? What if China said, look, the yuan should be the world’s reserve currency.假如中国说人民币应该是世界储备货币 What if the EU says the Euro is the top dog.欧盟说欧元是最有话语权的货币 将会如何呢? If all these countries are holding so many dollars and it starts to weaken如果这些国家持有大量美元 而美元开始贬值 they would be right to be just a little bit concerned.他们会一点担心是必然的 A lot of the U.S. debt is owned by the U.S. government, the Federal Reserve and investors,大量的美国债务被美国政府 美联储和投资者持有 but around six trillion dollars is owned by other countries.但是有6万亿左右的美元被其他国家持有 The biggest owners of U.S. debt are China and Japan.美国债务的最大持有国是中国和日本 These debts are in the form of those treasuries we just talked about.这些债务是以我们刚谈过的国库券的形式存在的 So, what if China and Japan just decided to dump their treasuries and cash out?如果中国和日本决定卖出国库券并变现会发生什么呢? This would cause widespread panic, but would that really happen?这会导致广泛的恐慌 但那真的会发生吗? Well, if they did sell their dollars and the dollar lost value,如果他们真的卖出持有的美元并且美元贬值 they would be in trouble.他们也将陷入困境 That’s because their major consumer is the USA.因为他们的主要消费者是美国 If they do something that puts the dollar into a decline,如果他们做了让美元贬值的事 how will America be able to buy their products?美国将如何有能力购买他们的产品呢? It would be like cutting off your nose to spite your face.这就像搬起石头砸自己的脚 As one expert put it, why would you want to make your best customer go bankrupt.如专家所说 你为什么想让你最好的客户破产呢? But just for the sake of today’s show, let’s say China and Japan did dump their dollars但在今天节目中我们假设 中国和日本的确抛售了美元 and others followed, and the dollar decline went into full swing.其他国家也紧随其后 美元贬值如火如荼 Globally people would be off-loading their dollars and buying more stable currencies全世界的人们将抛售手中的美元并买入更稳定的货币 such as the Euro.比如欧元 Or, they might put their money into commodities or something such as gold.或者他们可能购买商品或黄金之类的东西 This would lead to interest rates in the U.S. going up and it would lead to inflation.这会导致美国的利率上升并产生通货膨胀 Ok, so with a weak dollar the U.S. could export lots of stuff at a cheap price由于美元疲软 美国能以低廉的价格出口商品 but over time the inflation and high interest rates would cause trouble.但是久而久之 通货膨胀和高利率会导致麻烦 Then you’ve got a recession on your hands, and at worst, a depression.然后你就会面临经济衰退 甚至是经济大萧条 But what about you during all this turmoil.在这场动荡之中你怎么办呢? Well, if you’ve been clever, you’ve diversified investments not attached to the dollar.如果你足够聪明 你会分散投资 不依附美元 Hey, you might even have a bit of gold你甚至可能会持有一点黄金 maybe even a great big pot of gold at the end of a rainbow.甚至找到宝藏拥有一大桶金子 You might have transferable skills and be able to do business in other countries.你可能有转移投资能力 能在其他国家做生意 You should probably have a passport, too, because you might want to travel你很可能还需要一个护照 因为你想去旅游 and find work elsewhere.或者在别处找工作 If we look at the Great Depression of 1929 in the U.S.,如果我们回顾1929年的美国经济大萧条 unemployment increased by 25 percent失业人数增长了25% and the number of homeless people also increased.无家可归者的数量也增加了 Housing prices went down 30 percent and lots of banks failed.房价下跌了30% 大量银行倒闭 International trade was down 65 percent.国际贸易下降了65% What also happened is agricultural products lost their value与此同时 农产品失去了价值 and farmers in the Midwest suffered what was called the Dust Bowl Drought.中西部农民遭受了沙尘暴干旱 Average incomes all over the U.S. dropped by 40 percent,美国平均收入下降了40% and some of the worst hit became homeless or lived in slums.在一些受灾最严重的地区 人们无家可归或者住在贫民窟 In 1928 the unemployment rate was 3.2 percent1928年的失业率是百分之三点二 and five years later it was a massive 24.9 percent.五年之后高达百分之二十四点九 It was a grand old mess它是一个大烂摊子 and made the lives of many American’s miserable.导致了许多美国人悲惨的生活 The good news is, we don’t see this happening and neither do economic experts.好消息是我们和经济专家都没有看到这种情况发生 The global implications would be too catastrophic如果作为储备货币的美元从现在起不再流通 and the dollar as the reserve currency isn’t going anywhere for now..对于全球来说将是灾难性的影响 We think you now need to know a bit more about the U.S. debt,我们认为你需要了解更多关于美国债务的信息 so we advise you to watch one of these videos.所以我们建议你看看其中一个视频 Head to, “What If The US Paid Off Its Debt?”链接 “如果美国偿清了债务会怎么样” or take a look at this, “How Can the US Keep a Trillion Dollar Debt?”或者看看这个 “美国怎样维持1万亿美元的债务”
  • 2021-08-24远古生命之假想In 7.5 billion years,在未来75亿年内 the Sun will expand and engulf our planet,太阳会逐渐变大并吞噬地球 destroying all life as we know it.毁掉我们已知的所有生物 Of course, a mass extinction on Earth当然 这场地球上的大灭绝 could happen much sooner than that.也许会来的更快 It might even be our fault.甚至可能由人类一手造成 Sooner or later,迟早 humans might have to leave Earth人类也许会被迫离开地球 to find a new home.去寻找新的家园 But while that might sound scary,虽然听起来很可怕 not to mention impossible,但不代表不会发生 “What?”“什么?” Some say it’s already been done, millions of years ago据说 数百万年前 比人类弱小且智商低下的有机体 by organisms much smaller than us, and not nearly as smart.就已经引起过一次物种灭绝的情况 This is What If欢迎收看《自然无常》 and here’s what would happen If ancient life escaped from earth假如古生物逃离地球 会发生什么? Imagine that millions of years ago,想象一下 数百万年前 a comet sailed through the outer atmosphere of Earth.一颗彗星擦过地球大气层 The comet flew high enough to avoid burning up in the atmosphere,彗星离的够远 没有引起大气层燃烧 but just low enough to pick up some extremely determined microbes.但刚好带走些能在极端环境中生存的微生物 The stowaway microbes embedded themselves这些“偷渡”的微生物将自己 deep within the pores of the speeding comet,深藏在高速飞行的彗星孔隙中 sheltering themselves from the radiation of deep space.以避免被太空中的辐射所伤 Eons later,亿万年后 the comet crashed into a planet in another solar system.这颗彗星跟另外一个太阳系上的行星相撞 And the surviving microbes began to grow in their new home.彗星上幸存的微生物开始在该行星上繁衍 According to two astrophysicists at Harvard University,来自哈佛大学的两位天体物理学家声称 this might actually have happened.这有可能是真实发生过的 But if Earthly microbes did succeed但假如地球微生物真的成功 in trading our planet for a new one,找到了新的家园 does that mean that那是否意味着 we could one day do the same?有一天 我们也能做到? Microbes are small in size, but huge in numbers.微生物体形虽小 但数量巨大 The most recent estimates say that there are roughly one最新统计表明 trillion different microbe species living on earth地球上大约有一万亿种不同的微生物 And while we have yet to discover 99.999% of them,还有99.999%的微生物有待发现 the microbes we do know are vital to our survival.这些已知的微生物与人类的生存息息相关 At least 50% of the oxygen on earth地球上至少50%的氧气 is produced by photosynthetic microorganisms都是由光合微生物 like algae and cyanobacteria.例如藻类和蓝细菌产生的 And before the evolution of plants,在植物诞生之前 microbes were the only oxygen producers on Earth.微生物是地球上唯一能生产氧气的生物 So, with that in mind, and所以 考虑到 assuming humans would continue to rely on oxygen to survive,人类依赖氧气才能生存 we might actually need microbes in space想要在其他星球上生存下去 to support our lives on other planets.我们也许离不开太空微生物 If the “Earthly microbes hitchhiking on a comet millions of years ago”“地球微生物是数百万年前搭了彗星这辆便车来到地球上的” theory is correct,如果这个理论正确 then there could be another planet out there那么宇宙中可能有另一个 with a habitat that’s similar to ours on Earth.自然环境与地球相似的星球 Unfortunately, this “alternate Earth”不巧的是 这颗“备用地球” would be in another solar system.存在于另一个太阳系 And humans have only traveled as far as the Moon.而人类最远只能到达月球 The best way to test this theory检验这一理论的最好方法是 would be to send microbes to Mars,将微生物送到火星上 or other nearby “new Earth” candidates,或送到跟“备用地球”接近的星球上 with the hope that they’d be able to foster an atmosphere we could live in.希望这些微生物能创造出适合人类生存的环境 If the microbes we sent from Earth如果我们从地球送过去的微生物 succeeded in creating an atmosphere like ours成功造出跟地球相似的大气层 and laying the foundations of a food chain,并为食物链的演化创造出基础条件 we’d have a much better chance of building a new future for ourselves.我们就很有可能在未来创建新的家园 Unfortunately, it’s hard to predict how microorganisms will respond to be in space.很遗憾 我们很难预测微生物在太空会进化成什么样 In some cases, bacteria can become less harmful,在某些方面 细菌的危害会变小 but in other cases,但在另一些方面 they can grow faster and become much more dangerous.它们可能繁殖得更快 并变得十分危险 We don’t know how our microbes我们不知道地球上的微生物 could affect any existing eco-systems on other planets.会对其它星球的生态系统造成什么影响 They could become an invasive species它们可能是入侵物种 that would drive the native life on other planets给其它星球的原始生物 to the brink of extinction.带来灭顶之灾 And it’s hard to say how the microbes we sent而且也很难预测我们送到 would evolve on a new planet.另一颗星球上的微生物会进化成什么样子 Sure, we might get some new plants on a new planet,当然 这些微生物可能在另一颗星球上会进化成新的植物品种 but what kinds of plants?但 是什么样的植物呢 There’s also the fear that另一个可怕之处在于 if microbes can successfully planet-hop through space,如果微生物能在新的星球存活 then Earth is equally at risk of being hurt by them.那地球同样也会面临被它们破坏的风险 If alien microbes infected Earth,如果外来微生物入侵了地球 it could lead to the development of new diseases that we couldn’t cure.会导致无法治愈的新疾病蔓延开来 And without a cure to some unknown, untreatable alien epidemic没有对应的治疗方案 这些无法治愈的外来疾病 that might suddenly appear on our planet,就会瞬间席卷地球 we might be forced to leave our home world after all!最终 人类将不得不离开家园 But before you start aggressively searching for a place to buy但在开始积极搜索购买 NASA-approved space suits,NASA核准太空服之前 you should know that we’re far from having a fully-developed theory你要知道 我们对能穿越太空的微生物 on space-traveling microbes.知之甚少 After all, we’re still learning things about the biology of our atmosphere,毕竟 我们仍处于探索本土生物的阶段 which makes understanding how it might’ve been从中我们了解到这些微生物 hundreds of millions of years ago在亿万年前大概是以何种形式存在的 even more challenging.在探索的过程中还会遇到更多困难 We also don’t know just how long我们也不知道 even the most dedicated microbes could survive.生命力最顽强的微生物能存活多久 We know that tardigrades, for example, can live for decades,例如 我们知道缓步类动物有数十年的寿命 and they’re able to survive the harsh environment of space.它们能够在极端的太空环境中存活 But can tardigrades or anything else live long enough但缓步类动物或者其它微生物的寿命能否长到 to make it to an entirely different solar system?能穿越到达另一个太阳系? That remains to be seen.还有待研究 Or, maybe not.或是不可能实现 We don’t know exactly when humans might actually have to leave Earth,我们不知道人类会在何时离开地球 but what if we knew the exact time Earth was going die?但假如我们知道地球灭亡的准确时间呢? Well, that’s a story for another WHAT IF.当然 这是另一个《自然无常》要探讨的话题了
  • 2021-08-24电影中的婴儿There’s a pretty awesome scene in The Fate of the Furious《速度与激情》中有场非常精彩的戏 where Jason Statham fights a bunch of armed mercenaries on an airplane飞机上 杰森·斯坦森一边护着婴儿篮里可爱的宝宝 while holding an adorable baby in a carrier.一边与全副武装的雇佣兵打斗 I’ve always wondered how babies end up in situations like this.我一直好奇 这样的情况下 婴儿最后怎么样了 What kind of hoops do you have to jump through to cast babies in Hollywood?在好莱坞 你要遵守怎样的规定才能拍摄婴儿? You were gonna shoot a baby?“你要对一个孩子下手? You sick bastard.简直是丧心病狂” Besides babysitting, delivering newspapers, and, uh, wreath making,除了保姆 送报 呃 还有花环制作行业 show business is the only industry that can legally演艺行业是唯一 employ children under the age of 14可以合法雇佣14岁以下儿童的行业 In fact, they’ve been in movies almost since the birth of cinema.实际上 几乎从电影业之初 他们就出现在电影里了 I hate myself so much.“我真的很讨厌自己” Casting a baby isn’t as simple as casting a grown up actor though,拍婴儿并不比拍大人容易 For one: they don’t have to get their shift at Starbucks尽管他们无需为试镜 covered to go to an audition,而让别人帮忙在星巴克代班 but mostly because there are some special rules但主要原因是 拍摄婴儿时 producers have to follow when casting an infant.制片商必须遵守一些特别的规则 For example, in California,例如 在加利福尼亚 babies can only be on set for two consecutive hours per day,婴儿每天只能连续在片场待两小时 with actual work not exceeding 20 minutes “under any circumstances.”“无论如何” 他们实际工作时间不能超过20分钟 The state’s child labor laws also require that加州的童工法也规定 babies be at least 15 days old to be eligible for a work permit.至少15天大的婴儿才可以合法地得到工作许可 Which is good news for babies who can just chill这对于那些刚出生只会害怕的宝宝来说 during their literal first days on earth,是一件好事 but not so good for productions that have scenes with newborns但对那些要拍摄新生儿场景的作品则不然 because the thing is, if you’ve ever seen a baby that’s two weeks old,因为事实上 如果见过两周大的婴儿 you know that they don’t exactly look like a newborn anymore.