2 buckets full of colored water?
两满桶颜料水?
Check.
已确认
2 willing subjects?
两名测试者?
Check.
已确认
A slow mo camera?
一台慢速相机?
Uh, check.
嗯 已确认
Alright.
好了
Let’s do this.
我们开始吧
But wait… why is only one of them getting soaked?
等等……为什么只有一个人湿透了?
The chemistry behind this is pretty darn cool.
这背后的化学反应相当酷
So cool in fact that we got the 2016 Chemistry Champions winner,
这实在太酷了 让2016年化学冠军
Dr. Mallory Hinks, to help us out in this video.
玛罗琳·辛克斯博士在视频里帮我们解惑
Raincoats, car windshields, waterproof phones.
雨衣 汽车挡风玻璃 防水电话
They all use a little chemistry to stay dry.
它们都用了一些化学物质来防水
To show how this works,
为了展示它是如何工作的
we sprayed a Reactions team member with an industrial strength waterproof spray,
我们对一名测试者喷洒一种工业强度防水剂
or what’s called a superhydrophobic coating.
或者称之为超级疏水涂层
“Hydrophobic”meaning water-fearing or water-hating
“疏水”意思是怕水或讨厌水
and”super”meaning ”a whole lot”
“超级”的意思则是非常
Ah, quick safety note guys: spray the shirt.
哦 安全小贴示:喷在衬衫上
Not yourself.
不是喷你自己身上
So what IS happening?
那发生了什么?
Well, it turns out, this spray works by borrowing a waterproof tip from nature.
嗯 事实证明这种防水剂借用了大自然的防水技巧
Check out this leaf hopper’s wing.
来看一看这片叶蝉翅膀
Or this lotus leaf.
或者这片荷叶
These surfaces repel water so well that a drop is just going
这些表面防水效果很好 一滴水落在上面
to sit on top of them as a ball that’s pretty close to a spherical shape.
会形成一个十分接近球形的球
See, if water drops on a flat surface like a table,
看 如果水滴在像桌子这样的平面上
it flattens out into a mini puddle.
它就会摊开形成一个小水坑
Scientists refer to a so-called “contact angle”.
科学家们称之为所谓的“接触角”
This angle is usually somewhere between zero and 120 degrees.
这个角通常在大约0到120度之间
By comparison, water droplets on the lotus leaf have a contact angle of more than 150 degrees.
相比之下 荷叶上的水滴接触角大于150度
And the water droplet on the leafhopper’s wing has a contact angle of around 170 degrees.
而叶蝉翅膀的水滴接触角则约为170度
Getting as close to 180 as gravity will let you
当接触角在重力允许范围内接近180度时
would give you an almost perfect sphere,
水滴就会形成一个近乎完美的球形
meaning the surface doesn’t even get wet when a bead of water touches it.
这意味着当一滴水接触物体时 其表面甚至不会变湿
So chemists have been trying to figure out
所以化学家们一直想弄明白
how the lotus leaf and leafhopper’s wings do it.
荷叶与叶蝉翅膀是如何做到这一点的
And they’ve made a lot of progress in trying to get those super hydrophobic
他们在试图获得大于150度接触角的
for the contact angles of over 150 degrees.
超疏水材料中有了重大进展
There are sprays that can waterproof shoes which are commercially available in some places,
这是在有些地方能买到的给鞋防水的喷剂
and ones that can prevent your white shirt from getting stained from red wine.
它还可以防止你的白衬衫被红酒弄脏
