营养真相
许多研究都认为
A summary of studies found
手机辐射不会带来严重后果
no acute effects of cell phone radiation
比如恶心 头痛 头晕 疲惫
like nausea,headaches,dizziness,fatigue
但他们只调查了短期影响
but they were just looking at the short-term effects
并没考虑任何有关潜在的长期影响的数据
not considering any of the data on the potential long-term effects.
没有严重的后果
No acute effects
因此未来研究应致力于研究
so future research efforts should concentrate on
可能存在的慢性影响
possible chronic effects.
我研究了一些有关脑瘤的报告
I’ve explored the studies on brain tumors
特别是听觉神经对耳朵的影响
and on the effects of theauditory nerve in the ear,
但手机辐射并不只与你的大脑一侧有关
but that’s not all there is on the side of your head.
还与你的大脑 耳朵
There’s your brain, your ear,
和你耳朵旁大大的唾液腺——腮腺有关
and your parotid gland the big salivary gland right next to your ear.
大约有1‰的人会患上唾液腺癌
About 1 in a thousand peopledevelop salivary gland cancer in their life time.
所以问题是
so the question is:
手机的使用会增加唾液腺肿瘤发生的几率吗?
does cell phone use increase the chances of parotid gland tumor development?
如果你有一个装有100个
if you have 100 people drool into a test tube,
每天使用手机超过一小时的人唾液的试管
the saliva of those who use a cell phone more than an hour a day
与那些打电话少的人相比 他们唾液的抗氧化能力明显要低得多
does appear to have significantly less antioxidant capacity than those who talk less.
考虑到抗氧化剂的主要作用
So considering the major protective role of antioxidants
是保护DNA防止受到自由基的损伤
to protect against free-radical-induced DNA damage
而自由基损伤会导致癌症
that can lead to cancer,
这可能是手机增加唾液腺肿瘤风险的潜在途径
this could be a potential route by which cell phone increases salivary tumor risk.
但这也仅仅是一种观测研究
But this was just an observational study.
也许那些成天打电话的人
Maybe those who are on their phones all day
不如那些打电话少的人吃得健康呢?
tend to eat worse diets than those who talk less?
接下来的研究更令人信服
And this study is a little more convincing.
研究发现
They found that
收集同一个人打电话一侧的唾液
saliva taken from the salivary gland on the side of the head
与不打电话一侧的唾液
they were using the phone on had higher levels of inflammatory markers
相比较
compared to saliva takenfrom the same person,
有着更高的炎症水平
but just from the non-phone side of their head.
炎症水平的上升不是一定来自手机辐射
Now this increase in inflammation isn’t necessarily from the cell phone radiation,
也可能来自由手机产生的热量
but may just be from the heat generated by the phone.
仅是每天用一小时把热的东西按在脸上
Just pressing anything warm against your face for an hour a day
就可能对你的腺体有害
might not be good for your glands.
口腔中细胞氧化和炎症水平增加
Does the increased oxidation and inflammation
所引发的细胞异常增生
actually translate out into cytogenetic abnormalities,
是否意味着嘴中的细胞和染色体发生了突变?
meaning cell and chromosomalabnormalities in your mouth?
那些手机用量多的人
Those who use cell phones a lot do appear
舌头里发现了大量的破碎细胞
to have an increased number of broken eggs in their tongues.
什么?
What?
这种破碎细胞的现象是一种与癌症有关的细胞遗传异常学中相当好玩的描述
That’s a rather playful descriptionof a cytogenetic abnormality associated with cancer.
但是 我们真正担心的是可能引发的癌症
Ok.But what we really care about is cancer cancer.
手机增加了腮腺肿瘤发生的几率吗
Does cell phone use increase the chances of parotid gland tumor development?
这是第一次针对已发表文献进行的综述
This is the first systematic review ever published to evaluate that
手机的使用确实与各项风险增长有关
and cell phone use does appear to be associated with increased risk.
这是探索绝对风险与相对风险的好机会
This is a good time to exploreabsolute versus relative risk.
如果你被问到是否愿意每天吃药
If you were asked whether you’d be willing to take a daily pill
来降低一半因死于心脏病的风险
to reduce your chances of dying from a heart attack by 50%
你可能会急于接受
you might jump at it
但如果你还年轻还健康
but if you’re so young and healthy
你的患癌的风险可能仅是千分之二
that your risk of that is only like 2 in a thousand
在接下来的十年或十二年里
over the next 10 or 20 years,
吃大约五千颗药
Then taken those five thousand or so pills
仅把可能性从千分之二降到千分之一可能对你并没用
may not be worth it for you to go from 2 in a 1000 to 1 in a 1000.
降低50%听起来还不错
50% sounds great,
但如果在已经很少的2‰的基础上进一步降低
but if you’re talking a really rare event
那就没什么意思了
then it’s less exciting.
即使手机的使用使风险增长了28%
So even if cell phones did increase risk 28%,
接下来一生中手机的使用
then a lifetime of cell phone use
仅使你患癌症的可能性
would only increase your risk of getting such a tumor
从1/1400升高到大约1/1000
from a 1 in 1,400 chance to about a 1 in 1,100 chance.
考虑到在很大程度上
If you want to reduce your risk,
所有的热度和手机辐都是局部现象 如果你想降低风险
though both the heat and cell phone emissions are largely a local phenomenon,
那么你可以使用
so you can use of
喇叭扩音器或是头戴式耳机来减少直接接触手机
a speakerphone or headset to reduce exposure,
或者你可以多使用打字的方式
or you can do more texting.
基本上 在我们对这方面知识了解更多之前
Basically, until we know more,
采用这些防范措施是有理由的
the adoption of such precautions is not unreasonable,
特别是对年轻群体来说
particularly among young people
研究者非常担心潜在风险对他们的伤害
something that concerns some researchers
因此建议孩子们要尽可能减少手机的使用
enough to recommend youngchildren consider minimizing their use altogether.
营养真相

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