你就知道 他们已经完全不像刚出生的样子了 In order to get past this hurdle, productions often try to cast preemies,为了解决这个问题 制片商通常选择拍摄早产儿 who look newborn even when they’re the required minimum of 15 days old,尽管他们出生15天了 但看上去仍像刚出生 and in a lot of places outside of California that’s perfectly legal.而且在加利福尼亚之外的很多地方 这样做完全合法 In 16 states there are actually zero regulations regarding minimum age for实际上 有16个州对电影中雇用婴儿的最低年龄 baby employment in films都没有限制性规定 and many other states have laws that are pretty lax.其他一些州的法律也相当宽松 In New Jersey for example a month-old baby can work five hours a day, five days a week像在新泽西 一个月大的婴儿一天可以工作5小时 一周工作5天 and in Louisiana they can be employed six hours a day, six days a week.在路易斯安那 他们可以一天工作6小时 一周6天 That’s more hours than I worked when I bagged groceries after I graduated college比我大学毕业后在杂货店打包货物的时间还长 and no I DO NOT want to talk about it.往事不堪回首啊 Most states also do nothing to protect the money that babies make.多数州也没有保护婴儿收入的规定 Only a few places follow the Coogan Law,只有少数地区遵守了《未成年明星权益保护法》 which requires that child actors be set up该法规定要给儿童演员设立 with a blocked trust account to protect their earnings.独立信托账户以保障他们的收入 The law is named after Jackie Coogan,该法律是以Jackie Coogan的名字命名的 an early 20th century child actor who was in他是20世纪早期的童星 a number of Charlie Chaplin films曾出演过多部卓别林电影 including the American classic The Kid.包括那部美国经典《寻子遇仙记》 As a child actor he reportedly earned as much as $4 million,据报道 他当童星赚的钱多达400万美元 but his parents squandered all his money by the time he became an adult.不过等到他成年 他的父母早已将他的钱挥霍一空 Because of his s***ty parents, moms and dads in these states正是由于他卑劣的父母 这些州规定 are required to set aside 15 persent of their minor’s income in a Coogan account,父母必须将孩子收入的15%存入未成年明星账户 which the child can access at the age of 18.以便孩子成年后使用该账户 Shooting with babies can be complicated, but the film industry has a way of working around it.和婴儿一起拍摄很麻烦 但电影业对此有解决之道 I would say 90 to 95 percent of jobs for babies and toddlers“可以说 婴幼儿90%到95%的拍摄工作 are exclusive to twins and triplets基本上是双胞胎和三胞胎做的 because two babies can play one character.因为两个婴儿能饰演同一个角色 So there’s two advantages there.这样有两个好处 Number one you can have them both come to set at the same time.一是你可以带他们同时去片场 So if Twin A gets fussy they can call in Twin B如果双胞胎A不安分 就可以换双胞胎B and they can use the babies back and forth.这样就可以持续拍摄下去 And the other thing is sometimes production will split their call times二是制片商有时分开拍摄他俩 so they’ll have one baby come in let’s say at 9:00 in the morning比如早上九点他们让一个婴儿开始拍摄 have another baby come in at 2:00 in the afternoon.下午两点让另一个婴儿过来拍摄 And so it extends their day.这样就能延长拍摄时间” Also half of all twins and almost all triplets are born premature,此外 近一半双胞胎和几乎所有三胞胎都是早产儿 so productions get more working hours and they look newborn.这样的话 制片商让婴儿工作更多时间并且看起来更像新生儿 Sean Penn had a different solution.不过西恩·潘没有走寻常路 He directed a movie that nobody saw called The Last Face他导演了一部冷门的电影《最后的模样》 where they put out a casting call for a one day old baby.要征集一个一天大的孩子 Since they were shooting in South Africa,因为他们在南非取景 where you can cast minors with the permission of the Department of Labour,在这儿 只要有人力资源部的批准 it was totally legal.拍摄未成年人就是完全合法的 Babies in show biz probably rake in big bucks right?演艺圈的儿童演员都赚了很多钱吧? Unfortunately… not.很不幸…并不是这样 Babies obviously can’t talk,婴儿显然不能说话 so they are usually classified as an “under 5”,所以他们常被归为“五句以下”的演员 a term that refers to an actor with less than five lines.就是在剧中台词少于五句的演员群体 It’s interesting because you can have a baby who is a recurring character on a TV show“有趣的是 你能在电视上看见一个婴儿反复出现 and has a name that the public can relate to.并且观众甚至还能记住他们的名字 But a lot of those babies are only getting paid但是好多婴儿一天的报酬 between 200 and 300 dollars a day.却只有200到300美元” So babies don’t really make a ton of money.所以婴儿并没有赚到大钱 And casting them sounds like kind of a nightmare —而且拍摄婴儿听起来就像某种噩梦 are there any other options?那还有其他的办法吗? Cut to American Sniper:我们来看《美国狙击手》 Not all of them are as fake as this one,虽然不是所有的婴儿都这么假 but plenty of productions resort to using fake babies,但很多制片商会选择拍摄假婴儿 at least for part of the shoot.至少部分镜头是这样的 Hey! Tend to my daughter please, right now!“嘿 马上放开我女儿!” It is quite common that you know they’ll use fake babies“众所周知 远景拍摄假婴儿是非常普遍的 for the far away scenes and then you know they’ll当特写或者拍面部的时候 hire a baby when they need a close up shot or a face shot.再雇用一个真婴儿” And there are robot babies out there that look pretty convincing.此外还有可以以假乱真的机械婴儿 And by convincing I mean terrifying.说以假乱真 我觉得有点吓人 I never thought I’d use a Mandy Moore clip in one of my videos but here we go:我从没想过自己会剪辑Mandy Moore的镜头 我们来看一下: They have this one robotic baby.“他们用一个机械婴儿 It’s weird guys.朋友们 它很诡异 I have two very emotional scenes我有两场 where I’m talking to a newborn in the hospital在医院和刚出生的婴儿说话 and I go to put my hand on the robotic baby并把手放在这个机械婴儿上的情感戏 and it’s like vibrating and like making these weird movements.它似乎在振动 而且看起来很不自然” Babies on screen aren’t going away anytime soon.短时间内 婴儿不会从荧幕上消失 So until producers find a cheap and easy CGI fix for the baby dilemma,所以 除非制片商能发现一种廉价容易的特效去解决这个困境 it looks like they’ll continue to have to work否则他们还要在相关规定之内 within the regulations that are set up.继续拍摄工作 Or they’ll just cast demonic robot infants who will destroy us all.不然他们只能用那些会毁了我们的邪恶机械婴儿拍摄了
  • 2021-08-24如果真的有鬼,怎么办?They’re spooky.它们很阴森 They’re scary.它们很吓人 But they’re probably not real.但它们不太可能是真的 Right?对吗? What if it was confirmed that ghosts were living among us?如果证实我们当中真的有鬼 怎么办? Should we be worried?我们应该担心吗? What would they be made of?它们会由什么构成? And who you gonna call?你要向谁呼救? These is what if这是《自然无常》 and here is for what happend if ghosts were real.这一期是《如果真的有鬼 怎么办?》 So, do you think ghosts exist?你觉得真的有鬼吗? If you do, you’re not alone.如果有 那么你不是一个人 A 2017 study from a California university found that2017年加利福尼亚大学的一项研究发现 over 50% of Americans超过一半的美国人 believe that a spirit of some sort could exist.相信鬼魂可能真的存在 Not only that,不仅如此 but a Pew Research study found that一项皮尤研究中心的报告指出 18% of Americans believe they’ve seen a ghost.18%的美国人相信他们看见过鬼 We’ve all heard tons of ghost stories, but我们都听过无数的鬼故事 what does science have to say about ghosts?但是科学又是如何解释鬼的呢? Unfortunately,不幸的是 there really isn’t any concrete scientific proof of ghosts existing,没有确凿的科学证据可以证明真的有鬼 so why do so many of us believe in them?那为什么我们许多人都相信真的有鬼呢? Nearly every ghost sighting几乎每次撞鬼事件 can be explained by science, or some sort of logic.都能够被科学和某种逻辑推理所解释 One of the most interesting discoveries解释为何有人认为能感受到鬼存在 explains why some people think they feel the presence of ghosts.关于这个问题的最有趣的发现之一 It’s due to infrasounds.是由于次声波 These are extremely low sounds that we humans are unable to hear, but次声波的频率非常低 我们人类无法听到 fans, wind turbines and traffic can produce them.但是它能产生于风扇 风轮机和交通工具 Although we can’t hear these low sounds,虽然我们听不见这些低频的声音 we can feel them.但我们能感觉到 These low frequencies can trigger distinct psychological effects,低频会触发明显的心理效应 including things like discomfort, a sense of panic,包括像不适 恐慌感 and an overall sense of something being out of place.还有总之哪里不对劲的感受 Places where people have reported many ghost sightings一些人们常报告有鬼的地方 also happened to have things that produced infrasound.也是产生次声波的地方 Once people removed infrasound-causing objects like fans一旦人们移走产生次声波的物品 如风扇 the ghost sightings suddenly stopped.撞鬼事件也就突然停止了 Funny how that works, huh?很有趣 对吧? Another reason some people think ghosts exist有些人认为有鬼的另一个原因 has to do with electromagnetic fields.与电磁场有关 Researchers have found that研究人员发现 electromagnetic fields may be able to influence an individual’s perceptions电磁场或许能够影响个体的感知能力 as well as their surroundings.以及他们的周围环境 In other words,换句话说 it can make them hallucinate and see crazy things like,它能使人们出现幻觉 看到不同寻常的事物 ghosts!比如鬼! Speaking of seeing things,说到看见的东西 there are also reports of people thinking they saw visions of ghosts while they slept.也有一些报道 人们认为睡觉的时候看到了鬼 This unfortunate case is known as sleep paralysis.这种不幸的事件被称为睡眠瘫痪症 It’s when your mind wakes up before your body,这是指当你躺在床上 意识比身体先醒来时 causing you to have a paralyzed effect while you’re in bed.所导致的瘫痪的感觉 This also creates a waking dream effect,这也产生了醒梦效应 in which some people have reported有人报告在清醒梦中 seeing paranormal figures attempting to hurt them.看到超自然生物想伤害他们 We might also believe ghosts are real,我们也可能相信鬼魂真实存在 simply because we want to.只是因为我们想相信 If ghosts exist,如果真的有鬼 it would mean that the afterlife is real,那就意味着真的有来世 which is a belief that comforts a lot of people today.相信这点 对很多现代人而言是一种安慰 It’s pretty clear that ghosts don’t exist, at least according to science,至少根据科学 根本就没有鬼 but If ghosts were real,但如果真的有鬼 we’d never have to say goodbye to our loved ones.我们就永远不必告别我们爱的人 We could communicate with them, feel their presence,我们可以与他们交流 感受到他们的存在 maybe even spend some quality time with them.甚至和他们度过美妙的时光 Let’s assume that我们假设 every person who died on Earth, became a ghost.地球上死去的每个人都变成鬼魂 Now that would be a pretty messy situation.那就会是一个相当混乱的情况 Generations of people would suddenly be wandering the Earth.好几代人突然在地球上游荡 So far, it’s estimated there have been over 100 billion people who have died on Earth.迄今为止 估计地球死去的人超过一千亿 Right now, the Earth has 7.5 billion people living on it.现在 有75亿人生活在地球上 So if all those ghosts were living on Earth,因此 如果那些鬼魂在地球上 it would start to get pretty crowded.那么 地球就会很拥挤 That is assuming that the spirits could interact with the world.假设这些灵魂能够与这个世界互动的话 Places around the world where wars have been fought世界上发生战争的地方 could be particularly crowded as more people have died there.由于那里有更多人死去 因而会非常拥挤 And if we could see these ghosts,而且如果我们能看到这些鬼魂 what might they be made of?那它们可能由什么构成呢? Maybe they’d be made out of a material known as aerogel.也许是由一种叫气溶胶的材料构成 It’s a synthetic substance that这是一种合成物质 happens to be the lightest solid known to man.是人们所知道的最轻的固体 If ghosts did exist, and were visible,如果鬼魂真的存在 而且可见 you can bet they’d be made out of something like this.他们可能就是由差不多这类东西构成的 With massive groups of ghosts with physical properties everywhere,数目众多的具实体性质的鬼魂 遍布各处 you might not be able to travel anywhere without running into one.你可能不管去哪儿都会碰到鬼魂 Sure, it might make the world a bit more exciting,没错 或许这给世界增添了几分刺激 but it’s probably better that ghosts don’t exist.但是 鬼魂不存在可能会更好一些 Maybe after death, we go on to a parallel universe.也许死后 我们会去一个平行宇宙 So instead of us seeing paranormal activity,因此 看到的可能就不是超自然活动 maybe it’s really just activity from a parallel universe.而只不过是发生于平行宇宙的真事 Well, that sounds like a story for another, WHAT IF.好了 听起来像是《自然无常》的另一个故事