There’s even stencil street art in Seattle that only appears when it rains.
在西雅图甚至有仅在下雨天出现的街头蜡纸艺术
Or should we say, only doesn’t appear when it suns?
或者说 只是不会在晴天的时候出现?
I don’t know.
我不知道
To see some superhydrophobicity in action, we fired up the slow mo camera
为了观察超疏水材料的作用 我们启用了慢速摄像机
and dumped water on superhydrophobic magic sand.
先把水倒在超疏水魔力沙上
Here it is at 1000 frames per second.
现在是每秒1000帧
But really, what I know you’ve all been waiting for
但说真的 我知道你们等的是什么
— the chemistry of how this works.
——这其中的化学反应原理
It all comes down to interactions we call surface chemistry
这都归结为我们所说的“表面化学相互作用”
and the shape of the surface at a very small scale.
和其表面极其微小的结构
Most of the legwork is done by the surface
大部分化学反应都发生在
— essentially at the itsy bitsy nanoscale all the way up to the microscale,
——从纳米级到微米级来看
the surface is NOT flat.
这个表面并不平整
It’s actually very bumpy and rough.
它其实非常崎岖粗糙
These rough bumps are covered in a hydrophobic layer that has no time for water to join in
这些粗糙凸起被疏水层所覆盖 水无法及时渗入
— sort of how water and oil never seem to get along.
——这就好像水和油也从来不会相溶
So essentially the water is sitting atop a very oily,waxy bed of nails,
水滴躺在一个油性的光滑钉子底座上
and it’s pushed upwards, away from the surface where it sits like a ball.
它被向上推 离开水滴像球一样呆着的表面上
Because it’s on top of the surface, it can easily just roll away.
由于它在表面顶部 很容易滑下去
This is great for lots of products, like rain jackets that use water repelling Gore-tex,
这对很多产品都很棒 像使用了防水材料Gore-tox的雨衣
which is made from Teflon, or as we like to call it polytetrafluoroethylene.
它由特氟龙制成 即我们一般说的聚四氟乙烯
Car windshields and windows are coated with polysiloxanes to the same effect
挡风玻璃和车窗涂有相同效果的聚硅氧烷
–rain just rolls off instead of blurring your view.
——雨水会滑下去而不是模糊你的视野
One of the most innovative uses may be coming to San Francisco soon.
一个很棒的创意将很快在旧金山得到应用
The city is testing a paint to deter public urination.
他们在测试一种防止人们随地小便的油漆
The hydrophobic paint would create a rough texture …
这种疏水油漆会产生粗糙的纹理
so that anyone who tries to go wee on a wall,
所以任何试图向在墙上小便的人
would, in fact, end up wetting themselves.
最终反而会把自己弄湿
Thanks for watching us splash water around in the name of science.
感谢观看我们以科学为名的泼水节目
For more, check out this great graphic from our friends at C&EN
想要了解更多 请在简介里查看我们朋友在《C&EN》
and Compound Interest in the description below.
和《化合物乐趣》中的美图
Thanks to Seattle Rainworks, Ultra-Ever Dry, and Dr. Mallory Hinks.
感谢西雅图雨衣工厂和玛罗琳·辛克斯博士
Do you have any experiments you want us to try?
你有什么想让我们做的实验吗?
Leave them in the comments,and Hey!
在评论中留言吧 就这样!
Thanks for watching.
感谢观看

