How do Touchscreens work? By: Branch Education
触摸屏是如何工作的? 由《分支教育》倾情献制
What enabled smartphones to dominate as a technology-
是什么让智能手机成为一项主宰性的技术?
to be so prolific and critical to our lives that I
让它如此高产且对我们的生活至关重要?
I would rather lose my car keys or wallet than my smartphone.
以至于我们宁愿丢失车钥匙或钱包 也不愿丢失手机
The answer to this question isn’t a simple one liner, but rather it’s a combination of answers,
这个问题的答案并不是简单的一句话 而是一些答案的组合
app development, wireless internet, carrier networks, Steve Jobs’ brilliant marketing,
它涉及app开发 无线网络 载波网络 乔布斯卓越的营销等
tho I would argue the most important contributor was the seamless combination-
不过我认为造成这一现象的最重要因素是
of different functions and technologies into a single package.
我们能够将不同的功能和技术无缝组合到单一程序包中
In this episode, we’re going to explore the most distinctive feature
本视频中 我们将探究
of the smartphone’s merging of technologies-
智能手机所利用的技术中最特别的一项
the touchscreen display.
也就是触屏显示
There are three technologies in the touchscreen display
触屏显示利用了三项技术
These technologies are combined all on top of each other.
这些技术通过一层叠一层的方式组合
When you felt and used a smartphone for the first time,
当你第一次拿起并使用智能手机时
you just knew that you were holding something revolutionary –
就会知道自己正拿着一个革命性的东西
something different from all previous phones.
它与之前所有的手机都不同
These… were not new technologies.
这不是新技术
Many devices used a tactile interface,
许多设备都使用触觉接口
and color displays had already been a standard for most phones.
彩色显示早已成为大多手机的标配
Even toughened glass had been discovered in the 1800s.
即使是钢化玻璃也早在1800年代被发明
But the innovative element was combining them seamlessly.
但创新之处在于将它们无缝结合在一起
One layer on top of another like magic.
一层叠一层 就像魔法一样
Ok, so let’s get into the layers of a touchscreen display.
OK 我们来看看触摸显示屏的不同层级
On the top, we have the protective glass.
在最上层的是起保护作用的玻璃层
A lot of us have had a screen shatter-
许多人都弄碎过屏幕
but think about how many times you’ve dropped it and it hasn’t.
但是回想一下 有多少次你的手机掉了但是屏幕没事
That’s because a smartphone’s glass is over 5x stronger than normal glass.
这是因为智能手机的玻璃强度是普通玻璃强度的5倍以上
And, before the first iPhone showed up in 2007
2007年第一款iPhone面世之前
the standard for cellphone screens was plastic-
智能手机的屏幕都是用塑料制作的
and although plastic doesn’t shatter,
塑料虽然不会碎
it is very easily scratched.
但是很容易被划伤
If the screen were covered in plastic,
如果用塑料覆盖屏幕
it wouldn’t last a week sitting in your pocket next to your keys-
在把它和钥匙一起放在口袋时
before having dozens of scratches all over it.
不出一周就会出现数十条划痕
So, what makes toughened glass so much stronger?
那么 是什么使得钢化玻璃这么坚固呢?
A smartphone’s glass is an aluminosilicate glass-
智能手机的玻璃是硅酸铝玻璃
that is toughened by soaking it in a bath of molten potassium nitrate.
这种玻璃在液态硝酸钾中浸泡处理过
This causes the sodium atoms in the glass migrate out,
这导致玻璃中的钠原子被挤出
and much larger potassium atoms take their place.
更大的钾原子代替了它们
Because the potassium atoms are much larger,
因为钾原子更大
they generate a substantial compressive force on the surface of the glass.
它们会对玻璃表面产生巨大压力
Here’s a quick analogy:
做一个简单的类比
imagine filling the backseat of a car with 3 average sized people.
想象一辆汽车的后座上坐着三个中等身材的人
They fit snugly but if you push them, they’re still able to move.
他们坐在一起刚好合适 但推他们的话 彼此都还能动
Now replace those 3 people with 3 football linebackers.
现在把这三个人换成三个足球后卫
Those linebackers are just flat out stuck-unable to move.
这些后卫挤在一起动弹不得
It would take much more force to move those linebackers from their seats.
推动他们就需要更大的力
This is the fundamental concept behind what makes toughened glass special,
这就是钢化玻璃为什么这么坚固的基本原理
the atoms are compressed so it would take more force for the glass to break.
原子被挤压 所以需要更大的力才能破坏玻璃
Below the toughened glass is a projected capacitive touchscreen
在钢化玻璃下面是投射电容触摸屏
that senses the presence and location of conductive materials, such as your finger tip.
它可以感知导电物体的存在与位置 譬如你的手指
This touchscreen is composed of two transparent diamond grid patterns-
触摸屏上下两层是透明的聚酯纤维
printed on polyester with an optically clear insulator in the middle.
上面印有菱形网格 中间则是一个光学绝缘层
The diamond grid pattern is printed with a transparent, material
菱形网格是用铟锡氧化物(ITO)印上去的
called Indium Tin Oxide or ITO which acts as a conductor.
这是种透明材料 可以作为导体
Let’s take a closer look on how it works.
我们近距离看看它是怎么工作的
say we build up a bunch of electrons on this blue diamond,
假设我们有一些电子在蓝色的菱形上
however because there is an insulator in the way, the electrons cannot move.
但是由于中间是绝缘层 它们无法移动
The electrons generate a negative electric field-
电子产生了负电场
which causes a bunch of positive charges to build up on the yellow diamond
这导致正电荷积攒在黄色的菱形上
This is called a capacitor.