  • 2021-08-24大脑被完全开发之后会发生什么大脑被完全开发后会发生什么呢? You can do anything!你可以做任何事! Paint a masterpiece in a minute,你可以一分钟绘出一幅大师级作品 learn every language in an hour,你可以一小时学会所有语言 build a multi-billion dollar company overnight,你可以一夜之间创立一家价值数十亿的公司 and rule the world by tomorrow!甚至可以明天统治世界 是什么让你止步不前呢? 为什么你做不了想做的事情? 是因为婴孩时没有听够莫扎特? 成长时没有吃够蔬菜? Or is it because you’re not using your brain at its full potential?还是因为大脑没有被完全开发? 你想知道怎样才能开发大脑潜力吗? This is ‘What If,’这里是《自然无常》节目 and here’s what your brain would be like at full capacity.本期主题是“假如你的大脑被完全开发” The brain, to say the least, is very complex.至少可以这么说 大脑是很复杂的 We’ve studied it for centuries, and we’re still learning more of its secrets today.我们研究了几百年还不能穷尽其奥秘 But be careful!但是 要小心了 The search for facts can sometimes lead to fiction.在对大脑的认识过程中会混杂一些谬误 大脑越大 越聪明 错误 Brain size relates more to proportion than it does to intelligence.大脑的体积 与生物的体型关系更大 而非智力 For example, here’s your brain next to a whale’s.举例来说 这是人脑和鲸鱼脑 猜猜谁更聪明 猜猜谁的身体需要更多的处理能力? Your brain is smaller than a whale’s because your body is smaller.人脑比鲸鱼脑小是因为人体型更小 However, your brain is structured in a way that enables you to survive, and succeed.然而 大脑的构造 是为了使人成功生存下去 说到底 你相信人脑只被开发了10%吗? 把它开发到100% We’ve seen what really smart people can do.我们知道天才是什么样的 They inspire us through art, music, and literature;他们通过艺术 音乐 文学启发我们 they change the odds in sports;他们改变了运动中的胜算 they come up with tools to make our lives easier;他们发明工具 使我们的生活更便捷 and they help organize society as a whole to make us all more powerful他们让社会成为一个整体 从而使我们更强大 for better or for worse.虽然这种改变有利有弊 With access to your brain’s full capacity, you’re limitless.满功率运转人脑 你将无所不能 So what do you do?所以你会做什么呢? First things first, you finally get to solve the Rubik’s cube首先 你终于可以还原 that’s been collecting dust on your shelf.那个一直在柜子里积灰的魔方了 Call up your smartest friend, and challenge them to a game of chess.打电话给你最聪明的朋友 向他们挑战国际象棋 Checkmate in two moves.两步完胜 乐趣 When you’re done being a smarty pants,当你已无所不知 you’ll be looking for a real challenge.你会想寻求一些真正的挑战 Since, being smart means因为 聪明意味着 that you won’t be as stimulated by the things that keep us simpletons happy… 凡人的快乐再也不能使你快乐 你的兴趣爱好是什么? 艺术? 科学? 技术? When you’re limitless, you don’t have to choose.当你无所不能的时候 你不需要作出选择 “Picasso was overrated!”“毕加索被高估了!” “Sorry I’m late, I was up all night curing cancer!”“不好意思我迟到了 整晚都在攻克癌症!” “…so I thought, well why not? And that’s how the time traveling toilet came to be!”“所以我想 为什么不呢? 时间旅行马桶就是这么来的!” Okay, back up.好吧覆水可以再收 我们无所不能吗? What happens to your body when you’re dedicating all your brain’s energy当大脑将能量用于创造 寻求疗法 获取专利时 to a creation, a cure, or a patent?身体会有怎样的变化? Your lungs breathing, your heart beating,肺呼吸 心脏跳动 your food digesting, and your blood circulating食物消化 血液循环 that’s all your brain.这些都是大脑的工作 Even if you could access 100% of your brain’s capacity, you couldn’t use it.即便大脑完全开发 你也不能100%用脑 You would be limited by your body’s survival needs.你会因身体生存需要而受限 Remember when we asked,记得当我们问 你相信人类的大脑只被开发了10%吗? 你相信吗? The 10% thing is a myth; and it probably comes from a simple confusion.10%是个误解 这可能来自于一个简单事实的混淆 Your brain is 10% neurons, and 90% glial cells.大脑由10%的神经元和90%的神经胶质细胞构成 There are different types of neurons that take care of different functions,不同种类的神经元有不同功能 but in general, your neurons enable you to process and transmit information,但总的来说 神经元可以处理和传递信息 while your glial cells surround your neurons,神经胶质细胞包围着神经元 providing them with support and insulation.为它们提供支持并起到绝缘作用 所有人的大脑构造是一样的 Your brain has just as many neurons as Albert Einstein’s did!你的脑神经元数量和爱因斯坦的一样多 如何让大脑变得更聪明呢? 像训练肌肉一样训练它 刺激它 尝试新的事物 接受挑战 得到足够的休息 Maintain healthy habits; that’s the smart thing to do!保持健康的生活习惯 这很明智 And, of course, it’s a no brainer!显而易见 这是不用动脑子的事
  • 2021-08-24黑洞相撞会怎样Black holes are the gravitational monsters of the Universe.黑洞是宇宙中拥有强引力的怪兽 They are so powerful that nothing,它们强大到 没有任何东西 not even the light, can escape their grasp.即使光 也不能逃脱它们的魔爪 One black hole is bad enough, but…一个黑洞已经够糟的了 但是 if you took two black holes and smashed them into each other,如果有两个相互碰撞的黑洞 they’d be capable of changing the shape of space itself.它们就有能力改变自身周围空间的形状 how epic would that explosion be?这种爆炸会有多么壮观? and could it somehow reach earth?它会以某种方式到达地球吗? this is What If这是《自然无常》 and here is what would happen if two black holes collided这里讲述的是 两个黑洞相撞会发生的情况 Of course, we have no means当然了 我们目前还没有办法 to capture or control black holes yet.捕获或控制黑洞 So, imagine you’re observing one想象一下 你正在地球上 from a giant telescope here on Earth.用一个巨大的望远镜观察黑洞 And suddenly, you notice something strange.突然 你发现了一些异样 Is that another black hole?那是另一个黑洞吗? It sure looks like it.看起来的确像是 And it also looks like these two are about to collide.而且看来这两个黑洞即将撞在一起 It turns out that even gravitational giants like black holes事实证明 即使黑洞这样的引力怪物 occasionally run into each other in the seemingly vast Universe.偶尔也会在看似浩瀚的宇宙中相撞 Are you about to see a nuclear bomb-like explosion你会看到一场类似核爆一样的 of supersize proportions?超大规模的爆炸吗? The reality might be a little disappointing.事实可能有点儿令人失望 But you still wouldn’t want that galactic bomb但你还是不希望那颗银河系级别的炸弹 to detonate anywhere near your planet.在你的星球附近爆炸 Bear with me here, because to understand how black holes collide,请耐心听我说 因为要搞清楚黑洞如何相撞 you need to arm yourself with a bit of theory.你需要储备一些理论知识 Black holes come in all shapes and sizes.黑洞有各种形状和大小 And, of course, the magnitude of the collision would depend on当然 碰撞的强度将取决于 which black holes are slammed together.哪种黑洞撞在一起 Stellar-mass black holes are the most common type.恒星重量的黑洞是最普遍的 They can have up to 20 solar masses,它们的质量相当于太阳质量的20多倍 but could fit in a ball much smaller in diameter than our Sun.但却可以装进一个比太阳直径小很多的球里 Now, let’s go back to you observing this gravitational show firsthand.现在 我们回到你观察黑洞碰撞秀的地方 First, you’d see the two black holes getting a little closer,首先 你会看到两个黑洞越来越近 until they started to orbit each other.直到它们开始绕着对方旋转 They would begin pulling matter and gas它们开始把物质和气体 into a vortex between them.拉进它们之间的漩涡 Get comfortable, because it could take别紧张 因为它们中心的融合 billions of years for their centers to merge.将花费数十亿年的时间 But as the black holes merged into one,但是 当两个黑洞合二为一时 they’d wobble a little,它们会摇摆不定 and settle down into a new, bigger black hole.最终形成一个全新的 更大的黑洞 I hope you’re not disappointed with such an explosion-free outcome.我希望你对没有爆炸这一结果不要失望 But wait, there is something I haven’t mentioned yet.但是等等 我还有件事儿没说 The excess energy from the collision这次碰撞产生的过剩能量 would be expelled back into the Universe as gravitational waves.会以引力波的方式释放到宇宙中 As I mentioned before, colliding black holes正如我之前提到的 黑洞碰撞 can change the shape of the space around them.可以改变它们周围空间的形状 They do it by rippling this space with gravitational waves.通过释放引力波 它们能使空间泛起波纹 Albert Einstein predicted gravitational waves over a hundred years ago.一百多年前 爱因斯坦就预测到了引力波 But scientists didn’t observe them until 2015,但科学家们直到2015年才观测到 when the advanced LIGO gravitational-wave observatory当时先进的LIGO引力波天文台 finally detected gravitational waves after 8 years of operation.经过八年的观测 终于探测到了引力波 The cool thing about these waves这些引力波最酷的地方是 is that they affect the distance between the Sun and the Earth.它们只需要氢原子直径般幅度的改变 They only change it by the diameter of a hydrogen atom.就能影响太阳和地球之间的距离 You’d need a whole lot of colliding black holes to really see a difference.你需要大量的黑洞碰撞才能看到距离改变 but, what about supermassive black holes?但要是超大质量的黑洞呢? would their collision be more explosive?它们的碰撞会不会更具爆炸性? These black holes have a mass of这些黑洞的质量 at least hundreds of thousands of times the mass of our Sun.至少是太阳质量的几十万倍 But the thing is, they might never even collide at all.但问题在于 它们可能永远不会相撞 Two supermassive giants would get close to each other两个超大质量的庞然大物会彼此靠近 until they reached a gravitational balance,直至达到引力的平衡 and froze in their respective orbits.并固定在各自的轨道上 But add another supermassive black hole to the equation,但在平衡态中再加入另一个超大质量黑洞 and the three of them could那么这三个黑洞就可能 tip over the gravitational scale, and, finally, collide.打破平衡 最终碰撞 Not in a massive cosmic explosion,不会造成大规模的宇宙爆炸 but a silent merger, sending powerful gravitational waves而是悄无声息的合并 throughout the Universe.向整个宇宙发送强大的引力波 you know, despite the fact that black holes要知道 尽管黑洞 are an unstoppable, insatiable force事实上是一种无法阻止的 贪婪的力量 from which nothing can escape,没有什么可以从它那里逃脱 we have nothing to fear from their collision.但我们并不需要畏惧它们的碰撞 Okay, maybe if that collision happened如果在我们太阳系附近的 somewhere in the neighborhood of our Solar System.某个地方可能发生碰撞 Then the merging black holes would rip然后融合中的黑洞 all the planets in their vicinity to shreds,会把它附近所有的星球撕成碎片 including Earth.包括地球 If you really want to look at a black hole,如果你真的想观察一个黑洞 even a single black hole,哪怕是单个的黑洞 and not turn into a human-flavored spaghetti noodle,而又不想变成人肉意大利面 you need make sure you stay a safe distance away.你要确保自己处在一个安全的距离 But that’s a story for another WHAT IF.但这就是另一期《自然无常》的故事了
  • 2021-08-24如果您跌入尼亚加拉大瀑布怎么办?They’re not the biggest falls in the world,这不是世界上最大的瀑布 not by a long shot.还远远不是 But they’re certainly among the most famous.但这肯定是最著名的瀑布之一 Niagara Falls attracts millions of visitors尼亚加拉瀑布每年吸引数百万 from around the world every year.来自世界各地的游客前来参观 People come for the history,人们来此凭吊历史 they come for romance,来此追寻浪漫 they come for the spectacular view!同时更是为了盛景而来! But some people just can’t get close enough…但还有些人 只是想要更加亲密的接触…… This is What If,这里是《自然无常》 and here’s what was happened, 我们将带你了解 if you fell into Niagara Falls?如果你跌入尼亚加拉瀑布 会发生什么? There are three different waterfalls that make up Niagara Falls,尼亚加拉瀑布由三个不同的瀑布组成 but, the one that gets all the attention is the Canadian Horseshoe Falls.但其中最令人瞩目的是加拿大的马蹄瀑布 The Canadian Horseshoe Falls加拿大马蹄瀑布 is about 57 m (187 ft) tall, and 670 m (2,200 ft) wide.高约57米 宽约670米 Water rushes over its edge at a peak speed of 109 km/h (68 mph),水流以109公里/小时的峰值时速从瀑布口冲下 dumping about 2.8 million liters (740,000 gallons) of water over its edge every second.每秒倾泻而下的水量约达280万升 Considering its height, its speed,考虑到它的高度 速度 and its raw, natural power,以及蕴含的原始的自然能量 it’s hard to believe that anyone could survive a trip over the Falls.很难想象有人能在瀑布漂流之旅中幸存 And yet, it’s been done several times.然而 这种情况已经发生过多次 Was it skill?他们是凭本事? Or was it luck?还是凭运气? How do you survive a fall into Niagara Falls?若你掉入尼亚加拉瀑布 怎样才能幸存? The first person to survive a trip over Niagara Falls第一个在尼亚加拉瀑布漂流之旅活下来的人 was Annie Edson Taylor.是安妮•艾德逊•泰勒 In 1921, on her 63rd birthday,1921年 在她63岁生日那天 she crawled into an oak and iron barrel, and floated right over the edge of the Falls.她钻进一个橡木铁桶 从瀑布口漂流而下 Taylor performed this stunt for money and fame,泰勒表演这一特技是为了名和利 but, she didn’t earn much for her feat.却并未从这一壮举中赚到多少钱 Nonetheless,尽管如此 daredevils seeking to follow in her footsteps were not deterred.冒险家们并未停止追随效仿 In 1928, for example,比如 1928年 Jean Lussier went over Niagara Falls让•卢西埃藏在一个高182厘米 in a 182 cm (6 ft) rubber and steel ball,布满32根轮胎内胎的橡胶钢球里 lined with 32 inner tubes.冲下尼亚加拉瀑布 Lussier survived the fall,卢西埃在坠落后活了下来 and spent the rest of his life selling souvenirs to tourists.并靠着向游客兜售纪念品度过余生 Not all the daredevils were但不是所有的冒险家 as lucky as Taylor and Lussier.都像泰勒和卢西埃那样幸运 In fact, of the 16 people who’ve tried to实际上 试图征服尼亚加拉瀑布的 “Beat the Falls,”16名勇士中 just a little more than half只有略多于一半的人 have lived to tell the tale.能活下来讲述他们的故事 To date, only five people have survived an unprotected fall down迄今为止 只有五人在毫无防护的情况下 the Canadian Horseshoe Falls.跌入加拿大马蹄瀑布而仍然幸存 The first, and youngest, was Roger Woodward第一个 也是最年轻的 是罗杰•伍德沃德 in 1960.事情发生在1960年 He was only 7 years old at the time,他当时只有7岁 when a boating accident caused him to be swept overboard,一场划船事故导致他不幸落水 and over the edge of the Falls.并被水流冲下瀑布口 Woodward was rescued shortly after, and,伍德沃德很快获救 made a full recovery,虽然被诊断为脑震荡 after spending just three days in the hospital being treated for a concussion.他仅在医院待了三天就痊愈了 Today, that event is still referred to直到今天 那次事件仍然 as the “Miracle at Niagara.”被称为“尼亚加拉奇迹” Most rescuers and experts at Niagara大多数尼亚加拉瀑布的救援者和专家 consider unprotected survival stories认为在毫无防护的情况下幸存的故事 to be blind luck.只是瞎猫碰着死耗子 But there are some strategies that might just save your life if,但当你不论由于何种原因落入冰冷的水中 for any reason, you find yourself hurtling 109 km/h (68 mph) in freezing cold water,并被时速109公里/小时的激流冲向57米高的瀑布口 towards the edge of a 57 m (187 ft) drop.下面这些技巧也许能救你的命 The first thing you need to remember,就在即将从瀑布口落下前 just before you go over, is to take a really deep breath.你首先要记得做的 是一个大大的深呼吸 When you reach the bottom,当你沉入水底 there’ll be so much water swirling all around you,会有大量的水在你周围旋转 not to mention the intense pressure of the water falling from above,更不用提从高空落下的水产生的巨大压力 that you could easily suffocate.能轻易让你窒息 So taking a big gulp of air before your fall所以下落之前深吸一口气 could buy you some time.可以为你赢得一些时间 You’ll also want to take precautions to protect your head.你也要采取一些预防措施来护住你的脑袋 If you can,如果可以 orient yourself so that you fall feet first,尽量调整你自己的位置 以便脚朝下 then you’ll want to wrap your arms around your head,然后你要用胳膊抱住自己的头 with your elbows over your nose, and,并把肘关节护在鼻子上方 clench your eyes and mouth shut as tightly as possible.然后尽全力闭紧双眼和嘴巴 In fact, you should tense up all your muscles,实际上 在撞击水面之前 and bring your legs together before impact,你应该收紧全身肌肉 并拢双腿 making your body as watertight as possible.尽可能减少身体与水的接触面积 You’re already incredibly lucky如果你能在落水后活下来 if you survive the fall,就已经算走了大运了 but, that doesn’t mean your ordeal is over.但那并不意味着你的苦旅已经结束 The water temperature below the Falls is around the freezing mark,瀑布下面的水温约在零摄氏度左右 which gives you about 15 minutes这意味着在身体失温前 to get out of there before hypothermia kicks in.你只有大约15分钟时间离开这里 You’ll likely be badly bruised and terribly disoriented,你很可能会浑身青肿 晕头转向 but, if you can stay calm and focused,但如果你能保持冷静 集中精力 you might just be one of the lucky few你或许能成为坠入尼亚加拉瀑布后 to survive a fall into Niagara Falls.成功存活的少数幸运儿之一 Of course, the best way to survive is to pay attention to the warning signs,当然 活下来最好的方式是注意警示标志 and respect the safety rails.不要越过安全护栏 After all, the Falls are huge!毕竟 瀑布那么大! Do you really need to risk your life你真的有必要仅仅为了离得更近些 to get a closer look?而拿你的生命冒险吗? Then again, people have survived crazier falls.不过 还是有人从更夸张的坠落中幸存下来 Can you believe anyone could survive falling out of an airplane?你能相信有人从飞机上坠落并生还吗? Well, that’s a story for another WHAT IF.不过 那是《自然无常》的另一个故事了