相关热播

  • 2021-08-24三角形也可以做轮子?这里我搞到了一个压在轮子上的木箱子 你看 它可以很顺畅地滑动 也可以前后来回滑动 如果你以为这下面的轮子是圆的 那可就想错了 它们其实是三角形 它们实际上叫作勒洛三角形 是一种等宽曲线的几何体 所以如果三角形轮子也能像圆形轮子那样滚动 为什么长期以来 我们都要用圆形轮子呢 我来演示下 用勒洛三角形做轮子会有什么问题 那么 先把它像这样放在桌上 然后找到它的正中心 在顶部和底部之间的中心 大约是在..
  • 2021-08-24病人手术中突然醒了怎么办想象你突然痛不欲生醒了过来Imagine suddenly awaking to hellish pain. 却因为喊不出声音 感到万分恐惧Think of the unbearable horrible when you try to scream, 你这才发现你整个身体已经瘫痪了it’s then that you realize that your entire body is..
  • 2021-08-24南北半球抽水马桶的漩涡方向不一样的背后原因嗨~是我DestinHey it’s me Destin. 欢迎回到“机灵日”Welcome back to Smarter Every Day. 这有个情况 我在北半球做了个视频Here’s the deal. I’ve created a video in the northern hemisphere 来自“真理元素”的Derek在南半球也做了一个and..
  • 2021-08-24椰果是如何生产出来的?椰果是如何生产出来的? 我们通过以下几个步骤生产椰果 每一步都是艺术 首先打开椰子 椰肉刮成泥 挤压椰肉 来获取制作椰果的最新鲜的原料 将椰浆与 糖 醋 和水混合 然后我们的研发团队会培养木醋杆菌 并寻找合适的椰果样品 发酵室 发酵过程持续约七天 期间必须把控好温度 以确保椰果正常发酵 七天后 一定厚度的椰果片将会成型 制作完后 清洗椰果片表面 清洗完成后 把椰果片放入切割机 根据要求的尺寸切成..
  • 2021-08-24致命的火焰龙卷风长什么样子?2018年7月 加州卡尔大火 引发了致命的火焰龙卷风 科学家对此做出了解释 那天 一股从太平洋吹来的寒冷而密集的风 裹挟沉重的气流冲下山坡 和下面的热空气相撞 引发了破碎波和涡流紊流空气 当涡流和火海相遇时 火焰中产生了龙卷风 它延伸至比三个足球场还宽 比加州最高的山还高 内部温度飙升至2700华氏度 风速超过每小时165英里 仅仅40分钟 卡尔火焰龙卷风 毁坏了方圆一英里的道路
  • 2021-08-24亚裔眼比你想的要更普遍肯托亚洲 典型的亚裔眼The stereotypical Asian eye 小且斜长还经常是单眼皮the ones that are small, slanted and often with a monolid. 通常只在亚洲见到These can only be seen in Asians. (错了)(Wrong!) 好吧 这种说法并不正确OK, not exactly true. 就像..
  • 2021-08-2810分钟了解四十亿年地球史地球自形成以来的四十五亿年间Earth has been through a lot 历经了沧海桑田in the four and a half billion years since it formed. 地球的大部分历史面貌都已被Most of Earth’s history has been shaped 板块运动带来的大陆间相互碰撞所改变by plate tectonics,..
  • 2021-09-03大堡礁是如何形成的?20,000 years ago, this area wasn’t even underwater.两万年前这片区域甚至都没在水下 It was covered with eucalyptus and paper bark forests.而是被桉树和纸树皮林所覆盖 And it was home to animals commonly found on the Australia..
  • 2021-08-24如何为病毒命名(例如COVID-19)Hi, this is Julián from MinuteEarth.嗨 我是《分钟地球》的Julián In 2009, a disease swept across the globe and infected millions,2009年 一种疾病席卷全球并感染了数百万人 and before it was officially named 2009 H1N1 Flu,在被正式命名为20..
  • 2021-08-24河豚里面是什么样子?If there’s one thing you know about puffer fish,提到河豚 你肯定知道的一件事 it’s that they can do this.就是它可以这样 When aggravated by a predator,受到捕食者威胁时 they, you know, puff up.它们会膨胀变大 Some puffers, like..
  • 2021-09-15开普勒的富矿行星大家好!我是Reid Reimers欢迎收看太空科学秀。在 2014年2月26日Greetings! I’m Reid Reimers and welcome to SciShow Space. On February 26th 2014, the 开普勒科学团队宣布发现了715颗太阳系外的新的星球Kepler science team announced the discovery of 71..
  • 2021-08-24为什么自行车能直立不倒?自行车是人类发明的最有效并最万用的人力交通工具之一Bicycles are one of the most efficient and versatile human-powered means of transportation 但是难以置信的是 这种人骑单车we have yet devised. But perhaps even more incredible than humans ri..

我要评论

    评论加载中...

译学馆所有视频和图片来自互联网版权归原创者所有。

加载中...