This map from 2019 was compiled
这张2019年的地图
using satellite and aerial imagery.
是用卫星和航拍图像绘制的
Leonardo da Vinci made this one around 1502
而大概在1502年 莱昂纳多·达芬奇绘制了这幅地图
while stuck on the ground
而当时他却是在陆地上
How?
他是怎么做到的?
When infamous Italian politician Cesare Borgia
当恶名昭著的意大利政客恺撒·博尔吉亚
brought Leonardo da Vinci
把这幅肖像的作者
the guy who drew this portrait — to the city of Imola,
莱昂纳多·达芬奇带到带到伊莫拉城时
it was as a military engineer.
是将其作为军事工程师的
He’d already established a good military reputation
当时达芬奇已经建立了良好的军事声誉
and painted several famous works.
并且画了几幅著名的作品
When Leonardo was installed at Borgia’s newly acquired fort,
当莱昂纳多被安置在博尔吉亚新获得的城堡时
one of his duties was to help Borgia learn the territory.
他的职责之一就是帮助博尔吉亚勘查领地
At the time, a map like this was the standard
在那个时代 一幅像这样的地图才是标准
with the birdseye and hillside view
一般是鸟瞰图并在山上观测绘制的
Mythical creatures often poped up,
神话人物经常在图中出现
not great for military operations.
不符合军事行动的要求
The perspective also only showed some buildings,
远景图也只能显示出部分建筑物
blocking the view of other ones.
而把另一部分建筑挡住了
These maps could be beautiful.
这些地图可以很美
But they lacked proper shape and scale
但是缺乏适当的形状和比例
and highlighted landmarks’ beauty at the expense of clarity.
并且为了突出地标建筑的美感而牺牲了清晰度
Leonardo needed to show Imola as an “ichnographic” map
莱昂纳多需要将伊莫拉呈现为一张“平面地图”
— an idea that Vitruvius — a Roman engineer
这个概念由一名叫维特鲁威的罗马工程师所描述
and the guy who inspired this — had described.
而达芬奇受此启发
In practice, it’s a map where everything looks like
实际上 平面地图所呈现的是
you’re directly above whatever you show.
你在所有物体正上方往下看的景象
It gives you a clearer picture.
它让你看的更加清晰
Look at the fort.
看这个城堡
In Google Maps, the shadow effects change a bit,
在谷歌地图上 阴影效果会有一点影响
but the fort’s perspective fundamentally stays the same.
但是城堡的透视图基本上保持不变
That’s similar to a real view from far above,
那就像从高空俯瞰的真实景象一样
where distance reduces the effects of shifting perspective.
距离减少了改变视角带来的影响
But Leonardo didn’t have a satellite to get up that far.
但是莱昂纳多并没有一颗卫星能看的那么高
His plan of Imola was a feat of symbolic imagination.
他对伊莫拉的规划是象征性想象的壮举
And he had to make it accurate.
而且他必须保证它的准确性
Based on sketches, previous work
根据他的草图 以往的作品
and the design of his Imola map,
以及他对伊莫拉地图的设计
we can guess at how Leonardo made it.
我们可以猜到莱昂纳多是怎么做到的
He probably used a type of disk that could measure degrees
他可能使用了一种能测量角度的圆盘
and had a little pointer to mark the angles of streets
并由一个小指针来标记街道的拐角
in relation to a stable point, usually North.
与一基准点(通常是北方)之间的角度
He probably used a compass to
他可能用了一个罗盘
record the orientation of the town’s surrounding walls
来记录镇子城墙的方位
He did this at every turn.
他在每一个拐角处都会测量
which helped him accurately translate the walls onto paper.
才能让他准确地将城墙呈现在纸上
Note the circular shape here, overlaid on the map.
注意这个覆盖在地图上的圆形
To establish scale,
为了建立比例尺
Leonardo also needed to measure the distance between all of these angles.
莱昂纳多还需要测量这些拐角之间的距离
He probably paced this out by foot,
他可能是用脚步来丈量的
or maybe using an odometer,
或者可能用了一种里程记录仪
with wheels that turned gears that measured distance by dropping a ball
轮子带动齿轮 每隔一段固定时间就让一个小球掉进篮子
into a bucket at set intervals.
从而测得距离
With the angles and distance together,
达芬奇把角度和距离结合起来
he could create a plan,
创作的一幅平面图
hundreds of years, before anyone could check if he got it right.
几百年后才有人能检查他是否画得准确
The stunning map from 1551
这幅令人叹为观止的地图
by another Leonardo,
由另一莱昂纳多在1551年制成
shows the potential Leonardo da Vinci’s method had.
展示了莱昂纳多·达芬奇的方法所蕴含的潜力
All these early ichnographic maps have asterisks.
所有这些早期的平面地图都有需要注意的地方
This one was spotted with its own inaccuracies and artistic flourishes,
这一幅也有其不准确或艺术夸大之处
a reflection of the scope of the project.
反映了项目的宏大
In turn, Leonardo’s Imola had quibbles too.
反过来 莱昂纳多画的伊莫拉也有缺点
He probably used parts of previous surveys
他可能使用了一些以前的调查
and other artistic techniques.
和其他艺术技巧
It also appears that he measured the town’s walls precisely,
虽然看上去他精确地测绘出了城墙
but took more liberties with the angles in the town’s interior.
但是镇子内部的角度则自由发挥了一些
But even with artistic license,
但即使有艺术上的加工
this remains a map of more than a fort and town.
这张地图的意义也远远大于堡垒和城镇本身
It’s a transition from a geography of myth and perception
它是一个从神话和主观的地理到
to one about information, drawn plainly.
客观信息的转变
It’s a map of Imola,
这是一幅伊莫拉的地图
but in the early 1500s
但是在16世纪初期
it was a map of the future, too.
它也是地图的未来

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