  • 2021-08-24切除这些器官会发生什么本节目由Wix赞助播出 Wix——免费为您创建专属网站 哈喽 Arnold 今天去森蒂纳尔岛岸边钓鱼时 记得千万不要上岸 不 Arnold! 恭喜你 你被世界上最野蛮最排外的部落抓住了 他们可不喜欢不速之客 恐怕他们会吃了你 然后扒你的皮做八张鼓 抽你的血管拉五张弓 把你的头骨当大杯子用 还会用你的头皮作酋长的衣饰 Arnold 你要去哪儿? 哇 我还以为外星人不存在来着 你的身体对他们可大有用处 你的身体里有70%的水分 24%的有机物 以及6%的无机物 黄瓜中的水分也很多 大概占85-90% 所以理论上来说 你就是根有情绪的黄瓜 而剩下的6%的无机物 则可以用来做不少有用的东西 其中含有的铁足够做成6厘米的铁钉 含有的铜则可以做出一副耳机 而且哪怕这样 你也还能活着! 甚至在摘除大部分内脏后 你也还能继续存活 人体看似脆弱 但没了这些器官你还能活着: 胃 脾 75%的肝 80%的肠子 一个肾 一个肺 以及几乎所有位于盆腔和腹股沟的器官 当然 你会抓狂 但却不会死 还能得到一副免费的耳机 ——虽然质量不太可靠 但这些其实都是无用的东西 其实体内含有碳 氢 钠 氧 这些化学元素也是炸药的组成部分 而人体的潜在爆炸威力相当于175克的TNT 爆炸强度则与你对咸味食物的喜爱程度成正比 感谢Wix的赞助播出 如今Arnold已经有了自己的个人网站 如果你也想创建网站 却苦于不会编程 不用担心! 有了Wix 网站创建过程一定既有趣又方便 且完全免费 现在就点击视频下方简介里的链接 用Wix创建自己的专属网站吧! 购买高级账户的话 还可以探索更多的可能性 创建更加炫酷的网站哦 所有和主机 邮件 域名相关的问题 Wix都能帮你解决 甚至是专业的网站开发人员 也可以用Wix节省时间 赚更多的钱 去看看Arnold的网站 考虑一下吧 你不仅可以用Wix网生成网站 还可以利用这个平台 管理和世界各地数以万计的用户发生的业务 喜欢这个视频的话 就分享给朋友并订阅我的频道 和我们的朋友Arnold一起 做更多刺激的实验吧!
  • 2021-08-24将半个地球留给大自然,如何?About 65 million years ago,大约六千五百万年前 a mass extinction event occurred,发生了一场毁灭性的灾难 wiping out more than 75% of all species on Earth.地球上超过75%的物种灭绝了 There have only been 5 mass extinctions在地球45亿年的历史中 in our planet’s 4.5 billion year history.只发生过5次大规模灭绝事件 But the next one has already started.然而下一次的灭绝已经开始了 By the end of this century,到本世纪末 one in six species on Earth could be gone.地球上六分之一的物种会消失 Will humans go with them?人类会和它们一起消失吗? How could we survive a sixth mass extinction?我们要如何在第六次大灭绝中活下来? How could we prevent one?我们怎么才能预防下一次的大灭绝? this is what if这里是《自然无常》 and here’s what would happend if we set aside half our planet for wildlife如果我们保留半个地球给野生动物会如何? The reason we’re all still alive on this planet is thanks to biodiversity多亏生物多样性 我们依然活在地球上 From the tallest trees,从最高的树 to the biggest animals,到最大的动物 to the weirdest plants,最奇怪的植物 to the grossest fungi,最恶心的真菌 to the buzziest bugs,最吵闹的虫子 and, even the creatures you can’t see,甚至还有你看不到的生物 we all rely on each other to make life on Earth possible!我们依靠彼此使地球上的生命成为可能! And our world would be harmonious我们的世界将会是和谐的 except that humans are unreliable只不过——人类不太靠谱 Thanks to our unstable practices,由于我们不停的制造污染 the world’s wildlife is inching towards an extinction rate世界上的野生生物走向灭绝的速度 that’s 10000 times faster than what is considered to be natural比没有人类干预时 快一万倍 Without taking drastic action,不采取严格的措施 we might be facing extinction ourselves.我们自己可能也要面临灭绝 But how far are we willing to go?然而 我们愿意做多少贡献呢? Pulitzer Prize-winning author and biologist获得普利策奖的作家和生物学家 Leo Wilson came up with利奥·威尔逊提出了 what is now known as the”Half-Earth” idea.如今被称为 “半个地球”的想法 It involves making half the planet a ”human-free”zone,意思是将地球的一半变为“无人区” leaving nature to do what it can to stabilize itself.让大自然尽其所能 构建稳定生态 This means that the current global population of roughly 7.7 billion people这意味着目前全球大约77亿人口 would have to make do with half the space we currently have.只能住在我们现有空间的一半 And for a lot of people, that’s just not feasible.对很多人来说 这根本行不通 Cordoning off half the world for extreme conservation封锁了半个地球进行极端保护 would displace roughly one billion people.会让大约10亿人流离失所 Most of them from low income backgrounds.他们大多数来自低收入家庭 Think of those parts of the world where overpopulation is severe,想想世界上那些人口过剩的地方 and then imagine that situation everywhere!然后想象一下 到处都是这种情况! But housing isn’t our only concern.但是住房不是我们唯一担心的问题 We also need food and fresh water to survive!我们还需要食物和淡水来生存 today one third of the Earth’s land surface and 75% of its freshwater resources如今 地球1/3陆地面积以及3/4的淡水资源 are used for crop and livestock production.都用于农作物和畜牧业的生产上 Yet at least 10% of Earth’s population doesn’t have enough food然而全球至少10%的人口并没有足够的粮食 How many more people will go hungry当我们无法再获取那些资源时 when we no longer have access to those resources又会有多少人挨饿呢? Economically speaking,从经济上来说 the forest and fuel industries could collapse因为能够使用的土地变少 because there’d be less land to work with.森林和燃料工业可能会崩溃 This would leave millions of people out of work.这将导致数百万人失业 But the losses might be recouped但在更可持续发展的领域里 in the form of new opportunities in more sustainable fields.损失可能会以新机会的方式到得补偿 In fact, setting aside half the planet for enviromental protevtion事实上 留出一半的地球用于环境保护 wouldn’t be a total financial disaster.并不会是一场金融灾难 $577 billion (US) in annual global crops are全球每年5770亿美元的农作物 currently at risk due to pollinator loss,正因为传粉昆虫的消失而处在危险中 while roughly 40% of the world’s economy as a whole而全球经济大约40% relies on biological resources.都依赖于生物资源 If we continue down the path we’re on,如果继续这样下去 we risk depleting the bee population in it’s entirety我们可能面临整个蜂群消失殆尽的风险 as well as the other biological resources we depend on连同我们所依赖的其它生物资源 But by protecting them,但是通过保护它们 their declining numbers may have the opportunity to regenerate它们减少的数量可能有机会再生 so that we can continue to benefit from their output in a sustainable way这样我们可以持续地从它们的产出中受益 Of course, it’s not just about the money.当然 这不仅仅是钱的问题 The fact is that事实上 the more biodiverse an ecosystem is, the healthier it is.生态系统的生物多样性越强 它就越健康 A healthy ecosystem can clean water,一个健康的生态系统可以净化水 help to purify the air we breathe,帮助净化我们呼吸的空气 regulate the climate,调节气候 maintain the soil needed for crops and food,维持作物和食物所需的土壤 plus recycle nutrients while we’re at it.此外 我们还可以回收营养物质 In short, we can’t afford to continuing living in a way that简言之 我们承担不起 accelerates the extinction of other species以其它物种加速灭绝的方式继续生活的风险 Because we need them因为 我们需要它们 as much as they need us.正如它们需要我们一样 The Half-Earth idea, might be too much.一半地球的想法可能太过了 In fact, it’s virtually impossible to implement.事实上 这几乎是不可能做到的 But the consequences of doing the bare minimum would be even worse.但只做最低限度的事 后果会更糟 We’ve got to spread the word,我们要传播这种观点 and remind each other thatwe’re all in this together互相提醒 我们是一体的 No matter how big,无论多大 no matter how small.无论多小 Because every time a species goes extinct,因为每一次某个物种的灭绝 it brings humans closer to our own extinction.都会使人类更接近自身的灭绝 Don’t believe me?不相信? Have you ever wondered what would happen to us你有没有想过如果世界上 if all the world’s insects disappeared?所有的昆虫都消失了 我们会怎样? Well, that’s a story for another WHAT IF.好吧 那是另一个《自然无常》的故事了
  • 2021-08-24如果你是地球上最后的一个人如果你是地球上最后的一个人 会是怎样? 大家都去哪儿了? 变成僵尸了? 升天了? 去参加一场盛大的惊喜派对了? 离开地球了? 不管什么原因 你现在是地球上最后一个人 你会做什么? 来一顿皇家盛宴? 搬进白金汉宫? 去飙车? 炸东西玩? 一直保持裸体? 或者假装自己不是一个人? 你能坚持多久? This is ‘What If’这里是《自然无常》 and here’s how you can survive as the last person on earth.本集是《作为地球上最后一个人 你如何生存?》 So, you wake up one day有一天你醒来 and find that you’re the only person left in the world.发现自己是地球上最后一个人 Kind of cool, right?有点酷 是吧? No obligations, no rules, no limits.没有了责任 没有了规则 没有了限制 放肆撒野吧! 第1步 及时行乐 Go for the exotic fruits first.先来点异国的水果 If your mangos and bananas are imported from overseas,如果你买的芒果和香蕉是海外进口的 chances are they’ll be hard to come by.可能以后就很难吃到了 So eat them while you can, and enjoy every last bite.所以能吃的时候就多吃点 享受最后的每一口 第2步 找到充足的燃料资源 You might think that with no one stopping you,你也许认为没人阻止你 you could go anywhere!你可以去任何地方 But not so fast!但话别说太早! All those abandoned cars, boats, and planes you see lying around你看那些被四处丢弃的车 船和飞机 will be useless in about 2 years when their fuel goes stale.两年左右就会因为燃料过期而成为废品 Guess you’ll be sticking around. But for how long?你可能会在附近逗留 但又会待多久呢? 第3步 找避难所 If water, food, and shelter are your basic needs,如果水 食物和住所是你的基本需求 shelter would be the easiest to come by.那么住所是最容易找到的 You’d literally have a world of homes to choose from!全球的住房都任你选择! But be careful where you settle down.但要小心你选择的住处 Cities would become dangerous, since without proper maintenance,由于没有适当的维护 城市会变得很危险 they’d start to fall apart pretty quickly.它们很快会土崩瓦解 Nature’s elements: rain, frost, and heat, would take their toll.雨水 霜降和高温等自然现象会带来伤害 Rot and mold would become widespread,腐烂和霉菌会四处蔓延 and vegetation would crack through concrete and break through glass.植被会穿透混凝土和玻璃 But even if you were able to fight back against nature’s reclamation of the land,但即使你有能力反抗自然界的反扑 all it takes is one bolt of lightning to start a city-wide fire.只要一道闪电便会让一座城市陷入火海 And you can’t call the fire department. So run for the hills!而你又不能报火警 所以逃往山里吧! 第4步 自我防护 But even the country isn’t all that safe.但是 就连乡村也没那么安全 First of all, there are predators you’d need to defend against.首先 你需要防御食肉动物 Wild dogs, feral cats… bears…野狗 野猫 熊…… But you’d only have to worry about them as long as you could still breathe.但只要你一息尚存 就得提防它们 There are more than 400 nuclear power plants in the world.世界上有400多座核电站 And once their automated safety systems一旦它们的自动安全系统 began to fail without human supervision,在无人监管的情况下失灵 there would be meltdowns across the planet,核泄漏将席卷整个星球 rendering many regions simply uninhabitable.致使许多区域无法居住 第5步 保证食物来源 In terms of food, the city would be your best bet.说到食物 城市是你的最佳选择地 Supermarkets have enough canned and frozen food to last you for decades!超市有足够你吃几十年的罐头和冷冻食品! Whereas in the country, crops and livestock would start to dwindle而在乡村 由于没有人类良好的照顾和保护 without proper care or protection from predators.农作物和家禽将不断减少 But if natural is more your style,但是如果你更喜欢大自然 you’d have to go back to the old ways of hunting with a spear or a bow,你就会重新采取古老的长矛或弓箭狩猎方式 since ammunition would be limited and harder to come by.由于弹药有限且难以获得 Maybe you could grow your own little vegetable garden,也许你可以在你的小菜园种菜 but that would cut into your water resources.但这会消耗你的水资源 第6步 没水你活不了 Without other humans, you’d be without electricity.没有其他人 你就没有电力 Water pumping stations and treatment works would shut down,抽水泵和滤水站都将关闭 and the fresh water kept in reservoirs would go stale quite quickly.水库里的淡水也很快就会变质 You could rely on bottled water,你可以依靠瓶装水 and you’d probably have thousands of litres to go through,你或许拥有大量的水供你生存 but eventually, you’d have to learn how to purify your own.但最终 你必须自己学会净化水 第7步 变得聪明 You’d have to teach yourself a lot of things,你必须自学很多事情 but lucky for you, you’ve got a lot of time on your hands,幸运的是 你有的是时间 and millions of books out there with all the information you’d need还有数百万本提供你所需信息的书籍 to survive effectively on your own.保证你有效地独自生存 So, while it might be hard at first,因此 尽管万事开头难 you could technically survive as the last human on Earth.但理论上 你还是可以作为地球上最后的人活下来 But would you really want to?但你真的想这样吗? Humans evolved together as social creatures in order to survive.人类为了生存从群居动物进化而来 We joined forces against hunger and harsh weather;我们共同对抗饥饿以及恶劣的天气 and built families and communities to share stories, empathize,通过建立家庭和社区共享经验和悲喜 and keep each other happy and healthy.并保持快乐和健康 Human contact has been scientifically proven to build trust and reduce stress.科学证明 人类的交往可建立信任 减少压力 So, while it’s apt to cramp your style, be glad it’s a small world,虽然有时让人束手束脚 但你应该庆幸有这个小世界 we need each other more than you think!我们对彼此的需要超乎你的想象!