这就是电容器
Now, when we move a conductive material such as the tip of your finger close to this capacitor
现在 当将一个导体 比如手指 靠近这个电容
it disrupts the electric field-
这将会扰乱电场
which changes the amount of positive charges that build up on the yellow diamond.
并且改变黄色菱形上的正电荷数量
The change in positive charges caused by this disruption on the yellow diamond is measured,
处理器会记录下这种扰乱引起的正电荷变化
and the processor registers this as a touch.
并记为一次触摸
The location of the touch is detected
触摸位置的确定
by scanning the charges or voltage along the blue diamond rows,
需要扫描蓝色菱形行的电荷
while actively measuring each yellow diamond column.
并同时测量每列黄色菱形上的电荷数量
Note that each row of blue diamonds is connected together,
要注意 每一行的蓝色菱形是连在一起的
also each column of yellow diamonds is connected.
每一列的黄色菱形也是连在一起的
This setup makes a grid of blue columns and yellow rows.
这样的设计使得蓝色成列 黄色成行
Just to clarify again, all of these components are made with transparent materials.
再说一次 所有的这些原件都是用透明材料制作的
Measuring each point requires too much circuitry, so we only measure each column.
测量每个点位所需的电路过多 所以我们只需测量每一列
The charge or voltage gets sent to each row in quick succession,
电荷或电压被快速连续地发送到每一行
so the processor can register multiple touches at once
因此处理器可以同时记录多个触控点
Below that is a display which uses LCD or OLED technology.
再下面是使用了LCD或OLED技术的显示屏
While the LCD and the OLED display both produce high quality images,
虽然LCD和OLED显示屏都能显示高质量的图片
in this episode-
在这个视频中
we are going to focus on the OLED technology as it is the standard in most new Smartphones.
我们将把关注点放在OLED技术上 因为它已经是多数智能手机的标配
OLED stands for Organic light emitting diode.
OLED指的是有机发光二极管
This high-resolution OLED display is what generates the high-quality images-
高分辨率的OLED显示屏产生了
that we see whenever we look at our smartphone.
我们平日里在手机里看见的高品质图像
This is a crazy intricate grid! Current 2018 high-end phones can have over 3.3 million pixels.
这是张特别复杂的像素网格图 当前2018版高端手机像素可超330万
That means there are 10 million microscopic individually controlled-
这意味着你手里有1000万个微型独立
dimmable red green and blue lights in the palm of your hand.
且可控光强大小的红绿蓝光源
Take a moment to think about the engineering level recuired to control-
花点时间想象一下控制这么多光源需要什么水平的工程能力
let alone design and manufacture that many microscopic lights!
更不要说设计与制造这么多微型光源了
OLED displays are composed of a massive grid of individual pixels-
OLED屏幕由大量的独立像素网格构成
and each pixel is composed of a red green, and blue subpixel.
每个像素又包含红绿蓝三个子像素
Each subpixel’s light intensity is controlled by a small thin film transistor-
每个子像素的光强都有一个小型薄膜晶体管控制
that acts as a dimmer switch.
晶体管就像一个调光开关
There are many layered structures in each sub pixel,
每个子像素又包含很多层结构
however explaining the function of each layer will have to be saved for a future episode.
但是这些层的功能只能留到后续的视频介绍了
Photons are produced in the subpixel by electrons-
在这些子像素中
that are driven from the negative to the positive terminal.
光子由负端驱动到正端的电子产生
When they pass through this middle layer here, called the emissive layer,
当它们穿过中间发射层时
photons are emitted through a release of energy.
随着能量的释放产生光子
The compounds used to make up the emissive layer determines the color of the light emitted,
组成发射层的物质决定了所发射光的颜色
and the intensity of this light is dependent on how many electrons pass through.
光的强度取决于穿过的电子数量
This explanation is greatly simplified-
这个解释是大大简化过的
but the research, engineering and science behind OLEDs is extensive.
OLED背后需求的科学与工程量是巨大的
In fact the 2014 Nobel prize in Physics was awarded to 3 researchers-
事实上 2014年的诺贝尔物理学奖正是由
for their discovery of efficient blue light emitting diodes!
三位发现了高效蓝光LED的学者获得
So, let’s summarize:
那么 我们做个总结吧
on the bottom is an OLED display composed of a 10 million itty bitty little colored lights.
在底层是一个由1000万个小光源组成的OLED屏
On top of that is a transparent projected capacitive touchscreen-
在它上面是能同时识别一点
that can sense one or multiple finger touches at a time.
或多点触控的透明投射电容式触摸屏
And on top of that is strengthened glass
在最上层是钢化玻璃
that protects your screen from scratches and most falls.
可以保护屏幕以免划伤或跌落摔碎
Now you too are a touchscreen expert!
现在 你也是一个触摸屏的专家了
If you have any questions, post them to the comments below.
如果有任何疑问 请在下面的评论区提出
Subscribe, Like, and tell your friends or family about something you learned.
订阅 点赞 并且告诉家人朋友你刚刚学到了什么
This episode details the structure of a touchscreen display.
本视频介绍了触摸屏技术的构成
Branches from this episode are: Multitouch design, electric fields, Capacitors
视频中的分支内容有 多点触控设计 电场 电容
OLEDs and their control, LCDs, Why are materials transparent? And interface aesthetics.
OLED及其控制 LCD 为什么材料是透明的 以及界面的美观
Thanks again for watching and until next time,
再次感谢观看 在下个视频推出前
consider the conceptual simplicity yet structural complexity in the world around us.
多思考身边那些原理简单而结构复杂的事物吧

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