  • 2021-08-24你的身体在真空中会发生什么?Floating in space!漂浮在太空! What grace What freedom What luxury多么优雅 多么自由 多么奢侈 Did you know that outer space is basically the same as a vacuum chamber?你知道外太空基本和真空室是一样的吗? There’s no oxygen to speak of!里面没有氧气! That’s why astronauts train inside artificial vacuum chambers这就是宇航员在进入外太空前 before going into outer space.要在人工真空室训练的原因 But what would happen if you didn’t have a spacesuit on?但如果你不穿宇航服会怎样? Will your blood boil?你的血会沸腾吗? Will you freeze to death?你会冻死吗? Will you explode?你会爆炸吗? A vacuum chamber is an airtight sealed off space with all of the air taken out.真空室是一个空气被抽走的密闭空间 There are very small vacuum chambers,有小型的真空室 some as small as a liter of soda!小到只能容一公升的苏打水 And then there are gigantic ones!还有巨大的真空室! The largest in the world is housed at a NASA facility in Sandusky, Ohio世界最大就坐落于俄亥俄州桑达斯基 and it is a towering 122 feet tall!美国国家航空航天局的设施中 高达122英尺 It has to be this large to test space ships它必须这么大 under the depressurized and oxygen free atmosphere of space.才能在减压和无氧的大气层下测试宇宙飞船 If you’re in a vacuum, either in a laboratory setting or in outer space,如果你在真空中 在实验室或外太空 what will happen to your body if you had a leak in your space suit or no suit at all?如果太空服有漏洞或不穿太空服 你的身体会发生什么? The first theory, that your blood will literally boil in your veins is…第一种理论是你的血液会在血管里沸腾 mostly untrue这基本不正确 The science behind this theory makes sense这一理论背后的科学是有道理的 because the lower the air pressure is, the lower the boiling point.因为气压越低 沸点就越低 Zero air pressure in a vacuum chamber means instant boil! Right?真空室的零压强意味着瞬间沸腾! 对吗? Your blood won’t boil inside you你的血液不会沸腾 because it is part of a closed system… your circulatory system to be exact.因为它是你体内封闭系统的一部分 确切地说 是你的循环系统 Since your blood is not directly exposed to the atmosphere of no pressure因为你的血液不是直接暴露在没有压强的空气中 it won’t boil you alive所以你不会沸腾 Will you explode into a tiny million ooey-gooey pieces?你会爆炸成几百万个黏黏糊糊的碎片吗? Since our bodies are made up of tissues and muscles and ligaments 因为我们的身体由组织 肌肉和韧带组成 that hold themselves together in a big bundle of skin…它们被一大片皮肤包裹着 Kinda gross when you think about it that way….想到这 有点恶心 Our body parts won’t go flying all directions into space.我们的身体部位在太空中是不会四分五裂的 Your body tissue is simply too durable to be torn apart by the vacuum.因为你的身体组织韧性十足 真空撕不开 Will you freeze to death?那你会冻死吗? This idea makes the most sense because outer space is freezing right?!这个想法有道理 因为外太空极冷 对吧?! Wrong again.又错了 The body or any object for that matter loses heat because of something called thermal conduction.没有热传导 身体或其他物体不会流失热量 That means that heat is transferred from one object to another through the air.即热量通过空气从一个物体传递到另一个物体 But in a vacuum there’s no air and therefore no chance at thermal conduction.但真空中没有空气 因此不可能产生热传导 There’s nothing to transfer your heat to…没有什么能传导你的热量 It will stay contained in your body.所以 热量仍存留在你的体内 So can you die in a vacuum chamber or in space?那么 你在真空室或外太空会死吗? Yes, 100% You can die in a vacuum chamber or in space without the proper suit.会的 没有合适的防护服 你100%会丧命 And here’s how.原因如下 First of all the air would be sucked out of your lungs and any other, ummmmm, orifice.首先 所有空气会从你的肺或身上的孔中被吸走 Literally, all air in your body will be SUCKED out by the vacuum.事实上 你体内的所有空气会被真空吸出 Due to the lack of oxygen, you will pass out in 10-15 seconds.由于缺氧 你会在10-15秒内昏倒 Your brain starts starving for oxygen and your organs will begin to shut down.你的大脑开始缺氧 你的器官将会停止运行 The zero air pressure atmosphere零气压的大气层 will cause blood vessels on the surface of your body to burst!会导致你身体表面的血管破裂! Especially in your eyes.尤其是眼球 And remember how the boiling was MOSTLY not going to happen?还记得沸腾是怎么发生的吗? Well here’s a bit of you that will boil:好吧 身体的一个点会沸腾 Any exposed bodily fluids will begin to boil instantaneously.任何暴露的体液都会立即沸腾 Vacuum chambers are amazing tools of science!真空室是神奇的科学工具! But don’t step inside one yourself unless you’re with a real NASA scientist!除非你和真正的NASA科学家在一起 否则不要独自进去! And if you ever find yourself out in space, don’t take the helmet off.如果你发现自己在太空中 不要摘头盔 Keep that space suit on too…同时要穿太空服 Otherwise you’ll instantly sunburn like no tomorrow!否则你会立即晒伤 就像末日审判那样!
  • 2021-08-24Arnold的蚂蚁王国之旅烧蚂蚁的时候 你是否像阿诺德一样 觉得自己是上帝呢? 那你太低估蚂蚁了 哇!多讽刺啊! 捕猎者变成猎物了 恭喜你啊 阿诺德 你现在面临着一场大战 而且规模也比全部人类战争加起来还大得多 数千万亿只蚂蚁加入了这场战争 你目睹过这么大的数字吗? 你又见过哪些数字呢? 唉 快看那里 蚂蚁们正在为大战做准备呢 如果蚂蚁变得和人一样大 那就人类根本不会有胜算 毕竟哪怕是一只普通蚂蚁 也能举起一幢16层高的大楼 并且能扛着它以55km/h的速度狂奔 就在这时敌人来了 额还不快跑阿诺德? 阿诺德 平衡和稳定从来都不是你的强项 噢 快看啊 你使得它们围着圈跑 并让队长跟随着自己的信息素痕迹 如果蚂蚁摊上这事 它们就会陷入死循环 你创造了一个蚂蚁漩涡 队长并不知道他们的军队在绕圈圈 直到最后 全军覆没 阿诺德 在这些家伙看来你就是个英雄 它们带你去见蚁后 可是 这是什么鬼? 吼 看来你要为权力而战了 有时候一个蚁群中会有两个蚁后 因此两个蚁后就会进行一场决斗 以此决定谁统治整个集体 较量过后 蚂蚁们投票选出最喜欢的蚁后 真正的民主 然后 多数一方就会毁灭少数一方 我收回刚刚说的民主言论 小心! 阿诺德你真的很幸运 哪怕是在残酷的政变中你也有办法活下去 但 这是干嘛? 你的身上闻起来都是尸体的气味 现在蚂蚁们都以为你死了 所以它们打算活埋你 阿诺德真没用 愿他安息吧! 药效貌似已经过了 嗨 阿诺德! 你现在更了解蚂蚁的世界了 那么 你在搞什么? 多么无知的一个人啊
  • 2021-08-24我给了僵尸一拳《故事舱》真实故事改编 Halloween was literally right around the corner,万圣节马上就要来了 and my best friend, at the time, her birthday was coming up,正好我好朋友的生日也快到了 and her mom told her that she could invite a friend to the haunted forest.她妈妈告诉她可以邀请一个朋友去闹鬼森林 And she asked me if I wanted to go with her.她问我是否想不想跟她一起去 I was super excited because I had never been to a haunted forest before,我超激动 因为我从来没有去过闹鬼森林 but then again,但话又说回来 I’m a really jumpy person, so I didn’t know how it was going to go.我胆子很小 所以我不知道会发生什么 So we drive there, we pay to get in然后我们开车去了那 买完票就进去了 and we’re walking,我们慢慢走进去 and for the first few minutes,刚开始的时候 everything’s silent,周围都很安静 it’s just dark, there’s some smoke on the ground,只是有点黑 地上有些烟雾 it’s pretty good, I like the effects.挺好的 我喜欢这些特效 And then, around one corner,然后 就在一个拐角处 people, like, jump out at us突然有人跳了出来 and people grab us from below.还有人从地下伸出手要抓我们 Well, they don’t actually grab us,他们其实没有真的要抓我们 they just, like, swipe and you can see it and只是你能看见他们的手挥来挥去 it freaks you out and you jump and scream.这可把我吓坏了 边跳边叫 And my friend jumps and screams我朋友也是边跳边叫 and then starts laughing.然后又开始大笑 And in my head, I’m just freaking out但我心里其实特别害怕 and my heart’s racing心怦怦跳个不停 and it was not a good time.那感觉还挺不好的 So we turned a corner about halfway through the maze然后差不多在走了一半时有个拐角 and this guy dressed as a werewolf pops out and, like, scares us.有个扮成狼人的人突然跳出来吓我们 And my friend, she’s scared,我朋友被吓到了 but then she looks at him and goes,但是她又看向他说 “Oh can I get a selfie with you, like, you’re so cute,”“噢你好可爱 我可以跟你合张影吗” and, like, starts flirting with this guy. And然后开始撩他 he’s letting her flirt and he’s flirting back,他也不抗拒并且还反撩我朋友 and I’m just sitting there going,我就在旁边站着 “Oh my gosh,”心里想着“我的天呐” and I don’t want to be here for that.我并不想在那里看他们调情 So I kind of walk ahead, just like, “I’ll catch up with you later!”所以我说完“等下见”就独自往前走了 So I continued walking然后我继续走 and I turned a few more corners拐了几个弯 jumping because I feel like something’s gonna pop out at me时不时跳起来生怕有东西钻出来吓我 cause my heart is literally still pounding inside of my chest.因为我的心脏还是在砰砰跳 But when nothing happens I’m like,但当我发现周围很安全时 “Oh okay, cool, maybe I’ll be in the safe zone for a little bit.”“噢太好了 或许我是在安全区了” Yeah, big mistake.如你所料 大错特错 I turned another corner a bit too close我转过某个拐角时离得太近了 guy dressed like a zombie or something一个扮成僵尸之类的东西的人 jumps out and scares me.突然蹦出来吓我 And he was way closer than he was supposed to be他实在是靠我太近了 and of course I scream, I got scared.毫无疑问我开始大叫 我快吓死了 But I didn’t just scream.但还不止尖叫 I screamed我尖叫 and because he was close但因为他离我太近了 and some survival instinct came in,出于某种求生的本能 I punched him in the face.我朝他脸上给了一拳 And his nose started bleeding然后他就流鼻血了 and he had a big red mark on his head额头上也留下一个很大的红印子 and I felt so bad.我觉得非常抱歉 I started apologizing就开始道歉 and frantically, like, trying to help him up,手忙脚乱地 想要把他扶起来 but he pushed me away because,但是不让我碰他 he was afraid I was gonna beat him up or something.可能是因为怕我还要打他之类的 So my friend comes over and然后我朋友过来了 she starts laughing at this guy who’s in pain,她开始对着这个还在忍受疼痛的男生大笑 and she was not helpful at all during this于是她把情况变得更糟了 because she just thought this entire thing was a big hilarious joke,因为她觉得整件事情就是个滑稽的大笑话 which it was definitely not.但完全不是 So he calls over the manager那个男生把经理叫了过来 and I’m super embarrassed我巨尴尬 and I feel really bad又巨内疚 and the manager tells me那个经理跟我说 that they’re not going to press charges as long as I leave and never ever ever come back只要我离开并再也不来了她就不会指控我 So we had to walk through the rest of it我们不得不走完后半程 and they wouldn’t even, like, let us finish the experience但他们甚至都不让我们体验完 because they didn’t want me quote-unquote harassing their staff members.因为他们不想让我“骚扰他们的员工” So I guess I will never ever get to go to the haunted forest again.我猜我以后应该再也不会去闹鬼森林了 So, yeah. If you ever have a scary haunted forest experience,所以 如果你哪次在闹鬼森林里被吓到了 try not to punch anyone in the face.尽量别给别人一拳
  • 2021-08-24你能在零下89ºС挺多久?和阿诺德打个招呼吧 在上次的跳伞中 他从超过三千英尺的高空跳了下来 没有降落伞哦 对了 他非常幸运 因为他跌进了雪堆中活了下来 但好景不长 阿诺德 不要惊慌 控制一下自己 你降落在了南极附近的富士冰穹 这可是世界上最冷的地方哦 这里的气温有时候 达到零下132.16华氏度 在这种情况下 一个人的眼睛和肺在几分钟内 就会冻结 但幸运的是 你来的时候刚好是夏天 天气相对温暖 气温是零下31华氏度 在这种情况下 你的身体会每半小时降温一度 不到一个小时 你的肌肉会开始收缩 试图重获散失了的热量 然后你就会感到非常恐慌 你的胳膊和腿会出现冻伤 这是因为四肢血管已经开始收缩 将血液集中在身体内部 以保持大多数重要器官温暖 但寒颤会马上过去 而且你也不会感到那么寒冷了 但阿诺德 不要放松 这是一种错误的感觉 “有趣”的事才刚刚开始 第二波更强烈的攻击 会很快来袭 你的身体会开始像 坠毁时的波音喷气式飞机一样发抖 最后你会感觉到 来自荷尔蒙和内啡肽的麻醉中毒 并伴随着一些幻觉 当然还会失去协调性 阿诺德 你感觉如何? 你就要到达极度低温了 你的身体将为了保暖做最后的挣扎 一会儿 你就会昏迷 另外 你的心跳和呼吸也会出现障碍 在你的体温降到零下85华氏度以下后 你的人生旅途就要接近尾声了 死神就要来了 你能听见我说话吗? 阿诺德 阿诺德 试着别昏过去 看样子我们找到了帮助你的方法 你能听见我吗? 准备好 我们现在要把你传送到…… 你是怎样认为的呢? 我们又会把他传送到哪里? 在评论区写出你的设想 答案会在一周后的节目中公布 别忘记点赞 和你的好友分享视频 如果你喜欢这个视频就订阅我们的频道 我会非常努力地做视频 会很感激你这么做 感谢关注 下周一再见
  • 2021-08-24如果我们重新冻结北极会怎样?The Arctic might soon become completely ice-free北极可能很快就会完全解冻 And when all of this ice is gone当北极所有的冰都融化掉 The world won’t be the same世界将会变得不一样 But what if I told you但如果我告诉你 there was a way to prevent this real happening有个方法可以避免它真正发生 And that we can do it那就是 By geoengineering some artificial icebergs通过地球工程来建造人造冰山 This is What If这里是《自然无常》 and here is what happen本期我们要探索的是: if we could refreeze the Arctic?如果我们重新冰冻北极会怎样? Over the last thirty years在过去的30年里 the Arctic has lost almost all of its oldest, thickest ice.最古老厚实的北极冰几乎都融化了 Now, 70% of the Arctic现在 70%的北极地区 is covered with thin seasonal ice caps都被较薄的季节性冰盖所覆盖 that shrink in the summer and grow back in the winter.它们在夏季回缩 冬季扩张 By some estimates, if the Earth Continue to grow hotter据估计 如果地球继续升温 the Arctic could lose all its summer ice by the year 2030.北极的夏季冰将在2030全部融化 And this would affect more than just the Arctic而这不仅会影响到北极地区 The Arctic works like a global freezer,北极就像全球的冰库 keeping the planet cool.保持着地球的凉爽 Take all of that ice away,如果北极冰全都消融了 and the weather patterns around the globe全球的天气形态 would change in a very unpredictable way.将会发生难以预测的变化 But it doesn’t have to end like this.但并不一定非要发展成这样 We could step in我们可以行动起来 and regrow some of the Arctic ice.让一些北极冰川再次生长 but how exactly would we go about it?但我们究竟要怎样做呢? The answer lies in geoengineering.答案是地球工程 We could bring the ice back to the Arctic我们可以借助巨大的风力泵 with the help of huge wind-powered pumps.把冰送回北极 10 million of them to be precise.精确地说我们需要一千万个泵 The pumps would spread seawater onto the glaciers这个泵可以把海水喷洒在冰川上 where it would freeze and form a new layer of ice.海水冻结后就会形成一个新的冰层 Over one Arctic winter,历时一个北极的寒冬后 the pumps would add another meter of thickness to the ice caps.泵会使冰盖加厚一米 But this would come with a price tag of 500 billion dollars但这将会花费5000亿美元 And even though that’s less than 1% of the world’s gross domestic product尽管这还不到全球生产总值的1% some governments might consider the price too high.但一些政府还是可能觉得这个费用十分昂贵 But there are other ways.不过也有其他办法 The polar ice keeps the planet cool极地的冰川将太阳的能量反射回太空 by reflecting the Sun’s energy back into space而没有吸收它们 rather than absorbing it.从而维持地球的凉爽 This is known as the albedo effect.这就是著名的反照效应 We could help the young Arctic ice to reflect more sunlight我们可以用微小而闪亮的二氧化硅微球 by covering it with small, shiny silica microspheres.覆盖在新生的冰上 以反射更多太阳光 These powder like microbeads aren’t toxic,这些像微珠一样的粉末是无毒的 and their chemical and physical properties are similar to sand.它们的化学和物理属性类似于沙子 It would cost us just $300 million只需3亿美元 to sprinkle 25,000 square kilometer of the Arctic.就可以覆盖住北极25000平方公里的土地 But that would only cover less than 1% of all the ice there.但这还不到极地冰川1%的面积 And we’re talking about而我们正在讨论 dumping millions of tons of silica over the Arctic向北极投放上百万吨二氧化硅 that would sink to the bottom of the ocean when the ice melted.当冰层融化时 它们会下沉到海底 We don’t know yet what ecological impact我们不知道它是否会随时间推移 it might cause over time.而对生态造成影响 Would you want to risk losing the Arctic你想在进行更多的实验之前 before performing more tests?就冒上失去北极的风险吗? I didn’t think so.我可不这么认为 We could leave the ice alone我们可以不从冰川下手 and try cutting off the Sun’s rays by using the clouds.而尝试用云层阻挡阳光 But they would have to be very thick但它们必须非常厚 to reflect the sunlight efficiently enough.才能有效地反射阳光 This could be solved by seeding the clouds above the Arctic这个问题可以通过在北极上空撒盐水 with droplets of saltwater.帮助成云的方法来解决 All we’d have to do is figure out我们只需要知道 how to deliver an ultra-fine seawater mist into the lower atmosphere.怎么才能向低层大气中输送超细海水雾 Or, we could go further又或许 我们可以更进一步 and start growing icebergs.开始使冰山生长 First, we’d dip submarines below the surface of the ocean第一步 我们将潜艇沉到海面以下 and fill a tank with seawater.将海水灌满容器 An onboard desalination system然后用舰载海水淡化系统 would remove the salt from the water,把盐从水中分离出来 and then a giant freezing machine would form icebergs然后用一个巨大的冷冻机将其变成 5 meters thick and 25 meters wide.一座5米厚 25米宽的冰山 But despite how cool it sounds,虽然这听起来很不错 the amount of energy required to power the operation,但运行机器所消耗的能量 and the heat it would release,和它所释放的热量 might negate any benefits of restoring the Arctic ice.可能会抵消掉恢复北极冰川所带来的好处 So should we even bother trying?那我们还应该试试吗? We could just quietly watch the Arctic我们也可以静观北极冰川 lose its ice to climate change,因气候变化而消融 until eventually there wouldn’t be any ice left at all.直到最后化为乌有 As temperatures rose,随着气温的逐渐上升 the Arctic permafrost would melt北极的永冻层也将会融化 and release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.并向大气中释放出更多二氧化碳 That would increase the global temperatures even further.进一步加剧全球变暖 The weather patterns across the planet would be sent off course,全球的天气形态将偏离其固定模式 resulting in more floods, more droughts, and more heatwaves.导致更多的洪灾 干旱和热浪 Some scientists even believe that一些科学家甚至认为 the ice-free Arctic would bring harsher winters to Europe and North America.无冰的北极会使欧洲和北美的冬天更加严寒 And who knows what else could happen?谁知道还会发生些什么呢? Without ice to rest on,没有冰层以供停留 polar bears would be forced to swim around北极熊将被迫只能在水中游来游去 instead of conserving their energy during times when food can be hard to find.无法在食物紧缺期保存能量 That would result in their population dropping这将导致它们的数量在2050年前 to less than 10,000 by 2050.就降至不到一万只 It would be fantastic if we could refreeze the Arctic.如果我们能重新冰冻北极就好了 We should at least try to refreeze a small portion of it.至少应该试着重新冻结一小部分 But that would be only a temporary bandage但如果我们对那些最初导致冰川融化的行为 if we continue doing the things不加以制止 that caused the ice to melt in the first place.这也不过是杯水车薪 It really comes down to us making a collective effort这需要我们共同努力 to switch to renewable energy sources and energy-efficient appliances,使用可再生能源和节能电器 to cut back on the amount of meat we eat,减少荤菜食用量 to stop throwing food away, to reduce water waste,不再浪费食物 浪费水 and to buy electric, or at least fuel-efficient cars.购买电动或低油耗汽车 It’s up to us to help our planet保护地球依赖于我们每个人的努力 And if that’s not enough,如果这还不够 remember that you have a right to demand policies that reflect climate science.记住 你有权要求制定反映气候科学的政策 Together, we could undo climate change globally只要我们共同努力 就可以解决全球气候变化问题 before it’s too late.趁现在还来得及 And if we don’t start acting now,如果我们现在还不行动 we might have to leave the Earth可能将被迫离开地球 and search for another planet to call home.另外寻找一颗能够生存的星球 But that’s a story for another WHAT IF.但那就是《自然无常》的另一个故事了
  • 2021-08-24如果珠穆朗玛峰是一座活火山会怎样?We all know how dangerous climbing Mount Everest can be.我们都知道攀登珠穆朗玛峰十分危险 Historically, over 300 people died attempting to reach the summit.历史上 超过300人在试图登顶珠峰时丧生 In 2019 alone, it claimed the lives of 11 people.仅2019年 它就夺去了11个人的生命 Yet despite the risk,尽管存在风险 its sheer magnitude and beauty其惊人的规模和美景 inspires around 800 climbers a year每年都会吸引大约800名攀登者 to flock to the mountain.涌向这座山峰 But what if we stepped it up a notch and made Everest even more dangerous?但是要是我们增加难度 使珠峰更加危险呢 Imagine this peaceful giant was an angry volcano想象一下这个平静的巨人是一座愤怒的火山 waiting to burst.等待爆发 How’s that for an adrenaline rush?这会多么让人热血沸腾? 如果珠穆朗玛峰爆发怎么办? 它将如何影响世界的其他地区? 我们可以防止它和其他类似事件的发生吗? This is WHAT IF and here’s what would happen本期《自然无常》将为您讲述 如果珠穆朗玛峰是一座活火山怎么办? There are 1,500 active volcanoes around the world,世界各地有1500座活火山 and many of them found deep in the ocean.其中绝大部分沉于深海 Yet, there are only 20 supervolcanoes on Earth.然而地球上仅有20座超级火山 If Everest was one of them,如果珠穆朗玛峰是其中之一 and happened to be sitting on a giant pool of magma并碰巧立于一个巨大的岩浆池上 ready to explode,随时准备爆炸 we’d be in serious trouble.我们就会有大麻烦了 To put this into perspective,从长远来看 the largest eruption on record,有史以来最大的火山爆发 happened in 1815发生在1815年(坦博拉火山) on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa.印度尼西亚松巴哇岛上 At only half the size of Mount Everest,它只有珠峰的一半大小 it was once a 4,000 meter (13,123 foot) tall stratovolcano曾是4000米(13123英尺)高的成层火山 which melted down to a 1109 meter (3,640 foot) deep caldera.融化成1109米(3640英尺)深的破火山口 This classifies it as a supervolcano,它被归类于超级火山 as it initially erupted over 1,000 cubic meters (240 cubic miles) of material因为它最初在大约43000年前 around 43,000 years ago.喷出了1000多立方米(24立方英里)的物质 根据火山爆发性指数 the 1815 eruption of Mt. Tambora1815年坦博拉火山的爆发 earned the highest ranking ever recorded以7级火山爆发指数获有史以来的最高排名 The most catastrophic eruptions最具灾难性的爆发 火山爆发指数达到8级 happened thousands and millions of years ago.发生在数千万年之前 The explosion of Mt. Tambora sent volcanic ash kilometers up into the sky,坦博拉火山的爆发使火山灰飞到了上千米的高空 destroying crops and burying entire villages.摧毁农作物并掩埋整个村庄 It triggered earthquakes and possibly large tsunamis.它引发了地震 可能还有大型海啸 The release of ash and aerosols in the stratosphere blocked the sun平流层中释放的火山灰和气溶胶阻挡了阳光 causing nearby temperatures to drop.导致附近的温度下降 This made food and oxygen scarce,这造成了食物和氧气的缺乏 killing over 100,000 people. Yikes.夺走了超10万人的生命! So if Everest happened to be a volcano ready to burst,那么如果珠峰恰好是即将爆发的火山 what would happen?将会发生什么? 尽管珠峰高达8849米(29035英尺) in the world of volcanoes, and relationships,对火山而言 以及在恋爱关系中 size doesn’t always matter.大小并不总是那么重要 It’s what’s inside that counts.内在的东西才是真正重要的 Deep below a volcano, beneath the Earth’s mantle,在火山的深处 在地幔之下 is a magma chamber waiting to blow skyward.是一个正等待着喷向天空的岩浆库 It’s hard to say how big Everest’s magma chamber might be,很难说珠峰的岩浆库可能有多大 but it would have to be pretty large但它必须足够大 to send magma high enough to reach the surface.才能将岩浆喷发到足以到达地表的高度 If you happened to summit Everest on this fateful day,如果你碰巧在火山爆发的这天攀登到顶点 you would be vaporised in seconds.你会在几秒内汽化 Giant chunks of burning rock,巨大的大块燃烧的岩石 也被称为火山弹 would be flung outward crushing villages将被抛向外面损毁村庄 and smothering them with ash.火山灰会令人们窒息 A flaming hot avalanche炙热的雪崩 would decimate everything in its path.会毁掉它面前的一切事物 All five countries circling Everest,五个环绕珠峰的国家 including Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bhutan,包括尼泊尔 印度 巴基斯坦 不丹 and The People’s Republic of China,还有中华人民共和国 would be absolutely devastated.都将会被彻底毁灭 Many earthquakes would trigger along the Indo-Australian and Eurasian fault lines.沿着印澳和欧亚的断层线的很多地震都会被触发 Essentially, this would be very bad news for everyone.本来这对于每个人都算是极坏的消息 But it gets worse.但是情况会变得更糟 To add insult to injury,雪上加霜的是 the release of ash into the stratosphere would block the Sun,喷发的火山灰进入平流层 会挡住太阳 triggering a volcanic winter that could last for several years.从而导致可能持续数年的火山冬季 This would destroy crops这会摧毁农作物 and the United Nations estimates据联合国估计 Earth would run out of food in just over 2 months.地球会在短短两个多月内消耗完所有食物 If there were any survivors,如果有幸存者 they would probably be deep in a bomb shelter somewhere,他们可能会藏在某个地方的防空洞中 hoarding a lifetime supply of food and toilet paper.囤积一生所需的食物和卫生纸 There is some light at the end of this tunnel though.不过无尽的黑暗后还存有一丝光明 After about a hundred years,大约一百年后 all these gases would actually start to warm the climate again.所有这些气体实际上会再次使气候变暖 But that’s a long wait for a volcanic summer.但这对于火山夏季是一个漫长的等待 If anybody actually survived this,如果真的有人能够幸免于难 climbing Everest would be a whole new experience,攀登珠峰将是一个全新的体验 and probably a lot easier to accomplish也可能会变得更加容易完成 as a much smaller and hollowed out caldera.因为它变得更小 且成为了一个中空的破火山口 You could finally check that off your bucket list.你终于可以将它从你的愿望清单里划掉 But let’s rewind.但是让我们倒带 What if we knew Everest was going to explode?如果我们知道珠峰即将爆炸会怎么样? What could we do?我们能做什么? As it turns out, scientists at NASA事实证明 美国宇航局的科学家 have an almost $4 billion solution.有一个40亿美元的解决方案 It would involve drilling a series of wells这将涉及在火山周围 around the perimeter of the volcano进行一系列钻井工程 to send ice-cold water down to the magma chamber.以将冰冷的水送至岩浆室 This, in turn, would form a protective ring of cool rock反过来 这将形成一个凉爽的岩石保护环 to help prevent a cataclysmic burst.以帮助防止灾难性爆炸 As the water heats up,当水变热时 NASA would extract it at the surface for electric power generation.美国宇航局又会将其提取到地表发电 Talk about a win-win!正好双赢! Mind you, if they happened to drill in a sensitive area,请注意 如果他们碰巧在敏感地带进行钻探 there’s a chance they could actually trigger an eruption,是就有可能触动一场火山喷发的 which would be the biggest facepalm in the history of humanity.这将是人类历史上最大的捂脸事件 Just to put you at ease,不过放轻松 Everest is not a volcano and will never erupt.珠穆朗玛峰不是火山 也永远不会爆发 Sherpas and climbers will stay in business for a long time.夏尔巴人和攀登者将会保持长期合作 Yet, there are a number of supervolcanoes on Earth building pressure.然而地球上有很多超级火山正在积蓄压力 These eruptions are extremely rare,这些喷发是很罕见的 as pressure building isn’t always what triggers a volcanic event.因为压力的形成并不总是会触发火山 Unlike earthquakes,不像地震 volcanoes are much harder to predict.火山喷发难预测得多 With that said, Yellowstone, America’s supervolcano,说起来 美国的超级火山 “黄石” is supposedly overdue.已经过了预计爆发的时间 But that’s a story for another WHAT IF.但那是另外一个故事了
  • 2021-08-24木星不存在会怎样?Hey there! Welcome to Life Noggin!你们好 欢迎收看《品生活》! Our solar system is pretty weird.我们的太阳系非常神秘 Over the past few decades,在过去几十年 scientists have discovered and confirmed over one thousand exoplanets,科学家发现并证实了一千多颗系外行星的存在 which are planets orbit other stars.它们环绕着其他恒星运行 And those star systems have quite a few differences from this one.这些星系与太阳系有着明显的差异 See, most solar systems have their larger planets orbit their host stars在大多数恒星系中 体积偏大的行星绕其主星运作的轨道 closer than Mercury orbits the sun.比水星绕日公转还近 In fact, in 1995, the exoplanet 51 Pegasi b was discovered,例如 我们在1995年发现的系外行星飞马座51b which has half the mass of Jupiter其质量为木星的一半 but is 20 times closer to its star than the Earth is to the sun.但它与其恒星的距离却只有地日距离的1/20 These types of exoplanets which are creatively called the “Hot Jupiters”,这类系外行星被极富创意地命名为“热木星” are quite common in other solar systems,它们在其他恒星系中十分常见 but weirdly they are missing from ours.但奇怪的是 在我们的太阳系中并没有这类行星 Hot Jupiter was also my collage nick name, haha~“热木星”还是我大学时的昵称呢 哈哈 That’s a story for another time.那个故事下次再讲 So why are our largest planets so far away from the Sun?那么 太阳系最大的行星为什么离太阳这么远呢? Well, to be honest, scientists aren’t quite sure.老实说 科学家对此还不太确定 Those are all good scientists.他们都是优秀的科学家 But, that hasn’t stopped them from coming up with hypotheses.但这并未阻止他们对此做出假设 And this is where the “Wandering Jupiter” idea comes in.以下是“流浪木星”想法的来源 Some scientists believe that when our solar system was a little youngin,一些科学家认为 在早期太阳系中 the Sun was potentially surrounded by super-Earth rocky planets.太阳可能被多个超级地球岩石行星环绕 But then our good friend Jupiter moved inward,但后来 我们的好朋友木星向内移动 whose gravitational pull changed the orbits of these planets,其引力改变了这些行星的运行轨道 causing them to collide with one another,导致它们相互碰撞 and you know, smashed them into pieces,撞碎开来 some of which were hurtled into the sun.其中一些碎片冲向太阳 Haha~What a way to go!哈哈 真厉害! However, as Jupiter later retreated,然而 因土星的形成 being pulled away from the Sun by the formation of Saturn,木星被引力拉离太阳 撤退至现在的位置 any leftover debris eventually formed into the rocky planets we know today:而剩下的碎片最终形成了如今的岩石行星: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.水星 金星 地球和火星 And this does a good job of explaining同时这也解释了 why the inner planets are younger than the outer gas giants.为何内太阳系行星的形成时间要晚于外太阳系的气态巨行星 So, essentially, if this is actually what happened,这意味着 如果以上论述的确是事实 if it weren’t for Jupiter, life on Earth would not exist.那么没有木星 地球上就不会有生命 No, that’s not saying that life wouldn’t be possible at all,这并不是说地球上没有存在生命的可能性 but Earth may not have ever formed而是说如果没有木星的到来 if Jupiter hadn’t come in and destroyed what was there before.没有它去摧毁之前的那些行星 地球可能根本不会形成 And not only is Jupiter potentially responsible for allowing Earth in the first place,木星不仅有可能协助形成最初的地球 but it also helps protect you now.而且现今依然保护着你们 See, in the last decade along,仅在过去的十年里 Jupiter has been hit by at least five comets or asteroids.就至少有5颗彗星或小行星撞击了木星 In fact, recent images from 17th March, 2016 show that我们可以在一张2016年3月17日的图片中看到 Jupiter was hit by a small object.一颗小型天体撞击了木星 And these impacts are just the ones that we’ve seen.这些撞击事件还仅是我们能观测到的 Some scientists predict that these collisions probably happen once to five times every month.一些科学家推测此类事件可能每月就会发生1-5次 And if it weren’t for Jupiter’s huge gravitational force deflecting these objects away from earth,如果没有木星的巨大引力吸引这些天体远离地球 you humans may have been struck by them instead.那么受到撞击的可能将是人类 And unless as your friend, I don’t recommend at all.要不是你们的朋友 我压根就不会说这些 But there’s also a theory that Jupiter might steer space rocks our way,但也有理论认为 木星可能会引导太空岩石向地球移动 possibly causing impact events.接着可能导致天体撞击事件 Man Jupiter, I just don’t know anymore.木星老兄呀 真拿你没办法 But we should still all be grateful that Jupiter exists.不过 无论如何我们都应该感谢木星的存在 I mean, if it didn’t, you probably wouldn’t be here watching this video,毕竟 如果没有它 你们可能就没法坐在这儿看这个视频了 and that would be pretty sad, you know?这样该有多可惜啊! On the topic of hypothetical questions, what if the Earth doubled in size?另一个假设性话题:如果地球体积变为两倍大会怎样? Check out this video.可以看看这期视频 How would that change things?这将会带来什么影响呢 Well, first of, the gravity would be very different.首先 重力会有很大的改变 The earth would have eight times as much mass,地球的质量会是现在的八倍 and gravity would be twice as strong.重力会是现在的两倍 There’s a link in the description if you’re on mobile.使用手机的朋友可以点击视频下方的链接 Make sure you come back every Monday for a brand new video.记得每周一来看新视频 As always, I’m Blocko and this has been Life Noggin.一如既往 我是Blocko 这里是《品生活》 Don’t forget to keep on thinking!记得保持奇思妙想噢!
  • 2021-08-24我见奥巴马·米歇尔时搞砸了《故事舱》真实故事动画 So, you know, one day, my mom picks me and my little sister up from school.一天 我妈妈到学校接我和妹妹 We are by Dairy Queen,我们在DQ停下 and my mom says, “Guess what?” And I’m like, “What?”妈妈说:“猜猜看” 我问:“猜什么?” She says, “You’re gonna meet the First Lady.”她说:“你要去见第一夫人啦” And I’m like, “Wait, what? This a joke, right? Are you serious?”我问:“等等 什么?开玩笑吧?真的吗?” You know, this was back then when Barack Obama was the president.那时奥巴马先生还是总统 So then I was like, “This is a joke, right?”于是我问:“这是玩笑吧?” And then she shows me on her phone that然后她把手机给我看 me and, like, ten or sixteen other students were chosen to meet Michelle Obama我和其他10或16个学生被选去见米歇尔夫人 and I was like, “Oh my gosh, this for real.”我说:“噢我的天哪 这是真的” The following Tuesday, I show up to my school下周二 我到了学校 and there were policemen, guard dogs,学校里有警察 警犬 and I think there were even some body guards inside.我觉得里面甚至还有一些保镖 The class were in同学们都进来了 and I was like, “Oh my gosh, they were serious,我想:“噢我的天哪 来真的了” we are gonna meet Michelle Obama.It was insane.我们要见米歇尔夫人啦 太疯狂了 The next thing you know, the First Lady arrives.接着第一夫人到了 There were even more guards and lots of cameramen出现了更多的警卫和摄影师 and I was like, “Oh my gosh, I’m gonna be on TV.”我想:“噢我的天哪 我要上电视了” During this particular time在这特别的时刻 I did have a bad haircut and I had glasses我的发型很难看 戴着眼镜 and my acne was kind of sort of rough.粉刺还有点粗糙 I tried to brush it off我尽力忽视这些 because, you know, I’m gonna meet the First Lady.因为我要见第一夫人啦 The next thing you know, Al Roker walks in.接着阿尔·洛克走了进来 He’s like, “Introducing, Miss Michelle Obama!”他说:“介绍一下 这是米歇尔夫人!” And oh my gosh, she was so gorgeous, she was so beautiful.噢 我的天哪 她太美了 好漂亮 She’s like, “Hey everybody, you know, I’m here to,她说:“嘿 大家好 我来这儿是为了 you know, spread awareness about eating healthy.”宣传饮食健康的意识” You know, she’s just talking.她就一直在说话 As she’s speaking, you know, we’re all just staring at her,说话时 我们都注视着她 I’m staring at her, everyone’s staring at her.我看着她 大家也是 The cameras are just all on her, you know.摄像头都围着她 So the next thing you know, we leave the green house接着我们离开了温室 – you know we were in the green house, by the way顺便说一下 我们刚才在温室 she puts her hand on my right shoulder as we walking,我们走路时 她把手搭在我右肩上 I’m just freaking out, I’m screaming like我乐坏了 我尖叫着 “Oh my gosh, she put her hand on my right shoulder!”“噢我的天哪 她把手放在我右肩上!” After that, you know, she was talking to everybody else,之后她和其他的每一个人都交谈了 And you know, just kind of, just not looking at me, just ignoring me.只是没有看着我 忽视了我 All of a sudden, I start to feel mad.突然 我开始感到气愤 She just wasn’t paying attention to me.她没有注意到我 So you know, I’m not even participating anything anymore.所以 我再也不参加任何活动了 I’m just staking the grass in the dirt, I’m just angry.我把草从土里揪出来 我很生气 So the next thing you know, it’s time for lunch.随后午饭时间到了 I’m just messing around my food,我把食物弄得一片狼藉 I’m just slamming the food inside other food,就是把它们扔在一起 I’m just mashing everything together.把所有东西都搅乱 Because, you know, Michelle Obama’s, you know, still not paying attention to me.因为米歇尔夫人还是没有注意到我 She’s just walking around, just talking to other people.她一直四处走动和其他人聊天 Then the next thing you know, Michelle Obama, she has to leave.接着米歇尔夫人要走了 She says:”Oh, thank y’all for having me,她说“噢 谢谢你们邀请我来 thank y’all for just appreciating me being here谢谢你们为了见我来到这儿 and I love y’all.Have a great time.”我爱你们 祝你们生活愉快” So you know, my parents are coming to pick me up,然后我爸妈来接我了 but I have this angry look on my face,但我脸上还是很生气 and they’re like, “What’s wrong?”他们问:“怎么了?” And I said,”Michelle Obama just wasn’t really paying that much attention to me.”我说:“米歇尔夫人根本没关注我” And they get mad. They’re like shouting at me,他们很气愤 冲我大喊 they’re like, “Walter, how could you get mad?他们吼道:“Walter 你怎么可以生气? You met the First Lady!你见到了第一夫人啊! You got a rare opportunity,这是一个难得的机会 like are you kidding me Walter?”你在和我开玩笑吗?Walter” They’re yelling at me,他们一直在冲我大喊大叫 my sister’s just looking around like, “What the heck?”妹妹环顾四周 说:“搞什么鬼?” And I’m just crying my eyes out我痛哭流涕 and they say if see me frowning, you know, on TV他们说如果看见我在电视上皱眉 – because it was gonna be on TV ,因为它将在电视上播出 I was gonna be severely punished我将受到严重的惩罚 So, you know, I’m doing punishment,所以 我被惩罚了 I’m taking out the trash, I’m doing the dishes,罚我倒垃圾 洗盘子 and I just walk into my parents room.我走进爸妈的房间 And they’re trying to see if I’m frowning or not他们想看我皱眉了没有 and of course, there I am on TV,当然 电视上的我出现了 my almost bald head and my glasses, and I just look so bad.近乎秃顶的脑袋 戴着眼镜 我看起来很不高兴 “Oh my gosh, I’m just so ashamed.”“噢我的天哪 我真是太羞愧了” Then I quickly go Google myself然后我赶紧搜索自己 and yep, there I am on Google,是的 在谷歌上的我 my almost bald head and my glasses.近乎光头的大脑袋 戴着眼镜 So you know after I’m still doing chores,之后 我还在做着家务 my parents come up and they’re like,我爸妈走过来说 “We’re sorry we yelled at you Walter,“Walter 很抱歉我们冲你怒吼 but we just want you to understand how rare of opportunity you got.但我们只想让你明白 你得到的机会是多么难得 Do you realize how many people want to meet her,你知道有多少人想要见她吗? all the billions and billions of kids who want to meet her?”数十亿的孩子都渴望见到她?” So oh my gosh, I feel even more ashamed,噢我的天哪 我感到更羞愧了 and you know I’m so sorry Barack Obama, Michelle Obama, Al Roker我对不起奥巴马先生 米歇尔夫人和洛克先生 I love y’all so much,我非常爱你们 and if y’all are watching this, I’m so sorry.如果你们看到这个视频 我很抱歉 Do not take anything for granted别把一切当作理所当然 cuz I got a rare opportunity and I behaved like a brat因为我曾有个难得的机会 我却搞砸了 and I’m sorry ya’ll.我对不起你们大家
  • 2021-08-24地球上风最大的地方 与理查德·哈蒙德一起体验极端天气I’m about to take a little walk outside我打算出去走一走 Okay好吧 Just popping out,只是出去一下而已 which is it turns out quite a chore out here在这里却成了一桩麻烦事 I can not only hear the wind around this building我不仅可以听得到狂风在房子周围呼啸 I Can feel it!而且能真切地感受到! The whole place is vibrating.整个房子都在震动 Oh no I’ve forgot my goggles!嗷不! 我忘戴上护目镜了! This is this is do it in the wrong order这就是不按正确穿戴顺序的结果 And your your eyeballs can freeze.你的眼球都能被冻上 Any exposed skin will have frostbite on it within two or three minutes.任何裸露的皮肤两到三分钟就会被冻伤 Right, that’s my best hat.好吧 这是我最暖和的帽子了 I won’t get cold with that on戴上它我就不会感冒 this is to stop my nose falling off which would be bad because戴上这个是为了防止我的鼻子被冻掉 I’d never be able to wear sunglasses again不然我就再也不能戴墨镜了 and I want to.我可还想要戴墨镜呢 Liner gloves先戴上内胆手套 like this就像这样 OK!好啦! Obviously, I am now obliged by law很明显 我现在必须按规定做事 To say I’m going outside… I might be some time.我想出门的话 就得先花点时间 Have you noticed how cold it is indoors!?你们注意到室内有多冷了吗?! At this point此时此刻 I think I should try and give you some idea我认为有必要举几个小例子 of what I might be in for.来让你们了解下 with a small demonstration…我可能会遭遇到的情况…… The lightest wind you can feel on your face is about five-miles-an-hour脸能感到的最轻微的风速约5英里每小时 Enough to rustle this newspaper.足以把报纸吹得沙沙响 15 miles an hour时速达到15英里时 and your umbrella gives up the ghost你的伞就会散架 25 miles-an-hour can cause a deckchair to set sail时速25英里的风能把帆布折叠椅吹跑 Followed at 30 miles an hour等时速到30英里时 by your garden furniture你家的花园家具就遭殃了 45 and all hell starts to break loose.风速到达45英里 一切都将失控 Seemingly rigid structures suddenly make a break for it看起来很坚固的栅栏 瞬间就能被吹散架 And at 55 miles an hour风速达到55英里每小时的话 even small buildings are on the move连小房子都能被吹走 (bye bye building)[木板房倒塌] So why am I telling you all this?我为什么给你们举这些例子呢? because on Mount Washington,因为在华盛顿山上 it’s currently 65此刻的风速是65英里每小时 with gusts reaching a staggering 85 miles an hour阵风时不时还能达到85英里每小时 Believe it or not信不信由你 I’m actually sheltered at the moment此刻我还是有所遮挡的 There’s hardly any wind right here风很难刮到这里 because I’m in the Lee of the building因为我站在屋子的背风处 It starts about 6 feet that way,离这大约6英尺开外 and then there’s a lot of it风就变得很大 And the only way to demonstrate those向你们做演示的唯一办法 I’m gonna go and stand in it就是我走过去站在那里 And for reasons best known to themselves不知道布兰登 肖恩和摄像师是怎么想的 Brendan and Sean and cameronman said that they decided to come with me.他们决定同我一起过去 Because they’re idiots可能因为他们脑子坏掉了吧 so um here we go right walking那我们就走吧 Not windy, not windy这里没风 这里也没风 好大的风 好大的风 这风也太大了吧 This is about我估计 65 maybe 70 miles an hour with the wind,这里的风速能达到每小时65或者70英里 but don’t forget,但别忘了 This is the site one of the highest wind speed ever recorded by man我所在的是人记录到最高风速的地方之一 231 miles an hour!!!有每小时231英里呢!!! How must that feel?!站在那种风速里会是什么感觉?! I’d be gone!可能我人就没了! (continues to almost fly away in the wind)(一直处于被风刮走的边缘)
  • 2021-08-24如果我们发现了外星人工智能会怎样No one knows what to expect没有人能够预料 if we encountered other forms of alien life.遇见其他形式的外星生命会怎样 Would they talk like us?他们会像我们一样说话吗? Look like us?长得像我们吗? Or would they be completely different?还是和我们完全不同? What if instead of encountering organic alien life,如果我们遇见的不是外星生命体 we met alien artificial intelligence而是外星人工智能 那会怎样? What would alien technology look like?外星科技会是什么样的呢? What might it be able to do?它可能有什么功能? And should we be afraid of something like this?我们应该害怕这类东西吗? this is WHAT IF这里是《自然无常》 and you saw what happened if we discovered alien AI.你曾看到过 我们发现外星人工智能时所发生的情况 Humanity has dreamed up some pretty crazy technology.人类已经幻想过一些非常疯狂的科技 And we’re not too far away from having our tech我们离实现科幻电影里出现的那些科技 look like its come out of a sci-fi movie.并不遥远 But it’s safe to say that但我们可以肯定地说 if aliens created technology,外星人创造出的科技 it would be a lot different将完全不同于 than anything we could dream up.我们所幻想出来的任何东西 So, what types of alien AI could we possibly see?那么 我们可能看到什么类型的外星人工智能呢? Nobody knows what life on other planets will be like.没人知道其他星球上的生命会是什么样子 But the first form of alien technology但是我们可能遇见的 we could encounter might be第一种形式的外星科技 some sort of alien probe.或许会是某种外星探测器 To help us explain what an alien probe would be like,为帮助大家了解外星探测器 we’re collaborating with YouTuber Isaac Arthur.我们请来了油管主Isaac Arthur Isaac hosts a youtube channel他在油管上主持着一个 explaining scientific and futurism concepts.解释科学和未来主义概念的频道 Thanks Peter.谢谢 Peter This probe would be tasked with finding or communicating with us.这个探测器可能担负着找到我们或与我们沟通的任务 The probe would fly throughout the galaxy in an attempt to find some sort of life.它可能是为寻找生命而飞越星系 It would either be wandering and searching aimlessly,可能是漫无目的地漫游和搜寻 or it would have some designated mission.也可能带着某种特定的使命 And once that’s completed, it would record any signals it found一旦完成任务 它就会记录下发现的任何信号 and transmit them back to the alien homeworld.并将其传送回自己的母星 The issue with this is us being able to discover it.问题在于 我们是否有能力发现它 Space is big, really really big.宇宙浩瀚 漫无边际 And the alien probe might be too far away for us to detect it.外星探测器或许因距离我们太远而无法被探测到 It might not want to communicate with us,它或许并不想同我们交流 and if it does, we might not know how to receive its message,即使它想 我们也可能不知该如何接收其信息 or understand what the alien probe is trying to say to us.或理解它想要传递给我们的讯息 There might be some strange concepts too,可能还会接收到一些奇怪的概念 as an alien AI might have very different motivations from anything biological.因为外星人工智能有着与其他生物体完全不同的动机 So it might be informing us它可能会通知我们 that it plans to stop by它打算停在地球旁边 and turn Earth into a quintillion paper clips.把它变成数亿个回形针 For an indepth look on the types of motivations and psychology it might have,如果你想深入了解其动机类型和心理特征 Try out our episode, alien AI.请收看我们的视频《外星人工智能》 Back to you Peter.到你了 Peter Thanks Isaac.谢谢 Isaac So if we can’t communicate with the aliens,如果我们无法和外星人交流 and they’re just simply observing us,他们只是单纯地观察我们 what would happen next?接下来会发生什么呢? Well, now that we’ve been discovered by alien technology,好吧 既然我们已经被外星科技发现了 a number of things could happen.很多事情都可能会发生 We could witness more of their technology coming to Earth.我们会目睹他们更多的科技出现在地球上 This could be in the form of a machine或许是以机器的形式 that could terraform our entire planet.来改造整个地球以适宜他们居住 This would be very, very bad.这将会非常 非常糟糕 That’s because this form of alien technology因为这种形式的外星科技 would be used to alter our Earth in whichever way its creators pleased.会按其创造者的喜好来改造地球 They might want to change Earth’s atmosphere, temperature, or physical features.他们可能想要改变地球的大气 温度 或物理特征 And in the process,而在这个过程中 the human race would most likely become extinct.人类很可能会灭绝 No matter how many missiles and bullets we throw towards this thing,不管我们向这个机器发射多少导弹和子弹 there would be virtually no way we could stop it.都没有办法阻止它 I mean ,come on我的意思是 拜托 this thing is meant to completely alter planets!这玩意儿是用来彻底改造行星的 You think a gun will help you fight it off?你难道以为能一枪把它打下来吗? If we’re lucky enough to avoid our home planet being taken over,如果我们足够幸运 地球并没有被占领 we may get sent raw material drones.那我们遇到的可能是原材料无人机 This form of AI would harvest metals and gases这种人工智能将从地球 from us and bring them back home.收集金属 气体并带回母星 Yeah this would still suck,没错 这依然很糟 but we could at least have some chance of surviving this one.但我们这次至少有存活下来的机会 Okay, now we’ve seen all this alien technology现在我们已经看完了关于外星科技的介绍 but, when do we get to meet the actual aliens?但我们什么时候会遇见真正的外星人呢? You know, the green guys with funny heads你知道的 就是那种长着奇怪脑袋的绿色家伙 Well, there’s two ways this could go.嗯 有两种可能性 One is that aliens come,一种是外星人来到地球 and they take over our planet and resources.占领了我们的星球和资源 But we have a separate story for that,但是我们已经有一个这样的故事了 called “What If Aliens Arrived Tomorrow?”它叫做《如果外星人明天到来会怎样》 And the second option could be that we wouldn’t see any aliens at all.第二种可能是 我们根本见不到任何外星人 That’s because, with all this incredibly advanced alien technology,因为这些外星人有着这样不可思议的先进科技 there’s the possibility that the aliens aren’t even around anymore.他们或许已经不存在了 Just like the way we fear AI and robots are taking over humans,就像我们害怕人工智能和机器人会取代人类一样 that may have happened to aliens.这种事情可能已经发生在外星人身上了 While they were creating this advanced AI,外星人在创造先进的人工智能时 the aliens may have given it too much power.可能给了它太强的能力 And once that happened,一旦这样 their AI took over and extinguished the alien race.他们的人工智能就占领并消灭了这一外星种族 And then, we could have the exact same thing当然 这些事情同样可能 threatening to destroy us.会威胁我们人类的存亡 So as cool as it might sound,因此 尽管这听起来好像很酷 alien AI would definitely not be a cool thing for us to come up against.但对抗外星人工智能绝不是件很酷的事情 But what if, instead of aliens destroying us,但 如果不是外星人在摧毁我们 they enslaved us而是我们奴役他们会怎样呢? Well, that’s a story for another WHAT IF.这会是下一期《自然无常》(要讲述的)故事了

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